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Sample records for bed shear stress

  1. Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.

    ) < ~ 10 sup (5)). Measurements were carried out where the wave height to water depth (h/d) ratio varied between 0.12 and 0.68; maximum near bed velocity varied between 0.16 m/s and 0.51 m/s and the maximum total shear stress (sum of skin shear stress...

  2. Estimation of bed shear stresses in the pearl river estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Wu, Jia-xue

    2015-03-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  3. Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses in the Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 吴加学

    2015-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  4. Bed shear stress distribution in straight channels with arbitrary cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The bed shear stress distribution in straight open channels is affected by mechanisms as bed curvature of the cross section profile, shear diffusion, and secondary currents. This paper compares some analytical and numerical methods to estimate the bed shear stress distribution. The methods are...

  5. Measuring bed shear stress along vegetated river beds using FST-hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann-Evans, B N; Davies, R; Falconer, R A

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of the bed shear stress along vegetated river beds is essential for accurately predicting the water level, velocity and solute and sediment transport fluxes in computational hydroenvironmental models. Details are given herein of an experimental and theoretical study to determine the bed boundary shear stress along vegetated river beds introducing a novel field measuring method, namely the FliessWasserStammtisch (FST)-hemispheres. Although investigations have been conducted previously for sedimentary channels using the FST-hemispheres, this preliminary study is thought to be the first time that such hemispheres have been used to investigate the bed shear stresses in vegetated channels. FST-hemispheres were first developed by Statzner and Müller [1989. Standard hemispheres as indicators of flow characteristics in lotic benthos research. Freshwater Biology 21, 445-459] to act as an integrated indicator of the gross hydrodynamic stresses present near the bed. Test and validation data were found to be at least of the same order of magnitude for the stresses predicted from literature for sedimentary channels, with this study establishing the commencement of a database of calibrated FST-hemisphere laboratory data for vegetated channel beds. In a series of experiments, depths ranging from 0.1 to 0.28 m were considered, equating directly to comparable conditions in small rivers or streams. The results of this study provide a basis for enabling the FST-hemispheres to be used to evaluate the boundary shear stress for a wider range of applications in the future, including vegetated river beds.

  6. On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed

  7. Research on Measurement of Bed Shear Stress Under WaveCurrent Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华; 夏云峰; 张世钊马炳和; 郝思禹; 杜德军

    2015-01-01

    The movement of sediment in estuary and on coast is directly restricted by the bed shear stress. Therefore, the research on the basic problem of sediment movement by the bed shear stress is an important way to research the theory of sediment movement. However, there is not a measuring and computing method to measure the bed shear stress under a complicated dynamic effect like wave and current. This paper describes the measurement and test research on the bed shear stress in a long launder of direct current by the new instrument named thermal shearometer based on micro-nanotechnology. As shown by the research results, the thermal shearometer has a high response frequency and strong stability. The measured results can reflect the basic change of the bed shear stress under wave and wave-current effect, and confirm that the method of measuring bed shear stress under wave-current effect with thermal shearometer is feasible. Meanwhile, a preliminary method to compute the shear stress compounded by wave-current is put forward according to the tested and measured results, and then a reference for further study on the basic theory of sediment movement under a complicated dynamic effect is provided.

  8. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  9. A NEW MEASURE FOR DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE BED SHEAR STRESS OF WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER IN WAVE FLUME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a shear plate was mounted on the bottom in a wave flume and direct measurements of the smooth and rough bed shear stress under regular and irregular waves were conducted with the horizontal force exerted on the shear plates by the bottom shear stress in the wave boundary layer. Under immobile bed condition, grains of sand were glued uniformly and tightly onto the shear plate, being prevented from motion with the fluid flow and generation of sand ripples. The distribution of the bottom mean shear stress varying with time was measured by examining the interaction between the shear plate and shear transducers. The relation between the force measured by the shear transducers and its voltage is a linear one. Simultaneous measurements of the bottom velocity were carried out by an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), while the whole process was completely controlled by computers, bottom shear stress and velocity were synchronously measured. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that (1) the friction coefficient groews considerably with the increase of the Reynolds number, (2) the shear stress is a function varying with time and linearly proportional to the velocity. Compared with theoretical results and previous experimental data, it is shown that the experimental method is feasible and effective, A further study on the bed shear stress under regular or irregular waves can be carried out. And applicability to the laboratory studies on the initiation of sediments and the measurement of the shear stress after sediment imigration.

  10. The Influence of Salmonid Spawning on Grain Architecture, Critical Bed Shear Stress, and Bed Load Transport in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, T.; Buffington, J. M.; Yager, E. M.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Salmonid spawning occurs in many high to mid-order streams in North America and Europe, but the detailed mechanics of this disturbance on stream bed mobility is not well studied. We calculated and measured spawning effects on incipient bed mobility and sediment transport in a laboratory flume and found that the tailspill portion of simulated spawning nests ("redds") are less stable than unspawned beds. This result agrees with field research by others, but counters prior calculations of tailspill stability that used grain architecture relationships derived from unspawned beds. Redds have coarser and better sorted surfaces, which reduce grain exposure and protrusion compared to unspawned beds, but load cell measurements of the total resistance to movement of grains on redds were lower despite deeper grain pockets and larger pivot angles. This is because the redd-building process flushed fine sediment that had previously cemented bed material, resulting in a looser bed structure and more mobile grains. These observations are supported by force balance calculations of critical shear stress on redds being lower on average than on unspawned beds. Computational results are supported by visual observations and measurements of bed load transport from redds and unspawned beds in the flume, where redds mobilized sooner and exhibited a higher sediment transport rate than unspawned beds. Redds were observed to erode by translating, then dispersing and evacuating downstream, before grains on the unspawned bed mobilized. Further increase in discharge mobilized greater proportions of the unspawned bed but did not scour the deeper portion of redds where spawners deposit their eggs. Our results suggest both an evolutionary trade-off and advantage to large spawning populations. Namely, the structurally loose tailspill likely increases intragravel flow to eggs at the expense of tailspill instability, which may sufficiently elevate sediment yields in streams with high spawner densities

  11. Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Liu, Xiaofeng; Sumer, B. Mutlu;

    2013-01-01

    on it in an unfavourable manner. Using physical models and 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulations, the velocity and bed shear stresses are investigated in complex scour protections around mono piles in steady current. In the physical model the scour protections consisted of an upper cover layer...... media approach.Based on the physical and numerical results, a method to determine the critical stones size to prevent motion of the base sediment is established and compared to a full scale case with sinking of scour protection (Horns Rev I Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark). It is also found that the CFD...... simulations are capable of calculating the flow velocities when the scour protection is represented by regular arranged spheres, while the turbulence in general is underestimated. The velocity can also be calculated using porous media flow approach, but the accuracy is not as good as for spheres...

  12. Time evolving bed shear stress due the passage of gravity currents estimated with ADVP velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Jessica; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.

    2016-04-01

    Density or gravity currents are geophysical flows driven by density gradients between two contacting fluids. The physical trigger mechanism of these phenomena lays in the density differences which may be caused by differences in the temperature, dissolved substances or concentration of suspended sediments. Saline density currents are capable to entrain bed sediments inducing signatures in the bottom of sedimentary basins. Herein, saline density currents are reproduced in laboratory over a movable bed. The experimental channel is of the lock-exchange type, it is 7.5 m long and 0.3 m wide, divided into two sections of comparable volumes by a sliding gate. An upstream reach serves as a head tank for the dense mixture; the current propagates through a downstream reach where the main measurements are made. Downstream of the channel a tank exist to absorb the reflection of the current and thus artifacts due to the limited length of the channel. High performance thermoplastic polyurethane simulating fine sediments forms the movable bed. Measures of 3D instantaneous velocities will be made with the use of the non-intrusive technique of the ADV (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler). With the velocity measurements, the evolution in time of the channel-bed shear stress due the passage of gravity currents is estimated. This is in turn related to the observed erosion and to such parameters determinant for the dynamics of the current as initial density difference, lock length and channel slope. This work was funded by the ITN-Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN under REA grant agreement n_607394-SEDITRANS.

  13. Three-dimensional flow structure and patterns of bed shear stress in an evolving compound meander bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.

  14. Pulsed Discharge Through Wetland Vegetation as a Control on Bed Shear Stress and Sediment Transport Affecting Everglades Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    The ridge and slough landscape is a patterned peatland within the Florida Everglades in which elevated ridges of emergent vegetation are regularly interspersed among open-water sloughs with floating and submerged vegetation. Landscape features are aligned parallel to the historic flow direction. Degradation of patterning over the past 100 years coincides with diminished flow resulting from drainage and construction of levees and canals. A goal of restoration is to increase flow velocities and redistribution of particles and solutes in attempt to preserve remnant patterning and restore degraded portions of the ridge and slough landscape. To explore different management strategies that could induce sediment redistribution in the ridge and slough landscape, we simulated velocity profiles and bed shear stresses for different combinations of surface water stage, water surface slope, and vegetation community structure, based on field measurements and laboratory experiments. A mixing length approach, in which the minimum of stem spacing and distance from a solid boundary determined eddy scale, was used to simulate velocity profiles and bed shear stress in vegetated arrays. Simplified velocity profiles based only on vegetation frontal area above the bed and the Karman-Prandtl logarithmic law near the bed closely were used to approximate solutions of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for large-scale simulation. Estimates of bed shear stress were most sensitive to bed roughness, vegetation community structure, and energy slope. Importantly, our simulations illustrate that velocity and bed shear stress cannot be increased substantially in the Everglades simply by increasing surface-water stage. This result comes directly from the dependence of velocity and shear stress on vegetation frontal area and the fact that emergent vegetation stems protrude through the water column even during times of relatively deep water in the Everglades. Since merely increasing water

  15. Sensitivity of growth characteristics of tidal sand ridges and long bed waves to formulations of bed shear stress, sand transport and tidal forcing: A numerical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles

    2016-09-01

    Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal currents are above 0.5 m s-1, while long bed waves occur in regions where the maximum tidal current velocity is slightly above the critical velocity for sand erosion and the current is elliptical. An idealized nonlinear numerical model was developed to improve the understanding of the initial formation of these bedforms. The model governs the feedbacks between tidally forced depth-averaged currents and the sandy bed on the outer shelf. The effects of different formulations of bed shear stress and sand transport, tidal ellipticity and different tidal constituents on the characteristics of these bedforms (growth rate, wavelength, orientation of the preferred bedforms) during their initial formation were examined systematically. The results show that the formulations for bed shear stress and slope-induced sand transport are not critical for the initial formation of these bedforms. For tidal sand ridges, under rectilinear tidal currents, increasing the critical bed shear stress for sand erosion decreases the growth rate and the wavelength of the preferred bedforms significantly, while the orientation angle slightly decreases. The dependence of the growth rate, wavelength and the orientation of the preferred bedforms on the tidal ellipticity is non-monotonic. A decrease in tidal frequency results in preferred bedforms with larger wavelength and smaller orientation angle, while their growth rate hardly changes. In the case of joint diurnal and semidiurnal tides, or spring-neap tides, the characteristics of the bedforms are determined by the dominant tidal constituent. For long bed waves, the number of anticyclonically/cyclonically oriented bedforms with respect to the principal

  16. Hydrodynamic modeling of juvenile mussel dispersal in a large river: The potential effects of bed shear stress and other parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Because unionid mussels have a parasitic larval stage, they are able to disperse upstream and downstream as larvae while attached to their host fish and with flow as juveniles after excystment from the host. Understanding unionid population ecology requires knowledge of the processes that affect juvenile dispersal prior to establishment. We examined presettlement (transport and dispersion with flow) and early postsettlement (bed shear stress) hydraulic processes as negative censoring mechanisms. Our approach was to model dispersal using particle tracking through a 3-dimensional flow field output from hydrodynamic models of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We tested the potential effects of bed shear stress (??b) at 5 flow rates on juvenile mussel dispersal and quantified the magnitude of these effects as a function of flow rate. We explored the reach-scale relationships of Froude number (Fr), water depth (H), local bed slope (S), and unit stream power (QS) with the likelihood of juvenile settling (??). We ran multiple dispersal simulations at each flow rate to estimate ??, the parameter of a Poisson distribution, from the number of juveniles settling in each grid cell, and calculated dispersal distances. Virtual juveniles that settled in areas of the river where b > critical shear stress (c) were resuspended in the flow and transported further downstream, so we ran simulations at 3 different conditions for ??c (??c = ??? no resuspension, 0.1, and 0.05 N/m2). Differences in virtual juvenile dispersal distance were significantly dependent upon c and flow rate, and effects of b on settling distribution were dependent upon c. Most simulations resulted in positive correlations between ?? and ??b, results suggesting that during early postsettlement, ??b might be the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Negative correlations between ?? and ??b occurred in some simulations, a result suggesting that physical or biological presettlement processes

  17. Flow velocities and bed shear stresses in a stone cover under an oscillatory flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenanato, F.; Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Sumer, B. Mutlu;

    2010-01-01

    I order to get a better understanding of the interaction between the wave-induced, near-bed oscillatory flow, the stome cover and the sea bed, physical model tests were carried out. The tests were conducted in an oscillating water tunnel. The bottom of the tunnes was covered by one, two and three...

  18. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  19. Determination of threshold shear stress to drag particles in cuttings bed; Determinacao da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Bruno Venturini; Siqueira, Renato do Nascimento [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL), Serra, ES (Brazil). Lab. de Fenomenos de Transporte], e-mail: brunovl@ucl.br, e-mail: renatons@ucl.br

    2006-07-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells for oil and gas production needs an efficient cleaning process due to settling of particles removed during the drilling process, which settles on the inferior part of the annular space between the drilling column and the walls of the well. The erosion of the bed is an important physical phenomenon to petroleum and gas industry since it can improve the opening of the wells. This work aims to estimate the threshold shear stress necessary to start the erosion process in a sediment bed. An experimental apparatus was built from simplifications of the problem in order to measure the flow rate and identify the beginning of the process. The experiment consists of a rectangular duct with aspect ratio ({lambda} = h/b) of 1/3 and non dimensional length (L{sup *} = L/h) of 75. The sediment bed to be eroded was placed at 60< x{sup *}<66. Using the flow rate and the boundary conditions, a discretization of the problem was carried out to permit a computational solution using the finite volume method and hence, determine the shear stress. This work used particles with up to 3.0 mm and modeled the flow considering a bed with equivalent roughness. (author)

  20. Comparison of bed shear under non-breaking and breaking solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Baldock, T.E.

    varying between 0.12 and 0.69. Analytical modeling was carried out to predict shear stresses using Fourier and convolution integration methods. This paper presents comparison of the measured and predicted bed shear stress or skin friction stress, together...

  1. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  2. Distribution and characteristics of marine habitats in a subpolar bay based on hydroacoustics and bed shear stress estimates—Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Lim, Chai Heng; Hass, H. Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Tosonotto, Gabriela; Lettmann, Karsten Alexander; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf; Abele, Doris

    2014-10-01

    Marine habitats worldwide are increasingly pressurized by climate change, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. Well-studied areas in front of rapidly retreating tidewater glaciers like Potter Cove are representative for similar coastal environments and, therefore, shed light on habitat formation and development on not only a local but also regional scale. The objective of this study was to provide insights into habitat distribution in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica, and to evaluate the associated environmental processes. Furthermore, an assessment concerning the future development of the habitats is provided. To describe the seafloor habitats in Potter Cove, an acoustic seabed discrimination system (RoxAnn) was used in combination with underwater video images and sediment samples. Due to the absence of wave and current measurements in the study area, bed shear stress estimates served to delineate zones prone to sediment erosion. On the basis of the investigations, two habitat classes were identified in Potter Cove, namely soft-sediment and stone habitats that, besides influences from sediment supply and coastal morphology, are controlled by sediment erosion. A future expansion of the stone habitat is predicted if recent environmental change trends continue. Possible implications for the Potter Cove environment, and other coastal ecosystems under similar pressure, include changes in biomass and species composition.

  3. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  4. Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.

    be considered in pipeline routing. 10.6. Future directions Bed shear stresses due to N-shaped waves were estimated using the method described in this thesis. However, due to want of time, this data was not considered in this thesis. The data pertaining to N....K.C. and Erali, D.R., 1974. Large diameter underwater pipeline for nuclear power plant designed against soil liquefaction. Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, p.^pp. 597-606. Cokgor, S., 2002. Hydrodynamic forces on a partly buried cylinder exposed...

  5. A conceptual framework for shear flow-induced erosion of soft cohesive sediment beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterwerp, J. C.; van Kesteren, W. G. M.; van Prooijen, B.; Jacobs, W.

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for erosion of cohesive sediment beds. We focus on cohesive beds, distinguishing between floc erosion, surface erosion, and mass erosion. By (our) definition, surface erosion is a drained soil mechanical process, whereas mass erosion occurs under undrained conditions. The eroding shear stress is modeled through a probability density function. This yields a continuous description of floc erosion and surface erosion as a function of mean bed shear stress. Furthermore, we assume a distribution for the bed strength. The mean values of the bed strength are derived from soil mechanical theory, assuming that the surface erosion rate is limited by the swelling rate from the undrained shear strength in the bed to its drained value at its surface. The rate of erosion then relates to the undrained shear strength of the soil, and its consolidation (swelling) coefficient. The critical shear stress for erosion is slightly larger than the true cohesion of the bed, i.e., the drained strength, and follows a power law relation with the plasticity index. The conceptual framework proposed herein has been validated against a limited number of experimental data, and has a series of advantages above other methods of direct measuring erodibility, as it is inexpensive and can be used to attain space-covering information on the sediment bed. Moreover, the use of bulk soil mechanical parameters accounts implicitly for the effects of organic material, though the role of, e.g., macrophytobenthos mats and/or bioturbation is difficult to capture a priori.

  6. Effects of shear elasticity on sea bed scattering: numerical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakin, A N; Jackson, D R

    1998-01-01

    It is known that marine sediments can support both compressional and shear waves. However, published work on scattering from irregular elastic media has not examined the influence of shear on sea bed scattering in detail. A perturbation model previously developed by the authors for joint roughness-volume scattering is used to study the effects of elasticity for three sea bed types: sedimentary rock, sand with high shear speed, and sand with "normal" shear wave speed. Both bistatic and monostatic cases are considered. For sedimentary rock it is found that shear elasticity tends to increase the importance of volume scattering and decrease the importance of roughness scattering relative to the fluid case. Shear effects are shown to be small for sands.

  7. ON WALL SHEAR STRESS OF ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhao-rong; Liu Bao-yu; Qin Kai-rong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a method was proposed that the wall shear stress of artery could be determined by measuring the centerline axial velocity and radial motion of arterial wall simultaneously.The method is simple in application and can get higher precision when it is used to determine the shear stress of arterial wall in vivo.As an example, the shear stress distribution in periodic oscillatory flow of human carotid was calculated and discussed.The computed results show that the shear stress distribution at any given instant is almost uniform and will be zero at the centerline and tends to maximum at the vessel wall.

  8. Determination of arterial wall shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The arteries can remodel their structure and function to adapt themselves to the mechanical environment. In various factors that lead to vascular remodeling, the shear stress on the arterial wall induced by the blood flow is of great importance. However, there are many technique difficulties in measuring the wall shear stress directly at present. In this paper, through analyzing the pulsatile blood flow in arteries, a method has been proposed that can determine the wall shear stress quantitatively by measuring the velocity on the arterial axis, and that provides a necessary means to discuss the influence of arterial wall shear stress on vascular remodeling.

  9. Redistribution of velocity and bed-shear stress in straight and curved open channels by means of a bubble screen: laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.; Buschman, F.A.; Schielen, R.; Wijbenga, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Open-channel beds show variations in the transverse direction due to the interaction between downstream flow, cross-stream flow, and bed topography, which may reduce the navigable width or endanger the foundations of structures. The reported preliminary laboratory study shows that a bubble screen ca

  10. Development of Bed Ridges in Open Channels and their Effects on Secondary Currents and Wall Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis of the ridges on the bed of wide, open channels and their effects on the distribution of secondary currents and wall shear is undertaken using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics. The presence of the lines of boil, consisting of low speed streaks, periodically in the transverse direction, is reported in the literature due to the presence of the ridges. In the present work, simulations are run on channel sections with varying the number of ridges on the bed and the size of these ridges. The effect of these variations on the flow structures and shear stress distribution in wide open channels is reported. The results offer an interesting insight into the 3D (Three-Dimensional flow structures involved and the link between flow structures and bed morpho-dynamics in prismatic channels.

  11. Onset and cessation of grain motion in fluid-sheared beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Abe; Salevan, Julia; Shattuck, Mark; Ouellette, Nick; O'Hern, Corey

    2015-11-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of granular beds driven by a model hydrodynamic shear flow to elucidate general grain-scale mechanisms that determine the onset and cessation of sediment transport. By varying the Shields number (the nondimensional shear stress at the top of the bed) and particle Reynolds number (the ratio of particle inertia to viscous damping), we explore how variations of the fluid flow rate, particle inertia, and fluid viscosity affect the onset and cessation of bed motion. For low to moderate particle Reynolds numbers, a critical boundary separates mobile and static states. Transition times between these states diverge as this boundary is approached both from above and below. At high particle Reynolds number, inertial effects become dominant, and particle motion can be sustained well below flow rates at which mobilization of a static bed occurs. We also find that the onset of bed motion (for both low and high particle Reynolds numbers) is described by Weibullian weakest-link statistics, and thus is crucially dependent on the packing structure of the granular bed, even deep beneath the surface. This work was supported by the US Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0005.

  12. Reynolds stress and shear flow generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.;

    2001-01-01

    treatment of the pseudo-Reynolds stress, we present analytical and numerical results which demonstrate that the Reynolds stress in a plasma, indeed, generates a poloidal shear flow. The numerical simulations are performed both in a drift wave turbulence regime and a resistive interchange turbulence regime......The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding of...... improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method...

  13. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  14. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....

  15. Evaluating the controls of shear stress, sediment supply, alluvial cover, and channel morphology on experimental bedrock incision rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joel P. L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2010-06-01

    We explored the dependence of experimental bedrock erosion rate on shear stress, bed load sediment flux, alluvial bed cover, and evolving channel morphology. We isolated these variables experimentally by systematically varying gravel sediment flux Qs and water discharge Qw in a laboratory flume, gradually abrading weak concrete "bedrock." All else held constant, we found that (1) erosion rate was insensitive to flume-averaged shear stress, (2) erosion rate increased linearly with sediment flux, (3) erosion rate decreased linearly with the extent of alluvial bed cover, and (4) the spatial distribution of bed cover was sensitive to local bed topography, but the extent of cover increased with Qs/Qt (where Qt is flume-averaged transport capacity) once critical values of bed roughness and sediment flux were exceeded. Starting from a planar geometry, erosion increased bed roughness due to feedbacks between preferential sediment transport through interconnected topographic lows, focused erosion along these zones of preferential bed load transport, and local shear stresses that depended on the evolving bed morphology. Finally, continued growth of bed roughness was inhibited by imposed variability in discharge and sediment flux, due to changes in spatial patterns of alluvial deposition and impact wear. Erosion was preferentially focused at lower bed elevations when the bed was cover-free, but was focused at higher bed elevations when static alluvial cover filled topographic lows. Natural variations in discharge and sediment flux may thus stabilize and limit the growth of roughness in bedrock channels due to the effects of partial bed cover.

  16. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation

  17. Stent implantation influence wall shear stress evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamic factors are known affect the natural history of the restenosis critically after coronary stenting of atherosclerosis. Stent-induced flows disturbance magnitude dependent directly on the strut design. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. Our results provide data regarding the hemodynamic parameters for the blood flow in both stenosed and stented coronary artery under physiological conditions, namely wall shear stress and pressure drop.

  18. Determination of arterial wall shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Zhaorong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Langille, B. L., 7Donnell, F., Reductions in arterial diameter produced by chronic decreases in blood flow are endothelium-dependent, Science, 1986, 231: 405—407.[2]Langer, R., Vacanti, J. P., Tissue engineering, Science, 1993, 260: 920—926.[3]Kamiya, A., Togawa, T., Adaptive regulation of wall shear stress to flow change in the canine carotid artery, Am. J. Physiol. (Heart Circ. Physiol.), 1980, 239: H14—H21.[4]Fung, Y. C., Biomechanics: Motion, Flow, Stress, and Growth, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.[5]Liu, S. Q., Biomechanical basis of vascular tissue engineering, Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 1999, 27: 75—148.[6]Ando, J., Kamiya, A., Blood flow and vascular endothelium cell function, Frontiers Med. Biological Eng., 1993, 5: 245—264.[7]Ku, D. N., Giddens, D. P., Zarins, D. K. et al., Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation-positive correlation between plaque location and low and oscillating shear stress, Atherosclerosis, 1985, 5: 293—302.[8]Liu Zhaorong, Li Xixi, Theory and Method on Hemodynamics (in Chinese), Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 1997.

  19. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  20. Shear banding and yield stress in soft glassy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.F. Møller; S. Rodts; M.A.J. Michels; D. Bonn

    2008-01-01

    Shear localization is a generic feature of flows in yield stress fluids and soft glassy materials but is incompletely understood. In the classical picture of yield stress fluids, shear banding happens because of a stress heterogeneity. Using recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging velocime

  1. Single low shear stress results in atherosclerosis in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rong-guo; LIU Hou-qi; YANG Xiang-qun; ZHANG Chuan-sen; KANG Bin; JIANG Zong-lai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Whether single low shear stress can result in atherosclerosis without hyperliposis-diet in vivo or not is unknown. Methods: Based on an electromagnetic blood flow meter and a method to determine the pulsatile shear stress from blood flow rate waveform and its software,we developed an in vivo pulsatile blood flow rate-shear stress determining system.The left external carotid arteries of 20 adult New Zealand white rabbits were ligated and the rabbits were fed with a standard chow for 2,4,8 or 12 weeks,then the common carotid arteries of 2 sides in each rabbit were harvested for morphologic test. Results: The ligation reduced pulsatile shear stress of left common carotid significantly,for example,τmean changed from(21.16±7.17) dynes/cm2 to(3.13±2.28) dynes/cm2(p=2.176E-21),meanwhile,the pulsatile shear stress of right common carotid did not change significantly,which lasted more than 12 weeks.Atherosclerotic plaques were found after 8 and 12 weeks in pulsatile-low-shear-stress left(not normal-shear-stress right) common carotid arteries.Conclusion:Single pulsatile low shear stress can result in atherosclerosis.It supports the pulsatile low shear stress(not hypolipidemia) is the key risk factor for atherosclerosis.

  2. Shear Stress in MR Fluid with Small Shear Deformation in Bctlattic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lisheng; RUAN Zhongwei; ZHAI Pengcheng; ZHANG Qingjie

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model based on BCT lattice structure was developed.Resultant force in the BCT lattice structure was deduced,following the interaction force of two kinds of magnetic particles.According to empirical FroHlich-Kennelly law,the relationship between the magnetic induction and the magnetic field was discussed,and a predictive formula of shear stresses of the BCT lattice structure model was established for the case of small shear deformation.Compared with the experimental data for different particle volume fractions,the theoretical results of the shear stress indicate the effects of the saturation magnetization and the external magnetic field on the shear stress.

  3. Reynolds stresses from hydrodynamic turbulence with shear and rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, J. E.; Käpylä, P. J.; Korpi, M. J.; Liljeström, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    To study the Reynolds stresses which describe turbulent momentum transport from turbulence affected by large-scale shear and rotation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to study turbulent transport under the influences of large-scale shear and rotation in homogeneous, isotropically forced turbulence. We study three cases: one with only shear, and two others where in addition to shear, rotation is present. These cases differ by the angle (0 or 90\\degr) the rotation vector makes ...

  4. Compression Enhanced Shear Yield Stress of Electrorheological Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-Liang; TIAN Yu; JIANG Ji-Le; ZHU Xu-Li; MENG Yong-Gang; WEN Shi-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shear tests of an electrorheological fluid with pre-applied electric field and compression along the field direction are carried out. The results show that pre-compressions can increase the shear yield stress up to ten times. Under the same external electric field strength, a higher compressive strain corresponds to a larger shear yield stress enhancement but with slight current density decrease, which shows that the particle interaction potentials are not increased by compressions but the compression-induced chain aggregation dominates the shear yield stress improvement. This pre-compression technique might be useful [or developing high performance flexible ER or magnetorheological couplings.

  5. Shear stresses and mean flow in shoaling and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the vertical, wave averaged distributions of shear stresses and Eulerian flow in normally incident, shoaling and breaking waves. It is found that shear stresses are solely due to wave amplitude variations, which can be caused by shoaling, boundary layer dissipation and/or breaking wav

  6. Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...

  7. Numerical study of shear stress distribution at sand ripple surface in wind tunnel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Nitsan; Elperin, Tov; Katra, Itzhak; Yizhaq, Hezi

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism responsible for the formation and sustainability of sand ripples sheared by a uniform air flow is not well understood, despite the significant attention that has been given to it ever since the pioneering studies of Bagnold (1941). In this study we explore ANSYS Fluent simulations of fine-scale turbulent flow structure in the vicinity of 2D sand ripples with particular emphasis on shear stress distribution at the sand bed. The flow parameters in the simulations were pertinent to the wind tunnel experiments for studying sand ripples formation. The simulations show that the shear stress at the crest is about 2.5 times larger than the shear stress at the trough and that in most of the simulations a separation bubble has been developed at the lee slope. In contrast to wind tunnel experiments the simulations show that ripples will be flattened at wind speed of 9 m/s as shear stress at the ripples surface exceeds the fluid threshold. This discrepancy between the calculations and real wind tunnel measurements are due to the important role of the saltation layer on the decrease of the shear stress at the surface. Without this effect ripples cannot grow higher and will be diminished at quite moderate winds.

  8. The origin of persistent shear stress in supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sneha; Harrowell, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The persistence of shear stress fluctuations in viscous liquids is a direct consequence of the non-zero shear stress of the local potential minima which couples stress relaxation to transitions between inherent structures. In simulations of 2D and 3D glass forming mixtures, we calculate the distribution of this inherent shear stress and demonstrate that the variance is independent of temperature and obeys a power law in density. The inherent stress is shown to involve only long wavelength fluctuations, evidence of the central role of the static boundary conditions in determining the residual stress left after the minimization of the potential energy. A temperature Tη is defined to characterise the crossover from stress relaxation governed by binary collisions at high temperatures to low temperature relaxation dominated by the relaxation of the inherent stress. Tη is found to coincide with the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein scaling of diffusion and viscosity.

  9. Wall shear stress in intracranial aneurysms and adjacent arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyu Wang; Bainan Xu; Zhenghui Sun; Chen Wu; Xiaojun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic parameters play an important role in aneurysm formation and growth. However, it is difficult to directly observe a rapidly growing de novo aneurysm in a patient. To investigate possible associations between hemodynamic parameters and the formation and growth of intracranial aneurysms, the present study constructed a computational model of a case with an internal carotid artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, based on the CT angiography findings of a patient. To simulate the formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm and the growth of the internal carotid artery aneurysm, we then constructed a model that virtually removed the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and a further two models that also progressively decreased the size of the internal carotid artery aneurysm. Computational simulations of the fluid dynamics of the four models were performed under pulsatile flow conditions, and wall shear stress was compared among the different models. In the three aneurysm growth models, increasing size of the aneurysm was associated with an increased area of low wall shear stress, a significant decrease in wall shear stress at the dome of the aneurysm, and a significant change in the wall shear stress of the parent artery. The wall shear stress of the anterior communicating artery remained low, and was significantly lower than the wall shear stress at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery or the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. After formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, the wall shear stress at the dome of the internal carotid artery aneurysm increased significantly, and the wall shear stress in the upstream arteries also changed significantly. These findings indicate that low wall shear stress may be associated with the initiation and growth of aneurysms, and that aneurysm formation and growth may influence hemodynamic parameters in the local and adjacent arteries.

  10. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: caojing981@126.com [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  11. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm2. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Entrainment Rate by Debris Flows: from Shear Stress to Granular Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Longjas, A.; Moberly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows - flows of boulders, gravel, sand, fine particles, and fluids - erode sediment from steep hillsides and deposit them at lower slopes. Current model frameworks for erosion by debris flow vary significantly and include those that consider macroscopic fields such as excess shear stresses, similar to traditional models of bedload transport, to those that consider the "granular" physics, from force chains (related to bed fabric) to granular temperatures (related to random kinetic energy of the flow). We perform experiments to investigate the underlying mechanics associated with entrainment of bed materials by overlying flows in an instrumented laboratory debris flow flume. In particular, we investigate how the erosion rate of a flowing mass impinging on an erodible bed of particles depends on boundary conditions, dynamics of the flow, and the state of the bed. Using high speed imaging to capture average and instantaneous particle dynamics simultaneously with bed stress measurements, we investigate the effectiveness of a variety of model frameworks for capturing the relationships between flow dynamics and erosion rates. We find no correlation between the bed shear stress associated with the mass of the flow and erosion rate. Similarly, we found no correlation between the erosion rate and a Reynolds stress, that is, the stress associated with correlations between downstream and vertical velocity fluctuations. On the other hand, we found that granular temperature is well-correlated with entrainment rate during particular phases of our experimental debris flow. In particular, we found the instantaneous entrainment rate ɛ is linearly dependent on the ratio of the granular temperature Tg to the kinetic energy associated with the average flow velocity u: ɛ ~ (Tg / ρm u2) where ρm is the local instantaneous density of the flow. We present these results and discuss how they vary with the state of the flow, boundary conditions, and particle mixtures.

  13. Flow under standing waves Part 1. Shear stress distribution, energy flux and steady streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf;

    2009-01-01

    The conditions for energy flux, momentum flux and the resulting streaming velocity are analysed for standing waves formed in front of a fully reflecting wall. The exchange of energy between the outer wave motion and the near bed oscillatory boundary layer is considered, determining the horizontal...... energy flux inside and outside the boundary layer. The momentum balance, the mean shear stress and the resulting time averaged streaming velocities are determined. For a laminar bed boundary layer the analysis of the wave drift gives results similar to the original work of Longuet-Higgins from 1953...

  14. Dilute rigid dumbbell suspensions in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. B.; Giacomin, A. J.; Schmalzer, A. M.; Aumnate, C.

    2014-02-01

    We examine the simplest relevant molecular model for large-amplitude shear (LAOS) flow of a polymeric liquid: the suspension of rigid dumbbells in a Newtonian solvent. We find explicit analytical expressions for the shear rate amplitude and frequency dependences of the first and third harmonics of the alternating shear stress response. We include a detailed comparison of these predictions with the corresponding results for the simplest relevant continuum model: the corotational Maxwell model. We find that the responses of both models are qualitatively similar. The rigid dumbbell model relies entirely on the dumbbell orientation to explain the viscoelastic response of the polymeric liquid, including the higher harmonics in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Our analysis employs the general method of Bird and Armstrong ["Time-dependent flows of dilute solutions of rodlike macromolecules," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3680 (1972)] for analyzing the behavior of the rigid dumbbell model in any unsteady shear flow. We derive the first three terms of the deviation of the orientational distribution function from the equilibrium state. Then, after getting the "paren functions," we use these for evaluating the shear stress for LAOS flow. We find the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops predicted to be reasonable.

  15. Wall Shear Stress Distribution in Patient Specific Coronary Artery Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahab Dehlaghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Atherogenesis is affected by hemodynamic parameters, such as wall shear stress and wall shear stress spatial gradient. These parameters are largely dependent on the geometry of arterial tree. Arterial bifurcations contain significant flow disturbances. Approach: The effects of branch angle and vessel diameter ratio at the bifurcations on the wall shear stress distribution in the coronary arterial tree based on CT images were studied. CT images were digitally processed to extract geometrical contours representing the coronary vessel walls. The lumen of the coronary arteries of the patients was segmented using the open source software package (VMTK. The resulting lumens of coronary arteries were fed into a commercial mesh generator (GAMBIT, Fluent Inc. to generate a volume that was filled with tetrahedral elements. The FIDAP software (Fluent Corp. was used to carry out the simulation by solving Navier-Stokes equations. The FIELDVIEW software (Version 10.0, Intelligent Light, Lyndhurst, NJ was used for the visualization of flow patterns and the quantification of wall shear stress. Post processing was done with VMTK and MATLAB. A parabolic velocity profile was prescribed at the inlets and outlets, except for 1. Stress free outlet was assigned to the remaining outlet. Results: The results show that for angle lower than 90°, low shear stress regions are observed at the non-flow divider and the apex. For angle larger than 90°, low shear stress regions only at the non-flow divider. By increasing of diameter of side branch ratio, low shear stress regions in the side branch appear at the non-flow divider. Conclusion: It is concluded that not only angle and diameter are important, but also the overall 3D shape of the artery. More research is required to further quantify the effects angle and diameter on shear stress patterns in coronaries.

  16. Shear-stress sensitive lenticular vesicles for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Margaret N.; Fedotenko, Illya A.; Abegg, Daniel; Althaus, Jasmin; Babel, Lucille; Favarger, France; Reiter, Renate; Tanasescu, Radu; Zaffalon, Pierre-Léonard; Ziegler, André; Müller, Bert; Saxer, Till; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Atherosclerosis results in the narrowing of arterial blood vessels and this causes significant changes in the endogenous shear stress between healthy and constricted arteries. Nanocontainers that can release drugs locally with such rheological changes can be very useful. Here, we show that vesicles made from an artificial 1,3-diaminophospholipid are stable under static conditions but release their contents at elevated shear stress. These vesicles have a lenticular morphology, which potentially leads to instabilities along their equator. Using a model cardiovascular system based on polymer tubes and an external pump to represent shear stress in healthy and constricted vessels of the heart, we show that drugs preferentially release from the vesicles in constricted vessels that have high shear stress.

  17. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zergua Abdesselam

    2015-02-01

    The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understanding the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for more effective strengthening technique. This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng’s equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve. The effects of the shear deformations are calculated in an RC beam, an adhesive layer, and an FRP plate. The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses.

  18. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  19. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  20. Effect of Particle Size on Shear Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjit Sarkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological fluids (MRF, known for their variable shear stress contain magnetisable micrometer-sized particles (few micrometer to 200 micrometers in a nonmagnetic carrier liquid. To avoid settling of particles, smaller sized (3-10 micrometers particles are preferred, while larger sized particles can be used in MR brakes, MR clutches, etc. as mechanical stirring action in those mechanisms does not allow particles to settle down. Ideally larger sized particles provide higher shear stress compared to smaller sized particles. However there is need to explore the effect of particle sizes on the shear stress. In the current paper, a comparison of different particle sizes on MR effect has been presented. Particle size distributions of iron particles were measured using HORIBA Laser Scattering Particle Size Distribution Analyser. The particle size distribution, mean sizes and standard deviations have been presented. The nature of particle shapes has been observed using scanning electron microscopy. To explore the effect of particle sizes, nine MR fluids containing small, large and mixed sized carbonyl iron particles have been synthesized. Three concentrations (9%, 18% and 36% by volume for each size of particles have been used. The shear stresses of those MRF samples have been measured using ANTON PAAR MCR-102 Rheometer. With increase in volume fraction of iron particles, the MR fluids synthesized using “mixed sized particles” show better shear stress compared to the MR fluids containing “smaller sized spherical shaped particles” and “larger sized flaked shaped particles” at higher shear rate.

  1. BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS UNDER WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong

    2008-01-01

    The present work adopts the COHERENS-SWAN model developed by the first author through coupling three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) and third-generation wave model (SWAN). Inside the COHERENS-SWAN, the SWAN is regarded as a subroutine and the time- and space-varying current velocity and surface elevation are obtained from the COHERENS. Wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave induced surface mixing length and wave dependent surface drag coefficient have been introduced into the COHERENS. Secondly, as wave-enhanced bottom shear stress ("bottom shear stress" described as BSS sometimes in this article) is concerned, a modified bottom shear stress Grant and Madsen model which introduces random wave field is given and introduced to COHERENS-SWAN. COHERENS-SWAN is also adopted to simulate three-dimensional flow in the Yellow River Delta with wave-current co-existing. Four numerical experiments were given to study the effects of wave-current interaction on enhancing bottom shear stress. The simulated current velocities, wave height and wave period match well with field measurement data. The simulated significant wave height and wave period for the case with considering the effects of current can give better agreement with measurement data than the case without involving the effects of current. The introduction of random wave generates lower the bottom shear stress than the case without introducing it. There are obvious differences between bottom shear stress of two way interaction and one way interaction. Velocity field obtained by the COHERENS-SWAN is reasonable according to previous studies and measurements.

  2. Analysis of effective solid stresses in a conical spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. T. CHARBEL; G. Massarani; PASSOS M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Some applications of spouted beds have been limited by problems with spout stability. In order to overcome these limitations, research should be concentrated on describing the mechanism by which the spout is developed. This work presents a theoretical and experimental study to describe the effective solid stress distribution in the annular region of a conical spouted bed. From experimental observation, the failure state of the bed of particles at the outset of spouting is identified and relat...

  3. Direct Measurement Sensor of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Kerenyi, Kornel; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Trease, Brian P.; Widholm, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The flow fields and boundary erosion that are associated with scour at bridge piers are very complex. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress and boundary pressure fluctuations in experimental scour research has always been a challenge and high spatial resolution and fidelity have been almost impossible. Most researchers have applied an indirect process to determine shear stress using precise measured velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry are common techniques used to accurately measure velocity profiles. These methods are based on theoretical assumptions to estimate boundary shear stress. In addition, available turbulence models cannot very well account for the effect of bed roughness which is fundamentally important for any CFD simulation. The authors have taken on the challenge to advance the magnitude level to which direct measurements of the shear stress in water flow can be performed. This paper covered the challenges and the efforts to develop a higher accuracy and small spatial resolution sensor. Also, preliminary sensor designs and test results are presented.

  4. A multi-shear perfusion bioreactor for investigating shear stress effects in endothelial cell constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Menahem Y; Ruvinov, Emil; Armoza, Anna; Cohen, Smadar

    2012-08-01

    Tissue engineering research is increasingly relying on the use of advanced cultivation technologies that provide rigorously-controlled cell microenvironments. Herein, we describe the features of a micro-fabricated Multi-Shear Perfusion Bioreactor (MSPB) designed to deliver up to six different levels of physiologically-relevant shear stresses (1-13 dyne cm(-2)) to six cell constructs simultaneously, during a single run. To attain a homogeneous fluid flow within each construct, flow-distributing nets photo-etched with a set of openings for fluid flow were placed up- and down-stream from each construct. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded in alginate scaffolds within the MSPB and subjected to three different levels of shear stress for 24 h, responded accordingly by expressing three different levels of the membranal marker Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS). A longer period of cultivation, 17 d, under two different levels of shear stress resulted in different lengths of cell sprouts within the constructs. Collectively, the HUVEC behaviour within the different constructs confirms the feasibility of using the MSPB system for simultaneously imposing different shear stress levels, and for validating the flow regime in the bioreactor vessel as assessed by the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. PMID:22622237

  5. Effect of Zinc and Nitric Oxide on Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells under Shear Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungmun; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Shah, Ankit K.; Schildmeyer, Lisa A.; McIntire, Larry V.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the effect of zinc on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under different shear stress regimens, which may trigger atherogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to steady shear stress (15 dynes/cm2 or 1 dyne/cm2) or reversing shear stress (time average 1 dyne/cm2) for 24 hours. In all shear stress regimes, zinc deficiency enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, while heparinase III reduced monocyte adhesion following reversing shear stress exposure. Unlike o...

  6. Simulation of Random Waves and Associated Laminar Bottom Shear Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin SHEN; Ching-Jer HUANG

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for simulating the random waves in viscous fluids and the associated bottom shear stresses. By generating the incident random waves in a numerical wave flume and solving the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions for the fluid flows in the flume, the viscous flows and laminar bottom shear stresses induced by random waves are determined. The deterministic spectral amplitude method implemented by use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm was adopted to generate the incident random waves. The accuracy of the numerical scheme is confirmed by comparing the predicted wave spectrum with the target spectrum and by comparing the numerical transfer function between the shear stress and the surface elevation with the theoretical transfer function. The maximum bottom shear stress caused by random waves, computed by this wave model, is compared with that obtained by Myrhaug's model (1995). The transfer function method is also employed to determine the maximum shear stress, and is proved accurate.

  7. Wall Orientation and Shear Stress in the Lattice Boltzmann Model

    CERN Document Server

    Matyka, Maciej; Mirosław, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The wall shear stress is a quantity of profound importance for clinical diagnosis of artery diseases. The lattice Boltzmann is an easily parallelizable numerical method of solving the flow problems, but it suffers from errors of the velocity field near the boundaries which leads to errors in the wall shear stress and normal vectors computed from the velocity. In this work we present a simple formula to calculate the wall shear stress in the lattice Boltzmann model and propose to compute wall normals, which are necessary to compute the wall shear stress, by taking the weighted mean over boundary facets lying in a vicinity of a wall element. We carry out several tests and observe an increase of accuracy of computed normal vectors over other methods in two and three dimensions. Using the scheme we compute the wall shear stress in an inclined and bent channel fluid flow and show a minor influence of the normal on the numerical error, implying that that the main error arises due to a corrupted velocity field near ...

  8. Field measurement of critical shear stress for erosion and deposition of fine muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Strom, K. B.; Field Study

    2010-12-01

    The movement of muddy sediment from one region to another is linked to the fate and transport of pollutants that can be attached to this sediment. Important in understanding this movement is the need to know the critical conditions for erosion and deposition of the fine muddy sediment. For non-cohesion sediment, such as sands and gravels, reasonable estimates for the critical conditions can often be made theoretically without in situ measurements of the critical fluid condition or sediment transport rate. However, the shear stress needed for the incipient motion of the mud (cohesive sediments) is inherently difficult to calculate theoretically or in research flumes due to the influence of (1) flow history; (2) local sediment composition; (3) biological activity within the bed; (4) water content of the bed; and (5) salinity of the water column. The complexity of the combination of these factors makes the field measurement necessary. A field experiment was conducted under tidal flow in the region surrounding the Houston Ship Channel (near Houston, TX) to determine these conditions. Observations were made using single point, simultaneous, in situ measurement of turbulent flow and suspended sediment concentration within bottom boundary layer. Measurements were primarily made with a 6 MHz Nortek Vector velocimeter (ADV). The ADV was programmed to record 3-minute turbulent velocity with 32 Hz frequency every 10 minute. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was measured using the calibration of acoustic backscatter recorded by ADV against sample derived SSC. Different methods such as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), TKEw and direct covariance method (COV) are compared together. TKE showed much more reasonable estimation on bed shear stress. Combination of time varying SSC, distance from the bed to the sampling volume recorded by ADV and calculation of shear stress made the determination of critical conditions for erosion and deposition possible.

  9. Molecular origins of higher harmonics in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P. H.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Recent work has focused on deepening our understanding of the molecular origins of the higher harmonics that arise in the shear stress response of polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. For instance, these higher harmonics have been explained by just considering the orientation distribution of rigid dumbbells suspended in a Newtonian solvent. These dumbbells, when in dilute suspension, form the simplest relevant molecular model of polymer viscoelasticity, and this model specifically neglects interactions between the polymer molecules [R. B. Bird et al., "Dilute rigid dumbbell suspensions in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074904 (2014)]. In this paper, we explore these interactions by examining the Curtiss-Bird model, a kinetic molecular theory designed specifically to account for the restricted motions that arise when polymer chains are concentrated, thus interacting and specifically, entangled. We begin our comparison using a heretofore ignored explicit analytical solution [X.-J. Fan and R. B. Bird, "A kinetic theory for polymer melts. VI. Calculation of additional material functions," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 15, 341 (1984)]. For concentrated systems, the chain motion transverse to the chain axis is more restricted than along the axis. This anisotropy is described by the link tension coefficient, ɛ, for which several special cases arise: ɛ = 0 corresponds to reptation, ɛ > 1/8 to rod-climbing, 1/5 ≤ ɛ ≤ 3/4 to reasonable predictions for shear-thinning in steady simple shear flow, and ɛ = 1 to the dilute solution without hydrodynamic interaction. In this paper, we examine the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops for the special cases ɛ = (" separators=" 0 , 1 / 8 , 3 / 8 , 1 ) , and we compare these with those of rigid dumbbell and reptation model predictions.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.

  11. Molecular Origins of Higher Harmonics in Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Flow: Shear Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey; Schmalzer, Andrew; Bird, R. B.

    Recent work has focused on understanding the molecular origins of higher harmonics that arise in the shear stress response of polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. These higher harmonics have been explained using only the orientation distribution of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells in a Newtonian fluid, which neglects molecular interactions and is the simplest relevant molecular model of polymer viscoelasticity [R.B. Bird et al., J Chem Phys, 140, 074904 (2014)]. We explore these molecular interactions by examining the Curtiss-Bird model, a kinetic molecular theory that accounts for restricted polymer motions arising when chains are concentrated [Fan and Bird, JNNFM, 15, 341 (1984)]. For concentrated systems, the chain motion transverse to the chain axis is more restricted than along the axis. This anisotropy is described by the link tension coefficient, ɛ, for which several special cases arise: ɛ =0 corresponds to reptation, ɛ > 1 1 8 8 to rod-climbing, 1 1 2 2 >= ɛ >= 3 3 4 4 to reasonable shear-thinning predictions in steady simple shear flow, and ɛ =1 to a dilute solution of chains. We examine the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops for the special cases, ɛ = 0 , 1 0 , 1 8 , 3 3 8 8 8 , 3 3 8 8 , 1 , of the Curtiss-Bird model, and we compare these with those of rigid dumbbell and reptation model predictions.

  12. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-12-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  13. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  14. Measurement of surface shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Song Zhao; Peter Scholz; Liang-Xian Gu

    2012-01-01

    The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements.Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found.Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique,including wall-jet flow,vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder,although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated.The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.

  15. Reynolds averaged theory of turbulent shear flows over undulating beds and formation of sand waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sujit K; Dey, Subhasish

    2009-09-01

    Based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the time-averaged continuity equation, a theory of turbulent shear flow over an undulating sand bed is developed addressing the instability criterion of plane sand beds in free-surface flows leading to the formation of sand waves. In the analysis, the integration of RANS equations leads to generalized Saint Venant equations, in which the time-averaged streamwise velocity is characterized by a power law obtained from turbulence closure, treating the curvilinear streamlines by the Boussinesq approximation. As a consequence, the modified pressure distribution has a departure from the traditionally linear hydrostatic pressure distribution. The instability analysis of a plane sand bed yields the curves of the Froude number versus nondimensional wave number, determining an instability zone for which at lower Froude numbers (less than 0.8), the plane bed becomes unstable with the formation of dunes; whereas at higher Froude numbers, the plane bed becomes unstable with the formation of standing waves and antidunes. For higher Froude numbers, the experimental data for antidunes lie within the unstable zone; while for lower Froude numbers, the same is found for dunes with some experimental scatter. PMID:19905209

  16. Fluid shear stress modulation of hepatocyte-like cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Hassan; Alhaque, Sharmin; Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Flint, Oliver; Hay, David C

    2016-07-01

    Freshly isolated human adult hepatocytes are considered to be the gold standard tool for in vitro studies. However, primary hepatocyte scarcity, cell cycle arrest and the rapid loss of cell phenotype limit their widespread deployment. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells provide renewable sources of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Despite the use of various differentiation methodologies, HLCs like primary human hepatocytes exhibit unstable phenotype in culture. It has been shown that the functional capacity can be improved by adding back elements of human physiology, such as cell co-culture or through the use of natural and/or synthetic surfaces. In this study, the effect of fluid shear stress on HLC performance was investigated. We studied two important liver functions, cytochrome P450 drug metabolism and serum protein secretion, in static cultures and those exposed to fluid shear stress. Our study demonstrates that fluid shear stress improved Cyp1A2 activity by approximately fivefold. This was paralleled by an approximate ninefold increase in sensitivity to a drug, primarily metabolised by Cyp2D6. In addition to metabolic capacity, fluid shear stress also improved hepatocyte phenotype with an approximate fourfold reduction in the secretion of a foetal marker, alpha-fetoprotein. We believe these studies highlight the importance of introducing physiologic cues in cell-based models to improve somatic cell phenotype. PMID:26979076

  17. Shear Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Arterial Structure and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Matlung; E.N. Bakker; E. VanBavel

    2009-01-01

    Shear stress is well known to be a key factor in the regulation of small-artery tone and structure. Although nitric oxide is a major endothelium-derived factor involved in short-and long-term regulation of vascular caliber, it is clear that other mechanisms also can be involved. This review discusse

  18. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinken, T.M.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial functi

  19. Melt granulation of pharmaceutical powders: a comparison of high-shear mixer and fluidised bed processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, Nadia; Calogerà, Giacomo; Albertini, Beatrice; Rodriguez, Lorenzo

    2010-05-31

    The main aim of this research was to compare in situ melt granulation process in high-shear mixers and fluidised bed equipments with particular attention to the final properties of granules. In addition, the study evaluated the suitability of melt granulation in fluidised bed for improving the dissolution rate of drugs. Agglomerates having identical composition (10%, w/w, of ibuprofen or ketoprofen, 20%, w/w, of PEG 6000 and 70%, w/w, of lactose monohydrate) were produced using both equipments and their morphology, particle size, flowability, friability, drug loading, dissolution behaviors at pH 1.2 and 7.4 and physicochemical properties (DSC and XRD analysis) have been evaluated and compared. The results showed that melt granulation can be successfully performed in both granulators. The utilization of a different equipment had strong impact on the particle size distribution of the granules and on their morphology, while the effect on others physical properties was little, as all the granules possess low friability and excellent flowability. Moreover both the solid state characteristics of the products and the dissolution behaviors of ibuprofen and ketoprofen granules were found to be practically independent of the equipment and all granules showed a significant increase of the drug dissolution rate in acidic conditions. In conclusion in situ melt granulation in fluidised beds could be considered a suitable alternative to the melt granulation in high-shear mixers. PMID:20214959

  20. Analysis of effective solid stresses in a conical spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. T. CHARBEL

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Some applications of spouted beds have been limited by problems with spout stability. In order to overcome these limitations, research should be concentrated on describing the mechanism by which the spout is developed. This work presents a theoretical and experimental study to describe the effective solid stress distribution in the annular region of a conical spouted bed. From experimental observation, the failure state of the bed of particles at the outset of spouting is identified and related to fluid-particle properties and column dimensions. Linear and angular momentum balances for the solid phase are then formulated as a function of the bed failure state. The set of equations obtained is solved using numerical methods, and results regarding stress distribution, stability and spout shape are presented and discussed.

  1. Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  2. Structure-Enhanced Yield Shear Stress in Electrorheological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Lan, Y. C.; Xu, X.

    A new technology, compression-assisted aggregation, is developed to enhance the strength of electrorheological (ER) fluids. The yield shear stress of ER fluids depends on the fluid microstructure. The unassisted electric-field induced ER structure mainly consists of single chains, whose weak points are at their ends. This new technology produces a structure consisting of robust thick columns with strong ends. As the weak points of the original ER structure are greatly enforced, the new structure makes ER fluids super-strong: At a moderate electric field and moderate pressure the yield shear stress of ER fluids at 35% volume fraction exceeds 100 kPa, well above any requirement for major industrial applications.

  3. Liquid crystals for unsteady surface shear stress visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, D. C.

    1988-04-01

    Oscillating airfoil experiments were conducted to test the frequency response of thermochromic liquid crystal coatings to unsteady surface shear stresses under isothermal-flow conditions. The model was an NACA-0015 airfoil, exposed to an incompressible flow at a freestream Reynolds number (based on chord) of 1.14 x 1000000. Angle-of-attack forcing functions were sine waves of amplitude + or - 10 deg about each of three mean angles of attack: 0 deg 10 deg, and 20 deg. Frequencies of oscillation were 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 hertz, corresponding to reduced frequencies of 0.0055, 0.0164 and 0.0328. Data acquisition was accomplished by video recording. Observations showed the liquid crystal technique capable of visualizing high surface shear stress zones over the stated dynamic range in a continuous and reversible manner.

  4. Non-motile primary cilia as fluid shear stress mechanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauli, Surya M; Jin, Xingjian; AbouAlaiwi, Wissam A; El-Jouni, Wassim; Su, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that transmit extracellular signals into intracellular biochemical responses. Structural and functional defects in primary cilia are associated with a group of human diseases, known as ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from cystic kidney and obesity to blindness and mental retardation. Primary cilia mediate mechano- and chemosensation in many cell types. The mechanosensory function of the primary cilia requires the atypical G-protein-coupled receptor polycystin-1 and the calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel polycystin-2. Mechanical stimulations such as fluid-shear stress of the primary cilia initiate intracellular calcium rise, nitric oxide release, and protein modifications. In this review, we describe a set of protocols for cell culture to promote ciliation, mechanical stimulations of the primary cilia, and measurements of calcium rise and nitric oxide release induced by fluid shear stress. PMID:23522462

  5. A Study on Reynolds Shear Stress Measurement by LDV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mizue Munekata; Hideki Ohba; Kazuyoshi Matsuzaki

    2001-01-01

    The measurement results by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are compared with the direct numerical simulation result by Eggels et al.[1] for a cylindrical pipe flow. In the case of a pipe flow, the bias error for mean velocity is very small, because the local turbulent intensity is very small all over the pipe cross section. However the difference of the combination of u' and v' have considerable effects on Reynolds shear stress. From our investigation, it is found that the selection of coincidence time that is a necessary parameter for combination of u' and v' is more important in obtaining the accurate Reynolds shear stress. The suitable coincidence time is selected for a jet flow and the effectiveness of coincident time method or equal time interval method with coincidence data is shown.

  6. Non-volcanic tremor driven by large transient shear stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L; Vidale, John E; Gomberg, Joan; Bodin, Paul; Creager, Kenneth C; Malone, Stephen D

    2007-08-01

    Non-impulsive seismic radiation or 'tremor' has long been observed at volcanoes and more recently around subduction zones. Although the number of observations of non-volcanic tremor is steadily increasing, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Some have attributed non-volcanic tremor to the movement of fluids, while its coincidence with geodetically observed slow-slip events at regular intervals has led others to consider slip on the plate interface as its cause. Low-frequency earthquakes in Japan, which are believed to make up at least part of non-volcanic tremor, have focal mechanisms and locations that are consistent with tremor being generated by shear slip on the subduction interface. In Cascadia, however, tremor locations appear to be more distributed in depth than in Japan, making them harder to reconcile with a plate interface shear-slip model. Here we identify bursts of tremor that radiated from the Cascadia subduction zone near Vancouver Island, Canada, during the strongest shaking from the moment magnitude M(w) = 7.8, 2002 Denali, Alaska, earthquake. Tremor occurs when the Love wave displacements are to the southwest (the direction of plate convergence of the overriding plate), implying that the Love waves trigger the tremor. We show that these displacements correspond to shear stresses of approximately 40 kPa on the plate interface, which suggests that the effective stress on the plate interface is very low. These observations indicate that tremor and possibly slow slip can be instantaneously induced by shear stress increases on the subduction interface-effectively a frictional failure response to the driving stress.

  7. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  8. Magnetic fabric of sheared till: A strain indicator for evaluating the bed deformation model of glacier flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Pulse shear stress for anaerobic membrane bioreactor fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jixiang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-01-01

    Increase of shear stress at membrane surfaces is a generally applied strategy to minimize membrane fouling. It has been reported that a two-phase flow, better known as slug flow, is an effective way to increase shear stress. Hence, slug flow was introduced into an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for membrane fouling control. Anaerobic suspended sludge was cultured in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AMBR) operated with a side stream inside-out tubular membrane unit applying sustainable flux flow regimes. The averaged particle diameter decreased from 20 to 5 microm during operation of the AMBR. However, the COD removal efficiency did not show any significant deterioration, whereas the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) increased from 0.16 to 0.41 gCOD/g VSS/day. Nevertheless, the imposed gas slug appeared to be insufficient for adequate fouling control, resulting in rapidly increasing trans membrane pressures (TMP) operating at a flux exceeding 16 L/m2/h. Addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) enhanced the effect of slug flow on membrane fouling. However, the combined effect was still considered as not being significant. The tubular membrane was subsequently equipped with inert inserts for creating a locally increased shear stress for enhanced fouling control. Results show an increase in the membrane flux from 16 L/m2/h to 34 L/m2/h after the inserts were mounted in the membrane tube. PMID:22097007

  10. Shearing of a confined granular layer: tangential stress and dilatancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, C

    2004-11-01

    We study the behavior of a confined granular layer under shearing, in an annular cell, at low velocity. We give evidence that the response of the granular layer under shearing is described by characteristic length scales. The tangential stress reaches its steady state on the same length scale as the dilatancy. Stop-and-go experiments performed at several driving velocities show a logarithmic increase of the static friction coefficient with waiting time, followed by rejuvenation on a characteristic length of the order of the magnitude of a Hertz contact between adjacent grains. The dilatancy does not evolve during the stop, neither during the elastic reloading when the driving is resumed. There is a small variation when sliding sets anew, which corresponds to the rejuvenation of the layer, and this variation is independent of the waiting time. We argue that aging is due to the behavior of individual contacts between grains, not global evolution of the piling. Under an instantaneous increase of the velocity, the tangential stress reaches a new steady state, exhibiting velocity strengthening behavior. An increase of dilatancy is also observed. It is much larger than fluctuations in the steady state, variations in a stop and-go-experiment, but much less than for shearing of freshly poured grains. The dilatancy variation during a velocity jump is not due to structural rearrangements of the piling. The evolutions of tangential stress and dilatancy are logarithmic in the ratio of upper and lower velocities. PMID:15600598

  11. Experimental study of vertical stress profiles of a confined granular bed under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, S; Cuq, B; Ruiz, T

    2012-07-01

    In a wet agglomeration process inside a low shear mixer, the blade function is to induce i) homogenization of the liquid sprayed on the powder surface and ii) a stress field able to transfer the mechanical energy at the particle scale. In this work we study the mechanical state of a confined powder bed through the analysis of stress distributions (by force measurements) in a rectangular cell in two cases: for a classical model powder (i.e. glass beads) and a complex powder (i.e. wheat semolina). Two types of vertical stress profiles are obtained according to the type of measurements carried out in the powder bed, either locally (at different positions in the cell) or globally (at the entire base). The global vertical stress profile follows Janssen's model and the local vertical stress profile highlights a critical length, identified as the percolation threshold of the force network, and a shielding length near the bottom, which is similar to an influence length of the side walls. In the context of wet agglomeration, the results allow to consider the role of the characteristic lengths in the mixing bowl under vertical mechanical solicitation. PMID:22772594

  12. Wall shear stress indicators in abnormal aortic geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, occurs at specific locations in the arterial tree. Characterizing flow and forces at these locations is crucial to understanding the genesis of disease. Measures such as time average wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index, relative residence time and temporal wall shear stress gradients have been shown to identify plaque prone regions. The present paper examines these indices in three aortic geometries obtained from patients whose aortas are deformed due to a genetic pathology and compared to one normal geometry. This patient group is known to be prone to aortic dissection and our study aims to identify early indicators that will enable timely intervention. Data obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to reconstruct the aortic arch. The local unsteady flow characteristics are calculated, fully resolving the flow field throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different red blood cell loading. The impact of the deformed aortic geometries is analyzed to identify flow patterns that could lead to arterial disease at certain locations.

  13. Spatiotemporal evolution of a fault shear stress patch due to viscoelastic interseismic fault zone rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hiroki; Uchide, Takahiko

    2016-08-01

    We conducted numerical studies to explore how shear stress anomalies on fault planes (shear stress patches) evolve spatiotemporally during the interseismic period under the influence of viscoelastic rheology assigned to fault zones of finite thickness. 2-D viscoelastic models consisting of a fault zone and host rock were sheared to simulate shear stress accumulation along fault zones due to tectonic loading. No fault slip along a distinct fault planes is implied in the model, thus all fault shear motion is accommodated by distributed deformation in the viscoelastic fault zone. Results show that magnitudes of shear stress patches evolve not only temporally, but also spatially, especially when the stress anomaly is created by a geometrical irregularity (asperity) along the interface of an elastic host rock and viscoelastic fault zone. Such shear stress anomalies diffuse spatially so that the spatial dimension of the shear stress patch appears to grow over time. Models with varying fault zone viscoelastic properties and varying fault zone viscosity both show that such spatial diffusion of shear stress is enhanced by increasing the contribution of the viscous behavior. The absolute rate at which shear stress patches grow spatially is generally not influenced by the size of the shear stress patch. Therefore shear stress patches with smaller dimensions will appear to grow quicker, in the relative sense, compared to larger stress patches. These results suggest that the minimum dimensions of shear stress patches that can exist along a fault could be governed by the effective viscosity of the fault zone. Therefore patterns of accumulated shear stress could vary along faults when viscous properties are heterogeneous, for instance due to depth or material heterogeneity, which has implications on how earthquake rupture behavior could vary along faults.

  14. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0

  15. Interplay between shear stress and adhesion on neutrophil locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee A; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Haun, Jered B; Hammer, Daniel A

    2007-01-15

    Leukocyte locomotion over the lumen of inflamed endothelial cells is a critical step, following firm adhesion, in the inflammatory response. Once firmly adherent, the cell will spread and will either undergo diapedesis through individual vascular endothelial cells or will migrate to tight junctions before extravasating to the site of injury or infection. Little is known about the mechanisms of neutrophil spreading or locomotion, or how motility is affected by the physical environment. We performed a systematic study to investigate the effect of the type of adhesive ligand and shear stress on neutrophil motility by employing a parallel-plate flow chamber with reconstituted protein surfaces of E-selectin, E-selectin/PECAM-1, and E-selectin/ICAM-1. We find that the level and type of adhesive ligand and the shear rate are intertwined in affecting several metrics of migration, such as the migration velocity, random motility, index of migration, and the percentage of cells moving in the direction of flow. On surfaces with high levels of PECAM-1, there is a near doubling in random motility at a shear rate of 180 s(-1) compared to the motility in the absence of flow. On surfaces with ICAM-1, neutrophil random motility exhibits a weaker response to shear rate, decreasing slightly when shear rate is increased from static conditions to 180 s(-1), and is only slightly higher at 1000 s(-1) than in the absence of flow. The random motility increases with increasing surface concentrations of E-selectin and PECAM-1 under static and flow conditions. Our findings illustrate that the endothelium may regulate neutrophil migration in postcapillary venules through the presentation of various adhesion ligands at sites of inflammation. PMID:17071667

  16. Liposome clusters with shear stress-induced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Tamura, Ryota; Natsume, Tomotaka

    2013-09-01

    Clusters of negatively charged liposomes were prepared by the addition of Ca(2+) and characterized in their structure and membrane permeability under shear stress. The liposomes mainly used were composed of zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 20 mol% negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 30 mol% cholesterol. The liposomes with mean diameter of 193 nm were aggregated into the clusters with a distribution peak at about 1.5 μm in the 50mM Tris buffer solution of pH 8.5 at the lipid and Ca(2+) concentrations of 1.0mM and 40 mM, respectively. More than 90% of liposomes were redispersed at the Ca(2+) concentration of 80 mM. POPG-rich liposomes (POPC/POPG/cholesterol=5:65:30 [lipid]=1.0mM) were irreversibly aggregated at [Ca(2+)]≥ 10 mM, indicating the significant contribution of POPC to the reversible clustering of liposomes. The membranes of liposome clusters were impermeable to 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) in the static liquid system at 25°C due to the decrease in specific surface area of the liposomal system. In the shear flow, in clear contrast, continuous membrane permeation of CF was observed at the shear rate of 1.5 × 10(3)s(-1), exhibiting comparable membrane permeability to the non-clustered liposomes. The theoretical analysis of modified DLVO potential indicated that liposome membranes were not in contact with each other within the clusters. Therefore, the liposome clusters are structurally flexible under the applied shear stress, providing sufficient lipid membrane-water interfacial area for the permeation of CF. The results obtained would be important to control the formation of liposome clusters and their permeabilization for biochemical and biomedical applications.

  17. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The cor...

  18. Increased shear stress inhibits angiogenesis in veins and not arteries during vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard-Pelletier, Guillaume; Jahnsen, Espen D; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is believed to occur first by vasculogenesis followed by angiogenesis. Though angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels, we found that vascular density actually decreases during this second stage. The onset of the decrease coincided with the entry of erythroblasts into circulation. We therefore measured the level of shear stress at various developmental stages and found that it was inversely proportional to vascular density. To investigate whether shear stress was inhibitory to angiogenesis, we altered shear stress levels either by preventing erythroblasts from entering circulation ("low" shear stress) or by injection of a starch solution to increase the blood plasma viscosity ("high" shear stress). By time-lapse microscopy, we show that reverse intussusception (merging of two vessels) is inversely proportional to the level of shear stress. We also found that angiogenesis (both sprouting and splitting) was inversely proportional to shear stress levels. These effects were specific to the arterial or venous plexus however, such that the effect on reverse intussusception was present only in the arterial plexus and the effect on sprouting only in the venous plexus. We cultured embryos under altered shear stress in the presence of either DAPT, a Notch inhibitor, or DMH1, an inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. DAPT treatment phenocopied the inhibition of erythroblast circulation ("low" shear stress) and the effect of DAPT treatment could be partially rescued by injection of starch. Inhibition of the BMP signaling prevented the reduction in vascular density that was observed when starch was injected to increase shear stress levels.

  19. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  20. Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

  1. A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.

  2. Physiological mechanisms of vascular response induced by shear stress and effect of exercise in systemic and placental circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván eRodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiological vascular function regulation is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular pathology, where the imbalance between the synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is common in the development of vascular disorders in systemic and placental circulation. In the placenta, an organ without autonomic innervations, the local control of vascular tone is critical for maintenance of fetal growth and mechanisms that underlie shear stress response induced by blood flow are essential during pregnancy. In this field, shear stress induced by moderate exercise is one of the most important mechanisms to improve vascular function through nitric oxide (NO synthesis and stimulation of mechanical response of endothelial cells triggered by ion channels, caveolae, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, among others. The demand for oxygen and nutrients by tissues and organs, especially in placentation and pregnancy, determines blood flow parameters and physiological adaptations of vascular beds for covering metabolic requirements. In this regard, moderate exercise versus sedentarism shows potential benefits for improving vascular function associated with the enhancement of molecular mechanisms induced by shear stress. In this review, we collect evidence about molecular bases of physiological response to shear stress in order to highlight the relevance of moderate exercise-training for vascular health in adult and fetal life.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Dissection: Hemodynamic Shear Stress Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yik Sau; Lai, Siu Kai; Cheng, Stephen Wing Keung; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD), a life threatening cardiovascular disease, occurs when blood intrudes into the layers of the aortic wall, creating a new artificial channel (the false lumen) beside the original true lumen. The weakened false lumen wall may expand, enhancing the risk of rupture and resulting in high mortality. Endovascular treatment involves the deployment of a stent graft into the aorta, thus blocking blood from entering the false lumen. Due to the irregular geometry of the aorta, the stent graft, however, may fail to conform to the vessel curvature, and would create a ``bird-beak'' configuration, a wedge-shaped domain between the graft and the vessel wall. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. With the `beaking' configuration, the local hemodynamic shear stress will drop below the threshold of safety reported earlier in the literature. The oscillating behavior of the shear stress might lead to local inflammation, atherosclerosis and other undesirable consequences. Supported by the Innovation and Technology Fund of the Hong Kong Government.

  4. Interfacial shear-stress effects on transient capillary wedge flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Song-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang

    2004-06-01

    The effects on the transient capillary flow in a wedge due to the interfacial shear-stress distribution S along the flow direction z is studied theoretically. With the assumptions of a slender liquid column and negligible gravitational and inertia effects, the problem is reduced to finding the axial velocity distribution at any cross section. The propagation of the liquid column h(z,t) and the tip location l(t) are then solved with the aid of the continuity equation. When the half-wedge angle α, the contact angle θ, and the shear-stress distribution on the free surface S are constant, analytic solutions exist. Otherwise, numerical simulation has to be applied. The results indicate that when S(z) is acting in the flow direction, the flow is strengthened and the liquid column propagates faster. When S(z) is opposing the flow direction, reverse flow may exist near the free surface and the propagation speed of the liquid column is reduced. Moreover, for a capillary flow in a wedge with constant α, θ, and S, both the analytic solutions and the numerical simulation predict that l(t)∝t3/5 for the constant-flow-rate stage and l(t)∝t1/2 for the constant-height flow stage. When S is a function of the flow direction z, the above functional relationship between l and t becomes no longer valid; it varies as the liquid column propagates along the wedge.

  5. Numerical evaluation of the effects of planform geometry and inflow conditions on flow, turbulence structure, and bed shear velocity at a stream confluence with a concordant bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, George; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Rhoads, Bruce; Sukhodolov, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    This study numerically investigates the effects of variations in inflow conditions and planform geometry on large-scale coherent flow structures and bed friction velocities at a stream confluence with natural bathymetry and concordant bed morphology. Several numerical experiments are conducted in which either the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode or the wake mode dominates within the mixing interface (MI) between the two confluent streams as the junction angle and alignments of the tributaries are altered. In the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode, the MI contains mostly corotating vortices driven by the mean transverse shear across the MI, while in the wake mode the MI contains counterrotating vortices forming by the interaction of the separated shear layers on the two sides of a zone of stagnant fluid near the junction corner. A large angle between the two incoming streams is not necessary for the development of strongly coherent streamwise-oriented vortical (SOV) cells in the immediate vicinity of the MI. Results show that such SOV cells can develop and produce high bed friction velocities even for cases with a low angle between the two tributaries and for cases where the downstream channel is approximately aligned with the axes of the two tributaries (low-curvature cases). SOV cells tend not to develop only when the incoming streams are parallel and aligned with the downstream channel (junction angle of zero), and the incoming flows produce a strong Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. Under such conditions, quasi 2-D MI vortices play the primary role in mixing and the production of high bed shear velocities. Simulations with and without natural bed morphology/local bank line irregularities indicate that planform geometry and inflow conditions primarily govern the development of coherent flow structures, but that bathymetric and bank line effects can locally modify details of these structures.

  6. SHEAR STRESS FOR INITIATION OF MOTION OF NON-UNIFORM SEDIMENT MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experiments on initiation of motion of different fractions of non-uniform sediment mixtures are reported. Four sediment mixes and reference transport method to define the threshold of bed particle movement are used in this analysis. Factors controlling the initiation of motion are analyzed. It is found that relative size of different grains with respect to a median size greatly affects the initiation of movement. The incipient motion of non-uniform sediment is very much dependent on the absolute size for coarser fractions.Considering the factors controlling the initiation of motion the experimental data sets along with the other available data yield a new relationship for the calculation of critical shear stress of non-uniform sediments. A set of equations have found that all the data points fall into a single line for the finer and for coarser fractions.

  7. Influence of bank vegetation and gravel bed on velocity and Reynolds stress distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein AFZALIMEHR; Subhasish DEY

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory flume experimental study on the interaction of bank vegetation and gravel bed on the flow velocity (primarily on the location of the maximum velocity, Umax) and the Reynolds stress distributions. The results reveal that the dip of the maximum velocity below the water surface is up to 35% of flow depth and the difference between Umax and the velocity at the water surface is considerable in the presence of vegetation on the walls. The zone of the log-law varies from y/h=2 up to 15 percent of flow depth and it does not depend on distance from the wall. Deviation of the velocity profile in the outer layer over a gravel bed with vegetation cover on the walls is much larger than the case of flow over a gravel bed without vegetation cover on the walls. The presence of vegetation on the walls changes uniform flow to non-uniform flow. This fact can be explained by considering the nonlinear Reynolds stress distribution and location of maximum velocity in each profile at different distances across the flume. The Reynolds stress distributions at the distance 0.02 m from the wall have negative values and away from the wall, they change the sign taking positive values with specific convex form with apex in higher location. Average of von Karman constant κ for this study is equal to 0.16. Based on κ=0.16, the methods of Clauser and the Reynolds stress are compatible for determination of shear velocity.

  8. Critical shear stress produced by interaction of edge dislocation with nanoscale inhomogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q H Fang; J M Chen; Y W Liu; P H Wen

    2010-04-01

    According to the Mott and Nabarro’s model, the contribution to the critical shear stress of the material caused by the interaction between edge dislocations and nanoscale cylindrical inhomogeneities with interface stresses is obtained. The influence of the radius and the volume fraction of the inhomogeneity as well as the interface stresses on the critical shear stress is investigated. The important result is that, if the interface stress is considered, a maximum of the contribution to the critical shear stress produced by this interaction may be obtained when the radius of the inhomogeneity reaches a critical value.

  9. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  10. Scale-free channeling patterns near the onset of erosion of sheared granular beds

    CERN Document Server

    Aussillous, Pascale; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Yan, Le; Wyart, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Erosion shapes our landscape and occurs when a sufficient shear stress is exerted by a fluid on a sedimented layer. What controls erosion at a microscopic level remains debated, especially near the threshold forcing where it stops. Here we study experimentally the collective dynamics of the moving particles, using a set-up where the system spontaneously evolves toward the erosion onset. We find that the spatial organization of the erosion flux is heterogeneous in space, and occurs along channels of local flux $\\sigma$ whose distribution displays scaling near threshold and follows $P(\\sigma)\\sim J/\\sigma$, where $J$ is the mean erosion flux. Channels are strongly correlated in the direction of forcing but not in the transverse direction. We show that these results quantitatively agree with a model where the dynamics is governed by the competition of disorder (which channels mobile particles) and particle interactions (which reduces channeling). These observations support that for laminar flows, erosion is a dy...

  11. Shear Stress Inhibits Apoptosis of Ischemic Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiafeng Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke, to restore or increase cerebral blood flow (CBF is the most fundamental option. Laminar shear stress (LS, as an important force generated by CBF, mainly acts on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. In order to study whether LS was a protective factor in stroke, we investigated LS-intervented ischemic apoptosis of rat BMECs (rBMECs through PE Annexin V/7-AAD, JC-1 and Hoechst 33258 staining to observe the membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear dysfunction. Real-time PCR and western blot were also used to test the gene and protein expressions of Tie-2, Bcl-2 and Akt, which were respectively related to maintain membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear norm. The results showed that LS could be a helpful stimulus for ischemic rBMECs survival. Simultaneously, membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear regulation played an important role in this process.

  12. Energy Consumption Related to Shear Stress for Membrane Bioreactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Bérube, P.R.;

    2011-01-01

    stress measurements and CFD simulation were made. It was found that the average shear stress over the membrane surface from the CFD model is similar compared to experimental data (error less than 8 %). However, some differences in the distribution of shear stress throughout the submerged MBR system were...... observed. It was found that the CFD and experimental data was similar in terms of shear stress. On the other hand, for the HS MBR experimental measurements were not made. Nevertheless, as a proper validation was attained with the HF MBR, it was inferred that the CFD results for the HS MBR were accurate....... A linear empirical correlation between the average shear stress and the blower power per unit of permeate was made. This work uses an empirical relationship to determine the shear stress based on the ratio of aeration blower power to tank volume. This relationship is used in bubble column reactors...

  13. 风沙流中颗粒剪应力分析%Analysis of Particle Shear Stress in Windblown Sand Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢力强

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of particle shear stress are analyzed, one is from drag force, the other is from dispersed phase Reynolds stress. The three-dimensional discrete particle model is developed for windblown sand movement to reveal the difference between the two kinds of particle shear stress. The results show that except the region near the sand bed surface, the two kinds of particle shear stress are almost same. While near the sand bed surface, the particle shear stress from dispersed phase Reynolds stress is less than that from drag force. The main reason is that near the sand bed surface, the additional collision shear stress will be produced due to particle collisions.%分析了两种颗粒剪应力的定义,一种来自于颗粒黏性阻力,一种来自于颗粒相雷诺应力。通过建立三维风沙流离散颗粒模型,计算分析了这两种颗粒剪应力的差别。结果表明,除了近地面附近,这两种颗粒剪应力基本相等。而在近地面附近,来自于颗粒相雷诺应力的颗粒剪应力小于来自于颗粒黏性阻力的颗粒剪应力,这种差别的主要原因是由于在近地表面附近,颗粒碰撞会产生附加碰撞剪应力。

  14. Surface temperatures and glassy state investigations in tribology, part 3. [limiting shear stress rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, S.; Winer, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    Research related to the development of the limiting shear stress rheological model is reported. Techniques were developed for subjecting lubricants to isothermal compression in order to obtain relevant determinations of the limiting shear stress and elastic shear modulus. The isothermal compression limiting shear stress was found to predict very well the maximum traction for a given lubricant. Small amounts of side slip and twist incorporated in the model were shown to have great influence on the rising portion of the traction curve at low slide-roll ratio. The shear rheological model was also applied to a Grubin-like elastohydrodynamic inlet analysis for predicting film thicknesses when employing the limiting shear stress model material behavior.

  15. Disbond monitoring in adhesive joints using shear stress optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present dedicated shear stress optical fiber sensors for in situ disbond monitoring of adhesive bonds. The shear stress sensitivity of these sensors is about 60 pm MPa−1, which corresponds to a shear strain sensing resolution of 50 μϵ. By integrating a combination of three such sensors in the adhesive bond line of a single lap joint, we can assess the internal shear stress distribution when the joint is tensile loaded. Disbonding of this joint was initiated by cyclic tensile loading, and the sensor responses were monitored during this process. Our results show that this sensing system can detect disbonds as small as 100 μm. (papers)

  16. The fundamental difference between shear alpha viscosity and turbulent magnetorotational stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic stresses, as well as numerical simulations of shearing boxes, to show that angular momentum transport in MRI-driven accretion discs cannot be described by the standard model for shear viscosity. In particular, we demonstrate that turbulent magnetorotational stresses...

  17. Possible effect from shear stress on maturation of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Aidun, Cyrus K; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2011-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the only method with the potential for industrial scale clonal propagation of conifers. Implementation of the method has so far been hampered by the extensive manual labor required for development of the somatic embryos into plants. The utilization of bioreactors is limited since the somatic embryos will not mature and germinate under liquid culture conditions. The negative effect on mature embryo yields from liquid culture conditions has been previously described. We have described the negative effects of shear stress on the development of early stage somatic embryos (proembryogenic masses; PEMs) at shear stresses of 0.086 and 0.14 N/m(2). In the present study, additional flow rates were studied to determine the effects of shear stress at lower rates resembling shear stress in a suspension culture flask. The results showed that shear stress at 0.009, 0.014, and 0.029 N/m(2) inhibited the PEM expansions comparing with the control group without shear stress. This study also provides validation for the cross-correlation method previously developed to show the effect of shear stress on early stage embryo suspensor cell formation and polarization. Furthermore, shear stress was shown to positively affect the uptake of water into the cells. The results indicate that the plasmolyzing effect from macromolecules added to liquid culture medium to stimulate maturation of the embryos are affected by liquid culture conditions and thus can affect the conversion of PEMs into mature somatic embryos. PMID:21449024

  18. The Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3 for Turbulent Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosse, S.; Schröder, W.

    2009-01-01

    Wall-shear stress results from the relative motion of a fluid over a body surface as a consequence of the no-slip condition of the fluid in the vicinity of the wall. To determine the two-dimensional wall-shear stress distribution is of utter importance in theoretical and applied turbulence research.

  19. Influence of shear and deviatoric stress on the evolution of permeability in fractured rock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faoro, Igor; Niemeijer, André; Marone, Chris; Elsworth, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of permeability in fractured rock as a function of effective normal stress, shear displacement, and damage remains a complex issue. In this contribution, we report on experiments in which rock surfaces were subject to direct shear under controlled pore pressure and true triaxial stress

  20. The joint effect of laser and shear stress treatments for the surface strengthening of Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wei [Insitute of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li, Jian [Insitute of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiang, Xiao [Insitute of Science, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 211101 (China); Xi, Mingzhe [Insitute of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Gao, Shiyou, E-mail: gao58@sina.com [Insitute of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve the surface strength, the structural evolution and mechanical properties of 47Zr–45Ti–5Al–3V alloys treated by laser and shear stress are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tester, and nanoindentation. The results indicate that the combined treatment of laser and shear stress is more advantageous than that of single laser or single shear stress to the surface strengthening of Zr alloys. α phase and β phase in the surface layer almost transform into fine β phase completely during laser treatment, which plays a fine grain strengthening effect. The followed treatment of shear stress can transform β phase into ω phase, which plays a dispersion strengthening effect, and induces a mass of dislocation which plays a dislocation strengthening effect. Higher plasticity and fine size of β phase are helpful to restrain the appearance of cracks during the treatment of shear stress.

  1. Effect of Stress and Saturation on Shear Wave Anisotropy: Laboratory Observations Using Laser Doppler Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, M.; Collet, O.; Bona, A.; Gurevich, B.

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of hydrocarbon and water resources as well as reservoir management during production are the main challenges facing the resource recovery industry nowadays. The recently discovered reservoirs are not only deep but they are also located in complicated geological formations. Hence, the effect of anisotropy on reservoir imaging becomes significant. Shear wave (S-wave) splitting has been observed in the field and laboratory experiments for decades. Despite the fact that S-wave splitting is widely used for evaluation of subsurface anisotropy, the effects of stresses as well fluid saturation on anisotropy have not been understood in detail. In this paper we present the laboratory study of the effect of stress and saturation on S-wave splitting for a Bentheim sandstone sample. The cubic sample (50mm3), porosity 22%, density 1890kg/m3) was placed into a true-triaxial cell. The sample was subjected to several combinations of stresses varying from 0 to 10MPa and applied to the sample in two directions (X and Y), while no stress was applied to the sample in the Z-direction. The sample's bedding was nearly oriented parallel to Y-Z plane. The ultrasonic S-waves were exited at a frequency of 0.5MHz by a piezoelectric transducer and were propagating in the Z-direction. Upon wave arrival onto the free surface the displacement of the surface was monitored by a Laser Doppler interferometer. Hodograms of the central point of the dry sample (Fig. 1) demonstrate how S-wave polarizations for both "fast" and "slow" S-waves change when increasing the stress in the X direction, while the stress in direction Y is kept constant at 3 MPa. Polarization of the fast S wave is shifted towards the X-axis (axis of the maximum stress). While both S-wave velocities increase with stress, the anisotropy level remains the same. No shift of polarization of fast wave was observed when the stress along the Y-axis was kept at 3 MPa, while the stress along the X-axis was increasing. However, in

  2. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive and tolerant microalgal species in a tubular photobioreactor equipped with a centrifugal pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The tolerance to shear stress of Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, Skeletonema costatum, and Chaetoceros muelleri was determined in shear cylinders. The shear tolerance of the microalgae species strongly depends on the strain. I. galbana, S. costatum, and C. muelleri exposed to shear stress b

  3. Experimental scale model study of cracking in brick masonry under tensile and shear stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of research conducted on the failure behaviour of brick masonry under tensile and shear stress. The study was designed to develop test models and generate experimental results able to provide greater insight into tensile and shear stresses cracking in brick masonry. The results of a campaign conducted with two types of specimens are discussed: 1 double-edge notched specimens under non-symmetrical compression stress, and 2 three point bending specimens under nonsymmetrical loading. Tests were run on specimens of similar size (similarity rate 2 and different bed joint orientation to determine how bed joint orientation affects crack propagation. The tests were conducted on scale models (1/4 of a single wythe, stretcher bond brickwork masonry wall one half foot thick.Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada sobre el comportamiento en rotura de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo solicitaciones de tracción y cortante. La investigación está encaminada a proporcionar modelos de ensayo y resultados experimentales que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de agrietamiento de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo tensiones normales de tracción y tangenciales. Se presentan los resultados de una campaña experimental desarrollada con dos tipos de probeta: 1 la probeta compacta con doble entalla solicitada a compresión asimétrica, y 2 la probeta de flexión con entalla solicitada bajo carga asimétrica aplicada en tres puntos. Se han ensayado probetas de dos tamaños semejantes (razón de semejanza 2 y varias orientaciones de los tendeles, con el fin de ver cómo afecta la orientación de los tendeles en la propagación de las grietas. Los ensayos se han realizado con probetas a escala 1/4 de un muro de fábrica de ladrillo de una hoja a soga de medio pie de espesor.

  4. Shear behavior of coarse aggregates for dam construction under varied stress paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hanlong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse aggregates are the major infrastructure materials of concrete-faced rock-fill dams and are consolidated to bear upper and lateral loads. With the increase of dam height, high confining pressure and complex stress states complicate the shear behavior of coarse aggregates, and thus impede the high dam's proper construction, operation and maintenance. An experimental program was conducted to study the shear behavior of dam coarse aggregates using a large-scale triaxial shear apparatus. Through triaxial shear tests, the strain-stress behaviors of aggregates were observed under constant confining pressures: 300 kPa, 600 kPa, 900 kPa and 1200 kPa. Shear strengths and aggregate breakage characteristics associated with high pressure shear processes are discussed. Stress path tests were conducted to observe and analyze coarse aggregate response under complex stress states. In triaxial shear tests, it was found that peak deviator stresses increase along with confining pressures, whereas the peak principal stress ratios decrease as confining pressures increase. With increasing confining pressures, the dilation decreases and the contraction eventually prevails. Initial strength parameters (Poisson’s ratio and tangent modulus show a nonlinear relationship with confining pressures when the pressures are relatively low. Shear strength parameters decrease with increasing confining pressures. The failure envelope lines are convex curves, with clear curvature under low confining pressures. Under moderate confining pressures, dilation is offset by particle breakage. Under high confining pressures, dilation disappears.

  5. Defective fluid shear stress mechanotransduction mediates hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Larrivée, Bruno; Ola, Roxana; Hayward-Piatkowskyi, Brielle; Dubrac, Alexandre; Huang, Billy; Ross, Tyler D; Coon, Brian G; Min, Elizabeth; Tsarfati, Maya; Tong, Haibin; Eichmann, Anne; Schwartz, Martin A

    2016-09-26

    Morphogenesis of the vascular system is strongly modulated by mechanical forces from blood flow. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an inherited autosomal-dominant disease in which arteriovenous malformations and telangiectasias accumulate with age. Most cases are linked to heterozygous mutations in Alk1 or Endoglin, receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 9 and 10. Evidence suggests that a second hit results in clonal expansion of endothelial cells to form lesions with poor mural cell coverage that spontaneously rupture and bleed. We now report that fluid shear stress potentiates BMPs to activate Alk1 signaling, which correlates with enhanced association of Alk1 and endoglin. Alk1 is required for BMP9 and flow responses, whereas endoglin is only required for enhancement by flow. This pathway mediates both inhibition of endothelial proliferation and recruitment of mural cells; thus, its loss blocks flow-induced vascular stabilization. Identification of Alk1 signaling as a convergence point for flow and soluble ligands provides a molecular mechanism for development of HHT lesions. PMID:27646277

  6. Characterizations and Correlations of Wall Shear Stress in Aneurysmal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2016-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most studied hemodynamic parameters, used in correlating blood flow to various diseases. The pulsatile nature of blood flow, along with the complex geometries of diseased arteries, produces complicated temporal and spatial WSS patterns. Moreover, WSS is a vector, which further complicates its quantification and interpretation. The goal of this study is to investigate WSS magnitude, angle, and vector changes in space and time in complex blood flow. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was chosen as a setting to explore WSS quantification. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in six AAAs. New WSS parameters are introduced, and the pointwise correlation among these, and more traditional WSS parameters, was explored. WSS magnitude had positive correlation with spatial/temporal gradients of WSS magnitude. This motivated the definition of relative WSS gradients. WSS vectorial gradients were highly correlated with magnitude gradients. A mix WSS spatial gradient and a mix WSS temporal gradient are proposed to equally account for variations in the WSS angle and magnitude in single measures. The important role that WSS plays in regulating near wall transport, and the high correlation among some of the WSS parameters motivates further attention in revisiting the traditional approaches used in WSS characterizations. PMID:26592536

  7. Cooperative effects of matrix stiffness and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Zhou, Dennis W; Bordeleau, François; Zhou, Allen L; Mason, Brooke N; Mitchell, Michael J; King, Michael R; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2015-02-01

    Arterial hemodynamic shear stress and blood vessel stiffening both significantly influence the arterial endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and atherosclerosis progression, and both have been shown to signal through cell-matrix adhesions. However, the cooperative effects of fluid shear stress and matrix stiffness on ECs remain unknown. To investigate these cooperative effects, we cultured bovine aortic ECs on hydrogels matching the elasticity of the intima of compliant, young, or stiff, aging arteries. The cells were then exposed to laminar fluid shear stress of 12 dyn/cm(2). Cells grown on more compliant matrices displayed increased elongation and tighter EC-cell junctions. Notably, cells cultured on more compliant substrates also showed decreased RhoA activation under laminar shear stress. Additionally, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in response to fluid shear stress occurred more rapidly in ECs cultured on more compliant substrates, and nitric oxide production was enhanced. Together, our results demonstrate that a signaling cross talk between stiffness and fluid shear stress exists within the vascular microenvironment, and, importantly, matrices mimicking young and healthy blood vessels can promote and augment the atheroprotective signals induced by fluid shear stress. These data suggest that targeting intimal stiffening and/or the EC response to intima stiffening clinically may improve vascular health.

  8. Estimation of the shear stress on the surface of an aortic valve leaflet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M W; LaBorde, D V; Yoganathan, A P

    1999-01-01

    The limited durability of xenograft heart valves and the limited supply of allografts have sparked interest in tissue engineered replacement valves. A bioreactor for tissue engineered valves must operate at conditions that optimize the biosynthetic abilities of seeded cells while promoting their adherence to the leaflet matrix. An important parameter is shear stress, which is known to influence cellular behavior and may thus be crucial in bioreactor optimization. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the shear stress on the leaflet surface would not only improve our understanding of the mechanical environment of aortic valve leaflets, but it would also aid in bioreactor design. To estimate the shear stress on the leaflet surface, two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements have been conducted inside a transparent polyurethane valve with a trileaflet structure similar to the native aortic valve. Steady flow rates of 7.5, 15.0, and 22.5 L/min were examined to cover the complete range possible during the cardiac cycle. The laminar shear stresses were calculated by linear regression of four axial velocity measurements near the surface of the leaflet. The maximum shear stress recorded was 79 dyne/cm2, in agreement with boundary layer theory and previous experimental and computational studies. This study has provided a range of shear stresses to be explored in bioreactor design and has defined a maximum shear stress at which cells must remain adherent upon a tissue engineered construct.

  9. Acute shear stress direction dictates adherent cell remodeling and verifies shear profile of spinning disk assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disk chamber or ‘spinning disk’ in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling. (paper)

  10. SHEAR STRESS ANALYSIS OF TIMOSHENKO'S BEAM WITH MULTIPLY CONNECTED CROSS SECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaoxia; Ko Janming; Ni Yiqing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element method is developed to numerically evaluate the shear coefficient of Timoshenko's beam with multiply conneeted cross section. With focus on analyzing shear stresses distributed at the neutral axis of the beam, an improved definition of the shear coefficient is presented. Based on this definition, a Galerkin-type finite element formulation is proposed to analyze the shear stresses and shear deflections. Numerical solutions of the examples for some typical cross-sections are compared with the theoretical results. The shear coefficient of tower sections of the Tsing Ma Bridge is calculated by use of the proposed approach, so that the finite element modeling of the bridge can be developed with the accurate values of the sectional properties.

  11. Shear stress distribution and characteristics of deformation for shear band-elastic body system at pre-peak and post-peak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2005-01-01

    The distributed shear stress and the displacement across shear band, the evolution of plastic zones, and the load-carrying capacity of rock specimen were investigated in plane strain direct shear test according to Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). And then the shear displacement distribution in normal direction of system composed of localized shear band and elastic rock was analyzed based on gradient-dependent plasticity. The adopted failure criterion was a composite of Mohr-Coulomb criterion, that is, the relation between tension cut-off and post-peak constitutive of rock was linear strain-softening. Numerical results show that shear stress field approximately undergoes three different stages. At first, shear stress is only concentrated in the middle of top and base of specimen. Next, shear stress in the middle of specimen tends to increase, owing to superposition of shear stresses. Interestingly, two peaks of shear stress appear far from the loading ends of specimen, and the peaks approach with the increase in timestep until elements at the center of specimen yield. Finally, relatively lower shear stress level is reached in large part of specimen except in the regions near the two ends. As flow stress decreases, the analytical shear displacement distribution in shear band based on gradient-dependent plasticity becomes steep; outside the band, it is linear and its slope tends to decrease. These theoretical results qualitatively agree with that of the present numerical predicted results. Main advantage of the analytical solution over the numerical results according to FLAC is that it is continuous, smooth and non-linear (except at elastic stage).

  12. Effect of Wall Shear Stress on Corrosion Inhibitor Film Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto Maya, Christian M.

    In oil and gas production, internal corrosion of pipelines causes the highest incidence of recurring failures. Ensuring the integrity of ageing pipeline infrastructure is an increasingly important requirement. One of the most widely applied methods to reduce internal corrosion rates is the continuous injection of chemicals in very small quantities, called corrosion inhibitors. These chemical substances form thin films at the pipeline internal surface that reduce the magnitude of the cathodic and/or anodic reactions. However, the efficacy of such corrosion inhibitor films can be reduced by different factors such as multiphase flow, due to enhanced shear stress and mass transfer effects, loss of inhibitor due to adsorption on other interfaces such as solid particles, bubbles and droplets entrained by the bulk phase, and due to chemical interaction with other incompatible substances present in the stream. The first part of the present project investigated the electrochemical behavior of two organic corrosion inhibitors (a TOFA/DETA imidazolinium, and an alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), with and without an inorganic salt (sodium thiosulfate), and the resulting enhancement. The second part of the work explored the performance of corrosion inhibitor under multiphase (gas/liquid, solid/liquid) flow. The effect of gas/liquid multiphase flow was investigated using small and large scale apparatus. The small scale tests were conducted using a glass cell and a submersed jet impingement attachment with three different hydrodynamic patterns (water jet, CO 2 bubbles impact, and water vapor cavitation). The large scale experiments were conducted applying different flow loops (hilly terrain and standing slug systems). Measurements of weight loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and adsorption mass (using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, EQCM) were used to quantify the effect of wall shear stress on the performance and integrity of corrosion inhibitor

  13. Biological effects of dynamic shear stress in cardiovascular pathologies and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Girdhar, Gaurav; Bluestein, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Altered and highly dynamic shear stress conditions have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease, and in thromboembolic complications in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. In addition to vascular damage, the pathological flow patterns characterizing cardiovascular pathologies and blood flow in prosthetic devices induce shear activation and damage to blood constituents. Investigation of the specific and accentuated effects of such flow-induced perturbations ...

  14. Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Bark, David; Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally.

  15. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.;

    2016-01-01

    estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  16. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.

  17. Measuring Shear Stress with a Microfluidic Sensor to improve Aerodynamic Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Skin friction drag is directly proportional to the local shear stress of a surface and can be the largest factor in an aerodynamic body's total parasitic drag. The...

  18. Quantification of Interfibrillar Shear Stress in Aligned Soft Collagenous Tissues via Notch Tension Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Pedersen, Pal; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical function of soft collagenous tissues is largely determined by their hierarchical organization of collagen molecules. While collagen fibrils are believed to be discontinuous and transfer load through shearing of the interfibrillar matrix, interfibrillar shear stresses have never been quantified. Scaling traditional shear testing procedures down to the fibrillar length scale is impractical and would introduce substantial artifacts. Here, through the use of a novel microscopic variation of notch tension testing, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of interfibrillar shear stresses within tendon fascicles and provide the first measurement of their magnitude. Axial stress gradients along the sample length generated by notch tension testing were measured and used to calculate a value of 32 kPa for the interfibrillar shear stress. This estimate is comparable to the interfibrillar shear stress predicted by previous multiscale modeling of tendon fascicles, which supports the hypothesis that fibrils are discontinuous and transmit load through interfibrillar shear. This information regarding the structure-function relationships of tendon and other soft collagenous tissues is necessary to identify potential causes for tissue impairment with degeneration and provide the foundation for developing regenerative repair strategies or engineering biomaterials for tissue replacement.

  19. Regulation of endothelial metabolism by laminar shear stress and flow-induced transcription factor KLF2

    OpenAIRE

    Doddaballapur, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Flow hemodynamics regulates endothelial cell (EC) responses and laminar shear stress induces an atheroprotective and quiescent phenotype. The flow-responsive transcription factor KLF2 is a pivotal mediator of endothelial quiescence, but the precise mechanism is unclear. In this doctoral study, we assessed the hypothesis that laminar shear stress and KLF2 regulate endothelial quiescence by controlling endothelial metabolism. Laminar flow exposure and KLF2 over expression in HUVECs reduced g...

  20. Thermal Stress Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates using Shear Flexible Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganapathi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Using degree Centigrade shear flexible QUAD-9 plate element, stresses and deflections in composite laminated plates due to thermal loads analysed. A formulation based on first order shear deformation theory has been employed for the analysis. The effects of various parameters, such as ply-angle, number of layers, thickness and aspect ratios on stresses and deflections are brought out. The present formulation is being extended for studying composite shell structures.

  1. Thermal Stress Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates using Shear Flexible Element

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathi, M; Patel, B.P.; V. Balamurugan; D.R.S.V. Varma

    1996-01-01

    Using degree Centigrade shear flexible QUAD-9 plate element, stresses and deflections in composite laminated plates due to thermal loads analysed. A formulation based on first order shear deformation theory has been employed for the analysis. The effects of various parameters, such as ply-angle, number of layers, thickness and aspect ratios on stresses and deflections are brought out. The present formulation is being extended for studying composite shell structures.

  2. Vascular endothelial cell membranes differentiate between stretch and shear stress through transitions in their lipid phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ando, Joji

    2015-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) respond to the hemodynamic forces stretch and shear stress by altering their morphology, functions, and gene expression. However, how they sense and differentiate between these two forces has remained unknown. Here we report that the plasma membrane itself differentiates between stretch and shear stress by undergoing transitions in its lipid phases. Uniaxial stretching and hypotonic swelling increased the lipid order of human pulmonary artery EC plasma membranes, thereby causing a transition from the liquid-disordered phase to the liquid-ordered phase in some areas, along with a decrease in membrane fluidity. In contrast, shear stress decreased the membrane lipid order and increased membrane fluidity. A similar increase in lipid order occurred when the artificial lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles were stretched by hypotonic swelling, indicating that this is a physical phenomenon. The cholesterol content of EC plasma membranes significantly increased in response to stretch but clearly decreased in response to shear stress. Blocking these changes in the membrane lipid order by depleting membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or by adding cholesterol resulted in a marked inhibition of the EC response specific to stretch and shear stress, i.e., phosphorylation of PDGF receptors and phosphorylation of VEGF receptors, respectively. These findings indicate that EC plasma membranes differently respond to stretch and shear stress by changing their lipid order, fluidity, and cholesterol content in opposite directions and that these changes in membrane physical properties are involved in the mechanotransduction that activates membrane receptors specific to each force.

  3. Application of Entropy Concept for Shear Stress Distribution in Laminar Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yeon Moon; Choo, Tai Ho; Jung, Donghwi; Seon, Yun Gwan; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2016-04-01

    In the river fluid mechanics, shear stress is calculated from frictional force caused by viscosity and fluctuating velocity. Traditional shear stress distribution equations have been widely used because of their simplicity. However, they have a critical limitation of requiring energy gradient which is generally difficult to estimate in practice. Especially, measuring velocity/velocity gradient on the boundary layer is difficult in practice. It requires point velocity throughout the entire cross section to calculate velocity gradient. This study proposes shear stress distribution equations for laminar flow based on entropy theory using mean velocity and entropy coefficient. The proposed equations are demonstrated and compared with measured shear stress distribution using Nikuradse's data. Results showed that the coefficient of determination is around 0.99 indicating that the proposed method well describes the true shear stress distribution. Therefore, it was proved that shear stress distribution can be easily and accurately estimated by using the proposed equations. (This research was supported by a gran(13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean Government)

  4. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Theres; Schubert, Kai Michael; Schneider, Holger; Fein, Evelyn; Kleinert, Eike; Pohl, Ulrich; Dendorfer, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Podosomes are dynamic cytoskeletal membrane structures with local adhesive and proteolytic activity. They are critically involved in angiogenesis and vascular adaptive growth. Here, we studied in HUVECs and murine small vessels whether shear stress controls podosome assembly and local proteolytic activity. Podosomes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, and their proteolytic activity was assessed as degradation imprints in fluorescent gelatin that was used as growth substrate. Compared with controls (10 dyn/cm(2)), the number of podosomes formed per time was doubled when cells were exposed to low shear stress (0.3 dyn/cm(2)) or even increased 5-fold under static conditions. This was a result of an enhanced expression of VEGF after reduction of shear stress. Consequently, enhanced podosome formation could be prevented by a VEGF receptor antagonist as well by interruption of VEGF signaling via inhibition of PI3K, Src, or p38. Increase of podosome assembly went along with significantly augmented cell motility. In vivo experiments in mouse arteries confirmed increased endothelial podosome numbers when shear stress was abolished by vessel occlusion. We conclude that shear stress, by reducing VEGF release, inhibits podosome assembly. Hence, endothelial cell-mediated matrix proteolysis and migratory activity are inhibited, thereby stabilizing the structure of the vessel wall.-Fey, T., Schubert, K. M., Schneider, H., Fein, E., Kleinert, E., Pohl, U., Dendorfer, A. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

  5. Effect of Varying Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability & Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun; Dozier, David; Triantafillu, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Cancer stem cells cultured in vitro in stirred bioreactors are exposed to shear stress. By observing the effect of shear stress on cancer stem cell viability, laboratory cell growth could be optimized. In addition, metastasized cancer stem cells in vivo are naturally exposed to shear stress, a factor influencing stem cell differentiation, while circulating in the bloodstream. Changes in protein expression after exposure to shear stress could allow for identification and targeting of circulating cancer cells. In this study, blood flow through capillaries was simulated by using a syringe pump to inject suspensions of Kasumi-1 leukemia stem cells into model blood vessels composed of PEEK tubing 125 microns in diameter. The Hagen-Poisseuille equation was used to solve for operating flow rates based on specified amounts of shear stress. After exposure, cell counts and viabilities were observed using an optical microscope and proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. It was observed that at a one minute exposure to stress, cell viability increased as the amount of shear was increased from 10 to 60 dynes per square centimeter. Results from this research are applicable to optimization of large-scale stem cell growth in bioreactors as well as to the design of targeted cancer therapies. Funding from NSF REU grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Shear stress sensing with Bragg grating-based sensors in microstructured optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Luyckx, Geert; Van Hemelrijck, Danny; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Chah, Karima; Caucheteur, Christophe; Mégret, Patrice; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2013-08-26

    We demonstrate shear stress sensing with a Bragg grating-based microstructured optical fiber sensor embedded in a single lap adhesive joint. We achieved an unprecedented shear stress sensitivity of 59.8 pm/MPa when the joint is loaded in tension. This corresponds to a shear strain sensitivity of 0.01 pm/µε. We verified these results with 2D and 3D finite element modeling. A comparative FEM study with conventional highly birefringent side-hole and bow-tie fibers shows that our dedicated fiber design yields a fourfold sensitivity improvement. PMID:24105585

  7. Is crack branching under shear loading caused by shear fracture? ——A critical review on maximum circumferential stress theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宗颀

    2001-01-01

    When a crack is subjected to shear force, crack branching usually occurs. Theoretical study shows that the crack branching under shear loading is caused by tensile stress, but not caused by shear fracture. The co-plane shear fracture could be obtained if compressive stress with given direction is applied to the specimen, subsequently, calculated shear fracture toughness, KⅡ C, is larger than KⅠ C. A prerequisite of possible occurrence of mode Ⅱ fracture was proposed. The study of shear fracture shows that the maximum circumferential stress theory considered its criterion as a parametric equation of a curve in KⅠ, KⅡ plane is incorrect; the predicted ratio KⅡ C/KⅠ C=0.866 is incorrect too.

  8. A PZT-based smart aggregate for seismic shear stress monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate (SA) is proposed for seismic shear stress monitoring in concrete structures. This SA uses a d15-mode PZT as the sensing element. A calibration test is designed in which a cyclic shear stress with a dominant frequency of the earthquake response spectrum is applied on the two opposite sides of the proposed SA using a specially designed loading mold. The test is repeated on six copies of the proposed SA. The maximum applied shear stress is larger than the shear strength of ordinary concrete to allow measurements during failure. The output voltage of the SA is experimentally verified as varying linearly with the applied stress in the loading range. The sensitivity of the proposed SA to the applied stress under the given boundary conditions is examined. The calibrated sensitivity value is then compared with the calculated value, which is obtained by computing the stress distribution in the SA using finite element analysis (FEA). The calculated values and the calibrated values are approximately the same, indicating that the established finite element (FE) model is reliable. Monotonic loading is also applied on the proposed SA to induce cracks between the SA and the loading mold, and the SA’s response to cracking processes is examined. It is found that the proposed SA underestimates the cracking process. This study demonstrates that the proposed SA can be used in monitoring the overall shear stress development process in concrete during a seismic event. (paper)

  9. Effect of cell size and shear stress on bacterium growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Hadi; Jarrahi, Mojtaba; Herbert, Éric; Peerhossaini, Hassan; PEF Team

    2015-11-01

    Effect of shear stress on the growth rate of Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas cells is studied. An experimental setup was prepared to monitor the growth rate of the microorganisms versus the shear rate inside a clean room, under atmospheric pressure and 20 °C temperature. Digital magnetic agitators are placed inside a closed chamber provided with airflow, under a continuous uniform light intensity over 4 weeks. In order to study the effect of shear stress on the growth rate, different frequencies of agitation are tested, 2 vessels filled with 150 ml of each specie were placed on different agitating system at the desired frequency. The growth rate is monitored daily by measuring the optical density and then correlate it to the cellular concentration. The PH was adjusted to 7 in order to maintain the photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, to measure the shear stress distribution, the flow velocity field was measured using PIV. Zones of high and low shear stress were identified. Results show that the growth rate is independent of the shear stress magnitude, mostly for Synechocystis, and with lower independency for Chlamydomonas depending on the cell size for each species.

  10. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisha, M.D. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor-Ashikin, M.N.K. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Sharaniza, A.B.R. [DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Nawawi, H. [Center for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Clinical Training Center, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia); Froemming, G.R.A., E-mail: gabriele@salam.uitm.edu.my [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. - Highlights: • OFS stress transmits anabolic signals to osteoblasts. • Actin and tubulin fibers are rearranged under OFS stress. • OFS stress increases mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation. • Reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in response to OFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis. • OFS stress prevents apoptosis and stimulates ALP and OCN.

  11. Response of mesenchymal stem cells to shear stress in tissue-engineered vascular grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-de DONG; Yong-quan GU; Chun-min LI; Chun-ren WANG; Zeng-guo FENG; Rong-xin QIU; Bing CHEN; Jian-xin LI; Shu-wen ZHANG; Zhong-gao WANG; Jian ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells. The effect of shear stress on MSC differentiation is incompletely understood, and most studies have been based on two-dimen-sional systems. We used a model of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) to investigate the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation.Methods: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow. The TEVG was constructed by seeding MSCs onto poly-ε-caprolactone and lactic acid (PCLA) scaffolds and subjecting them to shear stress provided by a pulsatile bioreactor for four days (two days at 1 dyne/cm2 to 15 dyne/cm2 and two days at 15 dyne/cm2).Results: Shear stress significantly increased the expression of endothelial cell markers, such as platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), VE-cadherin, and CD34, at both the mRNA and protein levels as compared with static control cells. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and calponin were substantially reduced in shear stress-cultured cells. There was no significant change in the expression of α-SMA, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC)or calponin at the mRNA level.Conclusion: Shear stress upregulated the expression of endothelial cell-related markers and downregulated smooth muscle-related markers in canine MSCs. This study may serve as a basis for further investigation of the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation in TEVGs.

  12. Development of Pore Pressure in Cohesionless Soils with Initial Shear Stresses during Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jacobsen, H. Moust

    1989-01-01

    A number of triaxial tests with the loading harmonically oscillating around an initial and anisotropic stress state have been performed. Hereby the influence of the initial shear stress on the development of pore pressure in a cohesionless  sand specimen have been clarified. A simple theory...

  13. Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.

  14. Propagation of shear waves in viscoelastic heterogeneous layer overlying an initially stressed half space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mita; Dhua, Sudarshan; Chattopadhyay, Amares

    2015-12-01

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of shear waves in an isotropic, viscoelastic, heterogeneous layer lying over a homogeneous half space under initial stress. For the layer the inhomogeneity associated to rigidity, internal friction and density is assumed to be linear function of depth. The dispersion equation of shear waves has been obtained in closed form. The dimensionless phase velocity and damping velocity have been plotted against dimensionless wave number for different values of inhomogeneity parameter and initial stress. The effects of inhomogeneity and initial stress have been shown in the dispersion curves.

  15. Discrimination between nuclear explosions and earthquakes based on consideration of tectonic ambient shear stress values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of fracture mechanics earthquake rupture model, the relations between source parameters and t0, the value of tectonic ambient shear stress in the place where the earthquake occurs, have been derived. Thus, we can calculate a large number of values of tectonic ambient shear stress or values of background stress in the place where the earthquake occurs. If nuclear explosions are treated as earthquakes in the calculation, we find that t0 values of nuclear explosions have about 20 MPa, which is obviously higher than average t0 values of earthquakes with the same magnitude. This result can be used to discriminate nuclear explosions from earthquakes.

  16. The Measurement of Wall Shear Stress in the Low-Viscosity Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamec J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on quantitative evaluation of the value of the wall shear stress in liquids with low viscosity by means of the method of the hot film anemometry in a laminar and turbulent flow. Two systems for calibration of probes are described in the paper. The first of these uses an innovative method of probe calibration using a known flow in a cylindrical gap between two concentric cylinders where the inner cylinder is rotated and a known velocity profile and shear rate, or shear stress profile, is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations. This method is usable for lower values of the wall shear stress, particularly in the areas of laminar flow. The second method is based on direct calibration of the probes using a floating element. This element, with a size of 120x80 mm, is part of a rectangular channel. This method of calibration enables the probe calibration at higher shear rates and is applicable also to turbulent flow. Values obtained from both calibration methods are also compared with results of measurements of the wall shear stress in a straight smooth channel for a certain range of Reynolds numbers and compared with analytical calculations. The accuracy of the method and the influence of various parasitic phenomena on the accuracy of the measured results were discussed. The paper describes in particular the influence of geometric purity of the probe location, the impact of various transfer phenomena, requirements for the measured liquid and layout of the experiment.

  17. Yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids based on exponential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chu-wen; Chen, Fei; Meng, Qing-rui; Dong, Zi-xin

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic chain model that considers the interaction between particles and the external magnetic field in a magnetorheological fluid has been widely accepted. Based on the chain model, a yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids was proposed by introducing the exponential distribution to describe the distribution of angles between the direction of magnetic field and the chain formed by magnetic particles. The main influencing factors were considered in the model, such as magnetic flux density, intensity of magnetic field, particle size, volume fraction of particles, the angle of magnetic chain, and so on. The effect of magnetic flux density on the yield shear stress was discussed. The yield stress of aqueous Fe3O4 magnetreological fluids with volume fraction of 7.6% and 16.2% were measured by a device designed by ourselves. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used for calculation of yield shear stress with acceptable errors.

  18. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  19. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex;

    2012-01-01

    shear stress, producing a constant laminar flow (generating a shear stress of 6 dyne/cm(2)), laminar pulsatile atheroprotective flow (with a mean shear stress of 20 dyne/cm(2)), or laminar atheroprone bidirectional flow (with a mean shear stress of 0 dyne/cm(2)) differentially induced TRPC6 and TRPV1 m......RNA as measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and normalized to GAPDH expression. Thereby, TRPC6 and TRPV1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased after 24 hours of exposure to an atheroprone flow profile compared with an atheroprotective flow profile. Furthermore, the expression of transcription factors...... GATA1 and GATA4 was significantly correlated with the expression of TRPC6 mRNA. In contrast, after 24 hours of constant laminar flow, the expression of TRPC6 and TRPV1 mRNA was unchanged, whereas the expression of TRPC3 and TRPM7 was significantly higher in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress...

  20. Relationship between Concentration Difference of Different Density Lipoproteins and Shear Stress in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has observed concentration polarization in LDL and HDL in the arterial system. However, there is no report that links this concentration polarization to the development of vascular atherosclerosis (AS. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between concentration difference of LDL and HDL and shear stress using a carotid bifurcation vascular model. PTFE was employed to create the carotid bifurcation model. Endothelial cells were coated on the inner wall of the graft. In a recirculation system, HDL and LDL concentration were measured under two different ICA flow velocities at 5 different locations within our model. We report the following: (1 LDL and HDL concentration difference was observed in both high flow and low flow environments; (2 the degree of LDL and HDL concentration polarization varied depending of high flow and low flow environment; (3 absolute values of concentration difference between LDL and HDL at the inner wall surface decreased with the increase in shear stress when shear stress was more than 1.5 Pa. This variation trend would be more pronounced if shear stress were less than 0.5 Pa. Our study suggests that under the action of shear stress, concentration differences of LDL or HDL create a disturbance in the balance of atherogenic factors and anti-As factors, resulting in the occurrence of AS.

  1. Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  2. ANALYSIS OF PULSATILE FLOW IN THE PARALLEL-PLATE FLOW CHAMBER WITH SPATIAL SHEAR STRESS GRADIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Kai-rong; HU Xu-qu; LIU Zhao-rong

    2007-01-01

    The Parallel-Plate Flow Chamber (PPFC), of which the height is far smaller than its own length and width, is one of the main apparatus for the in-vitro study of the mechanical behavior of cultured vascular Endothelical Cells (ECs) exposed to fluid shear stress. The steady flow in different kinds of PPFC has been extensively investigated, whereas, the pulsatile flow in the PPFC has little attention. In consideration of the characteristics of geometrical size and pulsatile flow in the PPFC, the 3-D pulsatile flow was decomposed into a 2-D pulsatile flow in the vertical plane, and an incompressible plane potential flow in the horizontal plane. A simple method was then proposed to analyze the pulsatile flow in the PPFC with spatial shear stress gradient. On the basis of the method, the pulsatile fluid shear stresses in several reported PPFCs with spatial shear stress gradients were calculated. The results were theoretically meaningful for applying the PPFCs in-vitro, to simulate the pulsatile fluid shear stress environment, to which cultured ECs were exposed.

  3. Channel adjustment of an unstable coarse-grained stream: Opposing trends of boundary and critical shear stress, and the applicability of extremal hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Thorne, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Channel adjustments in the North Fork Toutle River and the Toutle River main stem were initiated by deposition of a 2.5km3 debris avalanche and associated lahars that accompanied the catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington on 18 May 1980. Channel widening was the dominant process. In combination, adjustments caused average boundary shear stress to decrease non-linearly with time and critical shear stress to increase non-linearly with time. At the discharge that is equalled or exceeded 1 per cent of the time, these trends converged by 1991-1992 so that excess shear stress approached minimum values. Extremal hypotheses, such as minimization of unit stream power and minimization of the rate of energy dissipation (minimum stream power), are shown to be applicable to dynamic adjustments of the Toutle River system. Maximization of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor did not occur, but increases in relative bed roughness, caused by the concomitant reduction in hydraulic depths and bed-material coarsening, were documented. Predictions of stable channel geometries using the minimum stream power approach were unsuccessful when compared to the 1991-1992 geometries and bed-material characteristics measured in the field. It is concluded that the predictions are not applicable because the study reaches are not truly stable and cannot become so until a new floodplain has been formed by renewed channel incision, retreat of stream-side hummocks, and establishment of riparian vegetation to limit the destabilizing effects of large floods. Further, prediction of energy slope (and consequently stream power) by the sediment transport equations is inaccurate because of the inability of the equations to account for significant contributions of finer grained (sand and gravel) bank materials (relative to the coarsened channel bed) from bank retreat and from upstream terrace erosion.

  4. Fracture transmissivity as a function of normal and shear stress: First results in Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuss, Robert J.; Milodowski, Antoni; Harrington, Jon F.

    Fracture transmissivity has been investigated along an idealised fracture for the influence of normal stress and for the transient behaviour during a slow shear experiment. A linear trend for the relationship between effective stress and transmissivity has been proposed for normal loads between 1 and 5 MPa; as effective stress increases transmissivity decreases. Transmissivity was very low throughout the complete spectrum of effective stresses examined and was close to the permeability for intact Opalinus Clay, suggesting that the fracture had effectively closed. During active shearing at a constant normal load, fracture transmissivity was seen to initially reduce, probably due to clear smearing. A series of flux events were seen, with transmissivity increasing by a factor of four. Some of the flux events corresponded with dilation, whilst others did not. This suggests that the opening flow paths were localised and did not result in bulk dilatancy. During the course of the shear test the sample formed its own series of fractures and a complex pattern of deformation occurred along the fracture surface to a depth of less than 1 mm. The impression of the end of the injection hole clearly shows that the block underwent at least 5 mm of the total 6 mm of shear displacement. The injection of fluorescein showed that flow along the fracture was not uniformly radial, as one might expect for such an experimental geometry. At the time of injection there were a number of dominant flow features, mainly in the direction of shear and only perpendicular on one side of the fracture surface. Flow occurred along the original fracture surface as well as the newly formed shear surface, indicating multiple pathways in a complex manner. The evolution of fracture transmissivity is very complex, even along initially planar surfaces. Fracture transmissivity has been seen to be a function of normal stress and porewater pressure, and has also been seen to be a dynamic feature during shear.

  5. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  6. The Effects of Hemodynamic Shear Stress on Stemness of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Andrew; Triantafillu, Ursula; Kim, Yonghyun (John)

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been identified as the root cause of tumors generated from cancer cell populations. This is because these CSCs are drug-resistant and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. Current methods of culturing CSCs require much time and money, so cancer cell culture protocols, which maximize yield of CSCs are needed. It was hypothesized that the quantity of Acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells (LSCs) would increase after applying shear stress to the leukemia cells based on previous studies with breast cancer in bioreactors. The shear stress was applied by pumping the cells through narrow tubing to mimic the in vivo bloodstream environment. In support of the hypothesis, shear stress was found to increase the amount of LSCs in a given leukemia population. This work was supported by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  7. Prediction of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps by computational fluid dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fangqun; LI Lan; FENG Zhigang; QIAN Kunxi

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps with different impeller designs has been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to track the shear stress history of the streamlines of red cells. The power law model of the relations among the hemolysis, shear stress and exposure time is used to evaluate the hemolysis in the pumps.Hemolysis tests are also conducted to verify the estimations. Both the estimations and experimentally measured hemolysis levels show that the hemolysis in the streamlined impeller pump developed by the authors is lower than the pump with straight-vane under the same boundary conditions. The approach is proved to be acceptable and practical to predict hemolysis levels of blood pumps.

  8. Analysis on Interface Shear Stress of Thermally Insulated Ocean Pipelines Under Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; TIAN Ying-hui; LIU Run; WANG Zhang-ling; WANG Jin-ying

    2006-01-01

    It has been proved that the thermally insulated ocean pipeline has advantages over the conventional pipe-in-pipe pipeline. The risk of using the thermally insulated pipeline is that the exterior layers covering the steel pipe may be pulled off if the shear stress on the interface induced by the pullout force from the tensioner is greater than the binding force between two neighboring layers during installation. This paper develops a procedure to calculate the shear stress on the interface. The binding force between two neighboring layers can be determined with full scale model tests. The safety of the thermally insulated pipe under installation can then be checked by comparison of the interface shear stress with the binding force.

  9. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Shear Stress with A Blowing Sand Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In a blowing sand system,the wind provides the driving forces for the particle movement while the moving particles exert the opposite forces to the wind by extracting its momentum.The wind-sand interaction that can be characterized by shear stress and force exerted on the wind by moving particles results in the modification of wind profiles.Detailed wind pro-files re-adapted to blown sand movement are measured in a wind tunnel for different grain size populations and at differ-ent free-stream wind velocities.The shear stress with a blowing sand cloud and force exerted on the wind by moving par-ticles are calculated from the measured wind velocity profiles.The results suggest that the wind profiles with presence of blowing sand cloud assume convex-upward curves on the u(z)-ln(z) plot compared with the straight lines characterizing the velocity profiles of clean wind,and they can be better fitted by power function than log-linear function.The exponent of the power function ranging from 0.1 to 0.17 tends to increase with an increase in wind velocity but decrease with an increase in particle size.The force per unit volume exerted on the wind by blown sand drift that is calculated based on the empirical power functions for the wind velocity profiles is found to decrease with height.The particle-induced force makes the total shear stress with blowing sand cloud partitioned into air-borne stress that results from the wind velocity gradient and grain-borne stress that results from the upward or downward movement of particles.The air-borne stress in-creases with an increase in height,while the grain-borne stress decreases with an increase in height.The air-borne shear stress at the top of sand cloud layer increases with both wind velocity and grain size,implying that it increases with sand transport rate for a given grain size.The shear stress with a blowing sand cloud is also closely related to the sand transport rate.Both the total shear stress and grain-borne stress on

  10. Experiments and simulations of MEMS thermal sensors for wall shear-stress measurements in aerodynamic control applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Qiao; Jiang, Fukang; Wang, Xuan-Qi; Xu, Yong; Han, Zhigang; Tai, Yu-Chong; Lew, James; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2004-01-01

    MEMS thermal shear-stress sensors exploit heat-transfer effects to measure the shear stress exerted by an air flow on its solid boundary, and have promising applications in aerodynamic control. Classical theory for conventional, macroscale thermal shear-stress sensors states that the rate of heat removed by the flow from the sensor is proportional to the 1/3-power of the shear stress. However, we have observed that this theory is inconsistent with experimental data from MEMS sensors. This pap...

  11. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  12. Measurement of intergranular stress and porosity during dynamic compaction of porous beds of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, M. W.

    2005-05-01

    The dynamic compaction of granular beds of the propellant cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) has been investigated using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system. Intergranular stress and bed porosity were simultaneously measured during controlled loading. The importance of grain size was investigated by comparing conventional HMX (mean particle size ˜260μm) to microfine HMX (hydraulically pressing the beds prior to testing. With large grains, resistance to compaction increased with the solid volume fraction. Microfine HMX behaved like low porosity conventional HMX beds in all cases. Porosity was typically reduced by 5%-10% during compaction and intergranular stresses below the yield stress were ensured. Energy dissipation to plastic flow and fracture were largely eliminated. Optical particle size analysis and electron microscopy support the experimental observations.

  13. Shear-stress fluctuations in self-assembled transient elastic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, J. P.; Kriuchevskyi, I.; Cavallo, A.; Xu, H.; Baschnagel, J.

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on shear-stress fluctuations, we investigate numerically a simple generic model for self-assembled transient networks formed by repulsive beads reversibly bridged by ideal springs. With Δ t being the sampling time and t(f ) ˜1 /f the Maxwell relaxation time (set by the spring recombination frequency f ), the dimensionless parameter Δ x =Δ t /t(f ) is systematically scanned from the liquid limit (Δ x ≫1 ) to the solid limit (Δ x ≪1 ) where the network topology is quenched and an ensemble average over m -independent configurations is required. Generalizing previous work on permanent networks, it is shown that the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) may be efficiently determined for all Δ x using the simple-average expression G (t ) =μA-h (t ) with μA=G (0 ) characterizing the canonical-affine shear transformation of the system at t =0 and h (t ) the (rescaled) mean-square displacement of the instantaneous shear stress as a function of time t . This relation is compared to the standard expression G (t ) =c ˜(t ) using the (rescaled) shear-stress autocorrelation function c ˜(t ) . Lower bounds for the m configurations required by both relations are given.

  14. Interface shear stresses during ambulation with a below-knee prosthetic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J E; Daly, C H; Burgess, E M

    1992-01-01

    Shear stresses on a residual limb in a prosthetic socket are considered clinically to contribute to tissue breakdown in below-knee amputees. When applied simultaneously with normal stresses, they can cause injury within the skin or can generate an abrasion on the surface. To gain insight into shear stresses and parameters that affect them, interface stresses were recorded on below-knee amputee subjects during walking trials. On the tibial flares, resultant shear ranged from 5.6 kPa to 39.0 kPa, while on the posterior surface it ranged from 5.0 kPa to 40.7 kPa. During stance phase, anterior resultant shears on a socket were directed toward the apex while posterior resultant shears were directed downward approximately perpendicular to the ground. Waveform shapes were usually double-peaked, with the first peak at 25% to 40% into stance phase and the second peak at 65% to 85% into stance. Application of these results to residual limb tissue mechanics and prosthetic design is discussed.

  15. The Contribution of Cell Surface Components to the Neutrophil Mechanosensitivity to Shear Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Akenhead

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the regulation of neutrophils by fluid shear stress in the context of factors that may govern cell mechanosensitivity and its influence on cell functions. There is substantial evidence that mechanoreceptors located on the peripheral membrane contribute to the ability of shear stress to regulate cell activity. In the case of neutrophils, the formyl peptide receptor (FPR and the CD18 integrins on the cell membrane have been shown to provide neutrophils with the ability to sense shear stresses in their local environment and alter their physiological state, accordingly. This configuration is also found for other types of cells, although they involve different cell-specific mechanoreceptors. Moreover, from an examination of the neutrophil mechanotransducing capacity, it is apparent that cellular mechanosensitivity depends on a number of factors that, if altered, contribute to dysregulation and ultimately pathophysiology. To exemplify this, we first describe the neutrophil responses to shear exposure. We then review two neutrophil mechanoreceptors, specifically FPR and CD18 integrins, which participate in controlling cell activity levels under physiological conditions. Next, we discuss the various factors that may alter neutrophil mechanosensitivity to shear stress and how these may underlie the circulatory pathobiology of two cardiovascular disease states: hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Based on the material presented, it is conceivable that cell mechanosensitivity is a powerful global metric that permits a more efficient approach to understanding the contribution of mechanobiology to physiology and to disease processes.

  16. Mode selective generation of guided waves by systematic optimization of the interfacial shear stress profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric transducers are commonly used in structural health monitoring systems to generate and measure ultrasonic guided waves (GWs) by applying interfacial shear and normal stresses to the host structure. In most cases, in order to perform damage detection, advanced signal processing techniques are required, since a minimum of two dispersive modes are propagating in the host structure. In this paper, a systematic approach for mode selection is proposed by optimizing the interfacial shear stress profile applied to the host structure, representing the first step of a global optimization of selective mode actuator design. This approach has the potential of reducing the complexity of signal processing tools as the number of propagating modes could be reduced. Using the superposition principle, an analytical method is first developed for GWs excitation by a finite number of uniform segments, each contributing with a given elementary shear stress profile. Based on this, cost functions are defined in order to minimize the undesired modes and amplify the selected mode and the optimization problem is solved with a parallel genetic algorithm optimization framework. Advantages of this method over more conventional transducers tuning approaches are that (1) the shear stress can be explicitly optimized to both excite one mode and suppress other undesired modes, (2) the size of the excitation area is not constrained and mode-selective excitation is still possible even if excitation width is smaller than all excited wavelengths, and (3) the selectivity is increased and the bandwidth extended. The complexity of the optimal shear stress profile obtained is shown considering two cost functions with various optimal excitation widths and number of segments. Results illustrate that the desired mode (A0 or S0) can be excited dominantly over other modes up to a wave power ratio of 1010 using an optimal shear stress profile. (paper)

  17. Dynamic deformation capability of a red blood cell under a cyclically reciprocating shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Yasuda, T; Kataoka, H; Takatani, S

    2004-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) in the cardiovascular devices are exposed to varying degree of the shear stress from all the directions. However the RBCs' deformability or the deformation capability under such a shear stress is not well understood. In this study, we designed and built a system that can induce a cyclically reciprocating shear stress to a RBC suspension. The arm of the cyclically reciprocating shear stress device was attached to the upper piece of the parallel glass plates between which a suspension of human RBCs (1% hematocrit whole blood diluted in a 32 weight% dextran phosphate buffer solution) was contained. The cyclic reciprocating motion of the upper glass plate of 3.0 mm stroke length was produced using a slider-crank shaft mechanism that was linked to an eccentric cam-motor system. Each rotation of the motor produced a 3.0 mm stroke each in the forward and backward direction of the slider block. The clearance between the two glass plates was adjusted to 30 micrometer. The cyclic reciprocating glass plate apparatus was attached to a light microscope stage (IX71 Olympus with x40 objective lens) for illumination with a 350 watt metal halide light source. A high speed camera (MEMREMCAM fx-K3 Nac, 5000 frames per second with shutter kept open) was attached to the microscope to capture the deformation process of the RBCs under cyclic shear stress. The preliminary result indicated that the correlation between the amplitude of the maximum shear stress and the RBCs' deformability. This indicates a potential application of the cyclic reciprocating device to evaluate the temporal response of the RBCs deformability prior to its destruction. The future study will focus on the study of the relative velocity of the erythrocytes with respect to the velocity of the reciprocating plate. PMID:17271457

  18. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.;

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress...

  19. Evaluation of the effect of stent strut profile on shear stress distribution using statistical moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongrain Rosaire

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-stent restenosis rates have been closely linked to the wall shear stress distribution within a stented arterial segment, which in turn is a function of stent design. Unfortunately, evaluation of hemodynamic performance can only be evaluated with long term clinical trials. In this work we introduce a set of metrics, based on statistical moments, that can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of a stent in a standardized way. They are presented in the context of a 2D flow study, which analyzes the impact of different strut profiles on the wall shear stress distribution for stented coronary arteries. Results It was shown that the proposed metrics have the ability to evaluate hemodynamic performance quantitatively and compare it to a common standard. In the context of the simulations presented here, they show that stent's strut profile significantly affect the shear stress distribution along the arterial wall. They also demonstrates that more streamlined profiles exhibit better hemodynamic performance than the standard square and circular profiles. The proposed metrics can be used to compare results from different research groups, and provide an improved method of quantifying hemodynamic performance in comparison to traditional techniques. Conclusion The strut shape found in the latest generations of stents are commonly dictated by manufacturing limitations. This research shows, however, that strut design can play a fundamental role in the improvement of the hemodynamic performance of stents. Present results show that up to 96% of the area between struts is exposed to wall shear stress levels above the critical value for the onset of restenosis when a tear-drop strut profile is used, while the analogous value for a square profile is 19.4%. The conclusions drawn from the non-dimensional metrics introduced in this work show good agreement with an ordinary analysis of the wall shear stress distribution based on the

  20. Surface Shear Stress Around a Single Flexible Live Plant and a Rigid Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B. A.; Gromke, C.; Leonard, K. C.; Clifton, A.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    The sheltering effect of vegetation against soil erosion and snow transport has direct implications on land degradation and local water storage as snow in many arid and semi arid regions. Plants influence the erosion, transport and redeposition of soil and snow by the wind through momentum absorption, local stress concentration, trapping particles in motion and reducing the area of sediment exposed to the wind. The shear stress distributions on the ground beneath plant canopies determine the onset and magnitude of differential soil and snow erosion on rough or vegetated surfaces, but this has been studied exclusively with artificial and rigid vegetation elements thus far. Real plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous. They align with the flow at higher wind speeds, resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations of comparable size. We present measurements in the SLF atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of the surface shear stress distribution around a live grass plant (Lolium Perenne) and a solid cylinder of comparable size. Irwin sensors are used to measure pressure differences close to the surface which can be calibrated with surface shear stress velocities. The basal to frontal area index of the plant and the cylinder as well as the Reynolds number of the two experimental setups have been checked for similarity and show good agreement. Distinctive differences between the shear stress pattern around the plant and the cylinder can be attributed to the influence of the plant’s porosity and flexibility. The sheltered zone behind the plant is narrower in cross-stream and longer in streamwise direction than that of the cylinder. For the plant, the lowest shear stresses in the sheltered zone are 50% lower than the mean surface shear stress (τ = 0.15 N/m2) in the undisturbed flow. The sheltering was higher behind the cylinder with values reduced by 70% relative to background.

  1. Shear-Stress Partitioning in Live Plant Canopies and Modifications to Raupach's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Lehning, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The spatial peak surface shear stress {tau _S^'' on the ground beneath vegetation canopies is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment and its precise and accurate prediction is essential when modelling soil, snow or sand erosion. This study investigates shear-stress partitioning, i.e. the fraction of the total fluid stress on the entire canopy that acts directly on the surface, for live vegetation canopies (plant species: Lolium perenne) using measurements in a controlled wind-tunnel environment. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison since previous wind-tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear-stress partitioning. The drag partitioning model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 60:375-395, 1992) and Raupach et al. (J Geophys Res 98:3023-3029, 1993), which allows the prediction of the total shear stress τ on the entire canopy as well as the peak {(tau _S ^''/tau )^{1/2}} and the average {(tau _S^'/tau )^{1/2}} shear-stress ratios, is tested against measurements to determine the model parameters and the model's ability to account for shape differences of various roughness elements. It was found that the constant c, needed to determine the total stress τ and which was unspecified to date, can be assumed a value of about c = 0.27. Values for the model parameter m, which accounts for the difference between the spatial surface average {tau _S^' and the peak {tau _S ^'' shear stress, are difficult to determine because m is a function of the roughness density, the wind velocity and the roughness element shape. A new definition for a parameter a is suggested as a substitute for m. This a parameter is found to be more closely universal and solely a function of the roughness element shape. It is able to predict the peak surface shear stress accurately. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a parameter for different kinds

  2. Influence of particle shape on shear stress in granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Azema, émilien; Peyroux, Robert; Saussine, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the contact and force networks in a dense confined packing of pentagonal particles simulated by means of the contact dynamics method. The particle shape effect is evidenced by comparing the data from pentagon packing and from a packing with identical characteristics except for the circular shape of the particles. A surprising observation is that the pentagon packing develops a lower structural anisotropy than the disk packing. We show in this work that this weakness is compensated by a higher force anisotropy that leads to enhanced shear strength of the pentagon packing. With the polygonal shape of the particles, the strong force chains are mostly composed of edge-to-edge contacts with a marked zig-zag aspect.

  3. Perturbation of the yield-stress rheology of polymer thin films by nonlinear shear ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léopoldès, J.; Conrad, G.; Jia, X.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear response of macromolecular thin films subjected to high-amplitude ultrasonic shear oscillation using a sphere-plane contact geometry. At a film thickness comparable to the radius of gyration, we observe the rheological properties intermediate between bulk and boundary nonlinear regimes. As the driving amplitude is increased, these films progressively exhibit oscillatory linear, microslip, and full slip regimes, which can be explained by the modified Coulomb friction law. At highest oscillation amplitudes, the interfacial adhesive failure takes place, being accompanied by a dewettinglike pattern. Moreover, the steady state sliding is investigated in thicker films with imposed shear stresses beyond the yield point. We find that applying high-amplitude shear ultrasound affects not only the yielding threshold but also the sliding velocity at a given shear load. A possible mechanism for the latter effect is discussed.

  4. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  5. Overcoming shear stress of microalgae cultures in sparged photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Hadiyanto, H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we identified and quantified the effect of hydrodynamic stress on two different microalgae strains, Dunaliella tertiolecta and D. salina, cultivated in bench-scale bubble columns. The cell death rate constant increased with increasing gas-entrance velocity at the sparger. Dunalie

  6. Effect of stress-state and spacing on voids in a shear-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    elongate until interaction with neighboring micro-cracks gives coalescence, so that the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. In the present studies the plane strain unit cell has fully periodic boundary conditions, so that any combination of the stress components in the......Unit cell model analyses are carried out for a material with a periodic array of voids, subject to shear loading. Thus the focus is on ductile fracture in conditions of low stress triaxiality. It has been shown recently that voids in shear are flattened out to micro-cracks, which rotate and.......e. low positive stress triaxiality or even negative stress triaxiality. For high aspect ratio unit cells a clear localization band is found inside the cell, which actually represents several parallel bands, due to periodicity. In the materials represented by a low aspect ratio unit cell localization...

  7. Effect of microscale shear stresses on the martensitic phase transformation of nanocrystalline tetragonal zirconia powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Mette; Ahniyaz, Anwar; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2010-01-01

    are extremely sensitive to both macroscopic uniaxial compressive strain and ball-milling induced shear stress and easily transform martensitically into the monoclinic phase. A linear relationship between applied compressive stress and the degree of tetragonal to monoclinic (t → m) phase transformation...... was observed. Ball-milling induced microscale stress has a similar effect on the t → m phase transformation. Furthermore, it was found that even very mild milling condition, such as 120 rpm, 1 h (0.5 mm balls) was enough to induce phase transformation. Surfactant assisted ball-milling was found to be very...... effective in de-agglomeration of our nanocrystalline porous ZrO2 particles into discrete nanocrystals. However, the t → m phase transformation could not be avoided totally even at very mild milling condition. This suggests that the metastable t-ZrO2 is extreme sensitive to microscale shear stress induced...

  8. On the reduce of interfacial shear stresses in fiber reinforced polymer plate retrofitted concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One major problem when using bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate is the presence of high interfacial shear stresses near the end of the composite (edge effect) which might govern the failure of the strengthening schedule. It is known that the decrease of plate thickness reduces the magnitude of stress concentration at plate ends. Another way is to use a plate end tapering. In this paper, the analytical solution of interfacial shear stresses obtained has been extended by a numerical procedure using the modal analysis of finite element method (FEM) in a retrofitted concrete (RC) beam with the FRP plate with tapered end, which can significantly reduce the stress concentration. This approach allows taking into consideration the variation of elastic properties of adhesive and plate as well as the complicated geometrical configurations and effects of thermal loads.

  9. Evaluation of Transverse Thermal Stresses in Composite Plates Based on First-Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfes, R.; Noor, A. K.; Sparr, H.

    1998-01-01

    A postprocessing procedure is presented for the evaluation of the transverse thermal stresses in laminated plates. The analytical formulation is based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the plate is discretized by using a single-field displacement finite element model. The procedure is based on neglecting the derivatives of the in-plane forces and the twisting moments, as well as the mixed derivatives of the bending moments, with respect to the in-plane coordinates. The calculated transverse shear stiffnesses reflect the actual stacking sequence of the composite plate. The distributions of the transverse stresses through-the-thickness are evaluated by using only the transverse shear forces and the thermal effects resulting from the finite element analysis. The procedure is implemented into a postprocessing routine which can be easily incorporated into existing commercial finite element codes. Numerical results are presented for four- and ten-layer cross-ply laminates subjected to mechanical and thermal loads.

  10. Stresses and Shear Fracture Zone of Jinshazhou Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Rich Water Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    Field evidence has shown that large-scale and unstable discontinuous planes in the rock mass surrounding tunnels in rich water region are probably generated after excavation. The tunnel surrounding rock was divided into three zones, including elastic zone, plastic damage zone and shear fracture zone fof assessing the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock. By local hydrogeology, the stresses of surrounding rock of Jinshazhou circular tunnel was analyzed and the stress solutions on the elastic and plastic damage zones were obtained by applying the theories of fluid-solid coupling and elasto-plastic damage mechanics. The shear fracture zone generated by joints was studied and its range was determined by using Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical results was validated by comparing the scopes of shear fracture zones calculated in this paper with those from literature.

  11. Orientation on quantitative IR-thermografy in wall-shear stress measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, R.

    1998-01-01

    Wall-shear stresses are highly important in the aerodynamic design of aircraft, because they determine the drag and thus the fuel consumption of an airplane. Due to this importance many different measurement techniques have been developed. Most of these techniques are intrusive, which means that the

  12. A Multiwell Disc Appliance Used to Deliver Quantifiable Accelerations and Shear Stresses at Sonic Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Klemuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To mimic in vivo vibration of vocal fold cells, we studied the controllability and range of frequency, acceleration, duration, and shear stress in a new bioreactor attachment. The custom multiwell disc appliance fits into a commercially built rheometer, together termed a torsional rheometer bioreactor (TRB. Previous attachments to the TRB were capable of 50–100 Hz vibrations at relatively high strains but were limited to single-sample experiments. The TRB-multiwell disc system accommodates 20 samples in partially fluid-filled wells in an aseptic environment delivering three different acceleration conditions to different samples simultaneously. Frequency and amplitude used to calculate acceleration along with duration and shear stress were controllable and quantifiable using a combination of built-in rheometer sensors, manufacturer software, and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH simulations. Computed shear stresses at the well bottom using SPH in two and three dimensions were verified with analytical approximations. Results demonstrate capabilities of the TRB-multiwell disc system that, when combined with computational modeling, provide quantifiable vibration parameters covering frequencies 0.01–250 Hz, accelerations of 0.02–300 m/s2, and shear stresses of 0.01–1.4 Pa. It is well-suited for studying cell function underlying vocal fold lamina propria homeostasis, inflammation, and wound healing under differential vibration conditions.

  13. Development of a MEMS dual-axis differential capacitance floating element shear stress sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Casey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Benjamin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A single-axis MEMS wall shear stress sensor with differential capacitive transduction method is produced. Using a synchronous modulation and demodulation interface circuit, the system is capable of making real time measurements of both mean and fluctuating wall shear stress. A sensitivity of 3.44 mV/Pa is achieved, with linearity in response demonstrated up to testing limit of 2 Pa. Minimum detectable signals of 340 μPa at 100 Hz and 120 μPa at 1 kHz are indicated, with a resonance of 3.5 kHz. Multiple full scale wind tunnel tests are performed, producing spectral measurements of turbulent boundary layers in wind speeds ranging up to 0.5 Ma (18 Pa of mean wall shear stress). The compact packaging allows for minimally invasive installation, and has proven relatively robust over multiple testing events. Temperature sensitivity, likely due to poor CTE matching of packaged materials, is an ongoing concern being addressed. These successes are being directly leveraged into a development plan for a dual-axis wall shear stress sensor, capable of producing true vector estimates at the wall.

  14. Hydrodynamic Study of a Hollow Fiber Membrane System Using Experimental and Numerical Derived Surface Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Hunze, M.; Nopens, I.

    2012-01-01

    th percentile) and not the movement of fibers. The latter is likely due to shielding effects or fiber sway, significantly affecting shear stresses at the high end of the distribution. However, this was not accounted for in the model in this study. Despite these deviations, the CFD model in its...

  15. Microflow-induced shear stress on biomaterial wall by ultrasound-induced encapsulated microbubble oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Wen; Qian, Sheng-You; Sun, Jia-Na; Lü, Yun-Bin; Hu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    A model of an ultrasound-driven encapsulated microbubble (EMB) oscillation near biomaterial wall is presented and used for describing the microflow-induced shear stress on the wall by means of a numerical method. The characteristic of the model lies in the explicit treatment of different types of wall for the EMB responses. The simulation results show that the radius-time change trends obtained by our model are consistent with the existing models and experimental results. In addition, the effect of the elastic wall on the acoustic EMB response is stronger than that of the rigid wall, and the shear stress on the elastic wall is larger than that of the rigid wall. The closer the EMB to the wall, the greater the shear stress on the wall. The substantial shear stress on the wall surface occurs inside a circular zone with a radius about two-thirds of the bubble radius. This paper may be of interest in the study of potential damage mechanisms to the microvessel for drug and gene delivery due to sonoporation. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174077 and 11474090), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 13JJ3076), the Science Research Program of Education Department of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 14A127), and the Doctoral Fund of University of South China (Grant No. 2011XQD46).

  16. Diagnostics of boundary layer transition by shear stress sensitive liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    Previous research indicates that the problem of boundary layer transition visualization on metal models in wind tunnels (WT) which is a fundamental question in experimental aerodynamics is not solved yet. In TsAGI together with Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM) a method of shear stress sensitive liquid crystals (LC) which allows flow visualization was proposed. This method allows testing several flow conditions in one wind tunnel run and does not need covering the investigated model with any special heat-insulating coating which spoils the model geometry. This coating is easily applied on the model surface by spray or even by brush. Its' thickness is about 40 micrometers and it does not spoil the surface quality. At first the coating obtains some definite color. Under shear stress the LC coating changes color and this change is proportional to shear stress. The whole process can be visually observed and during the tests it is recorded by camera. The findings of the research showed that it is possible to visualize boundary layer transition, flow separation, shock waves and the flow image on the whole. It is possible to predict that the proposed method of shear stress sensitive liquid crystals is a promise for future research.

  17. Cell-matrix adhesion characterization using multiple shear stress zones in single stepwise microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Doh, Il; Bae, Gab-Yong; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a cell chip capable to characterize cell-matrix adhesion by monitoring cell detachment rate. The proposed cell chip can supply multiple levels of shear stress in single stepwise microchannel. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), one of hallmarks of cancer metastasis is closely associated to the interaction with extracelluar matrix (ECM), we took advantage of two lung cancer cell models with different adhesion properties to ECM depending their epithelial or mesenchymal properties, including the pair of lung cancer cells with (A549sh) or without E-cadherin expression (A549sh-Ecad), which would be optimal model to examine the alteration of adhesion properties after EMT induction. The cell-matrix adhesion resisting to shear stress appeared to be remarkably differed between lung cancer cells. The detachment rate of epithelial-like H358 and mesenchymal-like H460 cells was 53%-80% and 25%-66% in the shear stress range of 34-60 dyn/cm2, respectively. A549sh-Ecad cells exhibits lower detachment rate (5%-9%) compared to A549sh cells (14%-40%). By direct comparison of adhesion between A549sh and A549sh-Ecad, we demonstrated that A549shE-cad to mimic EMT were more favorable to the ECM attachment under the various levels of shear stress. The present method can be applied to quantitative analysis of tumor cell-ECM adhesion.

  18. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  19. Periodontal Treatment Elevates Carotid Wall Shear Stress in the Medium Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carallo, Claudio; Franceschi, Maria Serena De; Tripolino, Cesare; Iovane, Claudio; Catalano, Serena; Giudice, Amerigo; Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele; Irace, Concetta; Fortunato, Leonzio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2015-10-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with endothelial dysfunction of the brachial artery and hemodynamic alterations of the common carotid artery. Periodontal therapy improves endothelial function. It is not known if it is able also to improve the hemodynamics of the carotid artery. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 different periodontal treatments on carotid hemodynamics: scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or together with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Forty patients were recruited and randomly treated with SRP (n = 20) or SRP + LLLT (n = 20). Periodontal indices (plaque, gingival, and probing depth indices) were measured before and 5 months after treatment. Blood viscosity, common carotid wall shear stress, circumferential wall tension, and Peterson elastic modulus were evaluated before, soon after and 5 months after treatment. It was found that the periodontal indices improved in both groups, but significantly more so for SRP + LLLT than for SRP (decrease in gingival index 69.3% versus 45.4%, respectively, P = 0.04). In the SRP + LLLT group, after a transient reduction by 5% immediately after therapy, shear stress increased by 11% after 5 months. In SRP only group, however, shear stress variations were less marked. No significant changes were found for the other hemodynamic parameters in either of the groups. Periodontal disease treatment by SRP + LLLT can therefore be said to improve common carotid wall shear stress. This suggests a possible mechanism by which the treatment of periodontal disease has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26496285

  20. Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress of myotube glycocalyx stimulates growth factor expression and nitric oxide production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Juffer; A.D. Bakker; J. Klein-Nulend; R.T. Jaspers

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers have the ability to increase their size in response to a mechanical overload. Finite element modeling data suggest that mechanically loaded muscles in vivo may experience not only tensile strain but also shear stress. However, whether shear stress affects biological pathways i

  1. Some constraints on levels of shear stress in the crust from observations and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    1980-01-01

    In situ stress determinations in North America, southern Africa, and Australia indicate that on the average the maximum shear stress increases linearly with depth to at least 5.1 km measured in soft rock, such as shale and sandstone, and to 3.7 km in hard rock, including granite and quartzite. Regression lines fitted to the data yield gradients of 3.8 MPa/km and 6.6 MPa/km for soft and hard rock, respectively. Generally, the maximum shear stress in compressional states of stress for which the least principal stress is oriented near vertically is substantially greater than in extensional stress regimes, with the greatest principal stress in a vertical direction. The equations of equilibrium and compatibility can be used to provide functional constrains on the state of stress. If the stress is assumed to vary only with depth z in a given region, then all nonzero components must have the form A + Bz, where A and B are constants which generally differ for the various components. - Author

  2. A simple model to understand the effect of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupire, Jules; Abkarian, Manouk; Viallat, Annie

    2015-11-14

    An analytical model was proposed by Keller and Skalak in 1982 to understand the motion of red blood cells in shear flow. The cell was described as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. This model was extended in 2007 to introduce shear elasticity of the red blood cell membrane. Here, this model is further extended to take into account that the cell discoid shape physiologically observed is not a stress-free shape. The model shows that spheroid stress-free shapes allow us to fit the experimental data with the values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipette and optical tweezer experiments. In the range of moderate shear rates (for which RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables us to quantitatively determine (i) an effective cell viscosity, which combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and (ii) an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines the shear modulus and the stress-free shape. This model can also be used to determine RBC mechanical parameters not only in the tanktreading regime when cells are suspended in medium of high viscosity but also in the tumbling regime characteristic of cells suspended in media of low viscosity. In this regime, a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. PMID:26352875

  3. Using a co-culture microsystem for cell migration under fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Shen-Hsing; Wu, Li-Wha; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We have successfully developed a microsystem to co-cultivate two types of cells with a minimum defined gap of 50 μm, and to quantitatively study the impact of fluid shear stress on the mutual influence of cell migration velocity and distance. We used the hydrostatic pressure to seed two different cells, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), on opposite sides of various gap sizes (500 μm, 200 μm, 100 μm, and 50 μm). After cultivating the cells for 12 h and peeling the co-culture microchip from the culture dish, we studied the impacts of gap size on the migration of either cell type in the absence or presence of fluid shear stress (7 dyne cm(-2) and 12 dyne cm(-2)) influence. We found that both gap size and shear stress have profound influence on cell migration. Smaller gap sizes (100 μm and 50 μm) significantly enhanced cell migration, suggesting a requirement of an effective concentration of released factor(s) by either cell type in the gap region. Flow-induced shear stress delayed the migration onset of either cell type in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the gap size. Moreover, shear stress-induced decrease of cell migration becomes evident when the gap size was 500 μm. We have developed a co-culture microsystem for two kinds of cells and overcome the conventional difficulties in observation and mixed culture, and it would have more application for bio-manipulation and tissue repair engineering.

  4. Shear-banding and Taylor-Couette instability in thixotropic yield stress fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Jenny, Mathieu; Louvet, Nicolas; Skali-Lami, Salahedine

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we study the flow of thixotropic yield stress fluids between two concentric cylinders. In order to take into account the thixotropy, the constitutive relation uses a structural parameter which is driven by a kinetic equation. Here, the Houska's model is considered. Depending on the breakdown rate of the structural parameter, localization or shear-banding are observed. We show that for fragile structures, a shear-banding flow may be observed although for stronger structures, only localisation of the flow is observed such as in Bingham fluids. Physical explanations of the shear-banding discussed by several authors in the literature highlight that the shear-banding may be associated with a discontinuity into the structure of the material and a non-monotonic evolution of the stress according to the constitutive relation with the strain rate. Solving numerically the flow, we show that such a rheological model based on the existence of a structural parameter is able to predict shear-banding. Mo...

  5. IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is involved in shear stress-induced progenitor-derived endothelial cell alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Rami

    Full Text Available Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs. To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1 is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs, transfected (or not with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m(2 and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and β-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with β-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to β-catenin. This "switch" was concomitant with the loss of β-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress.

  6. IQ Domain GTPase-Activating Protein 1 is Involved in Shear Stress-Induced Progenitor-Derived Endothelial Cell Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Lila; Auguste, Patrick; Thebaud, Noélie B.; Bareille, Reine; Daculsi, Richard; Ripoche, Jean; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs). To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ) remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs), transfected (or not) with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m2) and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin) and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and β-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with β-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to β-catenin. This “switch” was concomitant with the loss of β-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress. PMID:24278215

  7. Bulk stress distributions in the pore space of sphere-packed beds under Darcy flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc H.; Voronov, Roman S.; Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, bulk stress distributions in the pore space of columns packed with spheres are numerically computed with lattice Boltzmann simulations. Three different ideally packed and one randomly packed configuration of the columns are considered under Darcy flow conditions. The stress distributions change when the packing type changes. In the Darcy regime, the normalized stress distribution for a particular packing type is independent of the pressure difference that drives the flow and presents a common pattern. The three parameter (3P) log-normal distribution is found to describe the stress distributions in the randomly packed beds within statistical accuracy. In addition, the 3P log-normal distribution is still valid when highly porous scaffold geometries rather than sphere beds are examined. It is also shown that the 3P log-normal distribution can describe the bulk stress distribution in consolidated reservoir rocks like Berea sandstone.

  8. Bulk stress distributions in the pore space of sphere-packed beds under Darcy flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc H; Voronov, Roman S; Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, bulk stress distributions in the pore space of columns packed with spheres are numerically computed with lattice Boltzmann simulations. Three different ideally packed and one randomly packed configuration of the columns are considered under Darcy flow conditions. The stress distributions change when the packing type changes. In the Darcy regime, the normalized stress distribution for a particular packing type is independent of the pressure difference that drives the flow and presents a common pattern. The three parameter (3P) log-normal distribution is found to describe the stress distributions in the randomly packed beds within statistical accuracy. In addition, the 3P log-normal distribution is still valid when highly porous scaffold geometries rather than sphere beds are examined. It is also shown that the 3P log-normal distribution can describe the bulk stress distribution in consolidated reservoir rocks like Berea sandstone.

  9. Fracture transmissivity as a function of normal and shear stress: first results in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Rock-mass failure around openings is usually observed in the form of a highly complex fracture network (EDZ), which is heterogeneous in distribution around a circular tunnel opening because of the heterogeneous stress distribution. The orientation of stress with respect to the fracture network is known to be important. The complex heterogeneous stress trajectory and heterogeneous fracture network results in a broad range of stresses and stress directions acting on the open fracture network. During the open stage of a repository, stress will slowly alter as shear movements occur along the fractures, as well as other time-dependent phenomena. As the repository is back filled, the stress field is further altered as the backfill settles and changes volume because of re-saturation. Therefore, a complex and wide ranging stress regime and stress history will result. In a purely mechanical sense, fracture transmissivity is a function of normal stress, shear stress, and fracture aperture. The Selfrac test from Mont Terri showed the change in transmissivity with effective normal stress. This work showed that fracture transmissivity decreased with increasing normal load and that an effective normal stress of 2.5 MPa is sufficient to yield a transmissivity similar to that seen in intact Opalinus clay (OPA). Therefore fracture closure because of normal stresses has been proven to be a quite efficient mechanism in OPA. A new shear rig was designed to investigate the detail of fracture transmissivity in OPA. The experimental configuration uses two prepared blocks that are 60 x 60 mm in size and approximately 20 mm thick. The first test sample had machine ground surfaces in contact with each other, with pore fluid being delivered through the centre of the top block directly to the fracture surface. The experimental programme included two distinct stages. In the first normal load was altered to investigate fracture transmissivity

  10. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsåker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  11. Effect of solid contents on the controlled shear stress rheological properties of different types of sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Li; Yili Wang; Yujing Dong

    2012-01-01

    Controlled shear stress (CSS) test was used to study the effect of solid contents on the corresponding rheological parameters for sludge.Three types of sludge with or without conditioning,including activated sludge (AS),anaerobic digested sludge (ADS),and water treatment residuals (WTRs),were collected for the CSS test.Results showed that the yield stress and the cohesion energy of the sludge networks were improved with increased total suspending solid (TSS) contents in most cases.For the conditioned AS/ADS and the raw WTRs,exponential law was observed in the relationships between cohesion energy of material networks or yield stress and the TSS contents,whereas for the conditioned WTRs,only exponential law dependence was found between the parameters of shear modulus or critical strain and the TSS contents.

  12. Effect of simulated microgravity on osteocytes responding to fluid shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wu, Xin-Tong; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2013-03-01

    Osteocytes, as most abundant cells and major mechanical sensor in bone, play an important role in the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss. The response of osteocytes to fluid flow stress under simulated microgravity was investigated in this study. MLO-Y4, an osteocyte-like cell line, was cultured under simulated microgravity condition for 5 days. Then cells were sheared at 15 dyn/cm2 in flow chamber. After 15 min shear, nitric oxide (NO) was examined by Griess Reagent and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by ELISA. After 6 h shear, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined by PNPP, osteocalcin (OC) and procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) by ELISA. Cells were divided into four groups: CON (1 G with no shear), CON-S (1 G with shear), SM (simulated microgravity with no shear) and SM-S (simulated microgravity with shear). The results showed that (1) NO, ALP activity, OC and PINP increased significantly while PGE2 showed no change in SM compared with CON. (2) NO, PGE2, ALP activity and PINP increased significantly while OC decreased significantly in CON-S compared with CON. (3) NO in SM-S had no significant difference compared to SM, PGE2 and OC increased while ALP activity and PINP decreased significantly in SM-S compared with SM. (4) The increasing amplitude of PGE2 and OC, the decreasing amplitude of ALP activity in SM-S to SM was lower than that in CON-S to CON. In addition, some changes of F-actin cytoskeleton were observed by confocal microscopy. All results indicated that the response induced by fluid shear in osteocytes could be inhibited by simulated microgravity, namely the mechanosensibility of osteocytes decreased under simulated microgravity. This may partly contribute to the mechanism of microgravity-induced osteoporosis and will be helpful to find out effective description.

  13. Acoustically induced shear stresses in the vicinity of microbubbles in tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Peter A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1982-01-01

    The shear stresses in the vicinity of gaseous microbubbles in tissue irradiated by continuous and transient ultrasonic fields typical of those used in diagnostic practice have been calculated from a solution of the equation of motion of the bubble. The assumptions and limitations of the model have...... been considered, and within these limits, it appears that the steady stresses produced may lie above reported thresholds for biological effects. It would appear from the data in the literature that not all the biological effects reported may be caused by stresses resulting from acoustic streaming....

  14. Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Uzarski

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.

  15. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  16. Effect of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Jozef; Monsieurs, Pieter; Yu, Sung-Huan; Crabbé, Aurélie; Förstner, Konrad U.; Malfroot, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms. In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes associated with the growth of a highly adapted, transmissible P. aeruginosa CF strain in artificial sputum medium under LS conditions. Robust self-aggregating biofilms were observed only under LS conditions. Growth under LS conditions resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in stress response, alginate biosynthesis, denitrification, glycine betaine biosynthesis, glycerol metabolism, and cell shape maintenance, while genes involved in phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion, and multidrug efflux were downregulated. In addition, a number of small RNAs appeared to be involved in the response to shear stress. Finally, quorum sensing was found to be slightly but significantly affected by shear stress, resulting in higher production of autoinducer molecules during growth under high fluid shear (HS) conditions. In summary, our study revealed a way to modulate the behavior of a highly adapted P. aeruginosa CF strain by means of introducing shear stress, driving it from a biofilm lifestyle to a more planktonic lifestyle. PMID:27486191

  17. STRESS-METAMORPHISM AND ISOTOPIC AGE OF SHEAR ZONE GRANITOID TECTONITES OF IRTYSH SHEAR ZONE (ALTAI REGION)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.M. Chikov; V.A. Ponomachuk; S.V. Zinoviev; B.N. Lapin; A.T. Titov; A.V. Travin; S.V. Palessky

    2002-01-01

    The Irtysh shear zone (ISZ) of Altai region is the lineament structure of the collision-suture type, where granites of Kalba complex and granodiorites of Zmeinogorsk complex are exposed to regional gneiss-formation and stress-metamorphic alterations. This study is based on detailed structural observations at special grounds using optical and electron microscopy, and on the behavior analysis of isotopic systems from altered granitoids.Within the ISZ area we have established the continuous rows of granitoid stress-metamorphism from initial recrystallization of protolite, its cataclasis and mechanical flaring up to complete recrystallization with alteration of mineral composition and formation of the streaky complexes of granite tectonites of blastomylonite and blastocataclasite types. The directed alteration of rocks has several impulse and is expressed by a change in morphology of mineral grains and their relations, magnification of deformation component in the rock structure, and formation of new mineral phases on the basis of initial ones without surface fluidization. At transformation of isotopic systems from granitoid, their feldspars,biotite and hornblende, we can observe "rejuvenation" of the rock substrate from 270- 290 Ma for Kalba granitoids to 220-235 Ma for their tectonites, and for Rudny Altai granodiorites, their ages changes from 285-317 Ma to 232-257 Ma for their tectonites.

  18. Scale-up of high shear granulation based on the internal stress measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watano, Satoru; Okamoto, Takumi; Sato, Yoshinobu; Osako, Yoshifumi

    2005-04-01

    Scale-up of wet granulation in a vertical high shear mixer was conducted. Pharmaceutical excipient powders composed of lactose, cornstarch and micro-crystallinecellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose as a binder were mixed together and then granulated with purified water under various operating conditions and vessel scales. A novel internal stress measurement system was developed and stress of normal and tangential directions that granules received from the agitator blade during the granulation was continuously measured. The results indicated that granules received stress mainly from the tangential direction, which also showed the largest value near at the vessel wall. The effects of the agitator tip speed and the centrifugal acceleration on the measured stress was investigated. It was found that the tip speed of the agitator blade could be the main factor for the granule growth. The physical properties such as strength, size distribution and compressibility of granules prepared by changing the operating conditions and the vessel scales were evaluated and the scale-up characteristics of high shear granulation were investigated experimentally. The results showed that these physical properties had linear correlations with the tip speed. It was finally concluded that the scale-up of high shear granulation could be well conducted by means of the tip speed of the agitator blade. PMID:15802830

  19. Analysis of fluid flow and wall shear stress patterns inside partially filled agitated culture well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, M Mehdi; Sattari, Pooria; Martinuzzi, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    The appearance of highly resistant bacterial biofilms in both community and hospitals environments is a major challenge in modern clinical medicine. The biofilm structural morphology, believed to be an important factor affecting the behavioral properties of these "super bugs", is strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics over the microcolonies. Despite the common use of agitated well plates in the biology community, they have been used rather blindly without knowing the flow characteristics and influence of the rotational speed and fluid volume in these containers. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the flow in these high-throughput devices to link local hydrodynamics to observed behavior in cell cultures. In this work, the flow and wall shear stress distribution in six-well culture plates under planar orbital translation is simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Free surface, flow pattern and wall shear stress for two shaker speeds (100 and 200 rpm) and two volumes of fluid (2 and 4 mL) were investigated. Measurements with a non-intrusive optical shear stress sensor and High Frame-rate Particle Imaging Velocimetry (HFPIV) are used to validate CFD predictions. An analytical model to predict the free surface shape is proposed. Results show a complex three-dimensional flow pattern, varying in both time and space. The distribution of wall shear stress in these culture plates has been related to the topology of flow. This understanding helps explain observed endothelial cell orientation and bacterial biofilm distributions observed in culture dishes. The results suggest that the mean surface stress field is insufficient to capture the underlying dynamics mitigating biological processes.

  20. Experiments and simulations of MEMS thermal sensors for wall shear-stress measurements in aerodynamic control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiao; Jiang, Fukang; Wang, Xuan-Qi; Xu, Yong; Han, Zhigang; Tai, Yu-Chong; Lew, James; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2004-12-01

    MEMS thermal shear-stress sensors exploit heat-transfer effects to measure the shear stress exerted by an air flow on its solid boundary, and have promising applications in aerodynamic control. Classical theory for conventional, macroscale thermal shear-stress sensors states that the rate of heat removed by the flow from the sensor is proportional to the 1/3-power of the shear stress. However, we have observed that this theory is inconsistent with experimental data from MEMS sensors. This paper seeks to develop an understanding of MEMS thermal shear-stress sensors through a study including both experimental and theoretical investigations. We first obtain experimental data that confirm the inadequacy of the classical theory by wind-tunnel testing of prototype MEMS shear-stress sensors with different dimensions and materials. A theoretical analysis is performed to identify that this inadequacy is due to the lack of a thin thermal boundary layer in the fluid flow at the sensor surface, and then a two-dimensional MEMS shear-stress sensor theory is presented. This theory incorporates important heat-transfer effects that are ignored by the classical theory, and consistently explains the experimental data obtained from prototype MEMS sensors. Moreover, the prototype MEMS sensors are studied with three-dimensional simulations, yielding results that quantitatively agree with experimental data. This work demonstrates that classical assumptions made for conventional thermal devices should be carefully examined for miniature MEMS devices.

  1. Racial differences in the responses to shear stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feairheller DL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Deborah L Feairheller1,4, Joon-Young Park2, Victor Rizzo3, Boa Kim2, Michael D Brown1,31Hypertension, Molecular and Applied Physiology Laboratory, 2Cardiovascular Genomics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, 3Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Exercise and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: African American ethnicity is an independent risk factor for exaggerated oxidative stress, which is related to inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported that in vitro oxidative stress and inflammation levels differ between African American and Caucasian human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, African American HUVECs having higher levels of both. However, it remains to be shown whether the cells would respond differently to external stimuli.Methods: We used a cone and plate viscometer to apply laminar shear stress (LSS as an aerobic exercise mimetic to compare the responses by race. HUVECs were exposed to static conditions (no LSS, low LSS (5 dyne/cm2, and moderate LSS (20 dyne/cm2.Results: It was found that African American HUVECs had higher levels of oxidative stress under static conditions, and when LSS was applied protein expression levels (NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4 and p47phox subunits, eNOS, SOD2, and catalase and biomarkers (NO, SOD, and total antioxidant capacity were modulated to similar levels between race.Conclusion: African American HUVECs may be more responsive to LSS stimulus indicating that aerobic exercise prescriptions may be valuable for this population since the potential exists for large in vivo improvements in oxidative stress levels along the endothelial layer in response to increased shear flow.Keywords: shear stress, African American, NADPH oxidase, HUVECs, oxidative stress

  2. Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress of myotube glycocalyx stimulates growth factor expression and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Petra; Bakker, Astrid D; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers have the ability to increase their size in response to a mechanical overload. Finite element modeling data suggest that mechanically loaded muscles in vivo may experience not only tensile strain but also shear stress. However, whether shear stress affects biological pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in response to mechanical loading is unknown. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (1) to determine whether shear stress affects growth factor expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by myotubes, and (2) to explore the mechanism by which shear stress may affect myotubes in vitro. C2C12 myotubes were subjected to a laminar pulsating fluid flow (PFF; mean shear stress 0.4, 0.7 or 1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) or subjected to uni-axial cyclic strain (CS; 15 % strain, 1 Hz) for 1 h. NO production during 1-h PFF or CS treatment was quantified using Griess reagent. The glycocalyx was degraded using hyaluronidase, and stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) were blocked using GdCl3. Gene expression was analyzed immediately after 1-h PFF (1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) and at 6 h post-PFF treatment. PFF increased IGF-I Ea, MGF, VEGF, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA, but decreased myostatin mRNA expression. Shear stress enhanced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, while CS induced no quantifiable increase in NO production. Glycocalyx degradation and blocking of SACs ablated the shear stress-stimulated NO production. In conclusion, shear stress activates signaling pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in myotubes, likely via membrane-bound mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that shear stress exerted on myofiber extracellular matrix plays an important role in mechanotransduction in muscle.

  3. Characterizing Wave- and Current-Induced Bottom Shear Stress: U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, S.; Butman, B.

    2011-12-01

    The combined action of waves and currents at the seabed creates bottom shear stress, impacting local geology, habitat, and anthropogenic use. In this study, a methodology is developed to characterize the magnitude of benthic disturbance based on spatially and seasonally-resolved statistics (mean, standard deviation, 95th percentile) of wave-current bottom shear stress. The frequency of stress forcing is used to distinguish regions dominated by storms (return interval longer than 33 hours) from those dominated by the tides (periods shorter than 33 hours). In addition, the relative magnitude of the contribution to stress from waves, tides, and storm-driven currents is investigated by comparing wave stress, tidal current stress, and stress from the residual current (currents with tides removed), as well as through cross-correlation of wave and current stress. The methodology is applied to numerical model time-series data for the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) off the U.S. East Coast for April 2010 to April 2011; currents are provided from the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) operational hydrodynamic forecast Experimental System for Predicting Shelf and Slope Optics (ESPreSSO) and waves are provided from a Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) hindcast developed for this project. Spatial resolution of the model is about 5 km and time-series wave and current data are at 1 and 2-hours respectively. Regions of the MAB delineated by stress characteristics include a tidally-dominated shallow region with relative high stress southeast of Massachusetts over Nantucket Shoals; a coastal band extending offshore to about 30 m water depth dominated by waves; a region dominated by waves and wind-driven currents offshore of the Outer Banks of North Carolina; and a low stress region southeast of Long Island, approximately coincident with an area of fine-grained sediments called the "Mud Patch". Comparison of the stress distribution with surface sediment texture data shows that

  4. Dependence of fungal characteristics on seed morphology and shear stress in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhong; Li, Chao; Tang, Wenjun; Wang, Zejian; Xia, Jianye; Zhang, Siliang; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Noorman, Henk

    2015-05-01

    The fungal morphology during submerged cultivations has a profound influence on the overall performance of bioreactors. In this research, glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger has been taken as a model to improve more insights. The morphology engineering could be conducted effectively by changing the seed morphology, as well as specific power input. During the fed-batch cultivations, pellet formation under milder shear stress field helped to reduce the broth viscosity, thus relieving oxygen limitation and promoting the enzyme production. Furthermore, we found that the relation between the shear stress field, which was characterized by energy dissipation rate/circulation function (EDCF), and enzyme activity was consistent with quadratic parabola, which threw light on the process optimization and scale-up for industrial enzyme production.

  5. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Rolling by Twin Shear Stress Yield Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; XIE Ying-jie; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Using the twin shear stress yield criterion, the surface integral of the co-line vectors, and the integration depending on upper limit, Kobayashi's three-dimensional velocity field of rolling was analyzed and an analytical expression of rolling torque and single force was obtained. Through redoing the same experiment of rolling pure lead as Sims, the calculated results by the above expression were compared with those of Kobayashi and Sims formulae. The results show that the twin shear stress yield criterion is available for rolling analysis and the calculated results by the new formula are a little higher than those by Kobayashi and Sims ones if the reduction ratio is less than 30%.

  6. A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.

  7. he dependence of response spectrum on the tectonic ambient shear stress field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-kun; CHEN Pei-shan; BAI Tong-xia

    2005-01-01

    It has been analyzed the influence of the tectonic ambient shear stress value on response spectrum based on the previous theory. Based on the prediction equation BJF94 presented by the famous American researchers, CLB20, a new prediction formula is proposed by us, where it is introduced the influence of tectonic ambient shear stress value on response spectrum. BJF94 is the prediction equation, which mainly depends on strong ground motion data from western USA, while the prediction equation SEA99 is based on the strong ground motion data from extensional region all over the world. Comparing these two prediction equations in detail, it is found that after BJF94's prediction value lg(Y) minus 0.16 logarithmic units, the value is very close to SEA99's one. This case demonstrates that lg(Y) in extensional region is smaller; the differences of prediction equation are mainly owe to the differences of tectonic ambient shear stress value. If the factor of tectonic ambient shear stress value is included into the prediction equation, and the magnitude is used seismic moment magnitude to express, which is universal used around the world, and the distance is used the distance of fault project, which commonly used by many people, then regional differences of prediction equation will become much less, even vanish, and it can be constructed the universal prediction equation proper to all over the world. The error in the earthquake-resistant design in China will be small if we directly use the results of response spectrum of USA (e.g. BJF94 or SEA99).

  8. On-Chip Evaluation of Shear Stress Effect on Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghyuk; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, nanotoxicity in the bloodstream was modeled and the cytotoxicity of sub-50 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles to human endothelial cells was investigated under microfluidic flow conditions. Compared to traditional in vitro cytotoxicity assays performed under static conditions, unmodified mesoporous silica nanoparticles show higher and shear stress-dependent toxicity to endothelial cells under flow conditions. Interestingly, even under flow conditions, highly organo-modified meso...

  9. Influence of hydrodynamic drag model on shear stress in the simulation of magnetorheological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Lagger, H.G.; Breinlinger, T.; Korvink, J. G.; Moseler, M.; Renzo, A. di; Maio, F. di; Bierwisch, C.

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of magnetorheological fluids are performed with different models for the hydrodynamic drag law. The shear stress predictions from two coupled discrete element - smoothed particle hydrodynamics models with different drag laws are compared to pure discrete element simulations for a wide range of Mason numbers. The discrete element model has a higher computational efficiency but the treatment of the hydrodynamic drag force involves some rough approximations. Based on the results of t...

  10. Fractal scaling and simulation of velocity components and turbulent shear stress in open channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully developed turbulent flow indeed consists of a hierarchy of eddies or scales of various disorders. Due to the complexity of turbulence, the turbulent flow structure has not been completely understood. Thus, abundant empirical observations have been made about fractality in hydrodynamic turbulence. In this study, the fractal scaling of velocity components (u', v') and Reynolds shear stress (u'v') for fully developed flow in an open channel were studied for Reynolds number in the range of 29,000-85,000. An efficient algorithm was developed to construct Fractal Interpolation Functions (FIF). The algorithm was used to simulate more than 200,000 time series of u', v', and u'v' that were measured in a laboratory flume. The algorithm was also used to compute fractal dimension. The fractal dimensions of the turbulent data were accurately obtained by applying only as few as 500 data points. It was found that the fractal dimension of u', v', and u'v' were 1.615, 1.657, and 1.559, respectively. The relationships between the fractal dimension and Froude number (Fr) and Reynolds number (Re) were also investigated. It was found that the fractal dimension of turbulent data and Re and Fr were reasonably correlated. Moreover, the fractal dimension of Reynolds shear stress in bursting events (outward interaction, ejection, inward interaction, and sweep) was calculated and compared with each other. There were some differences among the fractal dimension of Reynolds shear stress for four quadrants of bursting process. The fractal dimension of u'v' in sweep and ejection events were more than the fractal dimension of the overall Reynolds shear stress

  11. Evaluation of bioprosthetic heart valve failure using a matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Barber, Asa H; Bucchi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    A matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach is devised and developed in this paper to analyse the primary biomechanical factors which initiate the structural degeneration of the bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs). Using this approach, the critical length of the collagen fibrils l c and the interface shear acting on the fibrils in both BHV and natural aortic valve (AV) tissues under physiological loading conditions are calculated and presented. It is shown that the required critical fibril length to provide effective reinforcement to the natural AV and the BHV tissue is l c  = 25.36 µm and l c  = 66.81 µm, respectively. Furthermore, the magnitude of the required shear force acting on fibril interface to break a cross-linked fibril in the BHV tissue is shown to be 38 µN, while the required interfacial force to break the bonds between the fibril and the surrounding extracellular matrix is 31 µN. Direct correlations are underpinned between these values and the ultimate failure strength and the failure mode of the BHV tissue compared with the natural AV, and are verified against the existing experimental data. The analyses presented in this paper explain the role of fibril interface shear and critical length in regulating the biomechanics of the structural failure of the BHVs, for the first time. This insight facilitates further understanding into the underlying causes of the structural degeneration of the BHVs in vivo.

  12. Evaluation of bioprosthetic heart valve failure using a matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Barber, Asa H; Bucchi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    A matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach is devised and developed in this paper to analyse the primary biomechanical factors which initiate the structural degeneration of the bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs). Using this approach, the critical length of the collagen fibrils l c and the interface shear acting on the fibrils in both BHV and natural aortic valve (AV) tissues under physiological loading conditions are calculated and presented. It is shown that the required critical fibril length to provide effective reinforcement to the natural AV and the BHV tissue is l c  = 25.36 µm and l c  = 66.81 µm, respectively. Furthermore, the magnitude of the required shear force acting on fibril interface to break a cross-linked fibril in the BHV tissue is shown to be 38 µN, while the required interfacial force to break the bonds between the fibril and the surrounding extracellular matrix is 31 µN. Direct correlations are underpinned between these values and the ultimate failure strength and the failure mode of the BHV tissue compared with the natural AV, and are verified against the existing experimental data. The analyses presented in this paper explain the role of fibril interface shear and critical length in regulating the biomechanics of the structural failure of the BHVs, for the first time. This insight facilitates further understanding into the underlying causes of the structural degeneration of the BHVs in vivo. PMID:26715134

  13. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 inhibits low shear stress-induced carotid artery remodeling in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ying; Cai, Zhaohua; CUI, MINGLI; Nie, Peng; Sun, Zhe; SUN, SHIQUN; CHU, SHICHUN; Wang, Xiaolei; Hu, Liuhua; Yi, Jing; Shen, Linghong; He, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Shear stress, particularly low and oscillatory shear stress, plays a critical pathophysiological role in vascular remodeling-related cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence suggests that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 [also known as TR3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1)] is expressed in diseased human vascular tissue and plays an important role in vascular physiology and pathology. In the present study, we used a mouse model of flow-dependent remodeling by partia...

  14. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  15. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  16. Numerical study of stress distribution in sheared granular material in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate the response of dense granular material to shear. Our simulations use a micromechanical model which includes realistic material models for each deformable grain, and a Coulomb friction model for interactions between grains. We measure the probability density function (PDF) governing the volume distribution of stress for monodisperse and polydisperse samples, circular and polygonal grains, and various values of microscopic friction coefficients, yield stresses, and packing fractions. Remarkably, PDF's are similar in form for all cases simulated, and similar to those observed in experiments with granular materials under both compression and shear. Namely, the simulations yield an exponential probability of large stresses above the mean. The relationship between distributions of boundary tractions and volume distributions of stress is discussed. The ratio of normal and tangential components of traction on the boundary defines a bulk frictional response, which is shown to increase with the intergranular friction coefficient. However, the bulk friction is always larger than the intergranular friction for densely packed samples. Bulk friction is also strongly dependent on grain size distribution and shape. New observations of force-chain banding during recrystallization, of slip systems in monodisperse samples, and of the effects of plastic yield, are also presented. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Estimation of gas wall shear stress in horizontal stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-phase pipe flows occur in many industrial applications, such as condensers and evaporators, chemical processing equipment, nuclear reactors, and oil pipelines. A variety of basic mechanistic flow models for predicting the pressure gradient and liquid loading characteristics of these types of flows to assist in design calculations has emerged over the past two decades, especially for the stratified and slug flow regimes. These models generally rely on a number of basic assumptions and empirical closure equations. Possibly the most notable of these relates to the evaluation of interfacial shear stresses. However, one of the most important yet least discussed assumptions used in most of these models is that the phase wall shear stresses can be accurately estimated from correlations developed for single-phase pipe flows. The object of this article is to present measurements of gas wall shear up to locations in close proximity to the gas-liquid interface for a variety of interface conditions in developed flow, and to determine the effects of the interface on average gas wall friction factors. In this context the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy

  18. Numerical study of wall shear stress-based descriptors in the human left coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, S I S; Campos, J B L M

    2016-10-01

    The present work is about the application of wall shear stress descriptors - time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillating shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) - to the study of blood flow in the left coronary artery (LCA). These descriptors aid the prediction of disturbed flow conditions in the vessels and play a significant role in the detection of potential zones of atherosclerosis development. Hemodynamic descriptors data were obtained, numerically, through ANSYS® software, for the LCA of a patient-specific geometry and for a 3D idealized model. Comparing both cases, the results are coherent, in terms of location and magnitude. Low TAWSS, high OSI and high RRT values are observed in the bifurcation - potential zone of atherosclerosis appearance. The dissimilarities observed in the TAWSS values, considering blood as a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid, releases the importance of the correct blood rheologic caracterization. Moreover, for a higher Reynolds number, the TAWSS values decrease in the bifurcation and along the LAD branch, increasing the probability of plaques deposition. Furthermore, for a stenotic LCA model, very low TAWSS and high RRT values in front and behind the stenosis are observed, indicating the probable extension, in the flow direction, of the lesion. PMID:26883291

  19. Inter-laminar shear stress in hybrid CFRP/austenitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolted joints are the most common solution for joining composite components in aerospace structures. Critical structures such as wing to fuselage joints, or flight control surface fittings use bolted joining techniques. Recent research concluded that higher bearing strengths in composite bolted joints can be achieved by a CFRP/ Titanium hybrid lay-up in the vicinity of the bolted joint. The high costs of titanium motivate a similar research with the more cost competitive austenitic steel. An experimental program was performed in order to compare the apparent inter-laminar shear stress (ILSS of a CFRP reference beam with the ILSS of hybrid CFRP/Steel beams utilizing different surface treatments in the metallic ply. The apparent ILSS was determined by short beam test, a three-point bending test. Finite element models using cohesive elements in the CFRP/Steel interface were built to simulate the short beam test in the reference beam and in the highest interlaminar shear stress hybrid beam. The main parameters for a FEM simulation of inter laminar shear are the cohesive elements damage model and appropriate value for the critical energy release rate. The results show that hybrid CFRP/Steel have a maximum ILSS very similar to the ILSS of the reference beam. Hybrid CFRP/Steel is a competitive solution when compared with the reference beam ILSS. FEM models were able to predict the maximum ILSS in each type of beam.

  20. Regulation of shear stress on rolling behaviors of HL-60 cells on P-selectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, YingChen; Fang, Ying; Yang, XiaoFang; Li, QuHuan; Lin, QinYong; Wu, JianHua

    2014-10-01

    Circulating leukocytes in trafficking to the inflammatory sites, will be first tether to, and then roll on the vascular surface. This event is mediated through specific interaction of P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), and regulated by hemodynamics. Poor data were reported in understanding P-selectin-mediated rolling. With the flow chamber technique, we herein observed HL-60 cell rolling on P-selectin with or without 3% Ficoll at various wall shear stresses from 0.05 to 0.4 dyn/cm2. The results demonstrated that force rather than transport regulated the rolling, similar to rolling on L- and E-selectin. The rolling was accelerated quickly by an increasing force below the optimal shear threshold of 0.15 dyn/cm2 first and then followed by a slowly decelerating phase starting at the optimum, showing a catch-slip transition and serving as a mechanism for the rolling. The catch-slip transition was completely reflected to the tether lifetime and other rolling parameters, such as the mean and fractional stop time. The narrow catch bond regime stabilized the rolling quickly, through steeply increasing fractional stop time to a plateau of about 0.85. Data presented here suggest that the low shear stress threshold serves as a mechanism for most cell rolling events through P-selectin.

  1. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  2. Normalization of flow-mediated dilation to shear stress area under the curve eliminates the impact of variable hyperemic stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickleborough Timothy D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The present study was designed to further examine the efficacy of FMD normalization to shear stress in reducing measurement variability. Methods Five different magnitudes of reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress were applied to 20 healthy, physically active young adults (25.3 ± 0. 6 yrs; 10 men, 10 women by manipulating forearm cuff occlusion duration: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, in a randomized order. A venous blood draw was performed for determination of baseline whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. The magnitude of occlusion-induced forearm ischemia was quantified by dual-wavelength near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS. Brachial artery diameters and velocities were obtained via high-resolution ultrasound. The SSAUC was individually calculated for the duration of time-to-peak dilation. Results One-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated distinct magnitudes of occlusion-induced ischemia (volume and peak, hyperemic shear stress, and peak FMD responses (all p AUC (p = 0.785. Conclusion Our data confirm that normalization of FMD to SSAUC eliminates the influences of variable shear stress and solidifies the utility of FMD:SSAUC ratio as an index of endothelial function.

  3. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  4. Numerical simulation on open wellbore shrinkage and casing equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  5. Serial analysis of the vascular endothelial transcriptome under static and shear stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tian Jiao; Peters, David G

    2008-07-15

    We have utilized serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to analyze the response of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) to laminar shear stress (LSS). Primary cultures of HCAECs were exposed to 15 dyn/cm(2) LSS for 24 h in a parallel plate flow chamber and compared with identical same passage cells cultured under static conditions. The expression levels of a number of functional categories of genes were reduced by shear stress including those encoding proteins involved in cell proliferation (CDC10, CDC20, CDC23, CCND1, CCNB1), angiogenesis (ANGPTL4, CTGF, CYR61, ENG, EPAS1, EGFR, LGALS3, PGK1, and SPARC), extracellular matrix and cell-matrix adhesion (EFEMP1, LOXL2, P4HB, FBN1, FN1, ITGA5, ITGAE, ITGAV, ILK, LAMR1) and ATP synthesis (ATP5G3, ATP5J2, ATP5L, ATP5D). We also observed an increase in the LSS-responsive expression of genes encoding stress response proteins, including HMOX1, which is significant since HMOX1 may have anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory vascular effects. The autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) genes PKD1 and PKD2 were also elevated by LSS. ADPKD is associated with vascular malfunction, including the impairment of vasoreactive processes. To our knowledge, this is the first SAGE-based analysis of the shear stress-responsive endothelial cell transcriptome. These immortal data provide a resource for further analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological response to LSS and contribute to the expanding collection of publicly available SAGE data. PMID:18505769

  6. Effective stress model of sand and clay based on cyclic shear strength and its application to liquefaction analysis; Suna oyobi nendo no kurikaeshi sendan kyodo ni motozuku yuko oryoku model to sono ekijoka kaiseki eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kuroshima, I.; Tanigaki, M. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hyodo, M. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-21

    While the effective stress method is available as a ground evaluation method for large size seismic motions, a proposal was made on a practically usable model with an aim of generalizing and simplifying the method while utilizing its features. The model consists of a model based on a new stress route model and the effective stress ratio to distortion relationship. The effective stress ratio refers to shear stress/mean effective principal stress. Shear behavior information in a repetitive strength curve with rich data accumulation was used for the stress route model to facilitate setting the analytical parameters. Breakage processes not only for sandy soil but also viscous soil can be evaluated in one action. This model was used to simulate the observation records for locations where active liquefaction was observed in the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. As a result, ground response during a strong seismic motion accompanying strong non- linearity was analyzed at high accuracy. It was found that vigorous rigidity change has occurred in association with cyclic mobility in a buried sand bed. Non-linearity of the ground breakage process including effect of the lower viscous soil bed was evaluated appropriately. 24 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A comparison of tectonic ambient shear stress value in China with that in western USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培善; 白彤霞; 李保昆

    2002-01-01

    A method is proposed to estimate average tectonic ambient shear stress value for a region. Thus the average stress values of 19 regions in western USA, and 43 regions (each region is 10((10() in Chinese mainland and its surroundings have been obtained. The data of 15 993 earthquakes are from the Internet Centroid Moment Tensor solution made by Harvard University from 1997 to 1999. The results demonstrate that there are highest average stress values in the regions of south California of USA and its off coast sea, reach to 12.0 MPa and 13.7 MPa respectively, then gradually decrease toward north, south, and east. The lowest value is 8.7 MPa and 63% of highest value. The average stress values in northern Xinjiang and in the Chayu region of Tibet are 17.2 and 12.9 MPa respectively. They are highest values in China and higher than USA(s. The average stress value in North China, Yunnan, Sichuan, Taiwan is similar to south California of USA. The average stress value in South-North seismic zone is about 13 MPa, a little higher than south California. The distribution of average stress value for two important regions provides basic data for geology. These results are useful to research earthquake activity background and attenuation relation of strong ground motion parameters (e.g. peak acceleration and response spectra).

  8. Behavior of Three Metallic Alloys under Combined Axial-Shear Stresses at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiuta, J. F.; Lissenden, C. J.; Lerch, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Type 316 stainless steel, Haynes 188, and Inconel 718 samples were subjected to an axial-shear strain controlled loading history while the specimen temperature was held at 650 C to quantify the evolution of material state under a complex biaxial load path when the material is in the viscoplastic domain. Yield surfaces were constructed in the axial-shear stress plane using a sensitive, 30 x 10(exp -6)m/m, equivalent offset strain definition for the yield strain. Subsequent yield surfaces were constructed at various points along the strain path to define the material evolution. These subsequent yield surface translated, expanded, and distorted relative to the initial yield surface. Each of these very different materials exhibited components of isotropic, kinematic and distortional hardening. Furthermore, subsequent yield surfaces for each material have a very well defined front face and a poorly defined, flattened, back side.

  9. DRAG REDUCTION OF A CATIONIC SURFACTANT SOLUTION AND ITS SHEAR STRESS RELAXATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shu-peng

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the mechanisms of the turbulent frictional drag reduction by surfactant additives,the drag reduction,the shear viscosity and the shear stress relaxation were measured for solutions of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) with the same molar sodium salicylate as a counter-ion.It is found that the first step relaxation time decreases with increasing concentration and,thus,with the maximum drag-reducing rates,which indicates that the stiffness of the micellar structures with the first relaxation time,increases with the increase of the concentration of CTAB.Furthermore,for this surfactant,a viscoelastic property is necessary for reducing drag,while a stronger viscoelasticity characterized by a tail relaxation time does not necessartly mean a higher drag-reducing rate.

  10. Shear stress enhances microcin B17 production in a rotating wall bioreactor, but ethanol stress does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Fang, A; Pierson, D L; Mishra, S K; Demain, A L

    2001-08-01

    Stress, including that caused by ethanol, has been shown to induce or promote secondary metabolism in a number of microbial systems. Rotating-wall bioreactors provide a low stress and simulated microgravity environment which, however, supports only poor production of microcin B17 by Escherichia coli ZK650, as compared to production in agitated flasks. We wondered whether the poor production is due to the low level of stress and whether increasing stress in the bioreactors would raise the amount of microcin B17 formed. We found that applying shear stress by addition of a single Teflon bead to a rotating wall bioreactor improved microcin B17 production. By contrast, addition of various concentrations of ethanol to such bioreactors (or to shaken flasks) failed to increase microcin B17 production. Ethanol stress merely decreased production and, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth. Interestingly, cells growing in the bioreactor were much more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and production-inhibitory effects of ethanol than cells growing in shaken flasks.

  11. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  12. Wing crack propagation model under high hydraulic pressure in compressive-shear stress state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-lin; WANG Wen-jun

    2011-01-01

    A new wing crack model subjected to hydraulic pressure and far-field stresses was proposed considering the effect of hydraulic pressure in wing crack and the connected part of the main crack on the stress intensity factor at the wing crack tip.With the equivalent crack length leq of the wing crack introduced, the stress intensity factor K1 at the wing crack tip was assumed to the sum of two terms: on one hand a component K(1)1 for a single isolated straight wing crack of length 2l, and subjected to hydraulic pressure in the wing crack and far-field stresses; on the other hand a component K(2)1 due to the effective shear stress induced by the presence of the equivalent main crack. The lateral tensile stress and hydraulic high pressure are the key factors that induce crack propagation unsteadily. The new wing crack theoretical model proposed can supply references for the study on hydraulic fracture in fractured masses, hydraulic fracturing in rock masses.

  13. Realtime Surface Shear Stress Control with MEMS Sensors/Actuators in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Lew, James; Ho, Chih-Ming; Xu, Yong; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2003-11-01

    High-speed surface streaks in turbulent boundary layers have been attributed to approximately 40friction drag. A real-time control system for reducing surface shear stress has being developed. The system consists of two linear arrays of MEMS surface shear stress imagers for providing control and feedback measurements and a recently developed, micro-machined flap-type actuator for interaction with the streak structures. Driven by a constant temperature anemometry circuit with an overheat ratio of 12sensitivity of 100 mV/Pa and frequency response of 20 kHz. The micro-machined bubble-flap actuator is essentially a thin silicon cantilever beam which hangs/sits on top of a silicone diaphragm molded into a bulk etched silicon cavity. The flap shape used is a 3mm long (streamwise) by 1mm wide rectangular beam, with a thickness of 40 um. Actuation is achieved by pneumatically inflating the silicone diaphragm, which then pushes up the silicon beam. The current flap can achieve off-plane deflections of over 130 um at frequencies up to 150 Hz, with a rise time of 2ms and a fall time of 4ms. Experiments are carried out with the system installed onto the wall of a 2-D turbulent wind tunnel. At Re 10k, corresponding to flow velocity of 10 m/s, time-averaged reduction of 4achieved continuous actuation at 130 um and 150 Hz. Furthermore, in offline data processing, it has been found that the actuator interacting with the streak structures has reduce the peak shear stress of a streak by an additional 0.2 Pa, or about 50

  14. MICROMECHANICAL DAMAGE MODEL FOR ROCKS AND CONCRETES SUBJECTED TO COUPLED TENSILE AND SHEAR STRESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongjun Ren; Xianghe Peng; Chunhe Yang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the deformation in an infinite isotropic elastic matrix with an embedded elliptic crack under far field coupled tensile and shear stresses,the energy release rate and a mixed fracture criterion are obtained using an energy balance approach.The additional compliance tensor induced by a single opening elliptic microcrack in a representative volume element is derived,and the effect of microcracks with random orientations is analyzed with the Taylor's scheme by introducing an appropriate probability density function.A micromechanical damage model for rocks and concretes is obtained and is verified with experimental results.

  15. Research of the Effect of the Shear Stress on Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionCellular mechanism is one of the foundations of regenerating medicine and tissue engineering, which is also an advanced subject in cell mechanism in recent years~([1]). The form and function of a cell, and the growing, reproducing and death, even canceration are related to the characteristics of cell mechanism. While the research of the shear stress on endothelial cells is an important field in cell mechanism. The main bio-functions of endothelial cells are as follows: anti-cruor, regulating t...

  16. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  17. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  18. Frictional Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Polymer Films Subject to Constant Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of the frictional response of nanoscale viscous films are typically obtained using the surface force apparatus in which a fluid layer is confined between smooth solid substrates approaching at constant speed or force. The squeezing pressure causes lateral flow from which the shear viscosity can be deduced. Under these conditions however, molecularly thin films tend to solidify wholly or partially and estimates of the shear viscosity can exceed those in macroscale films by many orders of magnitude. This problem can be avoided altogether by examining the response of an initially flat, supported, free surface film subject to comparable values of surface shear stress by application of an external inert gas stream. This method was first conceived by Derjaguin in 1944; more recent studies by Mate et al. at IBM Almaden on complex polymeric systems have uncovered fluid layering and other interesting behaviors. The only drawback is that this alternative technique requires an accurate model for interface distortion. We report on ellipsometric measurements of ultrathin polymeric films in efforts to determine whether the usual interface equations for free surface films based purely on continuum models can be properly extended to nanoscale films. Supported by a Fred and Jean Felberg Fellowship and G. W. Housner Student Discovery Fund.

  19. Evaluation of the interfacial shear strength and residual stress of TiAlN coating on ZIRLO™ fuel cladding using a modified shear-lag model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Bhamji, I.; Withers, P. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Motta, A. T.; Preuss, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the residual stresses and interfacial shear strength of a TiAlN coating on Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe alloy (ZIRLO™) substrate designed to improve corrosion resistance of fuel cladding used in water-cooled nuclear reactors, both during normal and exceptional conditions, e.g. a loss of coolant event (LOCA). The distribution and maximum value of the interfacial shear strength has been estimated using a modified shear-lag model. The parameters critical to this analysis were determined experimentally. From these input parameters the interfacial shear strength between the TiAlN coating and ZIRLO™ substrate was inferred to be around 120 MPa. It is worth noting that the apparent strength of the coating is high (∼3.4 GPa). However, this is predominantly due to the large compressive residuals stress (3 GPa in compression), which must be overcome for the coating to fail in tension, which happens at a load just 150 MPa in excess of this.

  20. Role of fluid shear stress in regulating VWF structure, function and related blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogia, Shobhit; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is the largest glycoprotein in blood. It plays a crucial role in primary hemostasis via its binding interaction with platelet and endothelial cell surface receptors, other blood proteins and extra-cellular matrix components. This protein is found as a series of repeat units that are disulfide bonded to form multimeric structures. Once in blood, the protein multimer distribution is dynamically regulated by fluid shear stress which has two opposing effects: it promotes the aggregation or self-association of multiple VWF units, and it simultaneously reduces multimer size by facilitating the force-dependent cleavage of the protein by various proteases, most notably ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type repeats, motif 1 type 13). In addition to these effects, fluid shear also controls the solution and substrate-immobilized structure of VWF, the nature of contact between blood platelets and substrates, and the biomechanics of the GpIbα-VWF bond. These features together regulate different physiological and pathological processes including normal hemostasis, arterial and venous thrombosis, von Willebrand disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. This article discusses current knowledge of VWF structure-function relationships with emphasis on the effects of hydrodynamic shear, including rapid methods to estimate the nature and magnitude of these forces in selected conditions. It shows that observations made by many investigators using solution and substrate-based shearing devices can be reconciled upon considering the physical size of VWF and the applied mechanical force in these different geometries. PMID:26600266

  1. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakesh, R., E-mail: rakesh.rad87@gmail.com [DAE Graduate Fellows, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kohli, D. [DAE Graduate Fellows, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, V.P.; Prasad, G.J. [Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum–aluminum (case A) and aluminum–aluminum + yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum–uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) ‘fuel-meat’ in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in ‘out-of-plane’ residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  2. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, R.; Kohli, D.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum-aluminum (case A) and aluminum-aluminum + yttria (Y2O3) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum-uranium silicide (U3Si2) 'fuel-meat' in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in 'out-of-plane' residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  3. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  4. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  5. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  6. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2014-09-14

    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  7. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  8. Wall shear stress characterization of a 3D bluff-body separated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi

    2013-10-01

    Efficient flow control strategies aimed at reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles require a detailed knowledge of the reference flow. In this work, the flow around the rear slanted window of a generic car model was experimentally studied through wall shear stress measurements using an electrochemical method. The mean and fluctuating wall shear stress within the wall impact regions of the recirculation bubble and the main longitudinal vortex structures which develop above the rear window are presented. Correlations allow a more detailed characterization of the recirculation phenomenon within the separation bubble. In the model symmetry plane the recirculation structure compares well with simpler 2D configurations; specific lengths, flapping motion and shedding of large-scale vortices are observed, these similarities diminish when leaving the middle plane due to the strong three-dimensionality of the flow. A specific attention is paid to the convection processes occurring within the recirculation: a downstream convection velocity is observed, in accordance with 2D recirculations from the literature, and an upstream convection is highlighted along the entire bubble length which has not been underlined in some previous canonical configurations.

  9. Laminar shear stress delivers cell cycle arrest and anti-apoptosis to mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Luo; Wei Xiong; Jun Zhou; Zhong Fang; Wenjian Chen; Yubo Fan; Feng Li

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of cell function and fluid flow is a potent mechanical stimulus. Although the mechanisms of osteoblasts and osteocytes responding to fluid flow are being elucidated,little is known about how the osteoprogenitors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), respond to fluid flow. Here, we examined the effects of laminar shear stress (LSS) on MSCs in vitro. MSCs from bone marrow of SpragueDawley rats were isolated, purified, and subjected to physiological levels of LSS. DNA synthesis and cell cycle were measured through [3H]thymidine and by flow cytometry,respectively, to detect the cellular proliferation. Annexin V immunostaining and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA expression were evaluated to determine the effect of LSS on MSCs apoptosis. Results showed that fluid shear stress caused a doserelated reduction of MSCs' proliferation rate with the majority of cells being arrested in the Go or G1 phase.Moreover, it was found that physiological levels of LSS exerted a potent suppression effect on MSC apoptosis, In summary, these data revealed a critical role of LSS in maintaining the quiescence of MSCs.

  10. Implementation of wall shear stress model for a thin liquid film in CUPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components, a three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code, named CUPID, has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. It has been validated against various conceptual problems and experimental results, but mainly focused on the low void fraction flows such as a bubbly flow. In the present study, one of the required constitutive models of the two-phase equations, a wall shear stress model for a thin liquid film, was implemented and tested. This paper introduces the mechanistic wall shear stress model for a liquid film and then, presents the simulation result using CUPID with the model for a conceptual problem of a downward liquid film flow. The simulation result was compared with the analytical solution and the STAR-CCM+ calculation result for the verification and validation. From this validation against the conceptual problem, it was found that the implemented model can reproduce the downward liquid film behavior, such as the film thickness and the velocity appropriately. However, the present work is limited to the downward liquid film merely, so that more validations for high void fraction flows are required with various flow conditions. Moreover, since the model is evaluated for the laminar liquid film, the influence of the turbulence on the film behavior needs to be tested

  11. miR-126 Is Involved in Vascular Remodeling under Laminar Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mondadori dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and changes in gene expression of vascular endothelium are mainly due to shear stress and inflammation. Cell phenotype modulation has been clearly demonstrated to be controlled by small noncoding micro-RNAs (miRNAs. This study focused on the effect of laminar shear stress (LSS on human endothelial cells (HUVECs, with an emphasis on the role of miRNA-126 (miR-126. Exposure of HUVECs in vitro to LSS modified the shape of HUVECs and concomitantly regulated the expression of miR-126, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and syndecan-4 (SDC-4. A significant upregulation of miR-126 during long-term exposure to flow was shown. Interestingly, LSS enhanced SDC-4 expression on the HUVEC membranes. Overexpression of miR-126 in HUVECs decreased the levels of targets stromal cell-derived factor-1 SDF-1/CXCL12 and VCAM-1 but increased the expression of RGS16, CXCR4, and SDC-4. No significant difference in terms of cell proliferation and apoptosis was observed between scramble, anti-miR-126, and pre-miR-126 transfected HUVECs. In Apo-E KO/CKD mice aortas expressing a high level of miR-126, SDC-4 was concomitantly increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-126 (i is overexpressed by long-term LSS, (ii has a role in up- and downregulation of genes involved in atherosclerosis, and (iii affects SDC-4 expression.

  12. A MEMS thermal shear stress sensor produced by a combination of substrate-free structures with anodic bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yi; Qu, Furong; Wang, Guanya; Nie, Mengyan; Li, Zhigang; Ou, Wen; Xie, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    By combining substrate-free structures with anodic bonding technology, we present a simple and efficient micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) thermal shear stress sensor. Significantly, the resulting depth of the vacuum cavity of the sensor is determined by the thickness of the silicon substrate at which Si is removed by the anisotropic wet etching process. Compared with the sensor based on a sacrificial layer technique, the proposed MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor exhibits dramatically improved sensitivity due to the much larger vacuum cavity depth. The fabricated MEMS thermal shear-stress sensor with a vacuum cavity depth as large as 525 μm and a vacuum of 5 × 10-2 Pa exhibits a sensitivity of 184.5 mV/Pa and a response time of 180 μs. We also experimentally demonstrate that the sensor power is indeed proportional to the 1/3-power of the applied shear stress. The substrate-free structures offer the ability to precisely measure the shear stress fluctuations in low speed turbulent boundary layer wind tunnels.

  13. Shear stress induced by an interstitial level of slow flow increases the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through TAZ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Kim

    Full Text Available Shear stress activates cellular signaling involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation under interstitial flow are not fully understood. Here, we show the increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under exposure to constant, extremely low shear stress created by osmotic pressure-induced flow in a microfluidic chip. The interstitial level of shear stress in the proposed microfluidic system stimulated nuclear localization of TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, a transcriptional modulator of MSCs, activated TAZ target genes such as CTGF and Cyr61, and induced osteogenic differentiation. TAZ-depleted cells showed defects in shear stress-induced osteogenic differentiation. In shear stress induced cellular signaling, Rho signaling pathway was important forthe nuclear localization of TAZ. Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ is an important mediator of interstitial flow-driven shear stress signaling in osteoblast differentiation of MSCs.

  14. Forced vibrations of a layer of a viscoelastic material under the action of a convective wave of shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, V. M.

    2014-11-01

    A two-dimensional problem of deformation of a layer of a viscoelastic material glued to a solid base by a traveling wave of shear stress is solved. Analytical expressions for two shear compliance components corresponding to two surface displacement components are obtained. It is shown that the dimensionless compliance components depend only on the viscoelastic properties of the material, the ratio of the wavelength to the layer thickness λ/H, and the ratio of the wave velocity to the propagation rate of shear vibrations V/C {/t 0}. Data on the dynamic compliance in the ranges 0.2 layer are presented.

  15. Development of joints and shear fractures in the Kuqa depression and its implication to regional stress field switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zhongpei; WANG; Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    The superimposed basin must have undergone the changes of regional stress field. Study on the nature and switch of regional stress field of superimposed basin is very useful to understanding its stress state and tectonic events during its formation and evolution. As sensitive markers of small stress changes, joint and shear fracture, characterized by consistency of orientation over wide area, can be used to reconstruct paleostress state and its evolution. Detailed observations and analysis on the orientations, geometrical patterns, sequences of joints and shear fractures and their chronological relation to faults and folds show that, the NEE-SWW systematic joints and NNW-SSE systematic joints developed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata are much more prominent than NW-SE systematic joints and shear fractures with different orientations. And the NWW-SEE and NW-SE systematic joints formed later than NEE-SWW systematic joints but earlier than shear fractures with different orientations. According to the relationships between joint and shear fractures and stress, the NEE-SWW systematic joints are inferred to result from lateral weak extension caused by the late Cretaceous regional uplift, while the NNW-SSE and NW-SE systematic joints are interpreted as syn-tectonic deformation relating to strong N-S compression in the Neogene. But some conjugate shear fractures occur probably due to sinistral strike-slip faulting in the Kuqa depression. At the beginning of the Neogene, the stress field changed and the maximal principal stress σ1 switched from vertical to horizontal.

  16. Experimental and CFD simulation studies of wall shear stress for different impeller configurations and MBR activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovich, N; Chan, C C V; Bentzen, T R; Rasmussen, M R

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been used successfully in biological wastewater treatment for effective solids-liquid separation. However, a common problem encountered with MBR systems is fouling of the membrane resulting in frequent membrane cleaning and replacement which makes the system less appealing for full-scale applications. It has been widely demonstrated that the filtration performances in MBRs can be improved by understanding the shear stress over the membrane surface. Modern tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to diagnose and understand the shear stress in an MBR. Nevertheless, proper experimental validation is required to validate CFD simulation. In this work experimental measurements of shear stress induced by impellers at a membrane surface were made with an electrochemical approach and the results were used to validate CFD simulations. As good results were obtained with the CFD model (<9% error), it was extrapolated to include the non-Newtonian behaviour of activated sludge. PMID:22592479

  17. Energy Consumption in Terms of Shear Stress for Two Types of Membrane Bioreactors Used for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Bérube, P.R.;

    2011-01-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): Hollow Fiber (HF) and Hollow Sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power...... and the blower power demand per unit of permeate. It was found that for the system geometries considered, in terms the of the blower power, the HF MBR requires less power compared to HS MBR. However, in terms of blower power per unit of permeate, the HS MBR requires less energy. The analysis of shear stress over...... that the CFD results for the HS MBR were accurate. A linear empirical correlation between the average shear stress and the blower power per unit of permeate was made. This relationship includes: the air flow rate, the geometrical dimensions of the MBR, the permeate flux and the membrane area and can be used...

  18. Experimental and CFD Simulation Studies of Wall Shear Stress for Different Impeller Configurations and MBR Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby;

    2012-01-01

    appealing for full-scale applications. It has been widely demonstrated that the filtration performances in MBRs can be improved by understanding the shear stress over the membrane surface. Modern tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to diagnose and understand the shear stress......Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) have been used successfully in biological wastewater treatment for effective solids-liquid separation. However, a common problem encountered with MBR systems is fouling of the membrane resulting in frequent membrane cleaning and replacement which makes the system less...... in an MBR. Nevertheless, proper experimental validation is required to validate CFD simulation. In this work experimental measurements of shear stress induced by impellers at a membrane surface were made with an electrochemical approach and the results were used to validate CFD simulations. As good results...

  19. Hydrostatic pressure and shear stress affect endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release by endothelial cells in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzi, Federico; Bianchi, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti; Domenici, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abundant experimental evidence demonstrates that endothelial cells are sensitive to flow; however, the effect of fluid pressure or pressure gradients that are used to drive viscous flow is not well understood. There are two principal physical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall by the passage of intra-luminal blood: pressure and shear. To analyze the effects of pressure and shear independently, these two stresses were applied to cultured cells in two different types of bioreactors: a pressure-controlled bioreactor and a laminar flow bioreactor, in which controlled levels of pressure or shear stress, respectively, can be generated. Using these bioreactor systems, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were measured under various shear stress and pressure conditions. Compared to the controls, a decrease of ET-1 production by the cells cultured in both bioreactors was observed, whereas NO synthesis was up-regulated in cells under shear stress, but was not modulated by hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the two hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels affect endothelial cell function in different ways, and that both should be considered when planning in vitro experiments in the presence of flow. Understanding the individual and synergic effects of the two forces could provide important insights into physiological and pathological processes involved in vascular remodeling and adaptation.

  20. In situ monitoring of localized shear stress and fluid flow within developing tissue constructs by Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2008-02-01

    Mechanical stimuli can be introduced to three dimensional (3D) cell cultures by use of perfusion bioreactor. Especially in musculoskeletal tissues, shear stress caused by fluid flow generally increase extra-cellular matrix (ECM) production and cell proliferation. The relationship between the shear stress and the tissue development in situ is complicated because of the non-uniform pore distribution within the cell-seeded scaffold. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is capable of monitoring localized fluid flow and shear stress in the complex porous scaffold by examining their variation trends at perfusion rate of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ml/hr. Then, we developed the 3D porous cellular constructs, cell-seeded chitosan scaffolds monitored during several days by DOCT. The fiber based fourier domain DOCT employed a 1300 nm superluminescent diode with a bandwidth of 52 nm and a xyz resolution of 20×20×15 μm in free space. This setup allowed us not only to assess the cell growth and ECM deposition by observing their different scattering behaviors but also to further investigate how the cell attachment and ECM production has the effect on the flow shear stress and the relationship between flow rate and shear stress in the developing tissue construct. The possibility to monitor continuously the constructs under perfusion will easily indicate the effect of flow rate or shear stress on the cell viability and cell proliferation, and then discriminate the perfusion parameters affecting the pre-tissue formation rate growth.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-suppressive compounds from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keiko; Kodani, Shinya; Kubo, Masakazu; Masuno, Kazuhiko; Sekiya, Atsushi; Nagai, Kaoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    Four compounds were isolated from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom, Hericium erinaceum. Compounds 1-4 were identified as methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbutanoyl) benzoate, 2-chloro-1,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzene, methyl 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate, and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by an interpretation of the NMR and MS data, respectively. This is the first reported isolation of 1 from a natural source. All the compounds showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.

  2. Measurement of wall shear stress in chick embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Dou, Shidan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Suo, Yanyan; Wang, Fengwen

    2015-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. To study the mechanism, WSS measurement is a step with significant importance. WSS is caused by blood flow imposed on the inner surface of the heart wall and it can be determined by calculating velocity gradients of blood flow in a direction perpendicular to the wall. However, the WSS of the early stage embryonic heart is difficult to measure since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is uniquely suitable for the study of early stage embryonic heart development. In this paper, we introduce a method to measure the WSS of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. After phase synchronization, OFT boundary segmentation, and OFT center line calculation, Doppler angle of the blood flow in the OFT can be achieved (This method has been described in previous publications). Combining with the Doppler OCT results, we calculate absolute blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT. The boundary of the OFT was segmented at each cross-sectional structural image, then geometrical center of the OFT can be calculated. Thus, the gradients of blood flow in radial direction can be calculated. This velocity gradient near the wall is termed wall shear rate and the WSS value is proportional to the wall shear rate. Based on this method, the WSS at different heart beating phase are compare. The result demonstrates that OCT is capable of early stage chicken embryonic heart WSS study.

  3. Measurement and analysis of flow wall shear stress in an interior subchannel of triangular array rods. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-08-01

    A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in.

  4. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yokota, Hiroki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungna@iupui.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  5. [Measurement method of arterial shear stress of rats model based on ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhu, Yiheng; Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Zheng, Hairong; Lu, Guangwen

    2014-12-01

    The development and progression of atherosclerosis and thrombosis are closely related to changes of hemodynamics parameters. Ultrasonic pulse wave Doppler technique is normally used for noninvasively blood flow imaging. However, this technique only provides one-dimensional velocity and depends on the angle between the ultrasound beam and the local velocity vector. In this study, ultrasonic particle image velocimetry method was used to assess whole field hemodynamic changes in normal blood vessels. By using the polynomial fitting method, we investigated the velocity gradient and assessed the shear in different blood flow velocity of 10 healthy rats. It was found that using four polynomial fitting could result in optimal measurement results. The results obtained by ultrasonic particle image velocimetry accorded with the results obtained using Doppler technique. The statistical average of cyclical vessel wall shear stress was positively related to the locational mean velocity. It is proven that ultrasonic particle image velocimetry method could be used to assess directly the real-time whole field hemodynamic changes in blood vessels and was non-invasively, and should be a good prosperous technique for monitoring complex blood flow in stenotic ar- teries.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Wall Shear Stress in an Aortic Coarctation - Impact of Virtual Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Matts; Andersson, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent and wall impinging blood flow causes abnormal shear forces onto the lumen and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, wall shear stress (WSS) and related flow parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) as well as after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Finite element analysis was performed to acquire six different dilated CoAs. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Pre-intervention, the presence of jet flow wall impingement caused an elevated WSS zone, with a distal region of low and oscillatory WSS. After intervention, cases with a more favorable centralized jet showed reduced high WSS values at the opposed wall. Despite significant turbulence reduction post-treatment, enhanced regions of low and oscillatory WSS were observed for all cases. This numerical method has demonstrated the morphological impact on WSS distribution in an CoA. With the predictability and validation capabilities of a combined CFD/MRI approach, a step towards patient-specific intervention planning is taken.

  7. Reynolds shear stress for textile prosthetic heart valves in relation to fabric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, David L; Yousefi, Atieh; Forleo, Marcio; Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Dasi, Lakshmi P

    2016-07-01

    The most widely implanted prosthetic heart valves are either mechanical or bioprosthetic. While the former suffers from thrombotic risks, the latter suffers from a lack of durability. Textile valves, alternatively, can be designed with durability and to exhibit hemodynamics similar to the native valve, lowering the risk for thrombosis. Deviations from native valve hemodynamics can result in an increased Reynolds Shear Stress (RSS), which has the potential to instigate hemolysis or shear-induced thrombosis. This study is aimed at characterizing flow in multiple textile valve designs with an aim of developing a low profile valve. Valves were created using a shaping process based on heating a textile membrane and placed within a left heart simulator. Turbulence and bulk hemodynamics were assessed through particle imaging velocimetry, along with flow and pressure measurements. Overall, RSS was reduced for low profile valves relative to high profile valves, but was otherwise similar among low profile valves involving different fabric designs. However, leakage was found in 3 of the 4 low profile valve designs driving the fabric design for low profile valves. Through textile design, low profile valves can be created with favorable hemodynamics. PMID:26919564

  8. Reynolds shear stress for textile prosthetic heart valves in relation to fabric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, David L; Yousefi, Atieh; Forleo, Marcio; Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Dasi, Lakshmi P

    2016-07-01

    The most widely implanted prosthetic heart valves are either mechanical or bioprosthetic. While the former suffers from thrombotic risks, the latter suffers from a lack of durability. Textile valves, alternatively, can be designed with durability and to exhibit hemodynamics similar to the native valve, lowering the risk for thrombosis. Deviations from native valve hemodynamics can result in an increased Reynolds Shear Stress (RSS), which has the potential to instigate hemolysis or shear-induced thrombosis. This study is aimed at characterizing flow in multiple textile valve designs with an aim of developing a low profile valve. Valves were created using a shaping process based on heating a textile membrane and placed within a left heart simulator. Turbulence and bulk hemodynamics were assessed through particle imaging velocimetry, along with flow and pressure measurements. Overall, RSS was reduced for low profile valves relative to high profile valves, but was otherwise similar among low profile valves involving different fabric designs. However, leakage was found in 3 of the 4 low profile valve designs driving the fabric design for low profile valves. Through textile design, low profile valves can be created with favorable hemodynamics.

  9. In-situ shear stress indicator using heated strain gages at the flow boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chi-An; Yang, Fuling

    2011-11-01

    This work borrows the concept of hot-wire anemometry and sketch a technique that uses local heat transfer to infer the flow field and the corresponding stress. Conventional strain gages were mounted at the flow solid boundary as the heat source and acrylic boundary was chosen for its low thermal conductivity ensuring heat accumulation when a gage is energized. The gage would now work in slightly overheated state and its self-heating leads to an additional thermal strain. When exposed to a flow field, heat is brought away by local forced convection, resulting in deviations in gage signal from that developed in quiescent liquid. We have developed a facility to achieve synchronous gage measurements at different locations on a solid boundary. Three steady flow motions were considered: circular Couette flow, rectilinear uniform flow, and rectilinear oscillating flow. Preliminary tests show the gage reading does respond to the imposed flow through thermal effects and greater deviation was measured in flows of higher shear strain rates. The correlation between the gage signals and the imposed flow field is further examined by theoretical analysis. We also introduced a second solid boundary to the vicinity of the gage in the two rectilinear flows. The gage readings demonstrate rises in its magnitudes indicating wall amplification effect on the local shear strain, agreeing to the drag augmentation by a second solid boundary reported in many multiphase flow literatures.

  10. Design of a squeeze film magnetorheological brake considering compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C.; Hirani, H.

    2013-02-01

    A magnetorheological brake, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnet, is proposed to replace the conventional heavy weight low response hydraulic disk brake. The frictional characteristics of the proposed brake can be controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid as function of magnetic field and normal compressive force. The controllable yield stress retards the surfaces of rotating disks, thus MR fluid can be used as a brake lining material. The present research work attempts designing a squeeze film MR brake by accounting compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid. Theoretical calculations indicate that the estimated braking torque of the six plate squeeze film MR brake, under compression, is in the order of 600Nm. To validate the theoretical design and its findings, a prototype of single-plate squeeze film MR disk brake has been developed. Experimental test setup helps to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0 to 1.25 A).

  11. Helical flows of second grade fluid due to constantly accelerated shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M.; Rauf, A.; Fetecau, C.; Khan, N. A.

    2011-04-01

    The helical flows of second grade fluid between two infinite coaxial circular cylinders is considered. The motion is produced by the inner cylinder that at the initial moment applies torsional and longitudinal constantly accelerated shear stresses to the fluid. The exact analytic solutions, obtained by employing the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and presented in series form in term of usual Bessel functions of first and second kind, satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. In the limiting case when α → 0, the solutions for Newtonian fluid are obtained for the same motion. The large-time solutions and transient solutions for second grade fluid are also obtained, and effect of material parameter α and kinematic viscosity ν is discussed. In the last, the effects of various parameters of interest on fluid motion as well as the comparison between second grade and Newtonian fluids are analyzed by graphical illustrations.

  12. Changes in wall shear stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms with increasing wall stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    During the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms, local changes occur in the composition and structure of the diseased wall, resulting in its stiffening. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in idealized models of aneurysms using a finite element method. A full coupling of the equations governing the pulsatile blood flow and the deformation of the compliant wall is undertaken. The effect of the progressive stiffening of the wall is analyzed at various stages in the growth of the aneurysm. Increasing the wall stiffness alters the distribution of wall shear stresses and leads to an increase in their magnitude. The wall compliance is shown to have a more pronounced effect on non-axisymmetric aneurysms, which sustain large displacements. The overall movement of the aneurysm models increases the three-dimensionality of the flow.

  13. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    measurements in the core material: (1) core material with an idealized armour layer made out of spherical objects that also allowed for detailed velocity measurements between and above the armour, and (2) core material with real rock armour stones. The same core material was applied through the entire......This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... pressure gradients were found which exerted a lift force up to ≈60% of the submerged weight of the core material. These maximum outward directed pressure gradients were linked to the maximum run-down event and were in general situated at, or slightly below, the maximum run-down level. Detailed velocity...

  14. Micro thermal shear stress sensor based on vacuum anodic bonding and bulk-micromachining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Liang; Ou Yi; Shi Sha-Li; Ma Jin; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a micro thermal shear stress sensor with a cavity underneath, based on vacuum anodic bonding and bulk micromachined technology. A Ti/Pt alloy strip, 2μmx100μm, is deposited on the top of a thin silicon nitride diaphragm and functioned as the thermal sensor element. By using vacuum anodic bonding and bulk-si anisotropic wet etching process instead of the sacrificial-layer technique, a cavity, functioned as the adiabatic vacuum chamber, 200μm×200μm×400μm, is placed between the silicon nitride diaphragm and glass (Corning 7740). This method totally avoid adhesion problem which is a major issue of the sacrificial-layer technique.

  15. A Multi-scale Refined Zigzag Theory for Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Plates with Improved Transverse Shear Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Luigi; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) enables accurate predictions of the in-plane displacements, strains, and stresses. The transverse shear stresses obtained from constitutive equations are layer-wise constant. Although these transverse shear stresses are generally accurate in the average, layer-wise sense, they are nevertheless discontinuous at layer interfaces, and thus they violate the requisite interlaminar continuity of transverse stresses. Recently, Tessler applied Reissner's mixed variational theorem and RZT kinematic assumptions to derive an accurate and efficient shear-deformation theory for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich beams, called RZT(m), where "m" stands for "mixed". Herein, the RZT(m) for beams is extended to plate analysis, where two alternative assumptions for the transverse shear stresses field are examined: the first follows Tessler's formulation, whereas the second is based on Murakami's polynomial approach. Results for elasto-static simply supported and cantilever plates demonstrate that Tessler's formulation results in a powerful and efficient structural theory that is well-suited for the analysis of multilayered composite and sandwich panels.

  16. [Comparison of adhesion of different endothelial cells under shear stress load in the flow field in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Eryong; Xu, Weilin; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Yingqiang

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed to compare the differences of adhesion properties of endothelial cells (EC) from arteries (AEC), veins (VEC) and capillaries (MVEC) under shear stress condition, and to explore whether they can get the same adhesive ability as graft in similar shear stress conditions. With mended parallel plate flow apparatus and peristalsis pump providing fluid shear stress used, endothelial culture models were established in vitro with the same environmental factors as steady culture. To compare the adhesion among three kinds of endothelial cells under dynamic condition and static condition, the dynamic change of cytoskeletal actin filaments and the effects of different adhesive proteins coated on the adhesion of EC to the glass were studied. The cultured endothelial cells under flow conditions were extended and arranged along the direction of flow. The adhesive ability from high to low under static condition were AEC, MVEC and VEC (VEC compared with AEC or MVEC, P different between AEC and MVEC. But VEC was significantly different (P stress fibers were formed, which even interconnected to form a whole in the MVEC. The adhesion of AEC, VEC and MVEC under shear stress conditions are more significantly increased than those under the static culture conditions, and the MVEC can achieve the same adhesion as AEC.

  17. Compressive stress field in the crust deduced from shear-wave anisotropy: an example in capital area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; WU Jing

    2008-01-01

    The rocks in the crust are pervaded by stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, and the complex fault tectonics and stress control the configuration of the microcracks, however shear-wave splitting could indicate this kind of characteristics. In this paper, Capital Area Seismograph Network (CASN), the widest scope and highest density of regional seismograph network presently in China, is adopted to deduce the principal compressive stress field distribution pattern from polarizations of fast shear-waves, based on shear-wave splitting analysis. The principal compressive stress in capital area of China is at NE85.7°±41.0° in this study. Compared with the results of principal compressive stress field in North China obtained from other methods, the results in this study are reliable in the principal com-pressive stress field distribution in capital area. The results show that it is an effective way, although it is the first time to directly obtain crustal stress field from seismic anisotropy. It is effectively applied to the zones with dense seismograph stations.

  18. Experimental study on time-dependent stress and strain of in-plane shear(ModeⅡ) fracture process of rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 饶秋华; 谢海峰

    2008-01-01

    Shear-box test with strain measurement was used to study time-dependent stress and strain of in-plane shear(Mode Ⅱ) fracture process of rock and to reveal the mechanism of Mode Ⅱ fracture.Numerical results show that the maximum shear stress τmax at the crack tip is much larger than the maximum tensile stress σ1 and the ratio of τmax/σ1 is about 5,which favors Mode Ⅱ fracture of rock.Test results indicate that the strain-time curve comprises three stages:the linear deformation stage,the micro-cracking stage and the macroscopic crack propagation.The strain in the direction of the original notch plane is negative,due to restraining effect of compressive loading applied to the original notch plane.Both σ1 and τmax are increased as the load increases,but the slope of τmax is larger than that of σ1 and the value of τmax is always larger than that of σ1.Therefore,τmax reaches its limited value at peak load before σ1 and results in Mode Ⅱ fracture of rock.Shear-box(i.e.compression-shear) test becomes a potential standard method for achieving the true Mode Ⅱ fracture and determining Mode Ⅱ fracture toughness of rock.

  19. Reynolds Stress and Sheared Poloidal Flow in the Edge Plasma Region of the HT-6M Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Hao; YU Chang-Xuan; XU Yu-Hong; LING Bi-Li; GONG Xian-Zu; LIU Bao-Hua; WAN Bao-Nian

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution measurements of the electrostatic Reynolds stress, radial electric field and poloidal phase velocity of fluctuations in the edge region of the HT-6M tokamak are carried out. The Reynolds stress shows a radial gradient in proximity to the poloidal velocity shear. A comparison of the profiles between the Reynolds stress gradient and the poloidal velocity damping reveals some similarity in their magnitude and radial structure. These facts suggest that the turbulence-induced Reynolds stress may play a significant role in generating the poloidal flow in the plasma edge region.

  20. Strain rate and shear stress at the grain scale generated during near equilibrium antigorite dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Mainprice, David; Clément, Maxime

    2016-04-01

    has not been previously reported and offers an unique opportunity to estimate a lower bound for the strain rates and local shear stresses generated during the grain growth and coeval compaction. Estimated values based on experimental creep rates on pyroxene aggregates [3] result in strain rates in the order of 10‑12 to 10‑13 s‑1 and shear stresses of 60-70 MPa. Lower shear stress values (20-40 MPa) are retrieved using the thermodynamic model clinoenstatite inversion of Coe [4] in combination with the hydrostatic high-pressure experimental data on the stability of low clinoenstatite (P21/c). These data suggest that, under low deviatoric stress, fluid extraction and compaction near equilibrium in natural systems are only marginally higher than the strain rate of the solid matrix. These observations support the relatively long residence time of fluids in dehydration fronts and the necessity to further explore and quantify the feedback between mineral grain growth and fluid migration. [1] Connolly (2010) Elements 6(3):165-172; [2] Padrón-Navarta et al. (2015). Contrib Miner Petrol 169:35 [3] Raleigh et al. (1971). J Geophys Res 76(17): 4011-4022; [4] Coe (1970). Contrib Miner Petrol 26(3):247-264

  1. The decrease in histone methyltransferase EZH2 in response to fluid shear stress alters endothelial gene expression and promotes quiescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Vanchin, Byambasuren; Harmsen, Martin; Krenning, Guido

    2016-01-01

    High uniform fluid shear stress (FSS) is atheroprotective and preserves the endothelial phenotype and function through activation of downstream mediators such as MAPK7 (Erk5). Endothelial cells respond to FSS thanks to mechanotransduction. However, how the resulting signaling is integrated and resol

  2. Modeling of [Formula: see text]-mediated calcium signaling in vascular endothelial cells induced by fluid shear stress and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2015-10-01

    The calcium signaling plays a vital role in flow-dependent vascular endothelial cell (VEC) physiology. Variations in fluid shear stress and ATP concentration in blood vessels can activate dynamic responses of cytosolic-free [Formula: see text] through various calcium channels on the plasma membrane. In this paper, a novel dynamic model has been proposed for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 [Formula: see text]-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in VECs induced by fluid shear stress and ATP. Our model includes [Formula: see text] signaling pathways through P2Y receptors and [Formula: see text] channels (indirect mechanism) and captures the roles of the [Formula: see text] compound channels in VEC [Formula: see text] signaling in response to fluid shear stress (direct mechanism). In particular, it takes into account that the [Formula: see text] compound channels are regulated by intracellular [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations. The simulation studies have demonstrated that the dynamic responses of calcium concentration produced by the proposed model correlate well with the existing experimental observations. We also conclude from the simulation studies that endogenously released ATP may play an insignificant role in the process of intracellular [Formula: see text] response to shear stress.

  3. Mechanical interaction between cells and fluid for bone tissue engineering scaffold: modulation of the interfacial shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, L D; Rakotomanana, L; Razafimahery, F; Terrier, A; Pioletti, D P

    2010-03-22

    An analytical model of the fluid/cell mechanical interaction was developed. The interfacial shear stress, due to the coupling between the fluid and the cell deformation, was characterized by a new dimensionless number N(fs). For N(fs) above a critical value, the fluid/cell interaction had a damping effect on the interfacial shear stress. Conversely, for N(fs) below this critical value, interfacial shear stress was amplified. As illustration, the role of the dynamic fluid/cell mechanical coupling was studied in a specific biological situation involving cells seeded in a bone scaffold. For the particular bone scaffold chosen, the dimensionless number N(fs) was higher than the critical value. In this case, the dynamic shear stress at the fluid/cell interface is damped for increasing excitation frequency. Interestingly, this damping effect is correlated to the pore diameter of the scaffold, furnishing thus target values in the design of the scaffold. Correspondingly, an efficient cell stimulation might be achieved with a scaffold of pore size larger than 300 microm as no dynamic damping effect is likely to take place. The analytical model proposed in this study, while being a simplification of a fluid/cell mechanical interaction, brings complementary insights to numerical studies by analyzing the effect of different physical parameters. PMID:20004397

  4. Energy consumption in terms of shear stress for two types of membrane bioreactors used for municipal wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas; Bentzen, Thomas R.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-10-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): hollow fiber (HF) and hollow sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power and the blower power demand per unit of permeate volume. Results showed that for the system geometries considered, in terms the of the blower power, the HF MBR requires less power compared to HS MBR. However, in terms of blower power per unit of permeate volume, the HS MBR requires less energy. The analysis of shear stress over the membrane surface was made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Experimental measurements for the HF MBR were compared with the CFD model and an error less that 8% was obtained. For the HS MBR, experimental measurements of velocity profiles were made and an error of 11% was found. This work uses an empirical relationship to determine the shear stress based on the ratio of aeration blower power to tank volume. This relationship is used in bubble column reactors and it is extrapolate to determine shear stress on MBR systems. This relationship proved to be overestimated by 28% compared to experimental measurements and CFD results. Therefore, a corrective factor is included in the relationship in order to account for the membrane placed inside the bioreactor.

  5. Stress results from two-dimensional granular shear flow simulations using various collision models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterhagen, William R; Curtis, Jennifer S; Wassgren, Carl R

    2005-06-01

    Collision resolution is one of the key elements in a discrete element method algorithm for modeling granular flows. Several collision models have been proposed for this process. The hard-particle collision approach is typically used for dilute systems, or for those in which the assumption of binary and instantaneous particle-particle contact remains valid. As the solids fraction increases, however, multiple, enduring collisions can occur and a soft-particle approach is more appropriate for resolving the collision dynamics. In this work, the delineation between dilute and dense systems and the suitability of contact models are explored for a range of solid fractions. Stress results for two-dimensional shear flow simulations are compared using several collision models including an event-driven hard-particle model, a hysteretic spring soft-particle collision model following Walton and Braun [J. Rheol. 30, 949 (1986)], and a hybrid hard-particle-with-overlap model following Hopkins and Louge [Phys. Fluids A 3, 47 (1991)]. Results show that stresses are accurately predicted for a range of solids fractions, coefficients of restitution, and friction coefficients by both the hard-particle-with-overlap and soft-particle models so long as a sufficiently large loading stiffness is used for the soft-particle model. Additional results investigating the accuracy of the collision models and the amount of collisional overlap are presented as functions of the simulation time step and model parameters. PMID:16089735

  6. The average stress in a suspension of cube-shaped magnetic particles subject to shear and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.; Archer, Lynden A.; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a homogeneous magnetic field (H) on the bulk stress in a dilute suspension of weakly Brownian, magnetic cubes suspended in a Newtonian fluid subjected to a linear shear flow is studied. The stresslet on each cube is anisotropic and depends on its orientation. Application of a magnetic field results in anisotropy in the orientation distribution. The steady-state orientation distribution is derived as a function of the angle between the directions of the magnetic field and the fluid vorticity vector and the ratio of the magnetic torque to the viscous torque. Knowledge of the distribution function is used to derive a general expression for the bulk stress in a general linear flow field and a magnetic field. Specific numerical results are obtained for the intrinsic viscosity in a simple shear flow when the magnetic field is either parallel or perpendicular to the vorticity. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to vorticity, we find that the intrinsic viscosity increases at first with increasing shear rate passes through a maximum and then shear thins. The intrinsic viscosity can vary from 3.25 to 5.5 in response to changes in the relative strengths of the shear and magnetic fields. The maximum value of 5.5 is obtained when the magnetic moment of the cube, which is assumed to be parallel to the normal of one of the faces, lies in the flow gradient plane at an angle of π/4 from the flow direction.

  7. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635) by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Hwang, Jinah; Sykes, Michelle; Michell, Belinda J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Lum, Hazel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production by phosphorylating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at Ser(1179) in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. The eNOS has additional potential phosphorylation sites, including Ser(116), Thr(497), and Ser(635). Here, we studied these potential phosphorylation sites in response to shear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and 8-bromocAMP (8-BRcAMP) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). All three stimuli induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635), which was consistently slower than that at Ser(1179). Thr(497) was rapidly dephosphorylated by 8-BRcAMP but not by shear and VEGF. None of the stimuli phosphorylated Ser(116). Whereas shear-stimulated Ser(635) phosphorylation was not affected by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, it was blocked by either treating the cells with a PKA inhibitor H89 or infecting them with a recombinant adenovirus-expressing PKA inhibitor. These results suggest that shear stress stimulates eNOS by two different mechanisms: 1) PKA- and PI3K-dependent and 2) PKA-dependent but PI3K-independent pathways. Phosphorylation of Ser(635) may play an important role in chronic regulation of eNOS in response to mechanical and humoral stimuli.

  8. Measurements of wall-shear-stress distribution on an NACA0018 airfoil by liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s−1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV

  9. Relation between plaque type, plaque thickness, blood shear stress, and plaque stress in coronary arteries assessed by X-ray Angiography and Intravascular Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Balocco, Simone; Gatta, Carlo; Alberti, Marina; Carrillo, Xavier; Rigla, Juan; Radeva, Petia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Atheromatic plaque progression is affected, among others phenomena, by biomechanical, biochemical, and physiological factors. In this paper, the authors introduce a novel framework able to provide both morphological (vessel radius, plaque thickness, and type) and biomechanical (wall shear stress and Von Mises stress) indices of coronary arteries. Methods: First, the approach reconstructs the three-dimensional morphology of the vessel from intravascular ultrasound(IVUS) and Angiograph...

  10. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  11. New explicit algebraic stress and flux model for active scalar and simulation of shear stratified cylinder wake flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the numerical simulation of active scalar,a new explicit algebraic expression on active scalar flux was derived based on Wikstrm,Wallin and Johansson model (aWWJ model). Reynolds stress algebraic expressions were added by a term to account for the buoyancy effect. The new explicit Reynolds stress and active scalar flux model was then established. Governing equations of this model were solved by finite volume method with unstructured grids. The thermal shear stratified cylinder wake flow was computed by this new model. The computational results are in good agreement with laboratorial measurements. This work is the development on modeling of explicit algebraic Reynolds stress and scalar flux,and is also a further modification of the aWWJ model for complex situations such as a shear stratified flow.

  12. New explicit algebraic stress and flux model for active scalar and simulation of shear stratified cylinder wake flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA ZuLin; GU Li; XING LingHang; DAI WenHong

    2009-01-01

    On the numerical simulation of active scalar, a new explicit algebraic expression on active scalar flux was derived based on Wikstrom, Wallin and Johansson model (aWWJ model). Reynolds stress algebraic expressions were added by a term to account for the buoyancy effect. The new explicit Reynolds stress and active scalar flux model was then established. Governing equations of this model were solved by finite volume method with unstructured grids. The thermal shear stratified cylinder wake flow was computed by this new model. The computational results are in good agreement with Laboratorial measurements. This work is the development on modeling of explicit algebraic Reynolds stress and scalar flux, and is also a further modification of the aWWJ model for complex situations such as a shear stratified flow.

  13. Three-dimensional macro-scale assessment of regional and temporal wall shear stress characteristics on aortic valve leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, K; Bukač, M; Sucosky, P

    2016-01-01

    The aortic valve (AV) achieves unidirectional blood flow between the left ventricle and the aorta. Although hemodynamic stresses have been shown to regulate valvular biology, the native wall shear stress (WSS) experienced by AV leaflets remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify computationally the macro-scale leaflet WSS environment using fluid-structure interaction modeling. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was implemented to predict valvular flow and leaflet dynamics in a three-dimensional AV geometry subjected to physiologic transvalvular pressure. Local WSS characteristics were quantified in terms of temporal shear magnitude (TSM), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and temporal shear gradient (TSG). The dominant radial WSS predicted on the leaflets exhibited high amplitude and unidirectionality on the ventricularis (TSM>7.50 dyn/cm(2), OSI 325.54 dyn/cm(2) s) but low amplitude and bidirectionality on the fibrosa (TSM 0.38, TSG 0.25). This study provides new insights into the role played by leaflet-blood flow interactions in valvular function and critical hemodynamic stress data for the assessment of the hemodynamic theory of AV disease.

  14. Alterations in cancer cell mechanical properties after fluid shear stress exposure: a micropipette aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula VK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkat Keshav Chivukula,1 Benjamin L Krog,1,2 Jones T Nauseef,2 Michael D Henry,2 Sarah C Vigmostad1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Over 90% of cancer deaths result not from primary tumor development, but from metastatic tumors that arise after cancer cells circulate to distal sites via the circulatory system. While it is known that metastasis is an inefficient process, the effect of hemodynamic parameters such as fluid shear stress (FSS on the viability and efficacy of metastasis is not well understood. Recent work has shown that select cancer cells may be able to survive and possibly even adapt to FSS in vitro. The current research seeks to characterize the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of suspended cancer cells in vitro. Nontransformed prostate epithelial cells (PrEC LH and transformed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 were used in this study. The Young's modulus was determined using micropipette aspiration. We examined cells in suspension but not exposed to FSS (unsheared and immediately after exposure to high (6,400 dyn/cm2 and low (510 dyn/cm2 FSS. The PrEC LH cells were ~140% stiffer than the PC-3 cells not exposed to FSS. Post-FSS exposure, there was an increase of ~77% in Young's modulus after exposure to high FSS and a ~47% increase in Young's modulus after exposure to low FSS for the PC-3 cells. There was no significant change in the Young's modulus of PrEC LH cells post-FSS exposure. Our findings indicate that cancer cells adapt to FSS, with an increased Young's modulus being one of the adaptive responses, and that this adaptation is specific only to PC-3 cells and is not seen in PrEC LH cells. Moreover, this adaptation appears to be graded in response to the magnitude of FSS experienced by the cancer cells. This is the first study

  15. Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements with Wall Shear Stress and Uncertainty Quantification for the FDA Nozzle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2016-03-01

    We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over

  16. Mechanosensitive activation of CFTR by increased cell volume and hydrostatic pressure but not shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Constanze; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ∆F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments. Ss had no influence on hCFTR activity. Injection of an intracellular analogous solution to increase cell volume alone did not affect hCFTR activity. However, hCFTR activity was augmented by injection after pre-stimulation with FI. The response to injection was similar in channels carrying the common mutations ∆F508 and G551D compared to wild type hCFTR. Stretch-induced CFTR activation was further assessed in Ussing chamber measurements using Xenopus lung preparations. Under control conditions increased hydrostatic pressure (HP) decreased the measured ion current including activation of a Cl(-) secretion that was unmasked by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101. These data demonstrate activation of CFTR in vitro and in a native pulmonary epithelium in response to mechanical stress. Mechanosensitive regulation of CFTR is highly relevant for pulmonary physiology that relies on ion transport processes facilitated by pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:26357939

  17. Direct detection and measurement of wall shear stress using a filamentous bio-nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniela P.; Wemyss, Alan M.; Smith, David J.; Straube, Anne; Betteridge, Kai B.; Salmon, Andrew H. J.; Foster, Rebecca R.; Elhegni, Hesham E.; Satchell, Simon C.; Little, Haydn A.; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Simmons, Mark J.; Hicks, Matthew R.; Bates, David O.; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Arkill, Kenton P.

    2016-01-01

    The wall shear stress (WSS) that a moving fluid exerts on a surface affects many processes including those relating to vascular function. WSS plays an important role in normal physiology (e.g. angiogenesis) and affects the microvasculature’s primary function of molecular transport. Points of fluctuating WSS show abnormalities in a number of diseases; however, there is no established technique for measuring WSS directly in physiological systems. All current methods rely on estimates obtained from measured velocity gradients in bulk flow data. In this work, we report a nanosensor that can directly measure WSS in microfluidic chambers with sub-micron spatial resolution by using a specific type of virus, the bacteriophage M13, which has been fluorescently labeled and anchored to a surface. It is demonstrated that the nanosensor can be calibrated and adapted for biological tissue, revealing WSS in micro-domains of cells that cannot be calculated accurately from bulk flow measurements. This method lends itself to a platform applicable to many applications in biology and microfluidics.

  18. Association of Early Atherosclerosis with Vascular Wall Shear Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic information has become more important. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS that changes its direction is associated with the early stage of atherosclerosis. Several in vitro and in vivo models were proposed to reveal the relation between the WSS and the early atherosclerosis. However, these models possess technical limitations in mimicking real physiological conditions and monitoring the developmental course of the early atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model is proposed as a novel experimental model to resolve these limitations. Zebrafish larvae are optically transparent, which enables temporal observation of pathological variations under in vivo condition. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro particle image velocimetry (PIV technique, and spatial distribution of lipid deposition inside the model was quantitatively investigated after feeding high cholesterol diet for 10 days. Lipids were mainly deposited in blood vessel of low WSS. The oscillating WSS was not induced by the blood flows in zebrafish models. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish would be used as a potentially useful model for in vivo study about the effects of low WSS in the early atherosclerosis.

  19. FBG sensor networks for the estimation of boundary shear stress around the novel piers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Li, Kejia; Wu, Xing; Ge, Chunfeng

    2010-10-01

    The paper reports results obtained from a field test site in structural monitoring-a "test-to-failure," measuring strain using Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensor networks on a novel drilled concrete test pier in Huaihe river zone,Anhui province,China. To undertake the study, FBG-based sensors were chosen ,metallic recoated ,steel-tube packaged , and incorporated with steel rebars in this concrete structure. The sensors were interrogated using a compact system based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and F-P scanning approach. Throughout the test, the FBG sensors were continuously monitored, the incremental increases in the strain caused by boundary shear stress could be seen. The sensors were able to follow the resulting induced changes in load of over a range in excess of 2.5M Newton just prior to failure of the pier and representing extreme levels of strain for such a novel mechanical structure. The measurements made with the FBG-based system were found to be in agreement with the changes expected in the structure, produced by the self-balanced loading applied. The study has demonstrated the successful use of FBG sensor networks used in a test of this root type pier foundation, consequently made assessment about the health and security of the highway bridge.

  20. Wall shear stress manifolds and near wall flow topology in aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Gambaruto, Alberto M.; Chen, Guoning; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    Transport of atherogenic and thrombogenic chemicals near the vessel wall highly influences atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The high Schmidt number of these species leads to a thin concentration boundary layer near the wall. The wall shear stress (WSS) vector field can be scaled to obtain the near wall velocity in this region, thus providing first order approximation to near wall transport. In this study, the complex blood flow in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was considered. Lagrangian tracking of surface-bound tracers representing near wall species was employed to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) for the WSS surface vector field. The WSS LCS matched the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle type fixed points of the time-average WSS vector field, due to the quasi-steady nature of these near wall transport processes. A WSS exposure time measure is introduced to quantify the concentration of near wall species. The effect of diffusion and normal flow on these structures is investigated. The WSS LCS highly influence the concentration of near wall species, and provide a template for near-wall transport.

  1. Quantification of disturbed wall shear stress patterns in complex cardiovascular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-11-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) affects the cardiovascular system in numerous ways, and is thought to play an important role in the pathology of many cardiovascular diseases. The (endothelial) cells lining the inner wall of blood vessels, and perhaps the cells inside the vessel wall, can actively sense WSS and respond both chemically and mechanically. The complexity of WSS in cardiovascular flows extends both spatially and temporally. Furthermore, WSS has magnitude and direction. These facets make simple quantification of WSS in cardiovascular applications difficult. In this study we propose a framework to quantify measures such as WSS angle gradient, WSS magnitude gradient, WSS angle time derivative and WSS magnitude time derivative. We will explain the relation of these parameters to the tensorial WSS gradient and WSS vector time derivative, and propose a new methodology to unify these concepts into a single measure. The correlation between these metrics and more common WSS metrics used in the literature will be demonstrated. For demonstration, these methods will be used for the quantification of complex blood flow inside abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  2. Development of Bragg Gratings as Shear Stress Monitors in Aerodynamic >Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Devandra S.

    1998-04-01

    Two Bragg gratings centered at 1289.565 nm and 1299.432 nm were co-written in the core of a 9/125 telecommunications fiber doped with 10 weight percent germanium. The fiber was mounted in a 126 deep groove, with a 127 diameter semicircular bottom, etched in a flat metal plate used as the test model. A 1 thick epoxy layer bonded the fiber to the metal plate. A thermocouple was also attached to the metal plate in the vicinity of the Bragg fiber. The metal plate was next mounted in the test section of a subsonic wind tunnel. A skin friction balance was also mounted on the wall of the test section. As the wind speed in the tunnel was increased from 0 to 90 m/sec, reflected Bragg wavelengths and the fiber temperatures were recorded continuously. At a windspeed of 38.89 m/sec, the tunnel flow experienced a fan-induced turbulence registered by the skin friction balance as well as the Bragg signals. This commonality of the turbulence signal registration provided a unique calibration datum for the modulus of rigidity of the Bragg fiber assembly. This value of h has been used to calculate the values of shear stress at various tunnel speeds on the basis of Bragg wavelength changes at those speeds.

  3. Connexin 43 is a potential regulator in fluid shear stress-induced signal transduction in osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; Liu, Chenglin; Li, Ping; Li, Shengnan; Zhao, Zhihe; Chen, Yangxi; Huo, Bo; Zhang, Ding

    2013-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junctional protein, regulates osteocyte viability, and modulates mechanical stimulation-induced bone remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms of its action remain unclear. In the current study, osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were exposed to fluid shear stress (FSS) of 16 (physiological) or 30 (high) dyne/cm(2) for the indicated time points. Cx43 gene (Gja1) was silenced using siRNA or the protein was blocked chemically. The signaling molecules related to osteocyte apoptosis, osteogenesis, or osteoclastogenesis were detected at mRNA or protein levels. The results showed that physiological FSS significantly upregulated Cx43, which further inhibited apoptosis pathways (e.g., caspase-3) and osteoclastogenesis signaling (e.g., RANKL), but activated osteogenesis signaling (Sost/sclerostin). Suppressing Cx43 gene (Gja1) by siRNA or chemically blocking gap junction communication enhanced caspase-3, RANKL, and Sost/sclerostin, which could be restored with physiological FSS over 8 h. In addition, high FSS decreased Cx43 expression and adversely affected signaling molecules compared with physiological FSS. The findings indicate the involvement of Cx43 in mechanotransduction of FSS and in the modulation of mechanical loading-related apoptosis, osteogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis of osteocytes. This may provide a cellular and molecular basis for interpreting the biomechanical mechanism of bone absorption and remodeling. PMID:23878018

  4. Recapitulating physiological and pathological shear stress and oxygen to model vasculature in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shen, Yu-I.; Tan, Scott; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Studying human vascular disease in conventional cell cultures and in animal models does not effectively mimic the complex vascular microenvironment and may not accurately predict vascular responses in humans. We utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate both shear stress and O2 levels in health and disease, establishing a microfluidic vascular model (μVM). Maintaining human endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy-mimicking conditions resulted in conversion to a physiological phenotype namely cell elongation, reduced proliferation, lowered angiogenic gene expression and formation of actin cortical rim and continuous barrier. We next examined the responses of the healthy μVM to a vasotoxic cancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in comparison with an in vivo mouse model. We found that 5-FU does not induce apoptosis rather vascular hyperpermeability, which can be alleviated by Resveratrol treatment. This effect was confirmed by in vivo findings identifying a vasoprotecting strategy by the adjunct therapy of 5-FU with Resveratrol. The μVM of ischemic disease demonstrated the transition of ECs from a quiescent to an activated state, with higher proliferation rate, upregulation of angiogenic genes, and impaired barrier integrity. The μVM offers opportunities to study and predict human ECs with physiologically relevant phenotypes in healthy, pathological and drug-treated environments.

  5. Role of Myoendothelial Gap Junctions in the Regulation of Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation by Laminar Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqi Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle cells may dedifferentiate into the synthetic phenotype and promote atherosclerosis. Here, we explored the role of myoendothelial gap junctions in phenotypic switching of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs co-cultured with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs exposed to shear stress. Methods: HCASMCs and HCAECs were seeded on opposite sides of Transwell inserts, and HCAECs were exposed to laminar shear stress of 12 dyn/cm2 or 5 dyn/cm2. The myoendothelial gap junctions were evaluated by using a multi-photon microscope. Results: In co-culture with HCAECs, HCASMCs exhibited a contractile phenotype, and maintained the expression of differentiation markers MHC and H1-calponin. HCASMCs and HCAECs formed functional intercellular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of connexin(Cx40 and Cx43 on cellular projections inside the Transwell membrane and biocytin transfer from HCAECs to HCASMCs. Cx40 siRNA and 18-α-GA attenuated protein expression of MHC and H1-calponin in HCASMCs. Shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 increased Cx43 and decreased Cx40 expression in HCAECs, and partly inhibited biocytin transfer from HCAECs to HCASMCs, which could be completely blocked by Cx43 siRNA or restored by Cx40 DNA transfected into HCAECs. The exposure of HCAECs to shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 promoted HCASMC phenotypic switching, manifested by morphological changes, decrease in MHC and H1-calponin expression, and increase in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB release, which was partly rescued by Cx43 siRNA or Cx40 DNA or PDGF receptor signaling inhibitor. Conclusions: The exposure of HCAECs to shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 caused the dysfunction of Cx40/Cx43 heterotypic myoendothelial gap junctions, which may be replaced by homotypic Cx43/Cx43 channels, and induced HCASMC transition to the synthetic phenotype associated with the activation of PDGF receptor signaling, which may contribute to shear stress

  6. Plasma functionalization of polycarbonaturethane to improve endothelialization--Effect of shear stress as a critical factor for biocompatibility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Karin; Thomas, Ulrich; Gessner, André; Wehner, Daniel; Schmid, Thomas; Schmid, Christof; Lehle, Karla

    2016-04-01

    Medical devices made of polycarbonaturethane (PCU) combine excellent mechanical properties and little biological degradation, but restricted hemocompatibility. Modifications of PCU might reduce platelet adhesion and promote stable endothelialization. PCU was modified using gas plasma treatment, binding of hydrogels, and coupling of cell-active molecules (modified heparin, anti-thrombin III (ATIII), argatroban, fibronectin, laminin-nonapeptide, peptides with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif). Biocompatibility was verified with static and dynamic cell culture techniques. Blinded analysis focused on improvement in endothelial cell (EC) adhesion/proliferation, anti-thrombogenicity, reproducible manufacturing process, and shear stress tolerance of ECs. EC adhesion and antithrombogenicity were achieved with 9/35 modifications. Additionally, 6/9 stimulated EC proliferation and 3/6 modification processes were highly reproducible for endothelialization. The latter modifications comprised immobilization of ATIII (A), polyethyleneglycole-diamine-hydrogel (E) and polyethylenimine-hydrogel connected with modified heparin (IH). Under sheer stress, only the IH modification improved EC adhesion within the graft. However, ECs did not arrange in flow direction and cell anchorage was restricted. Despite large variation in surface modification chemistry and improved EC adhesion under static culture conditions, additional introduction of shear stress foiled promising preliminary data. Therefore, biocompatibility testing required not only static tests but also usage of physiological conditions such as shear stress in the case of vascular grafts. PMID:26762398

  7. Interface-resolved direct numerical simulation of the erosion of a sediment bed sheared by laminar channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kidanemariam, Aman G

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method based upon the immersed boundary technique for the fluid-solid coupling and on a soft-sphere approach for solid-solid contact is used to perform direct numerical simulation of the flow-induced motion of a thick bed of spherical particles in a horizontal plane channel. The collision model features a normal force component with a spring and a damper, as well as a damping tangential component, limited by a Coulomb friction law. The standard test case of a single particle colliding perpendicularly with a horizontal wall in a viscous fluid is simulated over a broad range of Stokes numbers, yielding values of the effective restitution coefficient in close agreement with experimental data. The case of bedload particle transport by laminar channel flow is simulated for 24 different parameter values covering a broad range of the Shields number. Comparison of the present results with reference data from the experiment of Aussillous et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 2013) yields excellent agreement. It is confir...

  8. Mechanisms for three kinds of limiting shear stresses appearing in the traction modes of viscous, viscoelastic, and glassy states of lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H.; Fujita, Y.

    2014-06-01

    We present that the tractional flow of a lubricant shows three kinds of limiting shear stresses at which the shear stresses take place independently of the shear rates in its viscous, viscoelastic, and glassy states. We propose three models on the mechanisms for the limiting shear stresses, based on the data of Brillouin spectra and viscosity of viscoelastic liquids previously reported by us and based on the data of the deformation of glassy polymers referred from others. The Brillouin spectra of a viscoelastic lubricant measured at up to 5 GPa at 25 and 80 °C show that we could not observe a frequency dispersion in sound waves below 0.8 GPa at 80 °C, while we can observe the frequency dispersion above 0.1 MPa at 25 °C owing to the viscosity of the lubricant. This result predicts the viscous limiting shear stress in the viscous state owing to the disappearance of meso-structures by heating and shearing under pressure. The viscosity of a polymer measured around the glass transition temperature (Tg) shows that Tg determined by the viscosity measurement is 27 K lower than that determined by calorimetry. This result predicts the elastic limiting shear stress in the viscoelastic state near the glass transition pressure (Pg) owing to the shear thinning effect by shearing a lubricant film. In addition, there is the plastic limiting shear stress in the glassy state owing to the yield stress at which the tractional flow of a glassy lubricant behaves as a plastic solid.

  9. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  10. Effects of PVA and PEG on pH Dependent Shear Yield Stress of Concentrated Alumina Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGRenjie; B.RAND

    2002-01-01

    The pH dependence of the extrapolated shear yield stress for Alcoa A16 α-Al2O3 suspensions at the powder volume fraction of 0.27 with and without addition of both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) each at fixed 0.18% of the powder mass was studied. Whith the polymer added, the full deflocculation of the suspension shifts from about pH=4 to around pH=1.5, at which the minimum value of shear yied stress is higher than that at pH=4. The addition of both PVA and PEG was found to prevent the filter cake from cracking.

  11. A New Modified Conductivity Model for Prediction of Shear Yield Stress of Electrorheological Fluids Based on Face-center Square Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhu-hua; ZHANG Qing-jie; LIU Li-sheng; ZHAI Peng-cheng

    2004-01-01

    A new modified conductivity model was established to predict the shear yield stress of electrorheological fluids (ERF). By using a cell equivalent method, the present model can deal with the face-center square structure of ERF. Combining the scheme of the classical conductivity model for the single-chain structure, a new formula for the prediction of the shear yield stress of ERF was set up. The influences of the separation distance of the particles, the volume fraction of the particles and the applied electric field on the shear yield stress were investigated.

  12. Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Hwai Yap; Xiaoqin Liu; Kerem Pekkan

    2014-01-01

    Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse Choon Hwai Yap1, Xiaoqin Liu2, Kerem Pekkan3* 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, 2 Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh...

  13. Stress singularity analysis of anisotropic multi-material wedges under antiplane shear deformation using the symplectic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Symplectic approach has emerged a popular tool in dealing with elasticity problems especially for those with stress singularities. However, anisotropic material problem under polar coordinate system is still a bottleneck. This paper presents a subfield method coupled with the symplectic approach to study the anisotropic material under antiplane shear deformation. Anisotropic material around wedge tip is considered to be consisted of many subfields with constant material properties which can be handled by th...

  14. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  15. Characterization of the vessel geometry, flow mechanics and wall shear stress in the great arteries of wildtype prenetal mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkan, Kerem; Yap, C.H.; Liu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse Choon Hwai Yap1, Xiaoqin Liu2, Kerem Pekkan3* 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, 2 Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh...

  16. Energy Consumption in Terms of Shear Stress for Two Types of Membrane Bioreactors used for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): hollow fiber (HF) and hollow sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power...... to be overestimated by 28% compared to experimental measurements and CFD results. Therefore, a corrective factor is included in the relationship in order to account for the membrane placed inside the bioreactor....

  17. Shear-induced rigidity of frictional particles: Analysis of emergent order in stress space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Bi, Dapeng; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Jie; Behringer, R. P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2016-04-01

    Solids are distinguished from fluids by their ability to resist shear. In equilibrium systems, the resistance to shear is associated with the emergence of broken translational symmetry as exhibited by a nonuniform density pattern that is persistent, which in turn results from minimizing the free energy. In this work, we focus on a class of systems where this paradigm is challenged. We show that shear-driven jamming in dry granular materials is a collective process controlled by the constraints of mechanical equilibrium. We argue that these constraints can lead to a persistent pattern in a dual space that encodes the statistics of contact forces and the topology of the contact network. The shear-jamming transition is marked by the appearance of this persistent pattern. We investigate the structure and behavior of patterns both in real space and the dual space as the system evolves through the rigidity transition for a range of packing fractions and in two different shear protocols. We show that, in the protocol that creates homogeneous jammed states without shear bands, measures of shear jamming do not depend on strain and packing fraction independently but obey a scaling form with a packing-fraction-dependent characteristic strain that goes to zero at the isotropic jamming point ϕJ. We demonstrate that it is possible to define a protocol-independent order parameter in this dual space, which provides a quantitative measure of the rigidity of shear-jammed states.

  18. Evaluation of stresses in a combined plane strain-simple shear test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den A.H.; Riel, van M.; Huetink, J.

    2005-01-01

    A biaxial testing device for sheet metal has been developed that can impose a combination of plane strain and simple shear deformation. The specimen has a large width to height ratio and a small height to thickness ratio. The forces in tensile and shear direction are easily measured and the tensile

  19. Role of symmetry-breaking induced by Er × B shear flows on developing residual stresses and intrinsic rotation in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements of residual stress (force) have been executed at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak using multitip Langmuir and Mach probes, together with counter-current NBI torque to balance the existing toroidal rotation. Substantial residual stress and force have been observed at the plasma boundary, confirming the existence of a finite residual stress as possible mechanisms to drive the intrinsic toroidal rotation. In low-density discharges, the residual stress displays a quasi-linear dependence on the local pressure gradient, consistent with theoretical predictions. At high-density shots the residual stress and torque are strongly suppressed. The results show close correlation between the residual stress and the Er × B flow shear rate, suggesting a minimum threshold of the E × B flow shear required for the k∥ symmetry breaking. These findings provide the first experimental evidence of the role of Er × B sheared flows in the development of residual stresses and intrinsic rotation. (letter)

  20. Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.

  1. MicroRNA-30 mediates anti-inflammatory effects of shear stress and KLF2 via repression of angiopoietin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demolli, Shemsi; Doebele, Carmen; Doddaballapur, Anuradha; Lang, Victoria; Fisslthaler, Beate; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Sciacca, Sergio; Henschler, Reinhard; Hecker, Markus; Savant, Soniya; Augustin, Hellmut G; Kaluza, David; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Boon, Reinier A

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Laminar blood flow induces atheroprotective gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs) in part by upregulating the transcription factor KLF2. Here, we identified KLF2- and flow-responsive miRs that affect gene expression in ECs. Bioinformatic assessment of mRNA expression patterns identified the miR-30-5p seed sequence to be highly enriched in mRNAs that are downregulated by KLF2. Indeed, KLF2 overexpression and shear stress stimulation in vitro and in vivo increased the expression of miR-30-5p family members. Furthermore, we identified angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) as a target of miR-30. MiR-30 overexpression reduces Ang2 levels, whereas miR-30 inhibition by LNA-antimiRs induces Ang2 expression. Consistently, miR-30 reduced basal and TNF-α-induced expression of the inflammatory cell–cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, ICAM1 and VCAM1, which was rescued by stimulation with exogenous Ang2. In summary, KLF2 and shear stress increase the expression of the miR-30-5p family which acts in an anti-inflammatory manner in ECs by impairing the expression of Ang2 and inflammatory cell–cell adhesion molecules. The upregulation of miR-30-5p family members may contribute to the atheroprotective effects of shear stress.

  2. Evolution of crustal stress, pressure and temperature around shear zones during orogenic wedge formation: a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Jaquet, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    We study the formation of an orogenic wedge during lithospheric shortening with 2D numerical simulations. We consider a viscoelastoplastic rheology, thermo-mechanical coupling by shear heating and temperature-dependent viscosities, gravity and erosion. In the initial model configuration there is either a lateral temperature variation at the model base or a lateral variation in crustal thickness to generate slight stress variations during lithospheric shortening. These stress variations can trigger the formation of shear zones which are caused by thermal softening associated with shear heating. We do not apply any kind of strain softening, such as reduction of friction angle with progressive plastic strain. The first major shear zone that appears during shortening crosscuts the entire crust and initiates the asymmetric subduction/underthrusting of mainly the mechanically strong lower crust. After some deformation, the first shear zone in the upper crust is abandoned, the deformation propagates towards the foreland and a new shear zone forms only in the upper crust. The shear zone propagation occurs several times where new shear zones form in the upper crust and the mechanically strong top of the lower crust acts as detachment horizon. We calculate the magnitudes of the maximal and minimal principal stresses and of the mean stress (or dynamic pressure), and we record also the temperature for several marker points in the upper and lower crust. We analyse the evolution of stresses and temperature with burial depth and time. Deviatoric stresses (half the differential stress) in the upper crust are up to 200 MPa and associated shear heating in shear zones ranges between 40 - 80 °C. Lower crustal rocks remain either at the base of the orogenic wedge at depths of around 50 km or are subducted to depths of up to 120 km, depending on their position when the first shear zone formed. Largest deviatotric stresses in the strong part of the lower crust are about 1000 MPa and

  3. THE BEHAVIOR OF TWO COLLINEAR CRACKS IN MAGNETO-ELECTRO-ELASTIC COMPOSITES UNDER ANTI-PLANE SHEAR STRESS LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuguo; Zhou Zhengong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the behavior of two collinear cracks in magneto-electro-elastic composite material under anti-plane shear stress loading is studied by the Schmidt method for permeable electric boundary conditions. By using the Fourier transform, the problem can be solved with a set of triple integral equations in which the unknown variable is the jump of displacements across the crack surfaces. In solving the triple integral equations, the unknown variable is expanded in a series of Jacobi polynomials. Numerical solutions are obtained. It is shown that the stress field is independent of the electric field and the magnetic flux.

  4. Revealing stiffening and brittling of chronic myelogenous leukemia hematopoietic primary cells through their temporal response to shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrousaz, B.; Berguiga, L.; Nicolini, F. E.; Martinez-Torres, C.; Arneodo, A.; Maguer Satta, V.; Argoul, F.

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell transformation is often accompanied by a modification of their viscoelastic properties. When capturing the stress-to-strain response of primary chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells, from two data sets of CD34+ hematopoietic cells isolated from healthy and leukemic bone marrows, we show that the mean shear relaxation modulus increases upon cancer transformation. This stiffening of the cells comes along with local rupture events, detected as reinforced sharp local maxima of this modulus, suggesting that these cancer cells respond to a local mechanical stress by a cascade of local brittle failure events.

  5. The impact of scaled boundary conditions on wall shear stress computations in atherosclerotic human coronary bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T C; Schwarz, Janina C V; Wentzel, Jolanda J; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Siebes, Maria; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine if reliable patient-specific wall shear stress (WSS) can be computed when diameter-based scaling laws are used to impose the boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics. This study focused on mildly diseased human coronary bifurcations since they are predilection sites for atherosclerosis. Eight patients scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention were imaged with angiography. The velocity proximal and distal of a bifurcation was acquired with intravascular Doppler measurements. These measurements were used for inflow and outflow boundary conditions for the first set of WSS computations. For the second set of computations, absolute inflow and outflow ratios were derived from geometry-based scaling laws based on angiography data. Normalized WSS maps per segment were obtained by dividing the absolute WSS by the mean WSS value. Absolute and normalized WSS maps from the measured-approach and the scaled-approach were compared. A reasonable agreement was found between the measured and scaled inflows, with a median difference of 0.08 ml/s [-0.01; 0.20]. The measured and the scaled outflow ratios showed a good agreement: 1.5 percentage points [-19.0; 4.5]. Absolute WSS maps were sensitive to the inflow and outflow variations, and relatively large differences between the two approaches were observed. For normalized WSS maps, the results for the two approaches were equivalent. This study showed that normalized WSS can be obtained from angiography data alone by applying diameter-based scaling laws to define the boundary conditions. Caution should be taken when absolute WSS is assessed from computations using scaled boundary conditions.

  6. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Maggiorani

    Full Text Available Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2 were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa for 48 h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1, Par polarity complex (Pard6, adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium.

  7. Effects of flow-induced shear stress on limbal epithelial stem cell growth and enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gyeong Kang

    Full Text Available The roles of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs are widely recognized, but for these cells to be utilized in basic research and potential clinical applications, researchers must be able to efficiently isolate them and subsequently maintain their stemness in vitro. We aimed to develop a biomimetic environment for LESCs involving cells from their in vivo niche and the principle of flow-induced shear stress, and to subsequently demonstrate the potential of this novel paradigm. LESCs, together with neighboring cells, were isolated from the minced limbal tissues of rabbits. At days 8 and 9 of culture, the cells were exposed to a steady flow or intermittent flow for 2 h per day in a custom-designed bioreactor. The responses of LESCs and epithelial cells were assessed at days 12 and 14. LESCs and epithelial cells responded to both types of flow. Proliferation of LESCs, as assessed using a BrdU assay, was increased to a greater extent under steady flow conditions. Holoclones were found under intermittent flow, indicating that differentiation into transient amplifying cells had occurred. Immunofluorescent staining of Bmi-1 suggested that steady flow has a positive effect on the maintenance of stemness. This finding was confirmed by real-time PCR. Notch-1 and p63 were more sensitive to intermittent flow, but this effect was transient. K3 and K12 expression, indicative of differentiation of LESCs into epithelial cells, was induced by flow and lasted longer under intermittent flow conditions. In summary, culture of LESCs in a bioreactor under a steady flow paradigm, rather than one of intermittent flow, is beneficial for both increasing proliferation and maintaining stemness. Conversely, intermittent flow appears to induce differentiation of LESCs. This novel experimental method introduces micro-mechanical stimuli to traditional culture techniques, and has potential for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LESCs in vitro, thereby

  8. The influence of boundary conditions on wall shear stress distribution in patients specific coronary trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Alina G; Groen, Harald C; Doriot, Pierre-André; de Feyter, Pim J; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van de Vosse, Frans N; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2011-04-01

    Patient specific geometrical data on human coronary arteries can be reliably obtained multislice computer tomography (MSCT) imaging. MSCT cannot provide hemodynamic variables, and the outflow through the side branches must be estimated. The impact of two different models to determine flow through the side branches on the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in patient specific geometries is evaluated. Murray's law predicts that the flow ratio through the side branches scales with the ratio of the diameter of the side branches to the third power. The empirical model is based on flow measurements performed by Doriot et al. (2000) in angiographically normal coronary arteries. The fit based on these measurements showed that the flow ratio through the side branches can best be described with a power of 2.27. The experimental data imply that Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. We applied the two models to study the WSS distribution in 6 coronary artery trees. Under steady flow conditions, the average WSS between the side branches differed significantly for the two models: the average WSS was 8% higher for Murray's law and the relative difference ranged from -5% to +27%. These differences scale with the difference in flow rate. Near the bifurcations, the differences in WSS were more pronounced: the size of the low WSS regions was significantly larger when applying the empirical model (13%), ranging from -12% to +68%. Predicting outflow based on Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. Especially near side branches, the regions where atherosclerotic plaques preferentially develop, the differences are significant and application of Murray's law underestimates the size of the low WSS region.

  9. Transverse shear effects on the stress-intensity factor for a circumferentially cracked, specially orthotropic cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of a cylindrical shell containing a circumferential through crack is considered by taking into account the effect of transverse shear deformations. The formulation is given for a specially orthotropic material within the confines of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions regarding moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. Consequently, aside from multiplicative constants representing the stress intensity factors, the membrane and bending components of the asymptotic stress fields near the crack tip are found to be identical. The stress intensity factors are calculated separately for a cylinder under a uniform membrane load, and that under a uniform bending moment. Sample results showing the nature of the out-of-plane crack surface displacement and the effect of the Poisson's ratio are presented.

  10. Analysis of Maximum Shear Stress of Asphalt Pavement%沥青路面最大剪应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光伟; 费国新; 陈荣生

    2012-01-01

    Factors and variation of the maximum shear stress of the typical semi-rigid asphalt pavement and bridge deck pavement in Jiangsu were calculated and analyzed using ABAQUS software. The maximum shear stress distribution was consistent with the semi-rigid asphalt pavement and bridge deck pavement and the maximum shear stress level was close under the level. The maximum shear stress showed a positive correlation with the verticaland horizontal vehicle loads and was significantly affected by the loads. The maximum shear stress decreased as the pavement thickness and modulus increase, and increased as the semi-rigid base thickness and modulus increase, but the increase value was small. Thereby these analysis above would provides an academic basis for solving the rutting problem.%采用ABAQUS软件对典型半刚性基层沥青路面及桥面铺装层中最大剪应力影响因素及变化规律进行了计算与分析。分析表明:半刚性基层沥青路面与水泥混凝土桥面铺装层最大剪应力分布与变化规律基本一致,在相同荷载条件作用下,最大剪应力水平亦接近;最大剪应力与车辆垂直荷载和水平荷载作用呈正比关系,最大剪应力受其影响显著;最大剪应力随着面层或铺装层厚度、模量的增加而相应地变小,随着半刚性基层厚度与模量的增加而变大。以上抗剪影响因素及变化规律的研究为解决车辙问题提供了一定的理论基础。

  11. GMEX_median: The median of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Mexico, May 2010 to May 2011 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  12. 95th percentile of wave-current bottom shear stress in the Middle Atlantic Bight for May, 2010 - May, 2011 (MAB_95th_perc.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  13. Median of wave-current bottom shear stress in the Middle Atlantic Bight for May, 2010 - May, 2011 (MAB_median.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  14. GMEX_95th_perc: The 95th percentile of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Mexico, May 2010 to May 2011 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  15. GMEX_hIPR: The half-interpercentile range of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Mexico, May 2010 to May 2011 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  16. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kefayati

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  17. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry) and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases) were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration). The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged) shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS) and approximately double (4-36 Pa) for wall shear stress (WSS). Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms) through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent) shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  18. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra

    2009-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The shear stress-induced transcription factor KLF2 affects dynamics and angiopoietin-2 content of Weibel-Palade bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L van Agtmaal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The shear-stress induced transcription factor KLF2 has been shown to induce an atheroprotective phenotype in endothelial cells (EC that are exposed to prolonged laminar shear. In this study we characterized the effect of the shear stress-induced transcription factor KLF2 on regulation and composition of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs using peripheral blood derived ECs. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lentiviral expression of KLF2 resulted in a 4.5 fold increase in the number of WPBs per cell when compared to mock-transduced endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, the average length of WPBs was significantly reduced: in mock-transduced endothelial cells WPBs had an average length of 1.7 µm versus 1.3 µm in KLF2 expressing cells. Expression of KLF2 abolished the perinuclear clustering of WPBs observed following stimulation with cAMP-raising agonists such as epinephrine. Immunocytochemistry revealed that WPBs of KLF2 expressing ECs were positive for IL-6 and IL-8 (after their upregulation with IL-1β but lacked angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, a regular component of WPBs. Stimulus-induced secretion of Ang2 in KLF2 expressing ECs was greatly reduced and IL-8 secretion was significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that KLF2 expression leads to a change in size and composition of the regulated secretory compartment of endothelial cells and alters its response to physiological stimuli.

  20. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  1. The role of shear stress in Blood-Brain Barrier endothelial physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvenna Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important and often neglected physiological stimuli contributing to the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs into a blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype is shear stress (SS. With the use of a well established humanized dynamic in vitro BBB model and cDNA microarrays, we have profiled the effect of SS in the induction/suppression of ECs genes and related functions. Results Specifically, we found a significant upregulation of tight and adherens junctions proteins and genes. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability measurements to know substances have shown that SS promoted the formation of a tight and highly selective BBB. SS also increased the RNA level of multidrug resistance transporters, ion channels, and several p450 enzymes. The RNA level of a number of specialized carrier-mediated transport systems (e.g., glucose, monocarboxylic acid, etc. was also upregulated. RNA levels of modulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase were downregulated by SS while those involved in the Krebs cycle (e.g., lactate and other dehydrogenases were upregulated. Measurements of glucose consumption versus lactate production showed that SS negatively modulated the glycolytic bioenergetic pathways of glucose metabolism in favor of the more efficient aerobic respiration. BBB ECs are responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Our data showed that SS increased the RNA levels of integrins and vascular adhesion molecules. SS also inhibited endothelial cell cycle via regulation of BTG family proteins encoding genes. This was paralleled by significant increase in the cytoskeletal protein content while that of membrane, cytosol, and nuclear sub-cellular fractions decreased. Furthermore, analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis (which allows identifying a large number of proteins per sample of EC proteins extracted from membrane sub-cellular endothelial fractions showed that SS increased

  2. The Lineage Specification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Directed by the Rate of Fluid Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Fan, Yijuan; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Caixia; Zhang, Yinxing; Pan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The effective regulation of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the lineage specification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remains to be addressed. We hypothesized that when MSCs are recruited to musculoskeletal system following stimulation, their differentiation into osteogenic or chondrogenic cells is directed by the rate of FSS (ΔSS) through modulation of the mechanosensitive, cation-selective channels (MSCCs), intracellular calcium levels, and F-actin. To this end, MSCs were exposed to laminar FSS linearly increased from 0 to 10 dyn/cm(2) in 0, 2, or 20 min and maintained at 10 dyn/cm(2) for a total of 20 min (termed as ΔSS 0-0', 0-2', and 0-20', respectively, representing more physiological (0-0') and non-physiological (0-2' and 0-20') ΔSS treatments). Our results showed 0-0' facilitated MSC differentiation towards chondrogenic and not osteogenic phenotype, by promoting moderate intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) increase from the calcium channels with the exception of MSCCs or intracellular calcium stores, and F-actin organization. In contrast, 0-2' promoted MSCs towards osteogenic and not chondrogenic phenotype, by inducing significant [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from the MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. However, 0-20' elicited the modest osteogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes, as it induced the lowest [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. Our results suggest that compared to the more physiological ΔSS, the non-physiological ΔSS favors [Ca(2+) ]i influx from MSCCs. An appropriate non-physiological ΔSS (0-2') even elicits a large [Ca(2+) ]i influx from the MSCCs that reverses the lineage specification of MSCs, providing validation for the high mechanosensitivity of MSCs and guidance for training osteoporosis and osteoarthritis patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1752-1760, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636289

  3. Non-constrictive bead immobilization leading to decreased and uniform shear stress in microfluidic bead-based ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Chidambaram, Preethi; Maharry, Aaron P; Xu, Ronald X; Tweedle, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic biosensors have been utilized for sensing a wide range of antigens using numerous configurations. Bead based microfluidic sensors have been a popular modality due to the plug and play nature of analyte choice and the favorable geometry of spherical sensor scaffolds. While constriction of beads against fluid flow remains a popular method to immobilize the sensor, it results in poor fluidic regimes and shear conditions around sensor beads that can affect sensor performance. We present an alternative means of sensor bead immobilization using poly-carbonate membrane. This system results in several orders of magnitude lower variance of flow radially around the sensor bead. Shear stress experienced by our non-constrictive immobilized bead was three orders of magnitude lower. We demonstrate ability to quantitatively sense EpCAM protein, a marker for cancer stem cells and operation under both far-red and green wavelengths with no auto-fluorescence.

  4. Changes of cytosolic [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of rats with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis under fluid shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Guang Zhou; You-Qin Chen; Xu-Bao Liu; Wei-Ming Hu; Bo-Le Tian; Huai-Qing Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the fluid shear stress induced changes of [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were randomized into three groups. A model of AP was established by subcutaneous injection of caerulein. Low-shear 30 viscometer was used to provide steady fluid shear stress on separated neutrophils.The mean fluorescent intensity tested by flow cytometry was used as the indication of [Ca2+]i quantity.RESULTS: Under steady shear, cytosolic [Ca2+]i showed biphasic changes. The shear rate changed from low to high,[Ca2+]i in different groups decreased slightly and then increased gradually to a high level (P<0.05). A close correlation was observed between the cytosolic [Ca2+]i level and the alteration of fluid shear stress in regional microcirculation of AP.CONCLUSION: The increase of [Ca2+]i is highly related to the activation of neutrophils, which contributes to neutrophil adhesion to endothelium in the early phase of AP. The effect of fluid shear stress on [Ca2+]i may play a crucial role in pancreatic microcirculatory failure of AP.

  5. Bed slope effects on turbulent wave boundary layers: 1. Model validation and quantification of rough-turbulent results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, combined with a two-equation k-omega turbulence closure, is used to study converging-diverging effects from a sloping bed on turbulent (oscillatory) wave boundary layers. Bed shear stresses from the numerical model...

  6. A pressure and shear sensor system for stress measurement at lower limb residuum/socket interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczak, P; McGrath, M; Tang, J; Gao, J; Jiang, L; Bader, D L; Moser, D; Zahedi, S

    2016-07-01

    A sensor system for measurement of pressure and shear at the lower limb residuum/socket interface is described. The system comprises of a flexible sensor unit and a data acquisition unit with wireless data transmission capability. Static and dynamic performance of the sensor system was characterised using a mechanical test machine. The static calibration results suggest that the developed sensor system presents high linearity (linearity error ≤ 3.8%) and resolution (0.9 kPa for pressure and 0.2 kPa for shear). Dynamic characterisation of the sensor system shows hysteresis error of approximately 15% for pressure and 8% for shear. Subsequently, a pilot amputee walking test was conducted. Three sensors were placed at the residuum/socket interface of a knee disarticulation amputee and simultaneous measurements were obtained during pilot amputee walking test. The pressure and shear peak values as well as their temporal profiles are presented and discussed. In particular, peak pressure and shear of approximately 58 kPa and 27 kPa, respectively, were recorded. Their temporal profiles also provide dynamic coupling information at this critical residuum/socket interface. These preliminary amputee test results suggest strong potential of the developed sensor system for exploitation as an assistive technology to facilitate socket design, socket fit and effective monitoring of lower limb residuum health.

  7. Frequency- and stress-dependent changes in shear-wave velocity dispersion in water-saturated, unconsolidated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, R.

    2009-04-01

    Anelastic processes in the earth causes dissipation of seismic energy. Because of the fundamental laws of causality, the dissipation effects demand a frequency-dependent change of elastic moduli, and therefore, dispersion in elastic wave velocities. Assessing the dispersion of seismic shear waves in the unconsolidated subsoil is important for at least 3 reasons: 1) shear-wave velocity (Vs) is a key parameter in all dynamic loading problems; the frequency of the observed shear waves in field, downhole and laboratory measurements varies widely (20 Hz - 10 kHz), and consequently an uncertainty resulting from an unknown or poorly known estimate of dispersion may translate into erroneous evaluation and potential risks, 2) generally Vs-dispersion is considered negligible for the frequency range of practical interest; it is important to check this assumption and modify the site evaluation results, if necessary, and 3) the underlying soil-physics of any observed dispersion can be useful in estimating an unknown soil physical parameter. In the present research, we have concentrated on Vs dispersion in saturated sand in laboratory, under varying vertical and horizontal stress levels that are realistic in the context of shallow subsoil investigations. We explored theoretical models to obtain insight from our experimental findings. Laboratory experiments involving array seismic measurements and accurate stress control present clear evidence of dispersive shear-wave velocity in saturated sand in the frequency range 2-16 kHz. The change of Vs as a function of frequency is clearly nonlinear. For low frequencies, as observed in the field data, our result indicates significant dispersion and, therefore, nonlinear variation of attenuation. This has important implication on site evaluation using Vs. Significantly, the data allows us to distinguish a frequency-dependence of the velocity dispersion. The relative importance of fluid motion relative to the skeleton frame (Biot theory

  8. Currents induced by vertical varied radiation stress in standing waves and evolution of the bed composed of fine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin ZHANG; Hua LIU

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends the conventional concept of radiation stress (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart, 1964)in progressive water waves to standing waves, so that its vertical profile could be defined and calculated in a new technical way. The hydrodynamic numerical model being coupled with the vertically varying radiation stress in standing waves is used to simulate the currents being induced by standing waves in the vertical section. Numerical modeling of suspended sediment transport is then carried out to simulate the evolution of the bed composed of fine sediments by the currents. The scour and deposition patterns simulated are in qualitative agreement with prior laboratory and field observations.

  9. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow, namely a rivulet draining under gravity down a vertical substrate, a rivulet driven by a longitudinal shear stress at its free surface, and a ridge on a horizontal substrate, and find qualitatively similar behaviour for all three problems. We show that, in agreement with previous numerical studies, the free surface profile of an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with pinned contact lines is skewed as the shear stress is increased from zero, and that there is a maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with prescribed semi-width is possible. In practice, one or both of the contact lines will de-pin before this maximum value of the shear stress is reached, and so we consider situations in which the rivulet/ridge de-pins at one or both contact lines. In the case of de-pinning only at the advancing contact line, the rivulet/ridge is flattened and widened as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a second maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with a prescribed advancing contact angle is possible. In contrast, in the case of de-pinning only at the receding contact line, the rivulet/ridge is thickened and narrowed as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a solution with a prescribed receding contact angle for all values of the shear stress. In general, in the case of de-pinning at both contact lines there is a critical "yield" value of the shear stress beyond which no equilibrium solution is possible and the rivulet/ridge will evolve unsteadily. In the Appendix, we show that an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with prescribed flux/area is quasi-statically stable to two-dimensional perturbations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Effect of Contact Conditions on Void Coalescence at Low Stress Triaxiality Shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    as contact comes into play during the void collapse. In the early studies of this shear failure mechanism, Tvergaard (2009, "Behaviour of Voids in a Shear Field," Int. J. Fract., 158, pp. 41-49) suggested a pseudo-contact algorithm, using an internal pressure inside the void to resemble frictionless contact...... deformation, (ii) to quantify the accuracy of the pseudo-contact approach used in previous studies, and (iii) to analyze the effect of including friction at the void surface with the main focus on its effect on the critical strain at coalescence. When accounting for full contact at the void surface...

  11. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrates wall shear stress dependent behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinuzzi Robert M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an increasingly prevalent pathogen capable of causing severe vascular infections. The goal of this work was to investigate the role of shear stress in early adhesion events. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were exposed to MRSA for 15-60 minutes and shear stresses of 0-1.2 Pa in a parallel plate flow chamber system. Confocal microscopy stacks were captured and analyzed to assess the number of MRSA. Flow chamber parameters were validated using micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV and computational fluid dynamics modelling (CFD. Results Under static conditions, MRSA adhered to, and were internalized by, more than 80% of HUVEC at 15 minutes, and almost 100% of the cells at 1 hour. At 30 minutes, there was no change in the percent HUVEC infected between static and low flow (0.24 Pa, but a 15% decrease was seen at 1.2 Pa. The average number of MRSA per HUVEC decreased 22% between static and 0.24 Pa, and 37% between 0.24 Pa and 1.2 Pa. However, when corrected for changes in bacterial concentration near the surface due to flow, bacteria per area was shown to increase at 0.24 Pa compared to static, with a subsequent decline at 1.2 Pa. Conclusions This study demonstrates that MRSA adhesion to endothelial cells is strongly influenced by flow conditions and time, and that MSRA adhere in greater numbers to regions of low shear stress. These areas are common in arterial bifurcations, locations also susceptible to generation of atherosclerosis.

  12. Designing Microfluidic Devices for Studying Cellular Responses Under Single or Coexisting Chemical/Electrical/Shear Stress Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tzu-Yuan; Sun, Yung-Shin; Hou, Hsien-San; Wu, Shang-Ying; Zhu, Yun; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lo, Kai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are capable of creating a precise and controllable cellular micro-environment of pH, temperature, salt concentration, and other physical or chemical stimuli. They have been commonly used for in vitro cell studies by providing in vivo like surroundings. Especially, how cells response to chemical gradients, electrical fields, and shear stresses has drawn many interests since these phenomena are important in understanding cellular properties and functions. These microfluidic chips can be made of glass substrates, silicon wafers, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates, or polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates. Out of these materials, PMMA substrates are cheap and can be easily processed using laser ablation and writing. Although a few microfluidic devices have been designed and fabricated for generating multiple, coexisting chemical and electrical stimuli, none of them was considered efficient enough in reducing experimental repeats, particular for screening purposes. In this report, we describe our design and fabrication of two PMMA-based microfluidic chips for investigating cellular responses, in the production of reactive oxygen species and the migration, under single or coexisting chemical/electrical/shear stress stimuli. The first chip generates five relative concentrations of 0, 1/8, 1/2, 7/8, and 1 in the culture regions, together with a shear stress gradient produced inside each of these areas. The second chip generates the same relative concentrations, but with five different electric field strengths created within each culture area. These devices not only provide cells with a precise, controllable micro-environment but also greatly increase the experimental throughput. PMID:27584698

  13. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  14. Microfluidic device to study cell transmigration under physiological shear stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2011-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies relies on studies of cell transmigration in in vitro systems. Migration has traditionally been studied using two methods, the Boyden chamber and a shear flow chamber assay. Though, commonly applied in cell transmigration studies, they are far from imitating a...

  15. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  16. The effect of a homogenizing optic on residual stresses and shear strength of laser brazed ceramic/steel-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Südmeyer, I.; Rohde, M.; Besser, H.; Grein, M.; Liesching, B.; Schneider, J.

    2011-03-01

    Oxide and non oxide ceramics (Al2O3, SiC) were brazed to commercial steel with active filler alloys using a CO2-laser (l = 10.64 μm). Two different laser intensity profiles were used for heating up the compound: A laser output beam presenting a Gaussian profile and a homogenized, nearly top head profile were applied for joining the compounds in an Argon stream. The temperature distribution with and without the homogenizing optic was measured during the process and compared to the results of a finite element model simulating the brazing process with the different laser intensity profiles. Polished microsections were prepared for characterization of the different joints by scanning electron micrographs and EDXanalysis. In order to evaluate the effects of the different laser intensity profiles on the compound, the shear strengths of the braze-joints were determined. Additionally residual stresses which were caused by the gradient of thermal expansion between ceramic and metal were determined by finite element modeling. The microsections did not exhibit differences between the joints, which were brazed with different laser profiles. However the shear tests proved, that an explicit increase of compound strength up to 34 MPa of the ceramic/metal joints can be achieved with the top head profile, whereas the joints brazed with the Gaussian profile achieved only shear strength values of 24 MPa. Finally tribological pin-on-disc tests proved the capability of the laser brazed joints with regard to the application conditions.

  17. Normal and shear stresses on a residual limb in a prosthetic socket during ambulation: comparison of finite element results with experimental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J E; Daly, C H

    1993-01-01

    Interface stresses on a below-knee amputee residual limb during the stance phase of gait calculated using an analytical finite element model were compared with experimental interface stress measurements. The model was quasi-static and linear. Qualitatively, shapes of analytical and experimental interface stress waveforms were similar in that they were double-peaked with some distinct features apparent. However, quantitatively analytical resultant shear stress magnitudes were less than experimental values at all transducer measurement sites. Analytical normal stresses were less than experimental values at postero-proximal, postero-distal, and anteromedial proximal sites, but were greater than experimental values at antero-lateral distal and antero-lateral proximal sites. Anterior resultant shear angles were directed more distally in the model than in clinical data, an expected result since there was no relief for the tibial crest in the model. Model sensitivity analyses to shank loads showed interface normal and resultant shear stresses were most sensitive to axial force, sagittal bending moment, or sagittal shear force. The finite element model presented in this paper is significant because it contributes toward development of an analytical modeling technique to predict interface stress distributions for proposed prosthetic designs, provides insight into physical explanations of features apparent in interface stress waveforms (thereby enhancing understanding of interface mechanics), and provides insight into nonlinear characteristics that need to be added to improve the model.

  18. Effect of principal stress direction on undrained cyclic shear and recompression behaviour of dense sand; Shuoryoku hoko ni chakumokushita mitsuna suna no hihaisui kurikaeshi sendan tokusei to saiasshuku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Yoshida, N. [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yasuhara, K. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-21

    An undrained cyclic test accompanying the drainage history was carried out on dense sand using a hollow torsional test apparatus. The principal stress direction and repeated stress ratio during cyclic shearing that significantly influence the excess hydrostatic pressure and shear strain control the shear behavior after drainage history. The drainage history effect on the ground under repeated load may stabilize the ground or may not stabilize it. The influence of structural anisotropy due to the difference of the principal stress direction exists in the generation process of excess hydrostatic pressure and shear strain during second cyclic shearing. The excess hydrostatic pressure generated by cyclic shear is influenced by the principal stress direction and repeated pressure ratio. A unique relation that does not depend on the structural change of a specimen based on the drainage history influenced by the principal stress direction exists when volumetric strain is arranged with the maximum shear strain set to parameters. 18 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Cine Phase Contrast MRI on Wall Shear Stress and Oscillatory Shear Index Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsen, Frank J.; Marquering, Henk; van Ooij, Pim; vanBavel, Ed; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these measurements. Our aim was to investigate the effect of spatiotemporal resolution using a carotid artery phantom. Methods A carotid artery phantom was connected to a flow set-up supplying pulsatile flow. MRI measurement planes were placed at the common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Two-dimensional PC-MRI measurements were performed with thirty different spatiotemporal resolution settings. The MRI flow measurement was validated with ultrasound probe measurements. Mean flow, peak flow, flow waveform, WSS and OSI were compared for these spatiotemporal resolutions using regression analysis. The slopes of the regression lines were reported in %/mm and %/100ms. The distribution of low and high WSS and OSI was compared between different spatiotemporal resolutions. Results The mean PC-MRI CCA flow (2.5±0.2mL/s) agreed with the ultrasound probe measurements (2.7±0.02mL/s). Mean flow (mL/s) depended only on spatial resolution (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-49%/mm). Peak flow (mL/s) depended on both spatial (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-17%/mm) and temporal resolution (CCA:-19%/100ms, ICA:-24%/100ms). Mean WSS (Pa) was in inverse relationship only with spatial resolution (CCA:-19%/mm, ICA:-33%/mm). OSI was dependent on spatial resolution for CCA (-26%/mm) and temporal resolution for ICA (-16%/100ms). The regions of low and high WSS and OSI matched for most of the spatiotemporal resolutions (CCA:30/30, ICA:28/30 cases for WSS; CCA:23/30, ICA:29/30 cases for OSI). Conclusion We show that both mean flow and mean WSS are independent of temporal resolution. Peak flow and OSI are dependent on both spatial and temporal resolution. However, the magnitude of mean and peak flow, WSS and

  20. Influence of Reinforcement Anisotropy on the Stress Distribution in Tension and Shear of a Fusion Magnet Insulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, K.; Raff, S.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.

    2008-03-01

    A glass fiber reinforced plastic laminate, which consists of half-overlapped wrapped Kapton/R-glass-fiber reinforcing tapes vacuum-pressure impregnated in a cyanate ester/epoxy blend, is proposed as the insulation system for the ITER Toroidal Field coils. In order to assess its mechanical performance under the actual operating conditions, cryogenic (77 K) tensile and interlaminar shear tests were done after irradiation to the ITER design fluence of 1×1022 m-2 (E>0.1 MeV). The data were then used for a Finite Element Method (FEM) stress analysis. We find that the mechanical strength and the fracture behavior as well as the stress distribution and the failure criteria are strongly influenced by the winding direction and the wrapping technique of the reinforcing tapes.

  1. Natural vibration of pre-twisted shear deformable beam systems subject to multiple kinds of initial stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Fan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Free vibration and buckling of pre-twisted beams exhibit interesting coupling phenomena between compression, moments and torque and have been the subject of extensive research due to their importance as models of wind turbines and helicopter rotor blades. The paper investigates the influence of multiple kinds of initial stresses due to compression, shears, moments and torque on the natural vibration of pre-twisted straight beam based on the Timoshenko theory. The derivation begins with the three-dimensional Green strain tensor. The nonlinear part of the strain tensor is expressed as a product of displacement gradient to derive the strain energy due to initial stresses. The Frenet formulae in differential geometry are employed to treat the pre-twist. The strain energy due to elasticity and the linear kinetic energy are obtained in classical sense. From the variational principle, the governing equations and the associated natural boundary conditions are derived. It is noted that the first mode increases together with the pre-twisted angle but the second decreases seeming to close the first two modes together for natural frequencies and compressions. The gaps close monotonically as the angle of twist increases for natural frequencies and buckling compressions. However, unlike natural frequencies and compressions, the closeness is not monotonic for buckling shears, moments and torques.

  2. Use of shear-stress-sensitive, temperature-insensitive liquid crystals for hypersonic boundary-layer transition detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Croll, R.H.; Kuntz, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    The use of shear-stress-sensitive, temperature-insensitive (SSS/TI) liquid crystals (LCs) has been evaluated as a boundary-layer transition detection technique for hypersonic flows. Experiments were conducted at Mach 8 in the Sandia National Laboratories Hypersonic Wind Tunnel using a flat plate model at near zero-degree angle of attack over the freestream unit Reynolds number range 1.2-5.8x10{sup 6}/ft. Standard 35mm color photography and Super VHS color video were used to record LC color changes due to varying surface shear stress during the transition process for a range of commercial SSS liquid crystals. Visual transition data were compared to an established method using calorimetric surface heat-transfer measurements to evaluate the LC technique. It is concluded that the use of SSS/TI LCs can be an inexpensive, safe, and easy to use boundary-layer transition detection method for hypersonic flows. However, a valid interpretation of the visual records requires careful attention to illumination intensity levels and uniformity, lighting and viewing angles, some prior understanding of the general character of the flow, and the selection of the appropriate liquid crystal for the particular flow conditions.

  3. Quantification of the bed load effects on turbulent open-channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Detian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-04-01

    With a computational model combining large eddy simulation and a discrete element model, detailed quantification of the bed load effects on turbulent open-channel flows is presented. The objective is the revelation of bed load particle impact on the mean flow properties and coherent structures. Two comparative numerical experiments with mobile and immobile beds are conducted. Mean properties (e.g., velocity and Reynolds stress profiles) show good agreement with experimental data. Comparing the mobile and immobile cases, the effective bed position is nearly the same, whereas the equivalent sand roughness is changed. The flow experiences higher bottom shear stress over immobile bed. To quantify impact on turbulent structures, a revised quadrant analysis is performed to calculate four key parameters of ejection and sweep events (duration, maximum shear stress, transported momentum, and period). Results show that the ejection and sweep events have comparable importance in the outer region. However, sweep becomes dominant in the near-wall region. The motion of particles enhances the sweep dominance by breaking up the ejection structures and decreasing their occurrence ratio. The results also suggest that the ejection events are easier to be influenced by the particle motions because they originate from the near-wall region. The duration, maximum shear stress, and transported momentum decrease close to the bed. The period remains relatively constant in the outer region but decreases near the bed. Visualization of the coherent structure reveals that the instantaneous particle motion has strong correlation with the bursting cycle events.

  4. Wave-current bottom shear stresses and sediment re-suspension in the mouth bar of the Modaomen Estuary during the dry season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Liangwen; REN Jie; NIE Dan; CHEN Benzhong; LV Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the measurement data pertaining to waves, current, and sediment in February 2012 in the mouth bar of the Modaomen Estuary, the Soulsby formulae with an iterative method are applied to calculat-ing bottom shear stresses (BSS) and their effect on a sediment re-suspension. Swell-induced BSS have been found to be the most important part of the BSS. In this study, the correlation coefficient between a wave-current shear stress and SSC is 0.86, and that between current shear stresses and SSC is only 0.40. The peaks of the SSC are consistent with the height and the BSS of the swell. The swell is the main mechanism for the sediment re-suspension, and the tidal current effect on sediment re-suspension is small. The peaks of the SSC are centered on the high tidal level, and the flood tide enhances the wave shear stresses and the SSC near the bottom. The critical shear stress for sediment re-suspension at the observation station is between 0.20 and 0.30 N/m2. Tidal currents are too weak to stir up the bottom sediment into the flow, but a WCI (wave-current interaction) is strong enough to re-suspend the coarse sediment.

  5. Overexpression of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase-α1 Stabilizes but Increases Shear Stress-Induced Atherosclerotic Plaque in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-xin; Li, Meng-meng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Liang; Wang, Lin; Di, Ming-xue

    2016-01-01

    The rupture and erosion of atherosclerotic plaque can induce coronary thrombosis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in the synthesis of all known types of collagens, which are the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerotic plaque. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is thought to be in part caused by shear stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate a relationship between P4Hα1 and shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid arteries of ApoE−/− mice were exposed to low and oscillatory shear stress conditions by the placement of a shear stress cast for 2 weeks; we divided 60 male ApoE−/− mice into three groups for treatments with saline (mock) (n = 20), empty lentivirus (lenti-EGFP) (n = 20), and lentivirus-P4Hα1 (lenti-P4Hα1) (n = 20). Our results reveal that after 2 weeks of lenti-P4Hα1 treatment both low and oscillatory shear stress-induced plaques increased collagen and the thickness of fibrous cap and decreased macrophage accumulation but no change in lipid accumulation. We also observed that overexpression of P4Ha1 increased plaque size. Our study suggests that P4Hα1 overexpression might be a potential therapeutic target in stabilizing vulnerable plaques.

  6. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  7. Stress in a dilute suspension of spheres in a dilute polymer solution subject to simple shear flow at finite Deborah numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Donald L.; Lee, Eric F.; Mustafa, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    The influence of particle-polymer interactions on the ensemble average stress is derived as a function of the Deborah number for a dilute suspension of spheres in an Oldroyd-B fluid in the limit of small polymer concentrations. The slow rate of decay of the particle-induced polymer stress with separation from a particle presents a challenge to the derivation of the average stress, which can be overcome by removing the linearized polymer stress disturbance before computing the bulk average stress from the particle-induced disturbance. The linearized stress can be shown to have zero ensemble average. The polymer influence on the particle's stresslet is computed with the aid of a generalized reciprocal theorem based on a regular perturbation from Newtonian flow for small polymer concentration. The analysis shows that the particle-polymer contributions to the shear stress and first normal stress difference shear thicken as has been observed in the experiments of Scirocco et al. [Shear thickening in filled Boger fluids, J. Rheol. 49, 551 (2005), 10.1122/1.1849185]. The particle-polymer contribution to the second normal stress difference is positive at small Deborah numbers but changes sign at a Deborah number of about 2.3.

  8. Wall shear stress and initiation of aneurysm around anterior communicating artery in pulsating flow; Myakudoryuchu no nozen kotsu domyaku mawari no kabe sendan oryoku to domyakuryu hasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, R.; Kudo, S.; Nakashima, M. [Shibaura Institute of University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanobe, H. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ujiie, H. [Tokyo Women' s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan); Suhihara, R.

    2000-12-25

    In the present paper, the velocity profile, the wall shear stress and its gradient at the apex of the anterior communicating artery are described in pulsating flow. The anterior communicating artery composing the circle of Willis is one of the predilection sites where the cerebral aneurysm occurs frequently. The flow field around the anterior communicating artery is simulated by two confluent tubes joining at the angle of 60 degrees, two parallel bifurcating tubes, and the junctional tube, bypass, connecting four tubes. The velocity profile is clarified around the apex where the cerebral aneurysm is apt to initiate. In particular, the gradient of wall shear stress around the apex at one confluent tube with much flow rate is estimated, and the relation between the gradient of wall shear stress and the initiation of aneurysm is discussed physiologically. (author)

  9. Glycocalyx modulates the motility and proliferative response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Rabodzey, Aleksandr; Dewey, C Forbes

    2007-08-01

    Flow-induced mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells has been studied over the years with a major focus on putative connections between disturbed flow and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have brought in a new perspective that the glycocalyx, a structure decorating the luminal surface of vascular endothelium, may play an important role in the mechanotransduction. This study reports that modifying the amount of the glycocalyx affects both short-term and long-term shear responses significantly. It is well established that after 24 h of laminar flow, endothelial cells align in the direction of flow and their proliferation is suppressed. We report here that by removing the glycocalyx by using the specific enzyme heparinase III, endothelial cells no longer align under flow after 24 h and they proliferate as if there were no flow present. In addition, confluent endothelial cells respond rapidly to flow by decreasing their migration speed by 40% and increasing the amount of vascular endothelial cadherin in the cell-cell junctions. These responses are not observed in the cells treated with heparinase III. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (a major component of the glycocalyx) redistribute after 24 h of flow application from a uniform surface profile to a distinct peripheral pattern with most molecules detected above cell-cell junctions. We conclude that the presence of the glycocalyx is necessary for the endothelial cells to respond to fluid shear, and the glycocalyx itself is modulated by the flow. The redistribution of the glycocalyx also appears to serve as a cell-adaptive mechanism by reducing the shear gradients that the cell surface experiences.

  10. Effects of potassium channel on shear stress - induced signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells%K离子通道在剪切力诱导血管内皮细胞信号转导中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金麟

    1999-01-01

    Fluid shear stress play an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular system. Shear stress - induced signal transduction throughout the vascular endothelial cell includes ion channels,G- protein linked receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors and integrins. The one impossible pathway of shear stress - induced signal transduction was biochemical reaction through second messenger, activating protein kinases and cytosolic transcription factors, and then regulating gene transcription . The other pathway was cytoskeletal system. This article reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanism of potassium channel signal transduction resulting from shear stress.

  11. In situ transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocation motion in 9Cr steel at elevated temperatures: influence of shear stress on dislocation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Susumu; Sakai, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate high-temperature plastic deformation (creep) mechanism in materials, it is essential to observe dislocation motion under tensile loading. There are many reports on in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations in the literature; however, the relationship between the dislocation motion and shear stress in 9Cr steel is still not clear. In this study, in order to evaluate this relationship quantitatively, in situ TEM observations were carried out in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) analysis. A tensile test sample was strained at an elevated temperature (903 K) inside a transmission electron microscope, and the stress distribution in the strained sample was analyzed by FEM. The dislocation behavior was clearly found to depend on the shear stress. At a shear stress of 66 MPa, both the dislocation velocity and mobile dislocation density were low. However, a high shear stress level of 95 MPa caused a noticeable increase in the dislocation velocity and mobile dislocation density. Furthermore, in this article, we discuss the dependence of the dislocation behavior on stress. The results presented here also indicate that the relationship between the microstructure and the strength of materials can be revealed by the methods used in this work. PMID:25298228

  12. Analysis of Shear Stress and Energy Consumption in a Tubular Airlift Membrane System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Berube, P.R.;

    2011-01-01

    that optimize fouling control. Furthermore, the total energy consumption of the system was estimated based on the two-phase pressure drop. It was found that low liquid and high gas flow rates (ratio of approx. 4) balanced the peaks and minimized the energy consumption....... (gas and liquid) by varying the flow of each phase. Bimodal SSHs were observed, with peaks corresponding to the shear induced by the liquid and gas flow respectively. In this contribution, SSHs are modelled using simple empirical relationships. These are used to identify the two-phase flow conditions...

  13. Assessment of Immune Status, Latent Viral Reactivation and Stress during Long Duration Bed Rest as an Analog for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mehta, Satish K.; Yetman, Deborah L.; Leaf, Melanie J.; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    As logistical access for in-flight space research becomes more limited, the use of ground based spaceflight analogs for life science studies will increase. These studies are particularly important as NASA progresses towards the Lunar and eventually Mars missions outlined in the 2005 Vision for Space Exploration. Countermeasures must be developed to mitigate the clinical risks associated with exploration class space missions. In an effort to coordinate studies across multiple disciplines, NASA has selected 90-day bed rest as the analog of choice, and initiated the Flight Analogs Project to implement research studies with or without the evaluation of countermeasures. Although bed rest is not the analog of choice to evaluate spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, a standard Immune Assessment was developed for subjects participating in the 90-day bed best studies. The Immune Assessment consists of: leukocyte subset distribution, T cell functional responses, intracellular cytokine production profiles, latent viral reactivation, virus specific T cell levels, virus specific T cell function, stress hormone levels and a behavioral assessment using stress questionnaires. The purpose of the assessment during the initial studies (without countermeasure) is to establish control data against which future studies (with countermeasure) will be evaluated. It is believed that some of the countermeasures planned to be evaluated in future studies, such as exercise, pharmacologic intervention or nutritional supplementation, have the ability to impact immune function. Therefore immunity will likely be monitored during those studies. The data generated during the first three control studies showed that the subjects in general did not display altered peripheral leukocyte subsets, constitutive immune activation, significant latent viral reactivation (EBV, VZV) or altered T cell function. Interestingly, for some subjects the level of constitutively activated T cells (CD8+/CD69+) and

  14. Optimizing Shear Stresses at the Tip of a Hydraulic Fracture - What Is the Ideal Orientation of Natural Fractures with respect to Hydraulic Fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, F.; Hager, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    While many shale and unconventional plays are naturally fractured (or contain planes of weakness), these are often cemented and effectively impermeable to flow. Stress shadow behind the tip of a hydraulic fracture stablizes natural fractures. It essentially means that if impermeable natural fractures and weakness planes are not opened when the hydraulic fracture tip passes, they will remain closed and impermeable to flow. In this work a detailed and comprehensive evaluation of tip shear stresses and associated natural fracture or weakness plane shear is presented. From analytical work, the theoretical shear stresses from a fracture tip are first presented. The effect of fracture length, in-situ pore pressure, maximum horizontal remote stress, net pressure, natural fracture friction coefficient and the direction of natural fracture with respect to the hydraulic fracture on shear stimulation at the tip are calculated using the plane strain analytical solution of a 2-D fracture, and assuming simple linear coulomb friction law. Since slippage along natural fractures will locally violate the assumptions used in the analytical solutions and to incorporate the effect of weakness planes on stress-strain and displacement field, 2-D and 3-D finite element model (FEM) simulations are presented that build upon both the analytical and continuum solutions. FEM models are capable of numerically simulating the slippage through weakness planes by using contact elements. This advantage makes FEM tools very appropriate for synthetically generating microseismicity, which can then be evaluated for mode, focal mechanism, and magnitude. The results of the simulations highlight the critical parameters involved in shearing and opening cemented natural fractures in unconventionals - which is a critical component of stimulation and production optimization for these plays. According to the results, the ideal orientation of natural fractures with respect to hydraulic fracture from shear

  15. [Effect of laminar shear stress on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9 in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longju; Sun, Xiaodong; Tang, Jie; Ding, Yan; Li, Jing; Li, Wenchun; Gong, Jian; Wang, Hanqin

    2010-12-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the effect of laminar shear stress on matrix metalloproteinase -9 (MMP-9) expression in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and the possible signal transduction mechanism involved. Rat bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured, then, exposed to laminar shear stress at indicated strengths such as low (5dyne/cm2), medium (15 dyne/cm2) and high (30 dyne/cm2) via parallel plate flow chamber. RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of MMP-9. The signaling inhibitors such as Wortmannin (PI3K specific inhabitor), SB202190 (p38MAPK specific inhabitor), and PD98059 (ERK1/2 specific inhabitor) were used to investigate the possible mechanical signal transduction pathway. The results showed: (1) The expression of MMP-9 was weak in static state, however, MMP-9 expression increased when MSCs were exposed to 15 dyne/cm2 shear stress for 2 hours, and MMP-9 expression increased with the extension of stimulating time, and it reached the peak at 24 h; (2) MSCs were stimulated by shear stress for 2 hours at different strengths (5 dyne/cm2, 15 dyne/cm2, 30 dyne/cm2), and under all these conditions, the expression of MMP-9 increased, and reached the peak at 15 dyne/cm2; (3) After MSCs were pretreated by three kinds of signal pathway inhibitors, the expression of MMP-9 did not change obviously in Wortmannin group and PD98059 group, but it was significantly inhibited in SB202190 group. This study demonstrated that shear stress could induce the expression of MMP-9 in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; the amount of MMP-9 expression was closely related to stimulating time and the strengths of shear stress; and p38MAPK signal pathway played a critical role during the process.

  16. Serotonin, cortisol, and stress-related psychopathology: from bench to bed

    OpenAIRE

    Tanke, Marit Aline Christine

    2009-01-01

    Stress has been implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders, the most common stress-related disorder being major depressive disorder. However, stressful events do not automatically lead to psychopathology, important is the interaction between the stressor and someone’s vulnerability to stress and psychiatric disorders. This vulnerability is individual and likely to be determined by genetic, psychosocial, and biological factors. Two biological systems that have been related to the...

  17. Serotonin, cortisol, and stress-related psychopathology : from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanke, Marit Aline Christine

    2009-01-01

    Stress has been implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders, the most common stress-related disorder being major depressive disorder. However, stressful events do not automatically lead to psychopathology, important is the interaction between the stressor and someone’s vulnerability to

  18. Choice of blood rheology model has minor impact on computational assessment of shear stress mediated vascular risk

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, Miguel O; Groen, Derek; Carver, Hywel B; Hetherington, James; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations to the homeostatic distribution of mechanical forces exerted by blood on the endothelial layer have been correlated with vascular pathologies including intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Recent computational work suggests that in order to correctly characterise such forces, the shear-thinning properties of blood must be taken into account. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been compared against experimentally observed pathological thresholds. In the current work, we apply the three-band diagram (TBD) analysis due to Gizzi et al. to assess the impact of the choice of blood rheology model on a computational model of the right middle cerebral artery. Our results show that the differences between the wall shear stress predicted by a Newtonian model and the well known Carreau-Yasuda generalized Newtonian model are only significant if the vascular pathology under study is associated with a pathological threshold in the range 0.94 Pa to 1.56 Pa, where the results of the T...

  19. Reynolds stresses and mean fields generated by pure waves: applications to shear flows and convection in a rotating shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, E.; Lebranchu, Y.; Simitev, R.; Busse, F. H.

    A general reformulation of the Reynolds stresses created by two-dimensional waves breaking a translational or a rotational invariance is described. This reformulation emphasizes the importance of a geometrical factor: the slope of the separatrices of the wave flow. Its physical relevance is illustrated by two model systems: waves destabilizing open shear flows; and thermal Rossby waves in spherical shell convection with rotation. In the case of shear-flow waves, a new expression of the Reynolds-Orr amplification mechanism is obtained, and a good understanding of the form of the mean pressure and velocity fields created by weakly nonlinear waves is gained. In the case of thermal Rossby waves, results of a three-dimensional code using no-slip boundary conditions are presented in the nonlinear regime, and compared with those of a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic model. A semi-quantitative agreement is obtained on the flow amplitudes, but discrepancies are observed concerning the nonlinear frequency shifts. With the quasi-geostrophic model we also revisit a geometrical formula proposed by Zhang to interpret the form of the zonal flow created by the waves, and explore the very low Ekman-number regime. A change in the nature of the wave bifurcation, from supercritical to subcritical, is found.

  20. Temperature-Dependent Fatigue Strength of Diamond Coating-Substrate Interface Quantified via the Shear Failure Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordaris, G.

    2015-09-01

    A dynamic 3D-finite element method (FEM) thermomechanical model is employed for quantifying the temperature-dependent fatigue strength of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coating-substrate interface. This model simulates dynamically the inclined impact test on NCD-coated cemented carbide inserts considering the temperature-dependent residual stresses in the NCD coating structure. A fatigue damage of the NCD coating-substrate interface develops after a certain number of repetitive impacts depending on the applied impact load and temperature. After the interface fatigue failure, the high compressive residual stresses of the NCD coating structure are released, and the detached coating hikes up at a certain maximum height (bulge formation). The critical impact forces for avoiding the fatigue failure of the NCD coating-substrate interface, and the subsequent film detachment after 106 impacts at various temperatures were determined by conducting inclined impact tests up to 400 °C. Considering the critical impact forces, using the mentioned FEM model, the related shear failure stresses in the NCD coating-substrate interface at various temperatures were predicted.

  1. Effects of wall shear stress on unsteady MHD conjugate flow in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Khan

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.

  2. Energy Release Rate in hydraulic fracture: can we neglect an impact of the hydraulically induced shear stress?

    CERN Document Server

    Wrobel, Michal; Piccolroaz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydraulic fracture (HF) formulation is introduced which accounts for the hydraulically induced shear stress at the crack faces. It utilizes a general form of the elasticity operator alongside a revised fracture propagation condition based on the critical value of the energy release rate. It is shown that the revised formulation describes the underlying physics of HF in a more accurate way and is in agreement with the asymptotic behaviour of the linear elastic fracture mechanics. A number of numerical simulations by means of the universal HF algorithm previously developed in Wrobel & Mishuris (2015) are performed in order to: i) compare the modified HF formulation with its classic counterpart and ii) investigate the peculiarities of the former. Computational advantages of the revised HF model are demonstrated. Asymptotic estimations of the main solution elements are provided for the cases of small and large toughness. The modified formulation opens new ways to analyse the physical phenomenon of HF ...

  3. A kind of simple device controlling shear stress in direct shear creep experiment%一种控制直剪蠕变试验剪应力的简易装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕超; 王卫; 谢鲁钧; 王伟; 闫东洋

    2014-01-01

    土的蠕变是指土在保持应力不变的条件下,应变随时间延长而增加的现象。研究土的蠕变性质对于确定土的长期强度有重要意义,土的蠕变研究也是近几年的研究热点。然而,土的蠕变试验周期特别长,因此简便、易行又有一定可信度的蠕变试验仪器,对于土蠕变性质的研究有较大的推动意义。直剪蠕变试验是研究确定土的蠕变性质的一种最简单、最直观的试验方法。但由于该试验只是控制剪切力不变,剪切过程中,试样受剪面积逐渐减小,剪应力持续增大,整个过程并不是蠕变。通过在传统仪器上附加一个简单装置,利用液体的浮力来控制试验剪切力,从而使得试样在剪切过程中的剪应力不变。在对仪器进行相应改进后,做了对比试验,检验该装置对剪应力的控制效果,试验结果表明,该简易装置可在一定程度上控制剪应力。%Soil’s creep indicates a phenomenon that strain increases with time while keeping soil’s stress stable. Researching soil’s creep properties is very important for confirming soil’s long-term strength;and it is quite popular in recent years. However, a creep experiment costs a lot of time;therefore a simple, feasible and reliable device for soil’s creep properties will boost the research. The soil’s direct shear creep experiment is the simplest and the most intuitive way to research soil’s creep properties. But the experiment just keeps the shearing force stable, in the shearing process, the effective area reduces gradually and the shear stress increases continuously with the shear strain developing, this process is not a proper creep. By adding a simple device on the traditional experiment, the liquid’s buoyancy is used to control the shear stress to keep the shear stress stable in the shearing process. After the corresponding modification of the instrument, we had done a group of contrast

  4. Predicting fractional bed load transport rates: Application of the Wilcock-Crowe equations to a regulated gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeuman, D.; Andrews, E.D.; Kraus, A.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Bed load samples from four locations in the Trinity River of northern California are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the Wilcock-Crowe bed load transport equations for predicting fractional bed load transport rates. Bed surface particles become smaller and the fraction of sand on the bed increases with distance downstream from Lewiston Dam. The dimensionless reference shear stress for the mean bed particle size (t*rm) is largest near the dam, but varies relatively little between the more downstream locations. The relation between t*rm and the reference shear stresses for other size fractions is constant across all locations. Total bed load transport rates predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations are within a factor of 2 of sampled transport rates for 68% of all samples. The Wilcock-Crowe equations nonetheless consistently under-predict the transport of particles larger than 128 mm, frequently by more than an order of magnitude. Accurate prediction of the transport rates of the largest particles is important for models in which the evolution of the surface grain size distribution determines subsequent bed load transport rates. Values of term estimated from bed load samples are up to 50% larger than those predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations, and sampled bed load transport approximates equal mobility across a wider range of grain sizes than is implied by the equations. Modifications to theWilcock-Crowe equation for determining t*rm and the hiding function used to scale term to other grain size fractions are proposed to achieve the best fit to observed bed load transport in the Trinity River. Copyright 2009 by the American eophysical Union.

  5. On the predictive capabilities of the shear modified Gurson and the modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture models over a wide range of stress triaxialities and Lode angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Matthieu; Mohr, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    The predictive capabilities of the shear-modified Gurson model [Nielsen and Tvergaard, Eng. Fract. Mech. 77, 2010] and the Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model [Bai and Wierzbicki, Int. J. Fract. 161, 2010] are evaluated. Both phenomenological fracture models are physics-inspired and take the effect of the first and third stress tensor invariants into account in predicting the onset of ductile fracture. The MMC model is based on the assumption that the initiation of fracture is determined by a critical stress state, while the shear-modified Gurson model assumes void growth as the governing mechanism. Fracture experiments on TRIP-assisted steel sheets covering a wide range of stress states (from shear to equibiaxial tension) are used to calibrate and validate these models. The model accuracy is quantified based on the predictions of the displacement to fracture for experiments which have not been used for calibration. It is found that the MMC model predictions agree well with all experiments (less than 4% error), while less accurate predictions are observed for the shear-modified Gurson model. A comparison of plots of the strain to fracture as a function of the stress triaxiality and the normalized third invariant reveals significant differences between the two models except within the vicinity of stress states that have been used for calibration.

  6. Interaction between drug delivery vehicles and cells under the effect of shear stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Jansman, M. M. T.;

    2015-01-01

    while, at the same time, allowing for drug release to be triggered through a diverse range of physical and chemical cues. While these advances are impressive, the field has been lacking behind in translating these systems into the clinic, mainly due to low predictability of in vitro and rodent in vivo...... models. An important factor within the complex and dynamic human in vivo environment is the shear flow observed within our circulatory system and many other tissues. Within this review, recent advances to leverage microfluidic devices to better mimic these conditions through novel in vitro assays...... are summarized. By grouping the discussion in three prominent classes of DDVs (lipidic and polymeric particles as well as inorganic nanoparticles), we hope to guide researchers within drug delivery into this exciting field and advance a further implementation of these assay systems within the development of DDVs....

  7. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of shear stress distribution during neotissue growth in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Y; Luyten, F P; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I; Geris, L

    2015-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering strategies use flow through perfusion bioreactors to apply mechanical stimuli to cells seeded on porous scaffolds. Cells grow on the scaffold surface but also by bridging the scaffold pores leading a fully filled scaffold following the scaffold's geometric characteristics. Current computational fluid dynamic approaches for tissue engineering bioreactor systems have been mostly carried out for empty scaffolds. The effect of 3D cell growth and extracellular matrix formation (termed in this study as neotissue growth), on its surrounding fluid flow field is a challenge yet to be tackled. In this work a combined approach was followed linking curvature driven cell growth to fluid dynamics modeling. The level-set method (LSM) was employed to capture neotissue growth driven by curvature, while the Stokes and Darcy equations, combined in the Brinkman equation, provided information regarding the distribution of the shear stress profile at the neotissue/medium interface and within the neotissue itself during growth. The neotissue was assumed to be micro-porous allowing flow through its structure while at the same time allowing the simulation of complete scaffold filling without numerical convergence issues. The results show a significant difference in the amplitude of shear stress for cells located within the micro-porous neo-tissue or at the neotissue/medium interface, demonstrating the importance of taking along the neotissue in the calculation of the mechanical stimulation of cells during culture.The presented computational framework is used on different scaffold pore geometries demonstrating its potential to be used a design as tool for scaffold architecture taking into account the growing neotissue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2591-2600. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A numerical study on the evolution and structure of a stress-driven free-surface turbulent shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wu-Ting; Chen, Shi-Ming; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2005-12-01

    Turbulent shear flow beneath a flat free surface driven by a surface stress is simulated numerically to gain a better understanding of the hydrodynamic processes governing the scalar transfer across the air-water interface. The simulation is posed to mimic the subsequent development of a wind-driven shear layer as in a previous experiment except that the initiation of the surface waves is inhibited, thus focusing on the boundary effect of the stress-imposed surface on the underlying turbulent flow and vice versa. Despite the idealizations inherent in conducting the simulation, the computed flow exhibits the major surface features, qualitatively similar to those that appear in the laboratory and field experiments. Two distinct surface signatures, namely elongated high-speed streaks and localized low-speed spots, are observed in the simulated flow. Including temperature as a passive tracer and describing an upward heat flux at the surface, we obtain high-speed streaks that are colder and low-speed spots that are warmer than the surrounding regions. The high-speed streaks, arranged with somewhat equal cross-spacing of centimetres scale, are formed by an array of streamwise jets within the viscous sublayer immediately next to the surface. Beneath the streaks, counter-rotating streamwise vortex pairs are observed among other prevailing elongated vortices. However, they are significantly shorter in length and more irregular than their corresponding high-speed streaks at the surface. Accompanying the more organized high-speed streaks, localized regions of low streamwise velocity emerge randomly on the surface. These low-speed spots are attributed to strong upwelling flows which disrupt the viscous sublayer and also bring up the submerged fluids of low streamwise velocity. The occasional interruptions of the streamwise high-speed jets by the upwelling flows account for bifurcation or dislocation of the surface streaks. Statistics of the turbulence are presented and their

  9. Fluid shear stress stimulates prostaglandin and nitric oxide release in bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T. N.; Du, T.; Frangos, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is a porous tissue that is continuously perfused by interstitial fluid. Fluid flow, driven by both vascular pressure and mechanical loading, may generate significant shear stresses through the canaliculi as well as along the bone lining at the endosteal surface. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes produce signaling factors such as prostaglandins and nitric in response to fluid shear stress (FSS); however, these humoral agents appear to have more profound affects on osteoclast activity at the endosteal surface. We hypothesized that osteoclasts and preosteoclasts may also be mechanosensitive and that osteoclast-mediated autocrine signaling may be important in bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effect of FSS on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release by neonatal rat bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells. These cells were tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive, weakly nonspecific esterase (NSE) positive, and capable of fusing into calcitonin-responsive, bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells. Bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells exposed for 6 h to a well-defined FSS of 16 dynes/cm(2) produced NO at a rate of 7.5 nmol/mg protein/h, which was 10-fold that of static controls. This response was completely abolished by 100 microM N(G)-amino-L-arginine (L-NAA). Flow also stimulated PGE(2) production (3.9 microg/mg protein/h) and PGI(2) production (220 pg/mg protein/h). L-NAA attenuated flow-induced PGE(2) production by 30%, suggesting that NO may partially modulate PGE(2) production. This is the first report demonstrating that marrow derived cells are sensitive to FSS and that autocrine signaling in these cells may play an important role in load-induced remodeling and signal transduction in bone. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotide inhibits tissue factor expression in endothelial cells induced by blood flow shear stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianning; Yang Yimin; Ying Dajun; Cheng Rongchuan; Gong Zili; Liu Yong; Zhou Zhujuan; Zheng Jian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of antiparallel phosphorothioate triplex-forming oligonucleotide (apsTFO),which was designed according to shear stress response element (SSRE) in tissue factor (TF) gene promoter region, on the expression of endothelial TF in carotid artery stenosis rats. Methods: Rat model of severe carotid artery stenosis were inflicted by silica gel tube ligation. Half an hour before the model infliction, GT20-apsTFO, GT20-psTFO and GT21-apsTFO labeled with green fluorescence (FITC) were injected into the vena caudalis of rat at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg.Half an hour, 4 or 9 h after the ligation, the distribution of TFO in the common carotid artery, the liver and the kidney was detected with aid of fluorescence microscopy. And the mRNA and protein expressions of TF, Egr-1 and Spl in the above-mentioned organs were determined with in situ hybridization and immunohistoehemical assay respectively in 6 h after the model establishment, and the results were analyzed with an image analysis system. Results: Only in 1 h after TFO injection, fluorescent granules appeared in the liver, the kidney and the vascular wall and lumen of carotid artery,and then in 4.5 h, they still deposited in above sites except the vascular lumen. GT20-apsTFO and GT21-apsTFO significant down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of TF compared to the rats without treatment (P0.05).The 3 TFOs had no inhibition on the mRNA and protein expressions of Egr-I and Spl. Conclusion: Pretreated apsTFO can partly come into the vascular endothelial cells, and inhibit TF expression induced by shear stress, but had no effect on Egr-1 and Spl gene expressions.

  11. Site characterization and validation - measurement of flowrate, solute velocities and aperture variation in natural fractures as a function of normal and shear stress, stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests have been completed on natural fracture planes in three, 200 mm diameter, cores, to determine the effect of changes in normal and shear stress on fracture permeability and porosity. In each core, a single fracture plane was oriented parallel to the core axis and the flow and tracer tests were completed under linear flow boundary conditions. At the completion of the full stressflow test cycle, the fracture plane was impregnated with resin and, after the resin had hardened, the fracture plane was sectioned and the structure of the pore space characterized. The test data showed that there is linear relationship between the logarithm of flowrate and the logarithm of normal stress. For shear tests on the two main samples, which were conducted at shear stresses less than the peak shear strength, the flowrates decreased slightly with increase in shear displacement. The porosities determined from the resin data and the fluid velocities determined from the tracer tests show that the volume of fluid in the fracture plane is much greater than that predicted using equivalent smooth parallel plate model. (authors)

  12. Influence of decelerating flow on incipient motion of a gravel-bed stream

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Afzalimhr; Subhasish Dey; Pooneh Rasoulianfar

    2007-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel-bed streams under steady-decelerating flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with two median grain sizes, $d_{50} =$ 16·7 mm for a fixed-bed case and $d_{50} =$ 8 mm for a mobile bed case. In addition, an effort is made to determine a simplified method for the estimation of bed shear stress in decelerating flow over fixed and mobile beds for use in field situations. From the observation of eleven fixed-bed and nine mobile-bed velocity profiles, it is revealed that the parabolic law method (PLM) and the Reynolds stress method are comparable for estimation of shear velocity in general. Also, the results show that the shear stress distribution adopts a convex form over fixed and mobile beds. Due to this form the critical Shields parameter value for decelerating flow is less than the reported values in literature. This paper supports Buffington & Montgomery (1997) statement that less emphasis should be given on choosing a universal shields parameter, and more emphasis should be given on choosing defendable values based on flow structure.

  13. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  14. Correlation between wall shear stress and the rupture of saccular intracranial aneurysms: the initial experimental results with patient-specific 3-D computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the hemodynamic factors relating to the rupture of intracranial aneurysm by comparing the hemodynamic parameters of the asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms with that of symptomatic ones. Methods: Eight intracranial aneurysms in five patients were discovered on DSA. By using rotational DSA, 3-D models of the intracranial aneurysms were established, and the numerical simulation of the hemodynamics parameters was performed with finite volume method. The hemodynamics parameters between the aneurysms and the parent arteries were statistically analyzed and compared. Results The average shear stress of the neck and the close parent artery in asymptomatic group was (5.54 ± 2.89) Pa and (6.6 ± 3.47) Pa respectively, while it was (4.78 ± 3.84) Pa and (7.30 ± 3.80) Pa respectively in symptomatic group. No significant difference in the average shear stress of both the aneurysmal neck and its close parent artery existed between two groups (P < 0.05). The low shear stress region of asymptomatic group and symptomatic group was (0.33 ± 0.57)% and (4.72 ± 5.31)% respectively, with a significant difference between the two (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The size of low shear stress region of aneurysmal wall may be one of the main factors causing the rupture of the saccular intracranial aneurysms. (authors)

  15. Hydrodynamic Shear Stress Affects Cell Growth and Metabolite Production by Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海刚; 钟建江

    2005-01-01

    By investigating the shear effect on submerged cultivation of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Ganoderma lucidum, a relatively high cell concentration of 13.8 g·L-1 by dry mass was obtained in bioreactor at an impeller tip speed (ITS) of 0.51m·s-1. At an ITS of 0.51,1.02 and 1.53m·s-1, a maximal production titer of intracellular polysaccharide was 2.64, 2.20 and 2.28g·L-1 and that of ganoderic acid was 306, 299 and 273g·L-1, respectively. Under these ITSs, the maximal mean projected area of dispersed hypheue was 3.70, 2.54 and 2.13 × 104μm2, and that of pellets was 0.91, 0.67 and 0.55 mm2, respectively. The information obtained is useful for efficient submerged cultivation of mushrooms on a large scale.

  16. Interaction between drug delivery vehicles and cells under the effect of shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gallardo, M; Ek, P K; Jansman, M M T; Wohl, B M; Hosta-Rigau, L

    2015-09-01

    Over the last decades, researchers have developed an ever greater and more ingenious variety of drug delivery vehicles (DDVs). This has made it possible to encapsulate a wide selection of therapeutic agents, ranging from proteins, enzymes, and peptides to hydrophilic and hydrophobic small drugs while, at the same time, allowing for drug release to be triggered through a diverse range of physical and chemical cues. While these advances are impressive, the field has been lacking behind in translating these systems into the clinic, mainly due to low predictability of in vitro and rodent in vivo models. An important factor within the complex and dynamic human in vivo environment is the shear flow observed within our circulatory system and many other tissues. Within this review, recent advances to leverage microfluidic devices to better mimic these conditions through novel in vitro assays are summarized. By grouping the discussion in three prominent classes of DDVs (lipidic and polymeric particles as well as inorganic nanoparticles), we hope to guide researchers within drug delivery into this exciting field and advance a further implementation of these assay systems within the development of DDVs.

  17. Human coronary plaque wall thickness correlated positively with flow shear stress and negatively with plaque wall stress: an IVUS-based fluid-structure interaction multi-patient study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rui; Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; WANG, LIANG; Muccigrosso, David; Billiar, Kristen; Zhu, Jian; Ma, Genshan; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture are believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. In this paper, patient-specific in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) coronary plaque image data were used to construct computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and cyclic bending to investigate correlations between plaque wall thickness and both flow shear stress and plaque wall stress conditions. Methods IVUS data were acquired from 10 patients afte...

  18. Analysis of TNF-α-induced Leukocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulated by Fluid Shear Stress Using Microfluidic Chip-based Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan; YANG De-yu; LIAO Juan; GONG Fang; HE Ping; LIU Bei-zhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to the research of the impact of fluid shear stress on the adhesion between vascular endothelial cells and leukocyte induced by tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) by microfliudic chip technology. Microfluidic chip was fabricated by soft lithograph;Endothelial microfluidic chip was constructed by optimizing types of the extracellular matrix proteins modified in the microchannel and cell incubation time;human umbilical vein endothelial cells EA.Hy926 lined in the microchannel were exposed to fluid shear stress of 1.68 dynes/cm2 and 8.4 dynes/cm2 respectively. Meanwhile, adhesion between EA.Hy926 cells and leukocyte was induced by TNF-αunder a flow condition. EA. Hy926 cell cultured in the static condition was used as control group. The numbers of fluorescently-labeled leukocyte in microchannel were counted to quantize the adhesion level between EA. Hy926 cells and leukocyte; cell immunofluorescence technique was used to detect the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression. The constructed endothelial microfluidic chip can afford to the fluid shear stress and respond to exogenous stimulus of TNF-α;compared with the adhesion numbers of leukocyte in control group, adhesion between EA. Hy926 cells exposed to low fluid shear stress and leukocyte was reduced under the stimulus of TNF-α at a concentration of 10 ng/ml(P<0.05);leukocyte adhesion with EA. Hy926 cells exposed to high fluid shear stress was reduced significantly than EA. Hy926 cells in control group and EA.1Hy926 cells exposed to low fluid shear stress ( P<0.01); the regulation mechanism of fluid shear stress to the adhesion between EA. Hy926 cells and leukocyte induced by TNF-αwas through the way of ICAM-1. The endothelial microfluidic chip fabricated in this paper could be used to study the functions of endothelial cell in vitro and provide a new technical platform for exploring the pathophysiology of the related cardiovascular system diseases under a flow environment.

  19. Optimal bounds with semidefinite programming: An application to stress-driven shear flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzi, G; Wynn, A

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an innovative numerical technique based on convex optimization to solve a range of infinite-dimensional variational problems arising from the application of the background method to fluid flows. In contrast to most existing schemes, we do not consider the Euler-Lagrange equations for the minimizer. Instead, we use series expansions to formulate a finite-dimensional semidefinite program (SDP) whose solution converges to that of the original variational problem. Our formulation accounts for the influence of all modes in the expansion, and the feasible set of the SDP corresponds to a subset of the feasible set of the original problem. Moreover, SDPs can be easily formulated when the fluid is subject to imposed boundary fluxes, which pose a challenge for the traditional methods. We apply this technique to compute rigorous and near-optimal upper bounds on the dissipation coefficient for flows driven by a surface stress. We improve previous analytical bounds by more than 10 times and show that the bounds become independent of the domain aspect ratio in the limit of vanishing viscosity. We also confirm that the dissipation properties of stress-driven flows are similar to those of flows subject to a body force localized in a narrow layer near the surface. Finally, we show that SDP relaxations are an efficient method to investigate the energy stability of laminar flows driven by a surface stress.

  20. Crack growth time dependence analysis of granite under compressive-shear stresses state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiang-teng; CAO Ping; Gu De-sheng; Wu Chao

    2008-01-01

    The curves of crack relative length //b and crack growth time t of granite were gained under compressive stresses state according to subcritical crack growth parameters and crack stability growth equation by double-torsion constant displacement load relaxa-tion method. The relations between crack relative length and the crack growth time were discussed under different stresses and different crack lengths. The results show that there is a turning point on curve of crack relative length //b and crack growth time of granite. The slope of curve is small when crack relative length is less than the vertical coordinate of the point, and crack grows stably in this case. Cracks grow, encounter and integrate catastro-phically when crack relative length is more than the vertical coordinate of the point, and there is not a gradual stage from crack stability growth to crack instability growth, i.e. rock mass instability is sudden. The curves of crack relative length //b and crack growth time t of granite move to right with decrease of stress σ1 or crack length a, which implies that limit time increases consequently. The results correspond to practicality.

  1. Lateral erosion in an experimental bedrock channel: The influence of bed roughness on erosion by bed load impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Gran, Karen B.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Paola, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bed load particle impacts as a mechanism of lateral bedrock erosion. In addition, we explored how changes in channel bed roughness, as would occur during development of an alluvial cover, influence rates of lateral erosion. Experimental channels were constructed to have erodible walls and a nonerodible bed using different mixtures of sand and cement. Bed roughness was varied along the length of the channel by embedding sediment particles of different size in the channel bed mixture. Lateral wall erosion from clear-water flow was negligible. Lateral erosion during periods in which bed load was supplied to the channel removed as much as 3% of the initial wetted cross-sectional area. The vertical distribution of erosion was limited to the base of the channel wall, producing channels with undercut banks. The addition of roughness elements to an otherwise smooth bed caused rates of lateral erosion to increase by as much as a factor of 7 during periods of bed load supply. However, a minimum roughness element diameter of approximately half the median bed load particle diameter was required before a substantial increase in erosion was observed. Beyond this minimum threshold size, further increases in the relative size of roughness elements did not substantially change the rate of wall erosion despite changes in total boundary shear stress. The deflection of saltating bed load particles into the channel wall by fixed roughness elements is hypothesized to be the driver of the observed increase in lateral erosion rates.

  2. Hemodynamic analysis in an idealized artery tree: differences in wall shear stress between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared C Weddell

    Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.

  3. Hemodynamic analysis in an idealized artery tree: differences in wall shear stress between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddell, Jared C; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P I; Masud, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model. PMID:25897758

  4. Link between deviations from Murray's Law and occurrence of low wall shear stress regions in the left coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutel, E; Pinto, S I S; Campos, J B L M; Miranda, J M

    2016-08-01

    Murray developed two laws for the geometry of bifurcations in the circulatory system. Based on the principle of energy minimization, Murray found restrictions for the relation between the diameters and also between the angles of the branches. It is known that bifurcations are prone to the development of atherosclerosis, in regions associated to low wall shear stresses (WSS) and high oscillatory shear index (OSI). These indicators (size of low WSS regions, size of high OSI regions and size of high helicity regions) were evaluated in this work. All of them were normalized by the size of the outflow branches. The relation between Murray's laws and the size of low WSS regions was analysed in detail. It was found that the main factor leading to large regions of low WSS is the so called expansion ratio, a relation between the cross section areas of the outflow branches and the cross section area of the main branch. Large regions of low WSS appear for high expansion ratios. Furthermore, the size of low WSS regions is independent of the ratio between the diameters of the outflow branches. Since the expansion ratio in bifurcations following Murray's law is kept in a small range (1 and 1.25), all of them have regions of low WSS with similar size. However, the expansion ratio is not small enough to completely prevent regions with low WSS values and, therefore, Murray's law does not lead to atherosclerosis minimization. A study on the effect of the angulation of the bifurcation suggests that the Murray's law for the angles does not minimize the size of low WSS regions. PMID:27157126

  5. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.

    2012-08-08

    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  6. Effect of simulated microgravity on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 in response to fluid shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    It is well known that microgravity could induce bone loss. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Osteocytes are extremely sensitive to fluid shear stress, even more than osteobleasts. The effect of simulated microgravity on osteocytes in response to fluid shear was investigated in this study in order to see if the mechanosensibility of osteocytes changed under simulated microgravity. The osteocyte-like cell line, MLO-Y4, was cultured and divided into four groups, including control (CON), control and shear (CONS), rotary (RT), rotary and shear (RTS). In RT and RTS, the cells were cultured in the rotary cell culture system to simulate microgravity condition. After 5 days, the cells in RTS and CONS were subjected to flow shear for 15 min. Then nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the cells was measured using assay kit. The results showed that NOS activity in respond to fluid shear decreased significantly in RTS compared with CONS. In addition, there was significant difference in NOS activity between CONS and CON while no significant difference between RTS and RT. These indicates that the mechanosensibility of osteocytes decreased under simulated microgravity and this maybe the partly causes of the poor effect of exercise to counter microgravity-induced-bone loss. However, further research need to be done to support this finding.

  7. Wall shear stress and near-wall convective transport: Comparisons with vascular remodelling in a peripheral graft anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaruto, A. M.; Doorly, D. J.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-08-01

    Fluid dynamic properties of blood flow are implicated in cardiovascular diseases. The interaction between the blood flow and the wall occurs through the direct transmission of forces, and through the dominating influence of the flow on convective transport processes. Controlled, in vitro testing in simple geometric configurations has provided much data on the cellular-level responses of the vascular walls to flow, but a complete, mechanistic explanation of the pathogenic process is lacking. In the interim, mapping the association between local haemodynamics and the vascular response is important to improve understanding of the disease process and may be of use for prognosis. Moreover, establishing the haemodynamic environment in the regions of disease provides data on flow conditions to guide investigations of cellular-level responses. This work describes techniques to facilitate comparison between the temporal alteration in the geometry of the vascular conduit, as determined by in vivo imaging, with local flow parameters. Procedures to reconstruct virtual models from images by means of a partition-of-unity implicit function formulation, and to align virtual models of follow-up scans to a common coordinate system, are outlined. A simple Taylor series expansion of the Lagrangian dynamics of the near-wall flow is shown to provide both a physical meaning to the directional components of the flow, as well as demonstrating the relation between near-wall convection in the wall normal direction and spatial gradients of the wall shear stress. A series of post-operative follow-up MRI scans of two patient cases with bypass grafts in the peripheral vasculature are presented. These are used to assess how local haemodynamic parameters relate to vascular remodelling at the location of the distal end-to-side anastomosis, i.e. where the graft rejoins the host artery. Results indicate that regions of both low wall shear stress and convective transport towards the wall tend to be

  8. Elevated Electrochemical Impedance in the Endoluminal Regions with High Shear Stress: Implication for Assessing Lipid-Rich Atherosclerotic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Lee, Juhyun; Jen, Nelson; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Tang, Rui; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Eun. S.; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions remains an unmet clinical challenge during coronary intervention. Electrochemical impedance (EIS) increased in response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-laden lesions. We hereby assessed whether integrating EIS with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and shear stress (ISS) provided a new strategy to assess oxLDL-laden lesions in the fat-fed New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Methods and Results A micro-heat transfer sensor was deployed to acquire the ISS profiles at baseline and post high-fat diet (HD) in the NZW rabbits (n=8). After 9 weeks of HD, serum oxLDL levels (mg/dL) increased by 140-fold, accompanied by a 1.5-fold increase in kinematic viscosity (cP) in the HD group. Time-averaged ISS (ISSave) in the thoracic aorta also increased in the HD group (baseline: 17.61±0.24 vs. 9 weeks: 25.22±0.95 dyne/cm2, n=4), but remained unchanged in the normal diet group (baseline: 22.85±0.53 dyne/cm2 vs. 9 weeks: 22.37±0.57 dyne/cm2, n=4). High-frequency Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) revealed atherosclerotic lesions in the regions with augmented ISSave, and concentric bipolar microelectrodes demonstrated elevated EIS signals, which were correlated with prominent anti-oxLDL immuno-staining (oxLDL-free regions: 497±55 Ω, n = 8 vs. oxLDL-rich lesions: 679±125 Ω, n = 12, P < 0.05). The equivalent circuit model for tissue resistance between the lesion-free and ox-LDL-rich lesions further validated the experimental EIS signals. Conclusions By applying electrochemical impedance in conjunction with shear stress and high-frequency ultrasound sensors, we provided a new strategy to identify oxLDL-laden lesions. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating EIS, ISS, and IVUS for a catheter-based approach to assess mechanically unstable plaque. PMID:23318546

  9. Optimal bounds with semidefinite programming: an application to stress driven shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fantuzzi, G

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an innovative numerical technique based on convex optimization to solve a range of infinite dimensional variational problems arising from the application of the background method to fluid flows. In contrast to most existing schemes, we do not consider the Euler-Lagrange equations for the minimizer. Instead, we use series expansions to formulate a finite dimensional semidefinite program (SDP) whose solution converges to that of the original variational problem. The formulation is rigorous, meaning that a solution of the SDP gives a certifiably feasible solution for the infinite dimensional problem. Moreover, SDPs can be easily formulated when the fluid is subject to imposed boundary fluxes, which pose a challenge for the traditional methods. We apply this technique to compute rigorous and near-optimal upper bounds on the dissipation coefficient for flows driven by a surface stress. We improve previous analytical bounds by more than 10 times, and show that the bounds become independent of the domai...

  10. Behavior of Three Metallic Alloys Under Combined Axial-Shear Stress at 650 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiuta, Jason F.; Lerch, Bradley (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Three materials, Inconel 718, Haynes 188, and 316 stainless steel, were tested under an axial-torsional stress state at 650 C. The objective of this study was to quantify the evolution of the material while in the viscoplastic domain. Initial and subsequent yield surfaces were experimentally determined to quantify hardening. Subsequent yield surfaces (yield surfaces taken after a preload) had a well-defined front side, in the prestrain direction, but a poorly defined back side, opposite the prestrain direction. Subsequent yield surfaces exhibited isotropic hardening by expansion of the yield surface, kinematic hardening by translation of the yield surface, and distortional hardening by flattening of the yield surface in the direction opposite to the last prestrain. An existing yield function capable of representing isotropic, kinematic, and distortional hardening was used to fit each yield surface. Four variables are used to describe each surface. These variables evolve as the material state changes and have been regressed to the yield surface data.

  11. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  12. Stress-induced Alterations in Anxiety-like Behavior and Adaptations in Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Kelly L.; Louderback, Katherine M; Gessner, Caitlin P; Winder, Danny G.

    2011-01-01

    In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the...

  13. Vortex dynamics and wall shear stress behaviour associated with an elliptic jet impinging upon a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J.; New, T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Vortical structures and dynamics of a Re h = 2100 elliptic jet impinging upon a flat plate were studied at H/ d h = 1, 2 and 4 jet-to-plate separation distances. Flow investigations were conducted along both its major and minor planes using laser-induced fluorescence and digital particle image velocimetry techniques. Results show that the impingement process along the major plane largely consists of primary jet ring-vortex and wall-separated secondary vortex formations, where they subsequently separate from the flat plate at smaller H/ d h = 1 and 2 separation distances. Key vortex formation locations occur closer to the impingement point as the separation distance increases. Interestingly, braid vortices and rib structures begin to take part in the impingement process at H/ d h = 4 and wave instabilities dominate the flow field. In contrast, significantly more coherent primary and secondary vortices with physically larger vortex core sizes and higher vortex strengths are observed along the minor plane, with no signs of braid vortices and rib structures. Lastly, influences of these different flow dynamics on the major and minor plane instantaneous and mean skin friction coefficient levels are investigated to shed light on the effects of separation distance on the wall shear stress distributions.

  14. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements with wall shear stress and uncertainty quantification for the FDA benchmark nozzle model

    CERN Document Server

    Raben, Jaime S; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    We present validation of benchmark experimental data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of medical devices using advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) processing and post-processing techniques. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Time-resolved PIV analysis was performed in five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2,000, 5,000, and 8,000. Images included a two-fold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were comput...

  15. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  16. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase at Ser1179 by Akt-independent mechanisms: role of protein kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George; Boyd, Nolan; Shiojima, Ichiro; Walsh, Kenneth; Du, Jie; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that shear stress stimulates NO(*) production by the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt)-dependent mechanisms in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) (Go, Y. M., Boo, Y. C., Park, H., Maland, M. C., Patel, R., Pritchard, K. A., Jr., Fujio, Y., Walsh, K., Darley-Usmar, V., and Jo, H. (2001) J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 1574-1581). Akt has been believed to regulate shear-dependent production of NO(*) by directly phosphorylating endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) at the Ser(1179) residue (eNOS-S(1179)), but a critical evaluation using specific inhibitors or dominant negative mutants (Akt(AA) or Akt(AAA)) has not been reported. In addition, other kinases, including protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP kinase have also shown to phosphorylate eNOS-S(1179). Here, we show that shear-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) is mediated by an Akt-independent, but a PKA-dependent, mechanism. Expression of Akt(AA) or Akt(AAA) in BAEC by using recombinant adenoviral constructs inhibited phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) if cells were stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not by shear stress. As shown before, expression of Akt(AA) inhibited shear-dependent NO(*) production, suggesting that Akt is still an important regulator in NO production. Further studies showed that a selective inhibitor of PKA, H89, inhibited shear-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) and NO(*) production. In contrast, H89 did not inhibit phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) induced by expressing a constitutively active Akt mutant (Akt(Myr)) in BAEC, showing that the inhibitor did not affect the Akt pathway. 8-Bromo-cAMP alone phosphorylated eNOS-S(1179) within 5 min without activating Akt, in an H89-sensitive manner. Collectively, these results demonstrate that shear stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) in a PKA-dependent, but Aktindependent manner, whereas the NO(*) production is regulated by the mechanisms dependent on both PKA and Akt. A coordinated interaction

  17. Space-time characteristics of wall-pressure and wall shear-stress fluctuations in wall-modeled large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz

    2016-06-01

    We report the space-time characteristics of the wall-pressure fluctuations and wall shear-stress fluctuations from wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ=2000 . Two standard zonal wall models (equilibrium stress model and nonequilibrium model based on unsteady RANS) are employed, and it is shown that they yield similar results in predicting these quantities. The wall-pressure and wall shear-stress fields from WMLES are analyzed in terms of their r.m.s. fluctuations, spectra, two-point correlations, and convection velocities. It is demonstrated that the resolution requirement for predicting the wall-pressure fluctuations is more stringent than that for predicting the velocity. At least δ /Δ x >20 and δ /Δ z >30 are required to marginally resolve the integral length scales of the pressure-producing eddies near the wall. Otherwise, the pressure field is potentially aliased. Spurious high wave number modes dominate in the streamwise direction, and they contaminate the pressure spectra leading to significant overprediction of the second-order pressure statistics. When these conditions are met, the pressure statistics and spectra at low wave number or low frequency agree well with the DNS and experimental data. On the contrary, the wall shear-stress fluctuations, modeled entirely through the RANS-based wall models, are largely underpredicted and relatively insensitive to the grid resolution. The short-time, small-scale near-wall eddies, which are neither resolved nor modeled adequately in the wall models, seem to be important for accurate prediction of the wall shear-stress fluctuations.

  18. Shear wave splitting as a proxy for stress forecast of the case of the 2006 Manyas-Kus Golu (Mb = 5.3 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ergintav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 Mb = 5.3 Manyas-Kus Golu (Manyas earthquake has been retrospectively "stress-forecasted" using variations in time-delays of seismic shear wave splitting to evaluate the time and magnitude at which stress-modified microcracking reaches fracture criticality within the stressed volume where strain is released. We processed micro earthquakes recorded by 29 TURDEP (Multi-Disciplinary Earthquake Research in High Risk Regions of Turkey and 33 KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute stations in the Marmara region by using the aspect-ratio cross-correlation and systematic analysis of crustal anisotropy methods. The aim of the analysis is to determine changes in delay-times, hence changes in stress, before and after the 2006 Manyas earthquake. We observed that clear decreases in delay times before the impending event, especially at the station GEMT are consistent with the anisotropic poro-elasticity (APE model of fluid-rock deformation, but we could not observe similar changes at other stations surrounding the main event. The logarithms of the duration of the stress-accumulation are proportional (self-similar to the magnitude of the impending event. Although time and magnitude of th 2005 Manyas earthquake could have been stress-forecasted, as has been recognized elsewhere, shear-wave splitting does not appear to provide direct information about the location of impending earthquakes.

  19. Investigation of the Influence of Glucose Concentration on Cancer Cells by Using a Microfluidic Gradient Generator without the Induction of Large Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ishida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic device capable of precise chemical control is helpful to mimic tumor microenvironments in vitro, which are closely associated with malignant progression, including metastasis. Cancer cells under a concentration gradient of oxygen and other sustenance materials inside a tumor in vivo have recently been reported to increase the probability of metastasis. The influence of glucose concentration on cancer cells has not been measured well, whereas that of oxygen concentration has been thoroughly examined using microfluidic devices. This is because glucose concentrations can be controlled using microfluidic concentration gradient generators, which trade off temporal stability of the glucose concentration and shear stress on the cells; by contrast, oxygen concentration can be easily controlled without microfluidic device-induced shear stresses. To study cell division and migration responses as a function of glucose concentration, we developed a microfluidic device to observe cell behaviors under various chemical conditions. The device has small-cross-section microchannels for generating a concentration gradient and a large-cross-section chamber for cell culture. With this design, the device can achieve both a cell culture with sufficiently low shear stress on cell activity and a stable glucose concentration gradient. Experiments revealed that a low glucose concentration increased the total migration length of HeLa cells and that HeLa cells under a glucose concentration gradient exhibit random motion rather than chemotaxis.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INCIPIENT MOTION OF SEDIMENT PARTICLES ON GENERALIZED SLOPING FLUVIAL BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on incipient motion of non-cohesive uniform sediment under a steady-uniform stream flow on generalized sloping fluvial beds (combined lateral and stream-wise slope). The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of sediment particles, identified based on the physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the threshold shear stress ratio (ratio of threshold shear stress for sloping bed to that for horizontal bed), lateral slope,stream-wise slope and angle of repose of sediment particles. Experiments were carried out in two ducts (closed-conduit flow) having section of semicircular invert with three types of sediments. In an open channel flow (laboratory flume study), the uniform flow is a difficult, if not impossible,proposition for a steeply sloping channel and is impossible to obtain in an adversely sloping channel.To avoid this problem, the tests were conducted with a closed-conduit flow. Equation of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of sediment particles on generalized sloping beds was obtained using the experimental data.

  1. The decrease in histone methyltransferase EZH2 in response to fluid shear stress alters endothelial gene expression and promotes quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Vanchin, Byambasuren; Harmsen, Martin C; Krenning, Guido

    2016-01-01

    High uniform fluid shear stress (FSS) is atheroprotective and preserves the endothelial phenotype and function through activation of downstream mediators such as MAPK7 (Erk5). Endothelial cells respond to FSS thanks to mechanotransduction. However, how the resulting signaling is integrated and resolved at the epigenetic level remains elusive. We hypothesized that Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2 is involved in the effects of FSS in human endothelial cells. We showed that FSS decreases the expression of the Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2. Despite simultaneous activation of MAPK7, MAPK7 pathway does not directly influence the transcription of EZH2. Interestingly though, the knockdown of EZH2 activates the protective MAPK7 signaling in endothelial cells, even in the absence of FSS. To understand the influence of the FSS-decreased expression of EZH2 on endothelial transcriptome, we performed RNA-seq and differential gene expression analysis. We identified candidate groups of genes dependent on both EZH2 and FSS. Among those, Gene Ontology overrepresentation analysis revealed highly significant enrichment of the cell cycle-related genes, suggesting changes in proliferation. Indeed, the depletion of EZH2 strongly inhibited endothelial proliferation, indicating cell cycle arrest. The concomitant decrease in CCNA expression suggests the transition of endothelial cells into a quiescent phenotype. Further bioinformatical analysis suggested TXNIP as a possible mediator between EZH2 and cell cycle-related gene network. Our data show that EZH2 is a FSS-responsive gene. Decreased EZH2 levels enhance the activation of the atheroprotective MAPK7 signaling. Decrease in EZH2 under FSS mediates the decrease in the expression of the network of cell cycle-related genes, which allows the cells to enter quiescence. EZH2 is therefore important for the protective effects of FSS in endothelium. PMID:26416763

  2. The decrease in histone methyltransferase EZH2 in response to fluid shear stress alters endothelial gene expression and promotes quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Vanchin, Byambasuren; Harmsen, Martin C; Krenning, Guido

    2016-01-01

    High uniform fluid shear stress (FSS) is atheroprotective and preserves the endothelial phenotype and function through activation of downstream mediators such as MAPK7 (Erk5). Endothelial cells respond to FSS thanks to mechanotransduction. However, how the resulting signaling is integrated and resolved at the epigenetic level remains elusive. We hypothesized that Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2 is involved in the effects of FSS in human endothelial cells. We showed that FSS decreases the expression of the Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2. Despite simultaneous activation of MAPK7, MAPK7 pathway does not directly influence the transcription of EZH2. Interestingly though, the knockdown of EZH2 activates the protective MAPK7 signaling in endothelial cells, even in the absence of FSS. To understand the influence of the FSS-decreased expression of EZH2 on endothelial transcriptome, we performed RNA-seq and differential gene expression analysis. We identified candidate groups of genes dependent on both EZH2 and FSS. Among those, Gene Ontology overrepresentation analysis revealed highly significant enrichment of the cell cycle-related genes, suggesting changes in proliferation. Indeed, the depletion of EZH2 strongly inhibited endothelial proliferation, indicating cell cycle arrest. The concomitant decrease in CCNA expression suggests the transition of endothelial cells into a quiescent phenotype. Further bioinformatical analysis suggested TXNIP as a possible mediator between EZH2 and cell cycle-related gene network. Our data show that EZH2 is a FSS-responsive gene. Decreased EZH2 levels enhance the activation of the atheroprotective MAPK7 signaling. Decrease in EZH2 under FSS mediates the decrease in the expression of the network of cell cycle-related genes, which allows the cells to enter quiescence. EZH2 is therefore important for the protective effects of FSS in endothelium.

  3. Time analysis of aneurysm wall shear stress for both Newtonian and Casson flows from image-based CFD models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Ahumada Olivares, María. C.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of unruptured aneurysms is controversial, and current decision making is mainly based on aneurysm size and location. Incidentally detected unruptured aneurysms less than 5mm in diameter should be treated conservatively. However, small unruptured aneurysms also bleed. Risk factors based on the hemodynamic forces exerted over the arterial wall have been investigated using image-based computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methodologies during the last decade. Accurate estimation of wall shear stress (WSS) is required to properly study associations between flow features and aneurysm processes. Previous works showed that Newtonian and non-Newtonian (Casson) models produce similar WSS distributions and characterization, with no significant differences. Other authors showed that the WSS distribution computed from time-averaged velocity fields is significantly higher for the Newtonian model where WSS is low. In this work we reconstructed ten patient-specific CFD models from angiography images to investigate the time evolution of WSS at selected locations such as aneurysm blebs (low WSS), and the parent artery close to the aneurysm neck (high WSS). When averaging all cases it is seen that the estimation of the time-averaged WSS, the peak WSS and the minimum WSS value before the systolic peak were all higher when the Casson rheology was considered. However, none of them showed statistically significant differences. At the afferent artery Casson rheology systematically predicted higher WSS values. On the other hand, at the selected blebs either Newtonian or Casson WSS estimations are higher in some phases of the cardiac cycle. Those observations differ among individual cases.

  4. Discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenawa, Stefan; Hartmann, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    In this article we consider the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the numerical approximation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) model by Menter. This turbulence model is based on a blending of the Wilcox k-ω model used near the wall and the k-ɛ model used in the rest of the domain where the blending functions depend on the distance to the nearest wall. For the computation of the distance of each quadrature point in the domain to the nearest of the curved, piecewise polynomial wall boundaries, we propose a stabilized continuous finite element (FE) discretization of the eikonal equation. Furthermore, we propose a new wall boundary condition for the dissipation rate ω based on the projection of the analytic near-wall behavior of ω onto the discrete ansatz space of the DG discretization. Finally, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the discretization of the turbulence kinetic energy (k-)equation to suppress oscillations of k near the underresolved boundary layer edge. The wall distance computation based on the continuous FE discretization of the eikonal equation is demonstrated for an internal and three external/aerodynamic flow geometries including a three-element high-lift configuration. The DG discretization of the RANS equations with the SST model is demonstrated for turbulent flows past a flat plate and the RAE2822 airfoil (Cases 9 and 10). The results are compared to the underlying k-ω model and experimental data.

  5. Elastic stress distributions: axial and shear stress distributions in an anchor bolt during a pullout test%弹性拉拔中锚杆轴力和剪力分布力学计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建庄; 张农; 韩昌良

    2012-01-01

    Planar and 3-D mechanical models were used to test rock-bolt pull out. The results were used to derive formulas for the axial force and bond shear stress in the bolt under elastic conditions. A new term, the decay of shear stress coefficient, is proposed that has an obvious effect on the stress distributions. Theoretical estimates of how cement or resin-anchored bolt stresses decay in sandstone rock are presented. These estimates are then compared to bolt properties in a coal body. Axial force and grout shear stress in soft rock are found to be distrib- uted along the entire length of the bolt. However, in hard rock the axial force decays rapidly, dropping by 95 percent along 80 to 100 cm in the grout. The grout shear stress decays to 0.06 MPa within about 40 to 50 cm in the grout.%通过构建平面和三维力学模型,推导了弹性状态下沿杆长方向轴力和黏结剪应力的分布函数,提出了锚杆剪应力衰减系数的概念,并给出了力学算式;对比分析了围岩为砂岩和煤体时,水泥锚固和树脂锚固两种情况下,锚杆轴力和剪力的衰减特征.结果表明:软岩锚固中轴力和剪力为全长分布型,硬岩0.8-1.0m左右即衰减为拉拔力的5%,黏结剪应力的主要作用范围为0-0.5m,在0.4-0.5m处衰减为0.06MPa左右.

  6. The Effect of Varied Support Models of BJUT-IIVAD on Coronary Arterial blood flow and wall shear stress: A Primary CFD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Bin; Gu, Kaiyun; Chang, Yu; Xu, Jinchao; Deuflhard, Peter

    2014-09-17

    BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist devices. Because of the special connection between the pump and native heart, the hemodynamic effects of BJTU-II VAD on coronary artery are still unclear. Hence, numerical simulations have conducted to clarify changes in hemodynamic effects of different support modes. A patient specific left coronary arterial geometric model is reconstructed based on the CT data. And 3 support modes, "constant speed mode", "co-pulse modes" and "counter pulse mode" are used in this study. The wall shear stress (WSS), wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), cycle averaged wall shear stress (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the flow pattern are calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic states of coronary artery. The computational results demonstrate that the hemodynamic states of coronary artery are directly affected by the support modes. The co-pulse modes could achieve the highest blood perfusion (constant speed: 153ml/min vs. co-pulse: 775ml/min vs. counter pulse: 140ml/min) and the highest avWSS (constant speed: 18.1Pa vs. co-pulse: 42.6Pa vs. counter pulse: 22.6Pa). In addition, the WSS and WSSG at the time of peak blood velocity under the constant speed mode are both lower than those under other two support modes. In contrast, the counter pulse mode generates the highest OSI value (constant speed: 0.365 vs. co-pulse: 0.379 vs. counter pulse: 0.426). In brief, BJUT-II VAD under co-pulse mode may have benefits for improving coronary perfusion and preventing the development of atherosclerosis, however, the constant speed mode may have benefit for preventing the development of plaque vulnerability. PMID:25232766

  7. U.S. Geological Survey calculated 95th percentile of wave-current bottom shear stress for the South Atlantic Bight for May 2010 to May 2011 (SAB_95th_perc, polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  8. Half interpercentile range (half of the difference between the 16th and 84th percentiles) of wave-current bottom shear stress in the Middle Atlantic Bight for May, 2010 - May, 2011 (MAB_hIPR.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  9. The median of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Maine south into the Middle Atlantic Bight, May 2010 to May 2011 (GMAINE_median.shp, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  10. The half interpercentile range of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Maine south into the Middle Atlantic Bight, May 2010 to May 2011 (GMAINE_hIPR, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  11. U.S. Geological Survey calculated median of wave-current bottom shear stress in the South Atlantic Bight from May 2010 to May 2011 (SAB_median, polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  12. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stress for the Gulf of Maine south into the Middle Atlantic Bight, May 2010 to May 2011 (GMAINE_95th_perc.shp, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors....

  13. Anisotropic damage model on the effects of damage process due to shearing stress in concrete - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the proposal of damage variables related to structural behavior of the concrete subjected to shear stress. It is also addressed the laws of evolution and their incorporation into the formulation of a constitutive model for the concrete. Originally, this model considers the anisotropy and bimodularity induced by damage. Initially, the formulation of the damage model is briefly described. The material is assumed to behave as an elastic isotropic medium that start to present anisotropy and bimodular response (distinct elastic responses for prevailing states of tension or compression. Afterwards, we discussed some proposals of damage variables related to the structural behavior of the concrete when subjected to shear stress and their respective laws of evolution. The chosen proposal is then incorporated to the original model and implemented in a finite element code to perform plane analysis. Finally, the numerical responses of the model are compared with the experimental of reinforced concrete beams with different reinforcement rates. The results are presented and discussed aiming to verify the improvements presented by the new version of the model and to show the contribution of the energy dissipation due to shear in the cracked concrete behavior for the analyzed examples.  

  14. Discrete Element Modeling of the Mobilization of Coarse Gravel Beds by Finer Gravel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Tan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown that the addition of fine gravel particles to a coarse bed will mobilize the coarser bed, and that the effect is sufficiently strong that a pulse of fine gravel particles can mobilize an impacted coarser bed. Recent flume experiments have demonstrated that the degree of bed mobilization by finer particles is primarily dependent on the particle size ratio of the coarse and fine particles, rather than absolute size of either particle, provided both particles are sufficiently large. However, the mechanism behind the mobilization is not understood. It has previously been proposed that the mechanism is driven by a combination of geometric effects and hydraulic effects. For example, it has been argued that smaller particles fill in gaps along the bed, resulting in a smoother bed over which the larger particles are less likely to be disentrained and a reduced near-bed flow velocity and subsequent increased drag on protruding particles. Altered near-bed turbulence has also been cited as playing an important role. We perform simulations using the discrete element method with one-way fluid-solid coupling to conduct simulations of mobilization of a gravel bed by fine gravel particles. By independently and artificially controlling average and fluctuating velocity profiles, we systematically investigate the relative role that may be played by particle-particle interactions, average near-bed velocity profiles, and near-bed turbulence statistics. The simulations indicate that the relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the degree of mobilization of the bed. For higher bed mobility similar to bed sheets, particle-particle interactions, plays a significant role in an apparent rheology in the bed sheets, not unlike that observed in a dense granular flow of particles of different sizes. For conditions closer to a critical shear stress for bedload transport, the near-bed velocity profiles and turbulence statistics become increasingly important.

  15. Experimental study on bed-load sediment transport under irregular wave and current combined flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using an irregularly oscillating tray and flume, a series of experiments are completed to evaluate bed-load sediment transport rate under irregular wave- current coexistent fild. Testing conditions include three interaction angles 0°, 45°, 90° and two kinds of median sizes (0.38 and 1.10 mm).The results of transport rate show that the net sediment transport rate can be expressed approximately as the function of the maximum bottom shear stress of waves, mean shear stress of current and the grain size.

  16. Central stress-integrative circuits: Forebrain glutamatergic and GABAergic projections to the dorsomedial hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Brent; Dolgas, C. Mark; Kasckow, John; Cullinan, William E.; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Central regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress responses is mediated by a relatively circumscribed group of projections to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN). The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), medial preoptic area (mPOA), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) provide direct, predominantly inhibitory, innervation of the PVN. These PVN-projecting neurons are controlled by descending information from limbic forebrain structures, including the prefronta...

  17. Relations of pulsatility index and particle residence time to the wall-shear-stress properties in pulsating flows with reverse flow phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kersh, Dikla

    2013-01-01

    Pulsating flows with a \\emph{total reverse flow} phase are ubiquitous in physiological systems in normal and pathological conditions. Irregularity of hemodynamic parameters in such flows is correlated with the appearance and development of several arterial pathologies. We study the relations between flow waveform parameters and the wall shear stress (WSS) related quantities such as mean, root-mean-square, gradient of WSS and the oscillating shear index. The phase-averaged velocity profiles measured by the digital particle image velocimetry are used to estimate WSS utilizing the Womersley pulsating flow model. In addition to the Reynolds and Womersley numbers, another dimensionless parameter, pulsating index (PI) which is the ratio of forward flow rate to the reverse flow rate is required. PI is essential for the complete description of the flow patterns with the total flow reversal. We demonstrate significant effects on the WSS quantities due to the pulsating frequency and PI. Furthermore, the particle reside...

  18. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  19. Bicontinuous Microemulsions under Steady Shear Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Hiroya; Komura, Shigeyuki

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic response of microemulsions to shear deformation on the basis of two-order-parameter time dependent Ginzburg-Landau model is investigated by means of cell dynamical system approach. Time evolution of anisotropic factor and excess shear stress under steady shear flow is studied by changing shear rate and total amount of surfactant. As the surfactant concentration is increased, overshoot peak height of the anisotropic factor increases whereas that of the excess shear stress is almost unc...

  20. Flow resistance in a compound gravel-bed bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Afzalimehr; Manouchehr Heidarpour; Alireza Salimi

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of a gravel-bed in a compound bend (similar to sinusoidal top view) of a natural river (Zayandehrud River flowing through Isfahan, Iran) has been investigated for flow resistance analysis, measuring the velocity with a micro current meter. The data were analysed and the following observations were made. In a compound bend, the law of the wall can be valid for up to 66% of the flow depth from the bed. The parabolic law is the most effective method for the determination of shear velocity. Based on the existing criteria for verifying the equilibrium boundary layer, the flow cannot be in equilibrium. The shear stress distribution and the sediment transport parameters have considerable influence on resistance to flow. Froude number and the flow depth relative to the representative gravel size have little effect on the flow resistance estimation.

  1. In-situ investigation of the influence of the long-term shear strength of faults on the regional stress field in a granite rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Cornet, Francois; Lamas, Luís; Muralha, José

    2016-04-01

    A case study is presented to show how stress field measurements may be used to assess the long-term rheological behaviour of an equivalent geo-material. The example concerns a granitic rock mass at the km3 scale, where an underground hydropower scheme including a new 10 km long power conduit and a powerhouse complex will be constructed. For design of the underground cavern and hydraulic pressure tunnel, several in situ stress measurements were carried out, using hydraulic borehole testing, overcoring and flat jack techniques. A first continuum mechanics model, with a homogenous material, was developed to integrate the several in situ test results and to assess the regional stress field. This model is based on elasticity and relaxation of the elastic properties measured through laboratory tests conducted on cores. Results of integration show that the long-term behavior of this granite rock mass differs markedly from the short-term behaviour as defined by laboratory tests. This suggests that the in-situ stress field depends mostly on the softer material that fills up the faults and hence results from the shear stress relaxation over a large number of pre-existing fractures and faults. A second continuum mechanics model, with consideration of two fault planes located nearby the hydraulic tests, was studied. This model is based on elasticity for the overall rock mass, with the elastic properties extracted from laboratory measurements, and visco-elasticity with small long-term shear strength for the two fault planes. Results show that the overall granite rock mass may be viewed as a combination of stiff elastic blocks separated by soft low strength material, leading to a fairly large scale homogeneous axisymmetrical stress field with vertical axis. Advantages and limitations of the two modelling approaches are discussed.

  2. The Role of Shear in the Onset of Iron's bcc to hcp Stress--Induced Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, A.; Caspersen, K.; Ortiz, M.; Carter, E.

    2003-12-01

    Iron presents a martensitic phase transition from bcc to hcp at an approximate pressure of 13 GPa. The exact onset pressure has been determined to have values ranging from 9 to 16 GPa by several different experimental results. We propose a multiscale model for Iron, with all necessary quantities computed exclusively from first--principles. In this model, we account for all shear components of the deformation, finding that they play a crucial role in its onset, even for very small amounts of shear. Briefly, the model consists of constructing the energy landscape in all six-components of strain. Then, for a given deformation of a representative sample, we minimize its energy by possibly accomodating martensitic laminates inside it, in the spirit of a spinodal decomposition. We will describe the model in detail and show how the onset pressure varies when shear is present, as well as the mixed states encoutered upon transformation.

  3. INITIATION OF SHELL MOTION ON SAND BEDS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY; Alok KUMAR

    2002-01-01

    Experimental study on initiation of bivalve shell motion on a horizontal sand bed, under a unidirectional flow of water, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with three types of bivalve shells,namely Coquina Clam, Cross-barred Chione and Ponderous Ark, to test the condition for initiation of motion. The shape parameters of bivalve shells are defined appropriately. Experiments were conducted in a flume with a horizontal bed, and the critical shear stresses were estimated using Vanoni's side-wall correction. The characteristic parameters affecting the initiation of shell motion on a horizontal bed in rough-turbulent regime identified based on the physical reasoning and dimensional analysis are the Shields parameter (nondimensional critical shear stress), nondimensional competent mean velocity,nondimensional sand roughness, nondimensional flow depth and shape parameter. Equations of Shields parameter and nondimensional competent mean velocity for the initial movement of shells on a horizontal sand bed with convex upward and downward conditions are obtained using experimental data.

  4. Influence of crustal stress on coal bed methane exploration and developing%地应力对煤层气勘探与开发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄思宇; 贺小黑

    2014-01-01

    地应力是指岩土体内一点固有的应力状态,煤层气是一种以吸附状态为主储存于煤层及其围岩中的非常规天然气。我国煤层气勘探与开发还处于初级阶段,而地应力对煤层勘探与开发有十分显著的影响,其影响主要包括以下三个方面:①地应力对煤储层渗透性、储层压力的影响;②地应力对煤层气的吸附、解吸、扩散和渗流的影响。地应力增加,储层压力增大,煤层吸附气体的量增多,但渗透率降低,给煤储层的排水、降压及煤层气的解吸、运移、产出造成一定困难;③地应力对天然裂缝目前在地下的附存状态及有效性,以及人工压裂裂缝的形态和延伸方向的影响等。所以十分有必要系统论述地应力对煤层气勘探与开发的影响。%The crustal stress is the state of stress of a point bears in the rock mass or soil body .Coal bed methane is a kind of unconventional gas resources that exist in the coal bed or its surrounding rock in the form of adsorption state .The coal bed methane exploration and developing is still at the primary stage in our country ,and the crustal stress has great influence on coal bed methane exploration and development ,and the influence mainly has three aspects as follows .Firstly ,the crustal stress has great influence on permeability and pressure of coal reservoir .Secondly ,the crustal stress has great influence on adsorption , desorption ,diffusion ,and seepage of coal bed methane .When crustal stress increases ,the pressure and the amount of adsorbed gas increases ,but the permeability decreases ,and this goes against drainage ,pressure lowering ,and the desorption ,migration ,and production of coal bed methane .Thirdly ,the crustal stress has great influence on the underground existence state and effectiveness of natural fractures at present ,and it also influences the shape and extension direction of hydraulic fracture .So ,it is very

  5. Fluid shear stress enhances the cell volume decrease of osteoblast cells by increasing the expression of the ClC-3 chloride channel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Cai, Siyi; Qiu, Guixing; Lin, Jin

    2016-01-01

    ClC-3 is a volume-sensitive chloride channel that is responsible for cell volume adjustment and regulatory cell volume decrease (RVD). In order to evaluate the effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) stimulation on the osteoblast ClC-3 chloride channel, MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated by FSS in the experimental group. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect changes in ClC-3 mRNA expression, the chloride ion fluorescent probe N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolin...

  6. Effects of Heterogeneities in Strength and Initial Shear Stress on Large Ruptures in a Fast Multi-cycle Earthquake Simulator (RSQSim) and DYNA3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J.; Richards-Dinger, K.; Dieterich, J.; Oglesby, D.

    2008-12-01

    RSQSim is a fast earthquake simulator that produces long (~ 106 event and ~ 104 year) synthetic seismicity catalogs in complex fault systems. It treats the interseismic and nucleation phases of the seismic cycle quasi-statically with an approximate version of rate- and state-dependent friction. The ruptures themselves are quasi-dynamic with slip speeds determined by shear impedance considerations. Validation of coseismic final slip (and therefore stress change) distributions is important for the generation of long catalogs because subsequent events in such simulators need to inherit the proper stress fields. Also, the heterogeneous evolved stress states from long simulations in complex fault systems (resulting from complex large ruptures, ongoing smaller seismicity, and stress interactions within the fault system) may be useful as more realistic inputs to dynamic rupture modelling. If the time evolution of ruptures in RSQSim is also realistic, they may be useful as kinematic sources for seismic hazard ground motion calculations. As part of an effort to validate the quasi-dynamic ruptures in RSQSim, we compare rupture propagation on a variable-strength planar fault in RSQSim to that on a similar fault in DYNA3D (a fully dynamic finite element model employing slip-weakening friction) for single, large, artificially nucleated ruptures. Previous work has shown that on homogeneous planar faults the RSQSim results agreed quantitatively very well with those of DYNA3D. For this comparison, our asperity model consists of multiple rectangular zones of increased normal stress of varying size, location, and amplitude. The heterogeneities produce complex ruptures - the rupture front tends to wrap itself around the barriers and create a burst of energy once it propagates across a barrier. Both codes allow rupture propagation over significant zones of negative stress drop in these asperity regions. Rupture durations, average rupture propagation speeds, and overall slip pattern

  7. Shear Stress Induces Differentiation of Endothelial Lineage Cells to Protect Neonatal Brain from Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury through NRP1 and VEGFR2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injuries disrupt the integrity of neurovascular structure and lead to lifelong neurological deficit. The devastating damage can be ameliorated by preserving the endothelial network, but the source for therapeutic cells is limited. We aim to evaluate the beneficial effect of mechanical shear stress in the differentiation of endothelial lineage cells (ELCs from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and the possible intracellular signals to protect HI injury using cell-based therapy in the neonatal rats. The ASCs expressed early endothelial markers after biochemical stimulation of endothelial growth medium. The ELCs with full endothelial characteristics were accomplished after a subsequential shear stress application for 24 hours. When comparing the therapeutic potential of ASCs and ELCs, the ELCs treatment significantly reduced the infarction area and preserved neurovascular architecture in HI injured brain. The transplanted ELCs can migrate and engraft into the brain tissue, especially in vessels, where they promoted the angiogenesis. The activation of Akt by neuropilin 1 (NRP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 was important for ELC migration and following in vivo therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, the current study demonstrated importance of mechanical factor in stem cell differentiation and showed promising protection of brain from HI injury using ELCs treatment.

  8. Anti-oxidation actions of curcumin in two forms of bed rest:oxidative stress serum and salivary markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balwant Rai; Jasdeep Kaur; Maria Catalina

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the preventive effects of curcumin on peroxidative damage under two bed rest conditions.Methods:20healthy male (10 with curcumin and10without curcumin ) volunteers were selected. They were studied before, during, and just on bed rest conditions at -6° head-down-tilt(HDT)bed rest and bed rest position(BD)for10 days. We measured the salivary and serum oxidative markers such as Malonaldehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, vitamin C and E just beforeHDT & BD, duringHDT & BD experiment, and in course time of recovery with curcumin and without curcumin groups.Results:The values of serum and salivary vitaminC & Eshowed statistically significant decrease in both bed rest conditions as compared to those of the conditions before and during the recovery stage. However, these levels were not significantly lowered in curcumin groups in contrast to the groups without curcumin (P>0.05) .MDA and8-OHdG levels showed significant increase in simulating microgravity and zero gravity conditions as compared to those before and in the recovery stage. However, these levels were lower in curcumin groups in contrast to the groups without curcumin(P<0.05). Serum and salivary correlation analysis revealed a strong and highly significant correlation forMDA, vitaminC & E and 8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) in the conditions before, during and in the recovery periods in both bed rest conditions. Since saliva collection is easy and non-invasive, measurements of salivary marker levels may prove to be useful in the space research. Conclusions: Curcumin prevents peroxidative damage in both bed rest conditions. Further study is required on antioxidation actions of curcumin in space microgravity conditions.

  9. About a mechanism of the influence of shear stress for viscosity of the blood in vessels of small diameter

    OpenAIRE

    Катюхин, Лев Николаевич

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed a physiological and experimentally confirmed explanation of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist-effect in capillaries using the profile analyses of osmotic deformability of red blood cells. It was shown the dose-dependent change of the erythrocytes deformability in the stage of isotropic spheres after forming artificial water pores (nystatin) and occlusion (PbCl2) of available pores. The Sigma-effect reducing of hematocrit and viscosity in a shear flow of blood through the vessels of a small di...

  10. Models for providing shear resistance of reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Shear resistance of reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear were analyzed in this thesis. Firstly, shear stresses in reinforced concrete and influences which are important to determine shear resitance are presented. Later different procedures for determining shear resistance of members without and with shear reinforcement in Slovenian standard SIST EN 1992-1-1 and in model direction fib Model Code 2010 are discussed, respectively. Furher different analitical models on whic...

  11. 岩石剪切破坏全应力-应变性状%COMPLETE STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR FOR SHEAR FAILURE OF ROCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of complete stress-strain behavior andcompressive failure behavior of some Hong Kong rocks are carried out. A large number of tests have been conducted to study the deformation and failure features of rocks. Some interesting test results have been obtained. These results show that localized deformation and failure strongly affect the deformation and failure process of the specimens just prior to the peak stress and in the post-peak stage. The two types of failure modes, namely exfoliation and shear failure have been investigated in detail. For the exfoliation failure mode, an experiment method has been proposed to observe the exfoliating process. A proposed model has been used to explain the influence of exfoliation on the gross stress-strain curve. It is found that the exfoliation during loading may be one of the reasons that a granite specimen exhibits Class Ⅱ behavior. The influences of machine stiffness control modes, end constraints, loading rate and confining pressure on the test results have been discussed and investigated. A new classification method of rock failure has been proposed. Special attention has been devoted to the investigation of the localized deformation and failure process of intact rock in the shear failure mode. A test method is proposed to detect the process. It is found that the deformation of rock material may be divided into three stages: namely uniform stage, pre-peak bifurcation stage and post-peak bifurcation stage. This phenomenon has been explained by a proposed qualitative analysis. It is further found that this localized process will significantly influence the shape of stress-strain curves, that is, the localized deformation is one of reasons that rock displays the effect of length to diameter ratio. A constitutive model is proposed to simulate the localized deformation and failure process. It can simulate the strain softening, strain localization, effect of length to diameter(L/D) ratio, unloading

  12. Cyclic Shearing Deformation Behavior of Saturated Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The apparatus for static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear soil testing is employed to perform stress-controlled cyclic single-direction torsional shear tests and two-direction coupled shear tests under unconsolidated-undrained conditions. Through a series of tests on saturated clay, the effects of initial shear stress and stress reversal on the clay's strain-stress behavior are examined, and the behavior of pore water pressure is studied. The experimental results indicate that the patterns of stress-strain relations are distinctly influenced by the initial shear stress in the cyclic single-direction shear tests. When the initial shear stress is large and no stress reversal occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by an accumulative effect. When the initial shear stress is zero and symmetrical cyclic stress occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by a cyclic effect. The pore water pressure fluctuates around the confining pressure with the increase of cycle number. It seems that the fluctuating amplitude increases with the increase of the cyclic stress. But a buildup of pore water pressure does not occur. The deformations of clay samples under the complex initial and the cyclic coupled stress conditions include the normal deviatoric deformation and horizontal shear deformation, the average deformation and cyclic deformation. A general strain failure criterion taking into account these deformations is recommended and is proved more stable and suitable compared to the strain failure criteria currently used.

  13. Effects of relative submergence and bed slope on sediment incipient motion under decelerating flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhassani Ramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study to quantify the effects of bed slope and relative submergence on incipient motion of sediment under decelerating flows. Experiments were conducted in an experimental tilting-flume of 8 m long 0.4 m wide and 0.6 m deep with glass-walls. Three uniform sediments with median grain sizes of 0.95, 1.8 and 3.8 mm and three bed slopes of 0.0075, 0.0125 and 0.015 were used under decelerating flow. The main conclusion is that the Shields diagram, which is commonly used to evaluate the critical shear stress, is not suitable to predict the critical shear stress under decelerating flows.

  14. Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Chua, L.; Cheng, N. S.;

    2003-01-01

    with a clearance of about one-third of the depth from the bed, and extending over a finite length of the flume; and (3) with a series of grids with a clearance in the range (0.1 - 1.0)h from the bed, but extending over the entire length of the flume. Two kinds of experiments were conducted: the plane-bed...... experiments and the ripple-covered-bed experiments. In the former case, the flow in the presence of the turbulence generator was adjusted so that the mean bed shear stress was the same as in the case without the turbulence generator in order to single out the effect of the external turbulence on the sediment...... transport. In the ripple-covered-bed case, the mean and turbulence quantities of the streamwise component of the velocity were measured, and the Shields parameter, due to skin friction, was determined. The Shields parameter, together with the r.m.s. value of the streamwise velocity fluctuations, were...

  15. The space and time distribution characteristics of the shear stress field for the sequence of the Wuding earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Follow Chen and Duda's model of spectral fall-off of (3, the dependence of peak parameters of ground motion, peak displacement dm, peak velocity vm and peak acceleration am, upon the environment stress (0-values are studied using near source seismic digital recordings for the sequence of the Wuding, Yunnan, M = 6.5 earthquake, in which, as a new thought, the peak parameters are assumed to be related to the medium Q-value. Three formulae for estimating the environment stress (0-values by the peak parameters of three types of ground motions are derived. Using these formulae, the environment stress (0-values are calculated for the sequence of the Wuding earthquake. The result show that (0-values calculated by the three formulae are constant largely, the averages of (0 are in the range of 5.0~35 MPa for most earthquakes. It belongs to the high-stress earthquakes sequence: the high-stress values are restricted to the relatively small area closely near to the epicenter of the main shock. The fine distribution structure for the contours of the environment stress (0-values is related closely to the strong aftershocks. The analysis of spatial and temporal feature of (0-values suggests that the earthquakes sequence in a rupture process generated at the specific intersection zone of seismo-tectonics under high-stress background.

  16. H-22细胞声孔效应的应力阈值%Threshold value of shear stress in H-22 cells generated sonoporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫润阳; 林书玉; 王成会

    2011-01-01

    理论和实验研究了超声空化场中的H-22型肝癌细胞产生可逆声孔效应的剪应力阈值.本文用1.37MHz的聚焦声场,当超顺磁性纳米氧化铁在细胞悬液中的终浓度为410μg/mL,换能器负载电功率为2W,超声辐照60s,细胞存活率90%以上时,有45.9±13.5%的细胞显示普鲁士蓝染阳性,暗示超声作用下,这些细胞表面曾出现可逆性微孔而使磁性微粒由此进入细胞内.利用无界自由空间微泡运动方程的球对称稳态解对实验条件下细胞膜表面的切变应力进行数值估算,结果表明,使H-22细胞产生可逆性声孔效应的微流剪应力阈值为697Pa.%Based on a spherically symmetric bubble model,the threshold shear stress for H-22 cells which are irradiated by continuous focused ultrasound is estimated.On the condition that the final concentration of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in the cell suspension is 410 μg/mL,the focused ultrasound sonication is at a frequency of 1.37 MHz,the power from amplifer is 2 W,and H-22 cells are exposed to the ultrasound for 60 s,the labeling efficiency is about 45.9%±13.5%.Prussian blue staining confirms iron uptake and shows numerous blue-stained iron particles in the cytoplasm,while more than 90% labeled cells remained viable.The results show that the reparable sonoporation arises in plasma membrane and SPIO nanoparticles enter into the H-22 cells.Numerical calculations show that the shear stress acting on the cell is 697 Pa,which is the threshold shear stress for H-22 cell sonoporation.

  17. Global- and local-scale characterisation of bed surface structure in coarse-grained alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Ockelford, Annie; Nguyen, Thao; Wood, Jo; Rice, Steve; Reid, Ian; Tate, Nick

    2013-04-01

    It is widely recognised that adjustments in bed surface grain size (texture) and grain arrangement (structure) exert significant controls on the stability of coarse-grained alluvial rivers. Modifications to bed surface texture and structure occur during active sediment transport and are mediated by the process of mobile armouring which concentrates coarser-than-average particles on the surface and organises them into a variety of grain- and bedform-scale configurations. Textural aspects of surface armouring are well understood to the extent that sediment transport models can be used to predict the size distribution of armours that develop under different sediment supply regimes and shear stresses. Research has also found that the adjustment of bed surface grain size is often patchy and that the development of finer-grained and coarser-grained areas of the bed has important implications for both the rate and grain size of transported sediment. The structural aspects of stream-bed armouring, however, are less well understood, largely because of the difficulty of recognising and characterising bedforms and bed-structures that have dimensions similar to their constituent particles. Moreover, bed structure is generally parameterised using global scale descriptors of the bed surface such that information on the spatial heterogeneity of the structure is lost. The aim of this poster is to characterise the structural characteristics of water-worked river gravels, paying particular attention to quantifying the spatial heterogeneity of those characteristics using local scale descriptors. Results reported from a number of flume experiments designed to simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of bed configurations (surface texture and structure) as the system adjusts to a condition of equilibrium transport are used to evaluate the spatial variability of bed surface structure and explore its significance for modelling sediment transport rates in gravel-bed rivers. Keywords: bed

  18. Advances in Research of Shear Stress after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention%冠状动脉支架术后局部切应力变化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜兰

    2013-01-01

    Extensive study of shear stress after percutaneous coronary intervention has attracted much attention. This article reviews progress in the research into the shear stress about different stent designs, intervention maneuverers, blood vessel diameter and lesions.%随着经皮冠状动脉介入治疗的发展,支架植入术后切应力的相关性研究越来越受到人们的重视,现主要论述不同支架设计、术式选择以及血管病变相应切应力的进展.

  19. Effect of simulated microgravity and shear stress on microcin B17 production by Escherichia coli and on its excretion into the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A; Pierson, D L; Koenig, D W; Mishra, S K; Demain, A L

    1997-10-01

    Production of the antibacterial polypeptide microcin B17 (MccB17) by Escherichia coli ZK650 was inhibited by simulated microgravity. The site of MccB17 accumulation was found to be different, depending on whether the organism was grown in shaking flasks or in rotating bioreactors designed to establish a simulated microgravity environment. In flasks, the accumulation was cellular, but in the reactors, virtually all the microcin was found in the medium. The change from a cellular site to an extracellular one was apparently not a function of gravity, since extracellular production occurred in these bioreactors, irrespective of whether they were operated in the simulated microgravity or normal gravity mode. More probably, excretion is due to the much lower degree of shear stress in the bioreactors. Addition of even a single glass bead to the 50-ml medium volume in the bioreactor created enough shear to change the site of MccB17 accumulation from the medium to the cells.

  20. Nanoparticle self-assembly assisted by polymers: the role of shear stress in the nanoparticle arrangement of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Beatriz; Velázquez, M Mercedes

    2014-01-21

    We propose to use the self-assembly ability of a block copolymer combined with compression-expansion cycles to obtain CdSe quantum dots (QDs) structures of different morphology. The methodology proposed consists in transferring onto mica mixed Langmuir monolayers of QDs and the polymer poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) partial 2-butoxyethyl ester cumene terminated, PS-MA-BEE, previously sheared by 50 compression-expansion cycles. Results indicate that the shear stress takes out nanoparticles at the air-water interface from metastable states and promotes a new equilibrium state of the Langmuir monolayer. This new state was transferred onto mica by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) methodology, and the morphology of the LB films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results show that when the amplitude strain increases, the QDs domain size decreases and the QDs LB film arrangement becomes more ordered. The dynamics of the monolayer relaxation after cycling involves at least three time scales which are related to the damping of surface fluctuation, raft rearrangement, and component movements inside each raft. Brewster angle microscopy allowed visualizing in situ the raft rearrangement at the air-water interface.

  1. Study of velocity and shear stress distributions in the impeller passages and the volute of a bio-centrifugal ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Leok Poh; Ong, Kang Shiu; Song, Guoliang

    2008-05-01

    The velocity fields within the impeller passages of three different impellers of the Kyoto-NTN bio-centrifugal ventricular assist device are measured using laser Doppler velocimetry in this study. The 16 forward-swept-blade impeller has better performance than the 16 straight-blade and 8 backward-swept-blade impellers in terms of smooth flow pattern, and has less high-shear-stress regions in the passages. The flow distributions are found to be similar with those measured by Yu et al. Through-flow characteristics are found in the impeller when the passages open to the biggest volute space. The flow fields in the blade channels of the impeller were found to be axis symmetrical due to the double volute design with the objective of minimizing the imbalance of the radial thrust when the impeller is magnetically suspended. In addition, the high-intensity vortex which was detected by Yu et al. at the discharge channel of the pump is effectively reduced when the end of the splitter plate is modified by increasing the taper ratio from 4 to 20. The new design would reduce the hemolysis of blood due to the high shear rate of the vortex. PMID:18471167

  2. Modelling glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsbauer, A.; Frey, H.; Haeberli, W.;

    2016-01-01

    Surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness enable modelling of glacier-bed topographies over large ice-covered areas. Due to the erosive power of glaciers, such bed topographies can contain numerous overdeepenings, which when exposed following glacier...... retreat may fill with water and form new lakes. In this study, the bed overdeepenings for ∼28000 glaciers (40 775km2) of the Himalaya-Karakoram region are modelled using GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2), in which ice thickness is inferred from surface slope by parameterizing basal shear...... stress as a function of elevation range for each glacier. The modelled ice thicknesses are uncertain (±30%), but spatial patterns of ice thickness and bed elevation primarily depend on surface slopes as derived from the DEM and, hence, are more robust. About 16 000 overdeepenings larger than 104m2 were...

  3. Temperature dependence of critical shear stress of monocrystals of Kh18N15 metastable alloy with low energy of stacking faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on temperature dependence of tau0 critical shear stress of monocrystals of Kh18n15 metastable alloy in 1.8-300 K range. For crystals of certain orientations to tau0(T) dependence in 150-70 K range a plateau was observed. It was determined that occurance of plateau on tau0(T) dependence is related to epsilon-phase formation during loading, disappearing during crystal warming up to room temperature. Revealed sharp growth of tau0 values below 60 K, which is not typical of Fcc crystals is probably related to delaying #betta→#epsilon-transformation and change of austenite magnetic structure in this temperature range

  4. Tissue Factor Pathway & Shear Stress Responsive Element%组织因子凝血途径与切应力反应元件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益民; 李黔宁; 应大君

    2006-01-01

    组织因子(tissue factor,TF)即凝血因子Ⅲ(coagulation factorⅢ),细胞表面抗原CD 142(CD 142 antigen),是凝血因子FⅦ/FⅦa的细胞膜表面受体,具有启动凝血和调控细胞内信号传导的作用.近年来发现组织因子凝血途径切应力反应元件(shear stress responsive element,SSRE)与血栓形成的发生、发展有密切关系.本文就TF切应力反应元件表达调控及其与血栓形成的关系作一综述.

  5. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  6. Monotonic direct simple shear tests on sand under multidirectional loading

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yao; Yang, Yunming; Yu, Hai-Sui; Roberts, Gethin Wyn

    2016-01-01

    Stress–strain responses of Leighton Buzzard sand are investigated under bidirectional shear. The tests are conducted by using the variable direction dynamic cyclic simple shear (VDDCSS), which is manufactured by Global Digital Systems (GDS) Instruments Ltd., U.K. Soil samples are anisotropically consolidated under a vertical normal stress and horizontal shear stress and then sheared in undrained conditions by applying a horizontal shear stress acting along a different direction from the conso...

  7. Enhanced osteogenesis of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells for tooth tissue engineering using fluid shear stress in a rocking culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki-Taek; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Chang, Jung Uk; Choi, Hwajung; Hexiu, Jin; Cho, Woo Jae; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2013-02-01

    This study instituted a simple approach to stimulate alveolar bone regeneration for tooth tissue engineering by controlling effects of low fluid dynamic shear stress (LFDSS) on growth and differentiation in vitro. Human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) harvested from human mandibular alveolar bone were cultured with LFDSS to generate cultures containing bone-like formations. To distinguish between osteodifferentiation and bone-like formation, cells were cultured either with or without fluid shear stress. The calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hABMSCs were used as indicators of osteogenesis. Cell viability and proliferation after stimulating with LFDSS for 10-60 min/day were higher than with longer stimulations. Mineralized nodules formed when osteoblasts were cultured with an induction medium, a marker of osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity tended to increase after 10 and 60 min/day of stimulation. In addition, LFDSS conditions also increased gene expression of IBSP, RUNX2, COL-I, ALP, OCN, and OPN, as shown by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From the results of a proteomics array, LFDSS groups were intensely expressed with several factors (EGF, HGF, IGF, TGF, and PDGF). Furthermore, CD146 and Stro-1 expression increased in cells treated with 30 min/day and decreased in cells treated with 120 min/day, as determined by cell surface antigen analysis by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. These results strongly showed that LFDSS at the proper intensity and time enhanced the differentiation and maturation of hABMSCs. In conclusion, an appropriate level of LFDSS can potently and positively modulate proliferation and differentiation in hABMSCs.

  8. Analysis Research on Inter-Layer Shear Stress of CRC+AC Composite Pavement%CRC+AC复合式路面层间剪应力分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾梦澜; 蒙艺; 钟梦武; 阮文

    2012-01-01

    基于弹性层状体系理论,采用BISAR软件对连续配筋混凝土复合式沥青路面结构层间剪应力分布进行分析.结果表明,CRC+AC复合式路面层间最容易发生剪切破坏的点坐标为1.1δ与1.5δ标准轴载当量圆半经;AC面层模量对层间剪应力影响不明显,而当超载达到200%时,层间剪应力将增加74.5%,更容易导致CRC+ AC复合式路面发生剪切破坏;AC+CRC层间结合状况对于最大剪应力有显著影响,随着层间结合状态变差,层间抗剪强度迅速降低;剪切试验的结果表明,层间采用SBS改性沥青+土工布的形式抗剪性能较好,建议工程实践中优先选用.%Based on the theory of elastic layered system, this paper analyzes the distribution of inter-layer shear stress of continuously reinforced concrete with asphalt concrete overly composite pavement using BIS-RA software. Results of the analysis indicate that positions where shear failure is most likely to occur are 1. 1 and 1. 5 radius of standard axle load equivalent circle. The modulus of AC layer has little effect on interface layer shear stress. However, when the overload is 200% , the shear stress may increase by 74. 5% , resulting in shear failure of CRC+AC pavement. The inter-layer conditions have significant effect on the maximum shear stress. When the inter-layer conditions worsen, the inter-layer shear stress decreases rapidly. Results of shear tests indicate that the use of SBS modified asphalt with geotextile between the CRC and AC layers may improve the inter-layer shear resistance, which is highly recommended.

  9. Transverse bed slope effects in an annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Anne; Kleinhans, Maarten; de Smit, Jaco; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Large scale morphology, in particular bar dimensions and bifurcation dynamics, are greatly affected by the deflection of sediment transport on transverse bed slopes due to gravity and by helical flows. However, existing transverse bed slope predictors are based on a small set of experiments with a minor range of flow conditions and sediment sizes, and do not account for the presence of bedforms. In morphological modelling the deflection angle is therefore often calibrated on measured morphology. Our objective is to experimentally quantify the transverse slope effect for a large range of near-bed flow conditions and sediment sizes (0.17 - 4 mm) to test existing predictors, in order to improve morphological modelling of rivers and estuaries. We have conducted about 400 experiments in an annular flume, which functions as an infinitely long bended flume and therefore avoids boundary effects. Flow is generated by rotating the lid of the flume, while the intensity of the helical flow can be decreased by counterrotating the bottom of the flume. The equilibrium transverse slope that develops during the experiments is a balance between the transverse bed slope effect and the bed shear stress caused by the helical flow. We obtained sediment mobilities from no motion to sheet flow, ranging across bedload and suspended load. Resulting equilibrium transverse slopes show a clear trend with varying sediment mobilities and helical flow intensities that deviate from typical power relations with Shields number. As an end member we found transversely horizontal beds by counterrotation that partially cancelled the helical flow near the bed, which allows us to quantify helical flow. The large range in sediment mobilities caused different bed states from ripples and dunes to sheet flow that affect near-bed flow, which cause novel nonlinear relations between transverse slope and Shields number. In conclusion, our results show for a wide range of conditions and sediments that transverse

  10. Stress path during pressuremeter test and link between shear modulus and Menard pressuremeter modulus in unsaturated fine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatier Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Limit pressure and Ménard pressuremeter modulus variation with respect to drought in silty clay situated in water-table fluctuation area. Finally, we will try to show the consequences of these stress paths for performing and interpreting pressuremeter test in unsaturated and collapsible soils.

  11. Front tracking for shear bands in an antiplane shear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a numerical algorithm for the study of shear band, formation and growth in two-dimensional antiplane shear. The constitutive model uses a non-associative flow rule. The numerical scheme is based on a Godunov method for updating the velocity, while the stress is updated via integration along particle paths. The scheme is coupled with a front tracking algorithm for careful evolution of the shear bands. The main challenges are the non-hyperbolicity of the shear band formation and growth (front tracking avoids the catastrophic effects of the loss of hyperbolicity in the Godunov-type numerical scheme), the existence of endpoints for the shear band (the tracked front does not separate the computational domain into disconnected regions), and the non-hyperbolic rate of growth of the shear band. We give examples of the success of the algorithm and show convergence tests. 69 refs., 13 figs

  12. Investigation of interfacial shear stresses, shape fixity, and actuation strain in composites incorporating shape memory polymers and shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu ePark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory composites (SMCs based on shape memory alloys (SMAs and shape memory polymers (SMPs allow many design possibilities due to their controllable temperature-dependent mechanical properties. The complementary characteristics of SMAs and SMPs can be utilized in systems with shape recovery created by the SMA and shape fixity provided by the SMP. In this research, three SMC operating regimes are identified and the behavior of SMC structures is analyzed by focusing on composite shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models show that SMPs can be used to adequately fix the shape of SMA actuators and springs. COMSOL finite element simulations are in agreement with analytical expressions for shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models are developed for an end-coupled linear SMP-SMA two-way actuator and the predicted strain is shown to be in good agreement with experimental test results.

  13. Biofilm detachment mechanisms in a liquid-fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H T; Rittmann, B E; Amar, D; Heim, R; Ehlinger, O; Lesty, Y

    1991-08-20

    Bed fluidization offers the possibility of gaining the advantages of fixed-film biological processes without the disadvantage of pore clogging. However, the biofilm detachment rate, due to hydrodynamics and particle-to-particle attrition, is very poorly understood for fluidized-bed biofilm processes. In this work, a two-phase fluidized-bed biofilm was operated under a constant surface loading (0.09 mg total organic carbon/cm(2) day) and with a range of bed height (H), fluid velocities (U), and support-particle concentrations (C(p)). Direct measurements were made for the specific biofilm loss rate coefficient (b(s))and the total biofilm accumulation (X(f)L(f)). A hydrodynamic model allowed independent determination of the biofilm density (X(f)), biofilm thickness (L(f)), liquid shear stress (tau), and Reynolds number (Re). Multiple regression analysis of the results showed that increased particle-to-particle attrition, proportional to C(p) and increased turbulence, described by Re, caused the biofilms to be denser and thinner. The specific detachment rate coefficient (b(s)) increased as C(p) and Re increased. Almost all of the 6, values were larger than predicted by a previous model derived for smooth biofilms on a nonfluidized surface. Therefore, the turbulence and attrition of bed fluidization appear to be dominant detachment mechanisms.

  14. Analysis of shear test method for composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, H. W., Jr.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    An elastic plane stress finite element analysis of the stress distributions in four flat test specimens for in-plane shear response of composite materials subjected to mechanical or thermal loads is presented. The shear test specimens investigated include: slotted coupon, cross beam, losipescu, and rail shear. Results are presented in the form of normalized shear contour plots for all three in-plane stess components. It is shown that the cross beam, losipescu, and rail shear specimens have stress distributions which are more than adequate for determining linear shear behavior of composite materials. Laminate properties, core effects, and fixture configurations are among the factors which were found to influence the stress distributions.

  15. Experimental Research on Stress Behavior of Stud Shear Connector in Tower Anchorage Area of Cable-stayed Bridge%斜拉桥锚固区栓钉剪力键力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀发; 张小亭

    2014-01-01

    针对栓钉剪力键用于斜拉桥索塔锚固区连接部位时的应力应变特性,以中部横梁均匀加载为思路,建立局部试验模型,以栓钉剪力键的极限承载力为依据,设计加载方案,通过试验获取栓钉的应变随荷载变化的基本特征,并分析了破坏机理。结果表明:中部加载使模型两侧剪力键受力均匀,设计更为合理;栓钉剪力键的剪应力以加载梁为中心向两侧逐渐降低;高度方向,第7排栓钉受力最大,长度方向,单钉根部受到的剪力最大,应作为控制截面;破坏时,栓钉弯曲变形,根部发生45°剪切破坏,混凝土局部产生裂缝或压碎破坏。%This article mainly studied the stud shear connector for anchorage zone of pylon cable-stayed bridge connecting parts when subject to stress-strain characteristics.Taking central uniform load for ideas established local test model.Loading program was designed which based on the ultimate bearing ca-pacity of stud shear connector.It has acquired the basic characteristics of stud strain with load variation and analyzed the failure mechanism.The results showed that:The model adopts central loaded design is more reasonable because it makes shear connector force uniform on both sides of the model.The shear stress of stud shear connector decreased gradually from the center to both ends of the load beam.In the height direction,the 7th rows of pegs subject the maximum shear stress.In the longitudinal direction,sin-gle nail roots subject the maximum shear stress.It should be used as the control section.When the stud destruction,the stud bending deformation occurs,peg roots shear failure in direction of 45 °,the partial concrete will produce cracks or be crushed.

  16. Title: Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian David Greenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus, a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc. The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  17. Distribution of shear stress on resin bolt of anchoring rods and its damage model analysis%树脂锚杆锚固段剪应力分布及其损伤模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青锋; 易厚; 朱川曲

    2016-01-01

    为了分析树脂锚杆锚固段剪应力分布及其承载、损伤机理,提高树脂锚杆支护在煤矿现场应用的有效性,首先根据煤矿树脂锚杆的围岩环境和受力特点,基于集中载荷作用于半无限体表面和无限体内部的弹性力学解得到了树脂锚杆在非锚固段围岩破碎和完整时的锚固段锚固界面剪应力计算式,分析了锚杆杆体拉力在锚固段锚固界面的剪应力形成机理;然后采用FLAC数值