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Sample records for bed retorting process

  1. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  2. Process for retorting shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-19

    The method of retorting oil shale to recover valuable liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons consists of heating the oil shale in a retorting zone to a temperature sufficient to convert its kerogenic constituents to normally liquid and normally gaseous hydrocarbons by contact with hot gas previously recovered from shale, cooling the gases and vapors effluent from the retorting zone by direct countercurrent contact with fresh shale to condense the normally liquid constituents of the gases and vapors, separating the fixed gas from the liquid product, heating the fixed gas, and returning it to the retorting zone to contact further quantities of shale.

  3. Process of gas manufacture: retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, N M

    1883-01-01

    Improvements in the process and apparatus for the destructive distillation of shale, etc., described in Specification No. 1327, A.D. 1873. According to one modification a series of vertical retorts are arranged opposite to each other in two rows, the retorts in each row having flue spaces between them. The retorts have inclined bottoms beneath which are combustion chambers connected by flues to the spaces, and by flues to regenerative chambers, provided with flues, arranged with suitable valves. The fresh air and combustible gas enter at the bottom of one pair of regenerators, and after being heated enter one of the chambers, where they are ignited. The products pass through the adjacent spaces, which are connected at the top, and having heated the retorts pass through the other chamber and through the other pair of regenerators to the chimney. The retorts opposite to each other are connected by a port at the top, and they are charged alternately with fresh material. Each retort is fitted with an outlet pipe leading to a main, and with a steam jet by which air and steam may be forced into the mouth piece. The fresh charge is subjected to a comparatively low temperature at first to distill the oil, and then a higher heat is applied to the partially-spent shale and highly-superheated steam, and air admitted to the retort to decompose the coke and drive off the remaining carbon and ammonia.

  4. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  5. Retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbrough, S B

    1917-01-11

    In the process of distilling coal at a temperature of from 800 to 1,200/sup 0/C, a means such as a central perforated tube, which may be a rotary one is employed for withdrawing the gases of distillation in such a way as to prevent them from coming into contact with the walls of the retort. One means of withdrawal comprises a tube tapering downward formed with perforations. Modifications are also shown.

  6. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  7. Retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, J; Jones, J; Fraser, W

    1894-04-27

    The invention relates to vertical retorts for the distillation of shale and other bituminous substances, or for the calcining of ironstone etc. The retorts are circular in cross-section and have tapering lower ends. For the purpose of effecting a continuous or intermittent movement of the substance under treatment, there is mounted at the base of each retort a supporting disk or table, above which is an arm or scraper capable of being revolved by means of an upright spindle actuated by a ratchet and pawl or other means. The form of the table and scraper may be modified. The discharging hoppers of the two rows of retorts have their openings so arranged as to discharge into a single truck, which runs along a central passage underneath the retorts. Or they may discharge into a trough containing a worm, screw, or endless-band conveyer.

  8. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  9. Retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, E L

    1928-11-22

    A retort is described for gasifying coal, shale, lignite, and other organic substances, wherein the material is supplied from a hopper, as a film past a centrally heated chamber by means of a tier of overlapping rings provided with a spiral or screw edging. The rings are attached to an outer shell to which is given a rotary and a reciprocatory motion. The gas outlets are provided with open liquid seals and the spent material is delivered to a rotary water trough from whence it is removed by means of a scraper baffle.

  10. Retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, F

    1921-11-29

    Materials are heated in a rotary retort by direct action of a flame produced by burning a combustible mixture of gases containing oxygen in certain predetermined amounts so as to distil off volatile constituents and otherwise subject the materials to a heat treatment. By this method coal, peat, lignite, shale, sawdust, roots, leaves and the like may be destructively distilled to recover coke and other byproducts, or coke such as that in the carbonized residues may be treated to produce water gas or producer gas and montan wax and other waxes and fats may be obtained directly from lignite. Oils may be distilled or refined or heated to obtain illuminating gas, and high-boiling asphaltic residues made to yield light hydrocarbons.

  11. Processing of chopped mussel meat in retort pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino TRIBUZI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chopped mussel meat packaged in retort pouches was processed in a laboratory-scale water immersion retort, adapted for processing under overpressure conditions. Retort temperature effects on product yield and on cook value were evaluated by setting the F0 at 7 min. The effects of different pre-treatments (salting and marination on the characteristics of mussels were evaluated after processing at retort temperature of 118 °C and during a whole year of storage at 25 °C. The salted samples showed better yield during storage, while no differences were found for the other physicochemical parameters.

  12. Retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerni, P M

    1928-03-28

    A retort is described for the distillation of carbonaceous material, such as coal, oil shale, and the like, for the recovery of hydrocarbon oils, in which the coal is fed on to annular trays which are surrounded by shrouds having projecting rims. The coal is agitated in each of the trays by stirring members which are attached by links and to a rotary structure which is rotated by worm gearing. A gap is provided in each rim through which the material is transferred from each tray to the next succeeding lower tray, and in falling through the gap it drops on to the rim of the shroud of the next succeeding lower tray and the residue finally drops into a trough and a scraper on the rotatable ring directs it into an outlet. Vapors are drawn off through outlets. A central heating space contains a fireclay tube having a combustion chamber with burners at the lower part. The products of combustion pass through openings into the space, and thence through an outlet into a hopper for preheating the coal which is to be supplied to the trays.

  13. On possibilities to decrease influence of oxidation processes on oil yield at oil shale retorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, V.; Loeoeper, R.; Doilov, S.; Kundel, H.

    1993-01-01

    At the present technical level retorting is carried out so that an increase in specific air consumption results in an increase of oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. At the same time a direct relationship between the degree of volatiles pyrolysis and specific air consumption was observed. This regularity enables to assume that within the reaction volume there occurs most likely the thermo oxidative pyrolysis of volatile products, not the oxidation of oil shale as it is considered traditionally. The main source of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft at processing oil shale in retorts is the process of spent shale. This process is not fully elaborated for utilization in commercial scale and can not be arranged so that the ingress of oxygen into the smacking chamber could be eliminated. In case of a slower semi coke gasification process and reduced specific air consumption for gasification the absolute amount of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft also decreases. One of the efficient methods to decrease specific air consumption is to build furnaces into the semi coking chamber to obtain additional amount of heat carrier by combusting generator gas. The maximum effect is reached when steam-and-air blow is completely replaced by recycle gas: specific air consumption is reduced whereas recycle gas is deoxygenated in the cooling zone while passing through spent shale bed which has the temperature of about 500 deg C. Another possible source of oxygen to the semi coking shaft with heat carrier is production of flue gases by combusting recycle gas in burners built in retorts. We consider the recycle gas employed upon processing oil shale in retorts hardly to be an appreciable source of the oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. Additional amounts of residual oxygen containing in recycle gas fed into both cooling zone and furnaces are practically totally consumed at gas combusting and passing across the bed of semi coke heated up to approximately

  14. Gas retorts: gas manufacture, process for distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J

    1874-05-23

    In apparatus for distilling shale, coal, etc. for making oil and gas, tubular retorts are supported horizontally in a chamber by plates from a brick setting and are heated partly by jets of gas from a pipe supplied through a cock from a gas holder, and partly by the waste gases from a furnace, which heats gas retorts placed in a chamber, air being supplied beneath the grate by a fan.

  15. Furnace retort for cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosek, F

    1938-05-24

    A process is described for treating material which is brittle, breakable, or granular, containing liquid substances or gases (natural gas and ether, oils, emulsions, water, etc.), in which the distillation is accomplished without interruption in a system of retorts where the raw materials is introduced mechanically and in controllable amounts into the first element of the system, turned over in the retort, and pushed into the following retort, etc. The dephlegmation of the vapors is carried on inside of the system of retorts.

  16. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  17. Scoping of fusion-driven retorting of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1979-11-01

    In the time frame beyond 2005, fusion reactors are likely to make their first appearance when the oil shale industry will probably be operating with 20% of the production derived from surface retorts operating on deep mined shale from in situ retorts and 80% from shale retorted within these in situ retorts using relatively fine shale uniformly rubblized by expensive mining methods. A process was developed where fusion reactors supply a 600 0 C mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor to both surface and in situ retorts. The in situ production is accomplished by inert gas retorting, without oxygen, avoiding the burning of oil released from the larger shale particles produced in a simpler mining method. These fusion reactor-heated gases retort the oil from four 50x50x200m in-situ rubble beds at high rate of 40m/d and high yield (i.e., 95% F.A.), which provided high return on investment around 20% for the syncrude selling at $20/bbl, or 30% if sold as $30/bbl for heating oil. The bed of 600 0 C retorted shale, or char, left behind was then burned by the admission of ambient air in order to recover all of the possible energy from the shale resource. The hot combustion gases, mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are then heat-exchanged with fusion reactor blanket coolant flow to be sequentially introduced into the next rubble bed ready for retorting. The advantages of this fusion-driven retorting process concept are a cheaper mining method, high yield and higher production rate system, processing with shale grades down to 50 l/mg (12 gpt), improved resource recovery by complete char utilization and low energy losses by leaving behind a cold, spent bed

  18. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  19. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  20. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  1. Improvements in retorts for the processing of coal, oil shale and like material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honyburn, A G; James, G L.D.

    1931-05-28

    Improvements in retorts of the kind described consist of means wherein the material to be retorted is fed through the retort in a continuous manner by means of horizontally revolving star wheels whereby the material is prevented from jambing due to expansion. Coking of the material en masse during the intumescence period is prevented, and the material is maintained in contact with the walls of the retort ensuring uniform heating of the mass.

  2. Change in mechanical properties of Antrim oil shale on retorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.; Hockings, W. A.; Kim, K.

    1979-01-01

    The decomposition of kerogen in oil shale and subsequent extraction of the decomposition products during the retorting process are known to alter the pore structure, resulting in changes in permeability, deformation and strength properties. Prediction of these changes is of fundamental importance in the design of in-situ retorting processes. This paper summarizes a comprehensive laboratory investigation on the changes in mechanical properties of Antrim oil shale on retorting at 500/sup 0/C. It was observed that kerogen plays an important role in the change of the properties on retorting. When subjected to heat, the degree of deformation, the extent of fracturing and the structural instability of the specimens appeared to be strongly dependent upon kerogen content. The values of elastic modulus, strength, and density decreased whereas maximum strain at failure increased on retorting. Significant increases in permeability and porosity also resulted from retorting. The most pronounced increase was observed in the permeability in the direction parallel to bedding which exceeded in some cases as much as 3 orders of magnitude. Microscopic observations of pore structures provided a qualitative support to data obtained in measurements of porosity and permeability.

  3. Shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1936-07-22

    A vertical distillation retort with an enclosed annular heating chamber has enclosed therein tiered compartments spaced apart by chambers into which burners deliver heating gases which pass via ports to the chamber and thence to the atmosphere. Shale is delivered by means of an air tight chute to the uppermost compartment and is spread therein and passed downwardly from compartment to compartment through ports, finally passing from the retort through an airtight chute, by means of scrapers rotatably mounted on a hollow shaft through which noncondensible gases are delivered to the distilling material via jets. The gaseous products of distillation are educted through ports and a manifold, which is also in communication with the head of the retort through the delivery pipe.

  4. Coke retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; MacDonald, J D

    1916-07-15

    To charge vertical coke retorts while preventing escape of gases the coal is fed by a revolving drum to an archimedean screw at the base of the retort, the coke being discharged at the top through a water seal. The feed pockets of the drum which revolves between plates, deliver coal from the hopper to the revolving screw. The coke is forced under the hood to the water seal and is removed by rake conveyor, the gases escaping through the pipe to the main.

  5. Instrumentation and operational plan for geokinetics retort No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, R.L.; Hommert, P.J.

    1980-04-01

    This report outlines the general plan for the instrumentation and technical direction of a horizontal in siti retorting experiment to be conducted at the Geokinetics, Inc. field site in Uintah County, Utah. Bed preparation has been accomplished by Geokinetics by blasting the retort zone with explosives emplaced in wells drilled from the surface. Downhole instrumentation will consist of approx. 300 thermocouples and 28 combustion gas sampling ports to monitor the movement of the reaction front during the retorting process. Surface instrumentation will provide measurements of flow rates, gas composition, liquid products and other process parameters to monitor the overall operation of the process. The operational plan includes provision for data interpretation and real time material balance calculations in the field, including an evaluation of the effect on processing rates and oil yield due to the use of recycled combusted off gases and changes in rate of injection of inlet gases.

  6. Retort furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, J

    1924-07-23

    Retorts for the distillation of materials such as lignite, peat, or sawdust having a high moisture content are disposed in series in two directions at right angles to each other in a single block of masonry and are separated by longitudinal walls pierced by channels for heating gases and for escape of the distillation products. The oval retorts have between them flues with passages for the escape of the distillation gases which pass to a main. The material is charged into a hopper serving all the retorts and drying the material by the hot burnt gases which pass from a passage through branches to ducts at the base of the drier, these ducts being covered by funnels for filling the vertical chambers. The distillation gases after purification in the by-product recovery plant are burned in burners and combustion spaces, the hot gases circulating in channels before escaping by passage. The temperature in zone A is 400 to 500/sup 0/C and in zone B a higher temperature is attained. The coke is cooled by superheated steam injected through channels, water gas being generated and the material is further cooled by steam circulating in passages.

  7. Specific features of kukersite processing in laboratory-scale and commercial retorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, V.; Kundel, H.

    1991-01-01

    The yield and properties of shale oil produced by semi coking oil shale in retorts of different design depend to a great extent on the conditions of volatiles evacuation from the high temperature zone. In externally heated laboratory retorts, where oil vapours reside in the reaction zone for a relatively long period undergoing moderate cracking, no maximum oil yields are attained. The higher the organic matter content in the oil shale, the higher is the partial pressure of the oil vapours in the retort and hence the rate of their removal from the retorting zone, resulting in increased shale oil yields and lower specific yield of hydrogen in the retort off-gases. replacing the external heating mode with direct heating by a gaseous heat carrier (carbon dioxide, in particular) leads to a considerable moderation of the volatiles pyrolysis. As a result, the shale oil produced has a higher density and molecular mass, a lower calorific value and a higher content of phenols. The presence of water vapours in the heat carrier gas also has a positive effect upon the yield of shale oil and phenols. The properties of the oil and gas produced by semi coking kukersite in the presence of free calcium oxide are similar to those of cracked products. The presence of free calcium oxide has the same effect as higher temperatures or longer residence time of the volatiles in the retorting zone: it leads to reduced yields of shale oil and phenols, to a lower density of the oil and higher yields of hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons. This should be taken into consideration on evaluating the efficiency of semi coking oil shale in the retorts with solid heat carrier, which contains free calcium oxide

  8. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  9. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  10. Improvements in retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaren, A F

    1922-02-24

    A retort is described for the treatment of carbonaceous material (for example, for the distillation of coal and the like, and/or the cracking of oils) having a plurality of pipes for injecting steam (superheated) thereinto communicating with different zones of the interior of the retort, characterized by the provision of a jacket surrounding the retort and communicating with outlet apertures therein to receive the exhaust steam and the distillates or other products from the retort.

  11. Rotary retort for carbonizing bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguin, A G; Muller, W

    1920-09-05

    A process of carbonizing bituminous materials, such as coal and oil shale at a low temperature in a rotary retort with simultaneous compressing the material especially of the semicoke formed that is characterized in that the material during the distillation through rapid rotation of the retort is exposed to the action of centrifugal force and thereby it is compressed.

  12. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  13. Hoizontal retort for distilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, F; Papineau, W

    1854-12-15

    Improvements are disclosed in distilling peaty, schistose, bituminous and vegetable matters. These are arranging a retort in a horizontal position or so little inclined as not to permit matters charged at one end of the retort to fall readily to the other by gravity. The retort is heated externally by a fire at one end, near which end the spent products are discharged without opening the retort, which is done by the aid of two valves or slides, one being at all times closed when discharging products. The other end of the retort is provided with a divided hopper with two valves or slides, one of which is kept closed when the other is open, in order to charge the retort. Within is an endless chain carrying rakes so as to move the matters from the feeding to the discharging end. There are outlets for the distilled products furnished with condensers.

  14. Improvements in shale retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A C

    1915-05-01

    This invention has reference to shale retorts and particularly related to the discharge of the spent material from the bottom of retorts or gas producers for the destructive distillation of shale, coal or other bituminous substances. It consists in the combination of a blade and means for rocking the same, a bottom piece or table, holes or slots in the same, a passage in the front brick-work of the retort, and a hopper with discharge doors.

  15. Destructive distillation; retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilby, G T

    1881-10-03

    For distilling shale and other oil-yielding minerals. Relates to apparatus described in Specification No. 2169 (1881) in which retorts arranged in sets, and mounted loosely in brickwork to allow expansion, are formed preferably of upper iron tubes, fixed by socket rings, to lower fireclay tubes formed with belts which, together with ledges in the sides of the oven, support fireclay slabs. In some cases the lower parts of the retorts may be formed of iron tubes. Each set of four upper tubes is supplied with a four-way hopper, suspended by means of a pair of counter-weighted levers, centered on bearing plates and connected with the hopper by links. A single pipe connected to the hopper serves for leading off the vapors from the four retorts. The retorts are heated by a furnace, the hot gases from which after acting on the retorts are led to ovens in which are placed steam generators and superheaters, from which steam is conveyed to the interior of the retorts to assist the decomposition.

  16. Retorts; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A C

    1869-11-09

    Relates to retorts for distilling shale or other purposes. Each retort has a mouthpiece, which projects into a water trough, having a curved bottom, and sides rising up to ridges, from which extend shoots. Attached to links is the reciprocating discharge bar, actuated from a steam engine, etc., which, through worm-wheel gearing and a shaft, imparts an intermittent motion to a pawl which propels a ratchet-wheel, which is prevented from turning backward by a catch, and drives a rotary shaft, the motion being transmitted to a bar through a crank and rod. The bar, in rising, pushes the residue from the retort out of the trough, over the ridges, and down the shoots into the truck, etc. The vertical retort is made in two lengths, at the joint between which is held the flange of the shell, joined to, or cast with, the part of the retort and forming a jacket into which steam or other vapor or gas is introduced by a pipe. The steam, etc., circulates through an external spiral rib of the shell and issues from the bottom of the shale among the shale, etc., being distilled.

  17. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. Gas-retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-07-10

    A vertical retort for the continuous distillation of coal, peat, shale, lignite, etc., is provided with a perforated gas withdrawal pipe in the upper part. The central part is surrounded by a heating-flue, and the lower part is provided with a conical discharging-screw mounted in a rotary water-pan.

  19. Combat Ration Network for Technology Implementation. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B; Coburn, John F

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  20. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  1. Distillation, destructive: gas retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G; Buchanan, J

    1872-06-12

    Retorts used in the distillation of coal, cannel, shale, or other minerals are discharged by means of a joint metal bar or a chain inserted prior to or with the charge, and fitted with a plate or series of plates preferably with the back plate the largest. The rod or chain is formed with a hook, loop, or coupling for withdrawal, preferably by a steam windlass running on rails.

  2. Retorts for distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H E

    1921-09-12

    A retort for distilling carbonaceous material is described in which a mass of such material is retained in a pocket formed between an outer wall and an internal wall which is perforated to permit the free escape of distilled products, the retorts having heating means that directly heat the retort but are so related to the pocket that the material therein is heated indirectly and simultaneously from all sides entirely by heat conducted thereto by the walls.

  3. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  4. Uranium bed oxidation vacuum process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeland, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Deuterium and tritium gases are occluded in uranium powder for release into neutron generator tubes. The uranium powder is contained in stainless steel bottles, termed ''beds.'' If these beds become damaged, the gases must be removed and the uranium oxidized in order not to be flammable before shipment to ERDA disposal grounds. This paper describes the system and methods designed for the controlled degassing and oxidation process. The system utilizes sputter-ion, cryo-sorption and bellows pumps for removing the gases from the heated source bed. Removing the tritium gas is complicated by the shielding effect of helium-3, a byproduct of tritium decay. This effect is minimized by incremental pressure changes, or ''batch'' processing. To prevent runaway exothermic reaction, oxidation of the uranium bed is also done incrementally, or by ''batch'' processing, rather than by continuous flow. The paper discusses in detail the helium-3 shielding effect, leak checks that must be made during processing, bed oxidation, degree of gas depletion, purity of gases sorbed from beds, radioactivity of beds, bed disposal and system renovation

  5. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  6. The mechanisms of edge wicking in retortable paperboard

    OpenAIRE

    Tufvesson, Helena

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports on an investigation of the mechanisms of edge wicking in retortable paperboard. Retortable board is used for packaging preserved food, a process which requires that the package and its contents be sterilised by exposure to high temperature steam for up to three hours. The board used must thus have higher water repellence than traditional liquid packaging. Water vapour that condenses on the cut edges on the outside of the board causes particular concern. The paperboards stu...

  7. Improvements in retorting apparatus for fractional distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, W S

    1933-05-05

    A retort is located within a cylindrical chamber with annular space between them. The products of combustion from a furnace pass into said annular space. A flue pipe carries off gases from said space. A perforated plate located at the bottom of the retort and means are located within the furnace for heating air and superheating steam. Perforated pipes deliver air and steam to the retort and a condenser is provided wherein oil vapour produced in the retort is condensed.

  8. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  9. Heat transfer simulation and retort program adjustment for thermal processing of wheat based Haleem in semi-rigid aluminum containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Hamed; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Shahedi Baghekhandan, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A mixed computational strategy was used to simulate and optimize the thermal processing of Haleem, an ancient eastern food, in semi-rigid aluminum containers. Average temperature values of the experiments showed no significant difference (α = 0.05) in contrast to the predicted temperatures at the same positions. According to the model, the slowest heating zone was located in geometrical center of the container. The container geometrical center F0 was estimated to be 23.8 min. A 19 min processing time interval decrease in holding time of the treatment was estimated to optimize the heating operation since the preferred F0 of some starch or meat based fluid foods is about 4.8-7.5 min.

  10. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  11. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    cyclodextrin, xanthan gum , ι-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan, κ-carrageenan, guar gum , locust bean gum , xanthan gum and starch. To improve the flavor of the...Cyclodextrin and κ-carrageenan were not effective in preventing synerisis. Guar gum and locust bean gum , and λ-carrageenan resulted in products with a slimy...Laboratory batches were prepared by hydrating the xanthan gum and pregelatinized starch in water which contained the salt and citric acid. The powdered

  12. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Grens, J.Z.; Ryerson, F.J.; Hoenig, C.L.; Bazan, F.; Peters, P.E.; Smith, R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  13. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  14. Scoping of oil shale retorting with nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    An engineering scoping study was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's request to see if a feasible concept could be developed for using nuclear fusion heat to improve in situ extraction by retorting of underground oil shale. It was found that a fusion heated, oxygen-free inert gas could be used for driving modified, in situ retorts at a higher yield, using lower grade shale and producing less environmental problems than present-day processes. It was also found to be economically attractive with return on investments of 20 to 30%. Fusion blanket technology required was found to be reasonable at hot gas delivery temperatures of about650 0 C (920 K). The scale of a fusion reactor at 2.8 GW(thermal) producing 45 000 Mg/day (335 000 barrel/day) was also found to be reasonable

  15. Process for producing volatile hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-02-03

    In a process for producing volatile hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous solids, a hydrocarbonaceus solid is passed in subdivided state and in the form of a bed downwardly through an externally unheated distilling retort wherein the evolution of volatiles from the bed is effected while solid material comprising combustible heavy residue is discharged from the lower portion of the bed and retort, combustibles are burned from the discharged solid material. The admixture resultant combustion gases with the vapours evolved in the retort is prevented, and a stream of hydrocarbon fluid is heated by indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases produced by burning to a high temperature and is introduced into the distilling retort and direct contact with bed, supplying heat to the latter for effecting the evolution of volatiles from the hydrocarbonaceous solid. The improvement consists of subjecting the volatile distillation products evolved and removed from the bed to a fractionation and separating selected relatively light and heavy hydrocarbon fractions from the distillation products, withdrawing at least one of the selected fractions from the prcess as a product heating at least one other of the selected fractions to high temperature by the indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases, and introducing the thus heated hydrocarbon fraction into direct contact with the bed.

  16. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  17. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamba, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m 3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected

  18. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  19. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  20. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  1. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paoli, Helene; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel

  2. Acoustic monitoring of a fluidized bed coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Veski, Peep; Pedersen, Joan G.

    2007-01-01

      The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of acoustic monitoring of a production scale fluidized bed coating process. The correlation between sensor signals and the estimated amount of film applied and percentage release, respectively, were investigated in coating potassium chloride...

  3. Process and apparatus for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D; Hedbaeck, T J

    1951-01-10

    A process of distilling wood, coal, shale, and like materials in an externally heated retort, consists of heating the retort by burning fuel in a combustion chamber completely or partly surrounding the retort and passing a heat-absorbing medium through ducts which are mounted in or adjacent the greater part of the length of the retort walls which are so arranged as to effect a greater degree of heat extraction at one part of the retort than at another part of the retort. The zones of different heat extraction being related to the heat developed in the combustion chamber maintains the most favourable distillation temperature in all parts of the retort.

  4. Determining Permissible Oxygen and Water Vapor Transmission Rate for Non-Retort Military Ration Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    OXYGEN AND WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION RATE FOR NON- RETORT MILITARY RATION PACKAGING by Danielle Froio Alan Wright Nicole Favreau and Sarah...ANSI Std. Z39.18 RETORT STORAGE SHELF LIFE RETORT POUCHES SENSORY ANALYSIS OXYGEN CRACKERS PACKAGING SENSORY... Packaging for MRE. (a) MRE Retort Pouch Quad-Laminate Structure; (b) MRE Non- retort Pouch Tri-Laminate Structure

  5. Parallel-Processing Test Bed For Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blech, Richard; Cole, Gary; Townsend, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation Hypercluster computing system is multiprocessor test bed for research on parallel algorithms for simulation in fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, chemistry, and other fields with large computational requirements but relatively low input/output requirements. Built from standard, off-shelf hardware readily upgraded as improved technology becomes available. System used for experiments with such parallel-processing concepts as message-passing algorithms, debugging software tools, and computational steering. First-generation Hypercluster system described in "Hypercluster Parallel Processor" (LEW-15283).

  6. Process and technological wastes compaction through a fluidized bed incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiroy, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The various fluidized bed systems (dense or circulating) are reviewed and the advantages of the circulation fluidized bed are highlighted (excellent combustion performance, clean combustion, large operating range, poly-functionality with regards to waste type, ...). Applications to contaminated graphite (with the problem of ash management) and to plant process wastes (ion exchangers, technological wastes, aqueous effluents); study of the neutralization and chlorine emission

  7. Hydrogen retorting of oil shales from Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Synnott, J.; Boorman, R.S.; Salter, R.S.

    1984-04-01

    The liquid production potential of thirty oil shale samples from Eastern Canada was determined by Fischer assay retort and pyrochem retort. For all shales, the presence of hydrogen during pyrochem retorting resulted in a significant increase in oil yields compared to Fischer assay yields. Ten oil shale samples were selected for detailed evaluation in the pyrochem retort in the presence of nitrogen and hydrogen. Besides increasing yields, the presence of hydrogen lowered the specific gravity of liquid products and the content of sulphur but increased the content of nitrogen. This was attributed to the stabilization of precursors to nitrogen compounds which prevented their polymerization. (J.H.K.)

  8. Coal pyrolysis in a continuous fluidized bed - process development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, N N; Akmal, M A.K.; Vaidyeswaran, R

    1981-10-01

    The paper deals with the development of a process development unit (PDU) for the fluid bed pyrolysis of non-caking slack coal obtained from Singareni and Talcher coalfields. Preheated air is used as the fluidizing medium. It is necessary to avoid its maldistribution by a suitable design of the gas distributor. In this regard perforated conical distributors appear to play an important role. In the low temperature carbonization of coal an operation around 500 C gives optimum yields of char and tar of desirable quality. Carbonization reactions are generally completed within about 20 min of the feed entry into the fluidized bed and the char attains an equilibrium volatile matter content. Since air is used as the fluidizing medium carbonization gas is diluted with nitrogen and non-combustibles. The heating value of the gas is low. (5 refs.)

  9. Decoupled numerical simulation of a solid fuel fired retort boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryfa, Arkadiusz; Buczynski, Rafal; Chabinski, Michal; Szlek, Andrzej; Bialecki, Ryszard A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical simulation of the retort boiler fired with solid fuel. Such constructions are very popular for heating systems and their development is mostly based on the designer experience. The simulations have been done in ANSYS/Fluent package and involved two numerical models. The former deals with a fixed-bed combustion of the solid fuel and free-board gas combustion. Solid fuel combustion is based on the coal kinetic parameters. This model encompasses chemical reactions, radiative heat transfer and turbulence. Coal properties have been defined with user defined functions. The latter model describes flow of water inside a water jacked that surrounds the combustion chamber and flue gas ducts. The novelty of the proposed approach is separating of the combustion simulation from the water flow. Such approach allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom and thus lowering the necessary numerical effort. Decoupling combustion from water flow requires defining interface boundary condition. As this boundary condition is unknown it is adjusted iteratively. The results of the numerical simulation have been successfully validated against measurement data. - Highlights: • New decoupled modelling of small scale boiler is proposed. • Fixed-bed combustion model based on kinetic parameters is introduced. • Decoupling reduced the complexity of the model and computational time. • Simple and computationally inexpensive coupling algorithm is proposed. • Model is successfully validated against measurements

  10. Effect of input data variability on estimations of the equivalent constant temperature time for microbial inactivation by HTST and retort thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Diana; Torres, J Antonio; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2011-08-01

    Consumer demand for food safety and quality improvements, combined with new regulations, requires determining the processor's confidence level that processes lowering safety risks while retaining quality will meet consumer expectations and regulatory requirements. Monte Carlo calculation procedures incorporate input data variability to obtain the statistical distribution of the output of prediction models. This advantage was used to analyze the survival risk of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) and Clostridium botulinum spores in high-temperature short-time (HTST) milk and canned mushrooms, respectively. The results showed an estimated 68.4% probability that the 15 sec HTST process would not achieve at least 5 decimal reductions in M. paratuberculosis counts. Although estimates of the raw milk load of this pathogen are not available to estimate the probability of finding it in pasteurized milk, the wide range of the estimated decimal reductions, reflecting the variability of the experimental data available, should be a concern to dairy processors. Knowledge of the C. botulinum initial load and decimal thermal time variability was used to estimate an 8.5 min thermal process time at 110 °C for canned mushrooms reducing the risk to 10⁻⁹ spores/container with a 95% confidence. This value was substantially higher than the one estimated using average values (6.0 min) with an unacceptable 68.6% probability of missing the desired processing objective. Finally, the benefit of reducing the variability in initial load and decimal thermal time was confirmed, achieving a 26.3% reduction in processing time when standard deviation values were lowered by 90%. In spite of novel technologies, commercialized or under development, thermal processing continues to be the most reliable and cost-effective alternative to deliver safe foods. However, the severity of the process should be assessed to avoid under- and over-processing

  11. Statistical description of flume experiments on mixed-size bed-load transport and bed armoring processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the statistical properties of experiments on non-uniform bed-load transport as well as the mechanism of bed armoring processes. Despite substantial effort made over the last two decades, the ability to compute the bed-load flux in a turbulent system remains poor. The major obstacles include the poor understanding of the formation of armor lays on bed surfaces. Such a layer is much flow-resistible than the underlying material and therefore significantly inhibits sediment transport from the reach. To study the problem, we conducted a flume study for mixed sand/gravel sediments. We observed that aggregated sediment blocks were the most common characters in armor layers - the largest sizes resist hydraulic forces, while the smaller sizes add interlocking support and prevent loss of fine material through gaps between the larger particles. Fractional transport rates with the existing of armor layers were measured with time by sediment trapping method at the end of flume. To address the intermittent and time-varying behavior of bed-load transport during bed armoring processes, we investigated the probability distribution of the fractional bed-load transport rates, and the underlying dynamic model derived from the continuous time random walk framework. Results indicate that it is critical to consider the impact of armor layers when a flow is sufficient to move some of the finer particles and yet insufficient to move all the larger particles on a channel bed.

  12. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  13. Iron crystallization in a fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonrattanakij, Nonglak; Lu, Ming-Chun; Anotai, Jin

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of iron precipitation and crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor were investigated. Within the typical Fenton's reagent dosage and pH range, ferric ions as a product from ferrous ion oxidation would be supersaturated and would subsequently precipitate out in the form of ferric hydroxide after the initiation of the Fenton reaction. These precipitates would simultaneously crystallize onto solid particles in a fluidized-bed Fenton reactor if the precipitation proceeded toward heterogeneous nucleation. The heterogeneous crystallization rate was controlled by the fluidized material type and the aging/ripening period of the crystallites. Iron crystallization onto the construction sand was faster than onto SiO(2), although the iron removal efficiencies at 180 min, which was principally controlled by iron hydroxide solubility, were comparable. To achieve a high iron removal rate, fluidized materials have to be present at the beginning of the Fenton reaction. Organic intermediates that can form ferro-complexes, particularly volatile fatty acids, can significantly increase ferric ion solubility, hence reducing the crystallization performance. Therefore, the fluidized-bed Fenton process will achieve exceptional performance with respect to both organic pollutant removal and iron removal if it is operated with the goal of complete mineralization. Crystallized iron on the fluidized media could slightly retard the successive crystallization rate; thus, it is necessary to continuously replace a portion of the iron-coated bed with fresh media to maintain iron removal performance. The iron-coated construction sand also had a catalytic property, though was less than those of commercial goethite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retort for coal, shale, and other carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, K R

    1930-12-15

    A truncated conical retort chamber is described with a water tank or pit below the level of the floor of the retort, an aperture is the base of the retort chamber, a water-sealed chamber is interposed between the aperture at the base of the retort chamber and the water tank or pit, the upper end of the water-sealed chamber is connected to the retort chamber so as to make an air-tight joint therewith. Its lower end is submerged in the water in the tank or pit, an endless chain grate rotatably mounted upon a frame upon the floor of the retort chamber. The chain grate is inclined toward and projecting through the aperture at the base of the retort chamber into the water-sealed chamber for the purpose of conveying the spent material from the retort chamber to the water-sealed chamber through which it will gravitate to the water tank or pit. Means such as a bucket conveyor are provided for raising the spent material from the water tank or pit. Means are provided for rotating the endless chain grate, superimposed cylindrical feed chambers are upon the top of and in axial line with the retort chamber, a coned valve is interposed between the retort chamber and the next adjacent cylindrical chamber, another valve is interposed between the upper and lower cylindrical chambers. Means are provided for opening and closing the valves alternately, a discharge aperature is at or near the top of the retortchamber, and means are provided for feeding the material into the uppermost cylindrical feed chamber.

  15. ADSORPTION OF THE DYE REACTIVE BLUE 5G IN RETORTED SHALE

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrecht, R.; Barros, M. A. S. D. de; Arroyo, P. A.; Borba, C. E.; Silva, E. A. da

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study the influence of the volumetric flow rate and feed concentration was investigated for the adsorption of the reactive dye Blue 5G. Experiments were carried out in a bed packed with retorted shale, at 30 ºC. The ranges investigated were flow rate 2 -10 mL/min and the feed concentration 13-105 mg/L. Mathematical models were used to represent the dynamic sorption. The double resistance model considers the effects of the axial dispersion and the mass transfer resistance...

  16. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  17. Vertical retort with arrangements for special heating, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, R

    1922-02-28

    A vertical retort with arrangements for special heating of upper and lower zones and special gas outlets on the highest and lowest parts of the retort is characterized in that the lower gas outlet on the one side serves for feeding the burner for heating both upper zone as well as the lower, and on the other side runs to the collecting line for the gas, which emerges from the upper opening, while on the lower end of the retort is fastened a coke cooler, whose walls can be cooled with air supplied for the drying of the combustibles or with water, which is supplied for the steam generation.

  18. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  19. Modeling a Packed Bed Reactor Utilizing the Sabatier Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay G.; Meier, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is being developed using Python which characterizes the conversion and temperature profiles of a packed bed reactor (PBR) that utilizes the Sabatier process; the reaction produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. While the specific kinetics of the Sabatier reaction on the RuAl2O3 catalyst pellets are unknown, an empirical reaction rate equation1 is used for the overall reaction. As this reaction is highly exothermic, proper thermal control is of the utmost importance to ensure maximum conversion and to avoid reactor runaway. It is therefore necessary to determine what wall temperature profile will ensure safe and efficient operation of the reactor. This wall temperature will be maintained by active thermal controls on the outer surface of the reactor. Two cylindrical PBRs are currently being tested experimentally and will be used for validation of the Python model. They are similar in design except one of them is larger and incorporates a preheat loop by feeding the reactant gas through a pipe along the center of the catalyst bed. The further complexity of adding a preheat pipe to the model to mimic the larger reactor is yet to be implemented and validated; preliminary validation is done using the smaller PBR with no reactant preheating. When mapping experimental values of the wall temperature from the smaller PBR into the Python model, a good approximation of the total conversion and temperature profile has been achieved. A separate CFD model incorporates more complex three-dimensional effects by including the solid catalyst pellets within the domain. The goal is to improve the Python model to the point where the results of other reactor geometry can be reasonably predicted relatively quickly when compared to the much more computationally expensive CFD approach. Once a reactor size is narrowed down using the Python approach, CFD will be used to generate a more thorough prediction of the reactors performance.

  20. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absorption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  1. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  2. Hot gas stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide from simulated and actual in situ retort waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study proved that ammonia and carbon dioxide could be removed from retort water by hot gas stripping and that overall transfer rates were slower than for physical desorption alone. The ammonia in solution complexed with the carbonate species with the result that the CO/sub 2/ transfer rates were linked to the relatively slower desorption of NH/sub 3/ from solution. Ionic reactions in the liquid phase limited the quantity of free NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, thus decreasing the driving forces for mass transfer. The retort water exhibited foaming tendencies that affected the interfacial area which should be taken into account if a stripping tower is considered on a larger scale. Transfer unit heights were calculated for the process conditions studied and correlated such that scaleup to increased capacities is possible.

  3. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  4. Fluid bed direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souply, K.R.; Neal, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The fluid bed direct-denitration process appears feasible for reprocessing Light Water Reactor fuel. Considerable experience with the fluid bed process exists in the denitration of uranyl nitrate and it shows promise for use in the denitration of plutonium nitrate. The process will require some development work before it can be used in a production-size facility. This report describes a fluid bed direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide, and the information should be used when making comparisons of alternative processes or as a basis for further detailed studies

  5. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  6. Four dimensional X-ray imaging of deformation modes in organic-rich Green River Shale retorted under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobchenko, M.; Pluymakers, A.; Cordonnier, B.; Tairova, A.; Renard, F.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse imaging of fracture network development in organic-rich shales at elevated temperatures while kerogen is retorted allows characterizing the development of microfractures and the onset of primary migration. When the solid organic matter is transformed to hydrocarbons with lower molecular weight, the local pore-pressure increases and drives the propagation of hydro-fractures sub-parallel to the shale lamination. On the scale of samples of several mm size, these fractures can be described as mode I opening, where fracture walls dilate in the direction of minimal compression. However, so far experiments coupled to microtomography in situ imaging have been performed on samples where no load was imposed. Here, an external load was applied perpendicular to the sample laminations and we show that this stress state slows down, but does not stop, the propagation of fracture along bedding. Conversely, microfractures also propagate sub-perpendicular to the shale lamination, creating a percolating network in three dimensions. To monitor this process we have used a uniaxial compaction rig combined with in-situ heating from 50 to 500 deg C, while capturing three-dimensional X-ray microtomography scans at a voxel resolution of 2.2 μm; Data were acquired at beamline ID19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. In total ten time-resolved experiments were performed at different vertical loading conditions, with and without lateral passive confinement and different heating rates. At high external load the sample fails by symmetric bulging, while at lower external load the reaction-induced fracture network develops with the presence of microfractures both sub-parallel and sub-perpendicular to the bedding direction. In addition, the variation of experimental conditions allows the decoupling of the effects of the hydrocarbon decomposition reaction on the deformation process from the influence of thermal stress heating on the weakening and failure mode of immature

  7. Operating Characteristics of a Continuous Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Pil-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristics and the operating range of gas velocity was investigated for a two-stage bubbling fluidized-bed (0.1 m-i.d., 1.2 m-high) that had continuous solids feed and discharge. Solids were fed in to the upper fluidized-bed and overflowed into the bed section of the lower fluidized-bed through a standpipe (0.025 m-i.d.). The standpipe was simply a dense solids bed with no mechanical or non-mechanical valves. The solids overflowed the lower bed for discharge. The fluidizing gas was fed to the lower fluidized-bed and the exit gas was also used to fluidize the upper bed. Air was used as fluidizing gas and mixture of coarse (<1000 μm in diameter and 3090 kg/m 3 in apparent density) and fine (<100 μm in diameter and 4400 kg/m 3 in apparent density) particles were used as bed materials. The proportion of fine particles was employed as the experimental variable. The gas velocity of the lower fluidized-bed was defined as collapse velocity in the condition that the standpipe was emptied by upflow gas bypassing from the lower fluidized-bed. It could be used as the maximum operating velocity of the present process. The collapse velocity decreased after an initial increase as the proportion of fine particles increased. The maximum took place at the proportion of fine particles 30%. The trend of the collapse velocity was similar with that of standpipe pressure drop. The collapse velocity was expressed as a function of bulk density of particles and voidage of static bed. It increased with an increase of bulk density, however, decreased with an increase of voidage of static bed

  8. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  9. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  10. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  11. Furnaces, retorts, and apparatus for distilling bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain-Clergault, M

    1857-06-20

    The furnace is a rectangle 4.90 m by 4.80 m; it is divided into two distinct compartments by a partition wall which carries on top a circular arch of 30 cms bend, covering a passage 2 m high under the keystone and 2 m long and carrying also 14 vertical retorts, which are charged on top, and discharged at the bottom into the passage. There are seven (retorts) in each compartment and they are symmetrically arranged. The hearths are parallel to the compartments; and they form four fires, a wall separating them two by two.

  12. ADSORPTION OF THE DYE REACTIVE BLUE 5G IN RETORTED SHALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lambrecht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the influence of the volumetric flow rate and feed concentration was investigated for the adsorption of the reactive dye Blue 5G. Experiments were carried out in a bed packed with retorted shale, at 30 ºC. The ranges investigated were flow rate 2 -10 mL/min and the feed concentration 13-105 mg/L. Mathematical models were used to represent the dynamic sorption. The double resistance model considers the effects of the axial dispersion and the mass transfer resistance of the external film and inside the particles. As a result, the mass transfer coefficient of the external film and the internal mass transfer coefficient were estimated. The Thomas model was used to simulate the experimental data. In this model the fitted parameter was the adsorption kinetic constant. The first model provided an acceptable representation of the dynamic uptake of the reactive dye Blue 5G.

  13. Retort for coking peat, brown coal, bituminous shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1902-05-14

    The retort leads the gases and vapors into the coking chamber, between the inside heater and the outer heating shaft-wall. Over-lapping, double-faced acting rings are arranged, over which the charge in two or more separate vertical layers is transported.

  14. Improved mechanical properties of retorted carrots by ultrasonic pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Li; Xu, Mi; Øiseth, Sofia K; Mawson, Raymond

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasound pre-processing treatment, compared to blanching, to enhance mechanical properties of non-starchy cell wall materials was investigated using carrot as an example. The mechanical properties of carrot tissues were measured by compression and tensile testing after the pre-processing treatment prior to and after retorting. Carrot samples ultrasound treated for 10 min at 60 °C provided a higher mechanical strength (P<0.05) to the cell wall structure than blanching for the same time period. With the addition of 0.5% CaCl(2) in the pre-treatment solution, both blanching and ultrasound treatment showed synergistic effect on enhancing the mechanical properties of retorted carrot pieces. At a relatively short treatment time (10 min at 60 °C) with the use of 0.5% CaCl(2), ultrasound treatment achieved similar enhancement to the mechanical strength of retorted carrots to blanching for a much longer time period (i.e. 40 min). The mechanism involved appears to be related to the stress responses present in all living plant matter. However, there is a need to clarify the relative importance of the potential stress mechanisms in order to get a better understanding of the processing conditions likely to be most effective. The amount of ultrasound treatment required is likely to involve low treatment intensities and there are indications from the structural characterisation and mechanical property analyses that the plant cell wall tissues were more elastic than that accomplished using low temperature long time blanching. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluidized bed reactor for processing particles coated with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschollek, M.; Simon, W.; Walter, C.

    1978-01-01

    The carbon coating of production returns of these particles first has to be removed before the heavy metal core released can be reprocessed. For reasons of criticality, removal of burnt-up particles downwards must be possible in the fluidized bed reactor even if the reactor diameter is greater than 800 mm, and the material temperatures must not exceed 650 0 C. It consists of an upper cylindrical and a lower conical part, where, according to the invention, the gas distributor heads in the conical part are situated in several planes above one another for the fluidisation and combustion gas and where they are evently distributed over the reactor crossection, so that an even flow profile is achieved over the reactor cross section. (HP) [de

  16. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  17. Tetrafluoride uranium pilot plant in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A UF 4 pilot plant, in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process is reported. UO 3 obtained from the thermal decomposition of ADU is used as a starting material in this pilot plant. The type of equipment and the process are both described. Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) was used in the reduction operation and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the hydrofluorination step

  18. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970's and 1980's in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures (∼ 525--600 degree C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) with 99.9999% (''six-nines'') destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste

  19. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  20. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  1. Retortable Laminate/Polymeric Food Tubes for Specialized Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Report STP #3010 Results and Accomplishments (June 2010 – June 2012) Report No: FTR 303 CDRL Sequence: A003 June 2012 CORANET CONTRACT #: SP4701-08-D...June 2010 - June 2012 Retortable Laminate/Polymeric Food Tubes for Specialized Feeding - STP # 3010 SP4701-08-D-0004 MANTECH (0708011S) CORANET A003...on commercial off-the-shelf materials and not military unique. A market survey of commercially available laminated tubes revealed that they are all

  2. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    -chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion (which includes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion). The second model is an empirical 1D approach. The two models need input data such as composition, temperature and feeding rate of biomass and primary air. Temperature, species...... to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo...... concentrations and velocity of the producer gas leaving the fuel bed provided by the two models are compared. A sensitivity analysis with respect to mass flow rate of the primary air is also performed, as well as a further comparison regarding the dependence of the producer gas properties on the initial moisture...

  3. Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yangming [Key Laboratory of Reservoir Aquatic Environment, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 401122 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liuhong@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Reservoir Aquatic Environment, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 401122 (China); Shen, Zhemin, E-mail: zmshen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • An electrochemical trickle bed reactor was composed of C-PTFE-coated graphite chips. • The trickle bed reactor had a high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate in a dilute electrolyte. • An azo dye was effectively decomposed by the electro-Fenton process in the reactor. -- Abstract: To avoid electrolyte leakage and gas bubbles in the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactors using a gas diffusion cathode, we developed a trickle bed cathode by coating a layer composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (C-PTFE) onto graphite chips instead of carbon cloth. The trickle bed cathode was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, in which carbon black, PTFE, and a surfactant were considered as the determinant of the performance of graphite chips. In the reactor assembled by the trickle bed cathode, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was generated with a current of 0.3 A and a current efficiency of 60%. This performance was attributed to the fine distribution of electrolyte and air, as well as the effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte–cathode interface. In terms of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and current efficiency, the developed trickle bed reactor had a performance comparable to that of the conventional E-Fenton reactor using a gas diffusion cathode. Further, 123 mg L{sup −1} of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution was decomposed in the optimized trickle bed reactor as E-Fenton reactor. The decolorization ratio reached 97% within 20 min, and the mineralization reached 87% within 3 h.

  4. Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yangming; Liu, Hong; Shen, Zhemin; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An electrochemical trickle bed reactor was composed of C-PTFE-coated graphite chips. • The trickle bed reactor had a high H 2 O 2 production rate in a dilute electrolyte. • An azo dye was effectively decomposed by the electro-Fenton process in the reactor. -- Abstract: To avoid electrolyte leakage and gas bubbles in the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactors using a gas diffusion cathode, we developed a trickle bed cathode by coating a layer composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (C-PTFE) onto graphite chips instead of carbon cloth. The trickle bed cathode was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, in which carbon black, PTFE, and a surfactant were considered as the determinant of the performance of graphite chips. In the reactor assembled by the trickle bed cathode, H 2 O 2 was generated with a current of 0.3 A and a current efficiency of 60%. This performance was attributed to the fine distribution of electrolyte and air, as well as the effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte–cathode interface. In terms of H 2 O 2 generation and current efficiency, the developed trickle bed reactor had a performance comparable to that of the conventional E-Fenton reactor using a gas diffusion cathode. Further, 123 mg L −1 of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution was decomposed in the optimized trickle bed reactor as E-Fenton reactor. The decolorization ratio reached 97% within 20 min, and the mineralization reached 87% within 3 h

  5. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters

  6. Biothane process. Methane-producing treatment of wastewaters in a granular sludge bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulenger, P; Vesprille, B

    1982-01-01

    The Biothane-UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) process, an anaerobic fermentation system with 2 granular sludge beds, effectively treats wastewaters from cheese and starch manufacture and is suitable for other industrial effluents, such as sugar beet alcohol distillation wastewaters and biosynthesis wases.

  7. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  8. Freezing process in unsaturated packed beds; Fuhowa ryushi sonai ni okeru suibun toketsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahori, M; Aoki, K; Hattori, M [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Tani, T [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    The freezing process in unsaturated packed beds has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water transport to the frozen front plays an important part on freezing. The rate of the absorption of water into frozen layer depended on the freezing heat flux and the water saturation at the freezing front. As a result, ice content in the frozen layer was related to the rate of the absorption of water and the freezing heat flux. A one-dimensional freezing model in unsaturated packed beds has been presented, accounting for the water transport. The predicted water saturation and temperature distributions in the body and the thickness of frozen layer were compared with the experimental results using a porous bed composed of glass beads. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  10. Performance of Fluidized bed Fenton process in Degrading Acid Blue 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, M. M.; Raman, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The performance of a fluidized bed Fenton process in degrading Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) was investigated. Fluidized bed Fenton process is a modification of conventional Fenton oxidation, aimed at reducing sludge generation and improving process performance. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of operational parameter on the color removal from the dye. Dimensionless factors, Dye/Fe2+, H2O2/Fe2+ and pH were used as the independent variables in Box-Behnken Design (BDD). Reduced quadratic model was developed to predict the color removal. The process could remove up to 99 % of the initial color. The most significant factor for color removal was found to be Dye/Fe2+, followed by H2O2/Fe2+. Unlike conventional Fenton, the initial pH of the solution does not have a significant effect on the color removal.

  11. Adaptation of the continuous cold trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    A continuous cold trap system consisting of fluidized condenser and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF 6 . Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF 6 -air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the two inch-dia. fluidized bed cold trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condenser. (auth.)

  12. Development and application of a process window for achieving high-quality coating in a fluidized bed coating process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van Der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    Next to the coating formulation, process conditions play important roles in determining coating quality. This study aims to develop an operational window that separates layering from agglomeration regimes and, furthermore, the one that leads to the best coating quality in a fluidized bed coater. The

  13. Method of distillation of shale. [addition of water to vertical retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1915-09-11

    The method is characterized by adding water, finely distributed, to the warm shale being distilled in a vertical retort. By this procedure steam is generated which will drive out and protect the distilled oil vapors. The adding of finely distributed water, already mentioned, takes place in special chambers under the retort.

  14. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  15. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Orlanes, D.F.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at

  16. Retort for distilling oil from shales and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E C

    1931-04-17

    A retort is constructed in the form of a flat shallow covered conduit through which the fuel in a pulverized form is continuously conveyed on a train of pans so loaded as to completely fill the conduit, heat being applied to an adequate central portion of the conduit to effect the distillation of the fuel. The roof or cover is sufficiently higher for the extent of such heated portion to afford space for and thereby facilitate the offtake of the distillation products while the ends of the conduit remain sealed against the escape of such products.

  17. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    of the syngas predicted by the two models is equal to about 7%. The application to different types of biomass shows that the difference in the predictions increases as the carbon content grows. The phenomenological model, in fact, generally considers higher conversion rates of this element to volatiles......A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...... is treated as a 0D system, where the thermo-chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion. Phenomenological laws are written to characterize the syngas release as a function of the main governing parameters. The second model is an empirical 1D approach. Temperature, species...

  18. Study of process parameters for reducing ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium dioxide in fluidized bed furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao Junior, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This work consists of studying the process parameters of AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) to U O 2 (uranium dioxide) reduction, with good physical and chemical characteristics, in fluidized bed. Initially, it was performed U O 2 cold fluidization experiments with an acrylic column. Afterward, it was done AUC to U O 2 reduction experiments, in which the process parameters influence in the granulometry, specific surface area, porosity and fluoride amount on the U O 2 powder produced were studied. As a last step, it was done compacting and sintering tests of U O 2 pellets in order to appreciate the U O 2 powder performance, obtained by fluidized bed, in the fuel pellets fabrication. (author)

  19. Core-adjacent instrumentation systems for pebble bed reactors for process heat application - state of planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Hecker, R.; Brixy, H.; Serpekian, T.

    1982-06-01

    Planning and theoretical/experimental development work for core surveillance instrumentation systems is being performed to meet requirements of pebble bed reactors for process heat application. Detailed and proved instrumentation concepts are now available for the core-adjacent instrumentation systems. The current work and the results of neutron flux measurements at high temperatures are described. Operation devices for long-term accurate gas outlet temperature measurements up to approximately 1423 deg. K will also be discussed. (author)

  20. Local description of the energy transfer process in a packed bed heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L.M.; Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1990-01-01

    The energy transfer process in a packed-bed heat exchanger, in counter0flow arrangement is considered. The phenomenon is described through a Continuum Theory of Mixtures approach, in which fluid and solid (porous matrix) are regarded as continuous constituents possessing, each one, its own temperature and velocity fields. The heat 'exchangers consists of two channels, separated by an impermeable wall without thermal resistence, in which there exists a saturated flow. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  1. Glacier beds that will be exposed in the future: How will geomorphologic and hydrologic processes develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Paul, Frank; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    The rapid shrinkage of glaciers in the Alps has widespread impacts on relief development and hydrology. Slope failures, collapse of lateral moraines, loose debris in glacier fore-fields, new lakes and changing river beds are among the most visible impacts. They already require increased attention by tourists, monitoring by local authorities and mitigation measures (e.g. www.gletschersee.ch). A view into potential future developments (after glaciers have disappeared) is thus of high interest. With recently developed models that reconstruct glacier bed topography from easily available datasets (e.g. glacier outlines and a DEM) over entire mountain ranges, potential developments of the landscape and hydrology can be quantitatively determined. The modelled glacier beds - though they must be seen as a rough first order approximation only - also allows the investigation of a wide range of glaciological relations and dependencies that have been widely applied but were never investigated for a large sample of glaciers so far. A key reason is that information on glacier thickness distribution and total ice volume is sparse and that the future development of glaciers can only be modelled realistically when a glacier bed is available. Hence, with the glacier beds now available there is a larger number of geomorphological, glaciological and hydrological studies ahead of us. This presentation is providing an overview on the lessons learned about glaciers and their future development from the modelled glacier beds, the expected changes in hydrology (e.g. decreasing glacier volume and formation of new lakes) and potential impacts from the altered geomorphology (e.g. debuttressing of rock walls). In particular the flat tongues of larger valley glaciers are rather thick and leave oversteepened lateral moraines or rock walls behind, towering above overdeepenings in the glacier bed that might be filled with water. It is thus expected that the hazard potential will further increase in

  2. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  3. Process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes using a catalyst packed bed assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; den Hartog, J.; Molson, F.W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of gaseous hydrogen and liquid water is described, wherein the streams of liquid water and gaseous hydrogen are simultaneously brought into contact with one another and a catalyst packed bed assembly while at a temperature in the range 273 0 to 573 0 K. The catalyst packed bed assembly may be composed of discrete carrier bodies of e.g. ceramics, metals, fibrous materials or synthetic plastics with catalytically active metal crystallites selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table, partially enclosed in and bonded to the carrier bodies by a water repellent, water vapor and hydrogen gas permeable, porous, polymeric material, and discrete packing bodies having an exterior surface which is substantially hydrophilic and relatively noncatalytically active with regard to hydrogen isotope exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor to that of the catalyst bodies

  4. Process for carbonizing coal, shale, wood, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaei, K

    1924-05-08

    A process for carbonization of coal, shale, and wood, for recovering low temperature tar and other products in a rotary retort is described. The material to be carbonized is brought directly in contact with the heating medium, that is characterized in that the heating medium streams through the retort crosswise to the longitudinal axis. The temperature of this medium in the single retort segments can be regulated.

  5. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V.A.; Sabapathy, S.N.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity

  8. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Johnsy [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)]. E-mail: g.johnsy@gmail.com; Kumar, R. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sajeevkumar, V.A. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Sabapathy, S.N. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); Vaijapurkar, S.G. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kumar, D. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Kchawahha, A. [Defence Laboratory, Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur, Rajastan 342011 (India); Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2007-07-15

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of {gamma}-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  9. A Model for the Development of Hospital Beds Using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravangard, Ramin; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Alimomohammadzadeh, Khalil; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to identify and prioritize factors affecting the development of military hospital beds and provide a model using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP). This applied study was conducted in 2016 in Iran using a mixed method. The sample included experts in the field of military health care system. The MAXQDA 10.0 and Expert Choice 10.0 software were used for analyzing the collected data. Geographic situation, demographic status, economic status, health status, health care centers and organizations, financial and human resources, laws and regulations and by-laws, and the military nature of service recipients had effects on the development of military hospital beds. The military nature of service recipients (S=0.249) and economic status (S=0.040) received the highest and lowest priorities, respectively. Providing direct health care services to the military forces in order to maintain their dignity, and according to its effects in the crisis, as well as the necessity for maintaining the security of the armed forces, and the hospital beds per capita based on the existing laws, regulations and bylaws are of utmost importance.

  10. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw’s flood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magnuszewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s−1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s−1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  11. In Situ Fringe Projection Profilometry for Laser Power Bed Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers an industrial solution to produce parts with complex geometries and internal structures that conventional manufacturing techniques cannot produce. However, current metal additive process, particularly the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process, suffers from poor surface finish and various material defects which hinder its wide applications. One way to solve this problem is by adding in situ metrology sensor onto the machine chamber. Matured manufacturing processes are tightly monitored and controlled, and instrumentation advances are needed to realize this same advantage for metal additive process. This encourages us to develop an in situ fringe projection system for the LPBF process. The development of such a system and the measurement capability are demonstrated in this dissertation. We show that this system can measure various powder bed signatures including powder layer variations, the average height drop between fused metal and unfused powder, and the height variations on the fused surfaces. The ability to measure textured surface is also evaluated through the instrument transfer function (ITF). We analyze the mathematical model of the proposed fringe projection system, and prove the linearity of the system through simulations. A practical ITF measurement technique using a stepped surface is also demonstrated. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions generated through the ITF simulations.

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring and control of the fluidized bed granulation and coating processes-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Li, Lian; Yin, Wenping; Xu, Dongbo; Zang, Hengchang

    2017-09-15

    The fluidized bed granulation and pellets coating technologies are widely used in pharmaceutical industry, because the particles made in a fluidized bed have good flowability, compressibility, and the coating thickness of pellets are homogeneous. With the popularization of process analytical technology (PAT), real-time analysis for critical quality attributes (CQA) was getting more attention. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, as a PAT tool, could realize the real-time monitoring and control during the granulating and coating processes, which could optimize the manufacturing processes. This article reviewed the application of NIR spectroscopy in CQA (moisture content, particle size and tablet/pellet thickness) monitoring during fluidized bed granulation and coating processes. Through this review, we would like to provide references for realizing automated control and intelligent production in fluidized bed granulation and pellets coating of pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of process parameters on solid self-microemulsifying particles in a laboratory scale fluid bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tusharmouli; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to select the critical process parameters of the fluid bed processes impacting the quality attribute of a solid self-microemulsifying (SME) system of albendazole (ABZ). A fractional factorial design (2(4-1)) with four parameters (spray rate, inlet air temperature, inlet air flow, and atomization air pressure) was created by MINITAB software. Batches were manufactured in a laboratory top-spray fluid bed at 625-g scale. Loss on drying (LOD) samples were taken throughout each batch to build the entire moisture profiles. All dried granulation were sieved using mesh 20 and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), morphology, density, and flow. It was found that as spray rate increased, sauter-mean diameter (D(s)) also increased. The effect of inlet air temperature on the peak moisture which is directly related to the mean particle size was found to be significant. There were two-way interactions between studied process parameters. The main effects of inlet air flow rate and atomization air pressure could not be found as the data were inconclusive. The partial least square (PLS) regression model was found significant (P SME manufacturing process.

  14. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  15. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan

    2003-01-01

    The parameters with effect on maximum spray rate and maximum relative outlet air humidity when coating pellets in a fluidised bed were investigated. The tested variables include type of water based modified release film coating (Eudragit® NE 30D, Eudragit® RS 30D, Aquacoat ECD®) coating principle...... (top spray, bottom spray), inlet air humidity and type of pellets (sugar spheres, microcrystalline cellulose pellets). The maximum spray rate was not influenced by the coating principles. The highest spray rate was obtained for the film polymer with the lowest tackiness which is assumed...... to be the controlling factor. The type of pellets affected the maximum spray rate. A thermodynamic model for the coating process is employed throughout the process and not just during steady state. The thermodynamic model is incorporated into a new process control strategy. The process control strategy is based on in...

  16. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  17. Application of image processing on struvite recovery from swine wastewater by using the fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi-Long; Deng, Yujun; Ye, Xin; Lou, Yaoyin; Chen, Shaohua

    2018-01-01

    Fluidized granulation is one of the common methods used in wastewater treatment and resource recovery with harvesting millimeter-scale large particles. Presently, effective methods are lacking to measure the fluidized granules ranging from micro- to millimeter scales, with the consequence of ineffectively controlling and optimizing the granulation process. In this work, recovering struvite (MgNH 4 PO 4 ·6H 2 O) from swine wastewater by using a fluidized bed was taken as an example. Image processing was applied to analyze the properties of different types of struvite granules, including morphology, particle size distribution, number density and mass concentration. Four stages of the struvite crystal evolution were therefore defined: aggregation, aggregate compaction, cluster-agglomerating and coating growth. These stages could occur simultaneously or sequentially. Up-flow rates of 30-80 mm/s in the fluidized bed sustained 600-876 g/L granular solids. Results revealed that the coating-growth granules were formed with compact aggregates or cluster-agglomerating granules as the nuclei. The growth rates for the different types of particles, including population growth, mass increase and particle size enlargement, were determined. In final, a schematic illustration for struvite granulation process is also presented.

  18. Real-time imaging as an emerging process analytical technology tool for monitoring of fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Venkata Ramana; Deshpande, Rucha S; Syed, Moinuddin R; Wakte, Pravin S

    2018-07-01

    A direct imaging system (Eyecon TM ) was used as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to monitor fluid bed coating process. Eyecon TM generated real-time onscreen images, particle size and shape information of two identically manufactured laboratory-scale batches. Eyecon TM has accuracy of measuring the particle size increase of ±1 μm on particles in the size range of 50-3000 μm. Eyecon TM captured data every 2 s during the entire process. The moving average of D90 particle size values recorded by Eyecon TM were calculated for every 30 min to calculate the radial coating thickness of coated particles. After the completion of coating process, the radial coating thickness was found to be 11.3 and 9.11 μm, with a standard deviation of ±0.68 and 1.8 μm for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. The coating thickness was also correlated with percent weight build-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dissolution. GPC indicated weight build-up of 10.6% and 9.27% for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. In conclusion, weight build-up of 10% can also be correlated with 10 ± 2 μm increase in the coating thickness of pellets, indicating the potential applicability of real-time imaging as an endpoint determination tool for fluid bed coating process.

  19. Study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition process on very dense powder for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is part of the development of low-enriched nuclear fuel, for the Materials Test Reactors (MTRs), constituted of uranium-molybdenum particles mixed with an aluminum matrix. Under certain conditions under irradiations, the U(Mo) particles interact with the aluminum matrix, causing unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate. To inhibit this phenomenon, one solution consists in depositing on the surface of the U(Mo) particles, a thin silicon layer to create a barrier effect. This thesis has concerned the study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to deposit silicon from silane, on the U(Mo) powder, which has an exceptional density of 17,500 kg/m 3 . To achieve this goal, two axes were treated during the thesis: the study and the optimization of the fluidization of a so dense powder, and then those of the silicon deposition process. For the first axis, a series of tests was performed on a surrogate tungsten powder in different columns made of glass and made of steel with internal diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm, at room temperature and at high temperature (650 C) close to that of the deposits. These experiments helped to identify wall effects phenomena within the fluidized bed, which can lead to heterogeneous deposits or particles agglomeration. Some dimensions of the fluidization columns and operating conditions allowing a satisfactory fluidization of the powder were identified, paving the way for the study of silicon deposition. Several campaigns of deposition experiments on the surrogate powder and then on the U(Mo) powder were carried out in the second axis of the study. The influence of the bed temperature, the inlet molar fraction of silane diluted in argon, and the total gas flow of fluidization, was examined for different diameters of reactor and for various masses of powder. Morphological and structural characterization analyses (SEM, XRD..) revealed a uniform silicon deposition on all the powder and around each particle

  20. Computational simulation of the biomass gasification process in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Mazaira, Leorlen Y.; Gamez Rodriguez, Abel; Andrade Gregori, Maria Dolores; Armas Cardona, Raul

    2009-01-01

    In an agro-industrial country as Cuba many residues of cultivation like the rice and the cane of sugar take place, besides the forest residues in wooded extensions. Is an interesting application for all this biomass, the gasification technology, by its high efficiency and its positive environmental impact. The computer simulation appears like a useful tool in the researches of parameters of operation of a gas- emitting, because it reduces the number of experiments to realise and the cost of the researches. In the work the importance of the application of the computer simulation is emphasized to anticipate the hydrodynamic behavior of fluidized bed and of the process of combustion of the biomass for different residues and different conditions of operation. A model using CFD for the simulation of the process of combustion in a gas- emitting of biomass sets out of fluidized bed, the hydrodynamic parameters of the multiphasic flow from the elaboration of a computer simulator that allows to form and to vary the geometry of the reactor, as well as the influence of the variation of magnitudes are characterized such as: speed, diameter of the sand and equivalent reason. Experimental results in cylindrical channels appear, to complete the study of the computer simulation realised in 2D. (author)

  1. Numerical investigation of solid mixing in a fluidized bed coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenche, Venkatakrishna; Feng, Yuqing; Ying, Danyang; Solnordal, Chris; Lim, Seng; Witt, Peter J.

    2013-06-01

    Fluidized beds are widely used in many process industries including the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Despite being an intensive research area, there are no design rules or correlations that can be used to quantitatively predict the solid mixing in a specific system for a given set of operating conditions. This paper presents a numerical study of the gas and solid dynamics in a laboratory scale fluidized bed coating process used for food and pharmaceutical industries. An Eulerian-Eulerian model (EEM) with kinetic theory of granular flow is selected as the modeling technique, with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS/Fluent being the numerical platform. The flow structure is investigated in terms of the spatial distribution of gas and solid flow. The solid mixing has been evaluated under different operating conditions. It was found that the solid mixing rate in the horizontal direction is similar to that in the vertical direction under the current design and operating conditions. It takes about 5 s to achieve good mixing.

  2. FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM MODELING FOR BED ACTIVE CARBON RE-GENERATION PROCESS (CO2 GAS FACTORY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Febriana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed active carbon is one of the most important materials that had great impact in determining level of impurities in production of CO2 gas. In this particular factory case, there is unavailability of standard duration time of heating and cooling and steam flow rate for the re-generation process of bed active carbon. The paper discusses the fuzzy inference system for modeling of re-generation process of bed active carbon to find the optimum setting parameter. The fuzzy inference system was build using real historical daily processing data. After validation process, surface plot analysis was performed to find the optimum setting. The result of re-generation parameter setting is 9-10 hours of heating process, 4.66-5.32 hours of cooling process, and 1500-2500 kg/hr of steam flow rate.

  3. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems.

  4. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems. (paper)

  5. Treatment of amoxicillin by O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Zeng, Zequan; Li, Yingwen; Arowo, Moses; Chen, Jianfeng; Meng, Hong; Shao, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simulated amoxicillin wastewater was treated by the O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed (RPB) and the results were compared with the Fenton process and the O3 followed by Fenton (O3 + Fenton) process. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) in the O3/Fenton process were approximately 17% and 26%, respectively, higher than those in the O3 + Fenton process with an initial pH of 3. The COD removal rate of the amoxicillin solution reached maximum at the Fe(II) concentration of 0.6 mM, temperature of 25 °C, rotation speed of 800 rpm and initial pH of 3. The BOD5/COD of the amoxicillin solution increased from 0 to 0.38 after the solution was treated by the O3/Fenton process. Analysis of the intermediates indicated that the pathway of amoxicillin degradation in the O3/Fenton process was similar to that in the O3 + Fenton process. Contrast experiment results showed that amoxicillin degradation was significantly intensified in the RPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlations of Mean Process Parameters for Agricultural Products Drying in Thin Bed in Solar Direct Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ciro César Bergues-Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A group of correlations is given between mean parameters of drying process drying velocity, energy losses, useful energy, and thermal efficiency. Those are suitable for conditions of thin bed drying, in direct solar dryers, and may help for developing of an integral approach of solar drying in those conditions. Correlations are reliable for drying processes of diverse crop products specified, suchas roots, seeds, vegetables, fruits, wood, etc, with natural or forced convection. Correlations were validated in Cuba for usual ranges of efficiency and products in solar dryers of cover, cabinet and house types, in tropical conditions. These correlations are useful for design and exploitation ofdryers and for theoretical and practical comprehension of solar drying like a system.

  7. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300°C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200–230ºC and 270–280ºC. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25–1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  8. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25-1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  9. Coupled Inverse Fluidized Bed Bioreactor with Advanced Oxidation Processes for Treatment of Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla E. Campos Díaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse is the wastewater generated from ethanol distillation; it is characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit temperature, dissolved salts and low pH. In this work the treatment of undiluted vinasse was achieved using sequentially-coupled biological and advanced oxidation processes. The initial characterization of vinasse showed a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, 32 kg m-3, high Total Organic Carbon (TOC, 24.5 kg m-3 and low pH (2.5. The first stage of the biological treatment of the vinasse was carried out in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with a microbial consortium using polypropylene as support material. The fluidized bed bioreactor was kept at a constant temperature (37 ± 1ºC and pH (6.0 ± 0.5 for 90 days. After the biological process, the vinasse was continuously fed to the photoreactor using a peristaltic pump 2.8 × 10-3 kg of FeSO4•7H2O were added to the vinasse and allowed to dissolve in the dark for five minutes; after this time, 15.3 m3 of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 (30% w/w were added, and subsequently, the UV radiation was allowed to reach the photoreactor to treat the effluent for 3600 s at pH = 3. Results showed that the maximum organic matter removed using the biological process, measured as COD, was 80% after 90 days. Additionally, 88% of COD removal was achieved using the photo-assisted Fenton oxidation. The overall COD removal after the sequentially-coupled processes reached a value as low as 0.194 kg m-3, achieving over 99% of COD removal as well as complete TOC removal.

  10. Performance of a desiccant assisted packed bed passive solar dryer for copra processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanaban Govindarajulu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a novel desiccant assisted packed bed passive solar dryer was evaluated for copra processing and compared with conventional passive solar dryer. This novel solar dryer consists of a desiccant assisted packed bed solar air heater attached with a dryer cabin. The desiccant and phase change materials packed in the solar air heater has control the humidity and retains the heat for longer duration, respectively. The performance of the dryer was evaluated (in terms of drying time to attain the final equilibrium moisture content, drying rate, specific moisture extraction rate, pick-up efficiency, and dryer efficiency under the meteorological conditions of Coimbatore city in India during March and April 2016. The copra was dried from initial moisture content (wet basis of about 52% to the final moisture content (wet basis of about 8% in 62 hours with specific moisture extraction rate of 0.82 kg/kWh. The drying time was reduced by about 44 hours when compared to the conventional passive solar dryer. The dryer pick-up efficiency was varied between about 10% and 65%. The average dryer thermal efficiency was calculated to be about 32%. The quality of final dried product was found to be good.

  11. Comparative simulation of a fluidised bed reformer using industrial process simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Hamed; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat; Sarvar-Amini, Amin; Haghtalab, Ali; Mostoufi, Navid

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model is developed by commercial simulators in order to predict the performance of a fluidised bed reformer. As many physical and chemical phenomena take place in the reformer, two sub-models (hydrodynamic and reaction sub-models) are needed. The hydrodynamic sub-model is based on the dynamic two-phase model and the reaction sub-model is derived from the literature. In the overall model, the bed is divided into several sections. In each section, the flow of the gas is considered as plug flow through the bubble phase and perfectly mixed through the emulsion phase. Experimental data from the literature were used to validate the model. Close agreement was found between the model of both ASPEN Plus (ASPEN PLUS 2004 ©) and HYSYS (ASPEN HYSYS 2004 ©) and the experimental data using various sectioning of the reactor ranged from one to four. The experimental conversion lies between one and four sections as expected. The model proposed in this work can be used as a framework in developing the complicated models for non-ideal reactors inside of the process simulators.

  12. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  13. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulandrić, Robert; Lončar, Dražen; Böhning, Dorith; Böhme, Rene; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  14. Software and Hardware System for Fast Processes Study When Preparing Foundation Beds of Oil and Gas Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of existing technologies for preparing foundation beds of oil and gas buildings and structures has revealed the lack of reasoned recommendations on the selection of rational technical and technological parameters of compaction. To study the nature of the dynamics of fast processes during compaction of foundation beds of oil and gas facilities, a specialized software and hardware system was developed. The method of calculating the basic technical parameters of the equipment for recording fast processes is presented, as well as the algorithm for processing the experimental data. The performed preliminary studies confirmed the accuracy of the decisions made and the calculations performed.

  15. Investigation of the fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) process using CFD-DEM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Liu Rongzheng; Wen Yuanyun; Liu Bing; Shao Youlin

    2014-01-01

    The CFD-DEM-CVD multiscale coupling simulation concept was proposed based on the mass/momentum/energy transfer involved in the FB-CVD process. The pyrolysis process of the reaction gas in the spouted bed can be simulated by CFD method, then the concentration field and velocity field can be extracted and coupled with the particle movement behavior which can be simulated by DEM. Particle deposition process can be described by the CVD model based on particle position, velocity and neighboring gas concentration. This multiscale coupling method can be implemented in the Fluent@-EDEM@ software with their UDF (User Definition Function) and API (Application Programming Interface). Base on the multiscale coupling concept, the criterion for evaluating FB-CVD process is given. At first, the volume in the coating furnace is divided into two parts (active coating area and non-active coating area) based on simulation results of chemical pyrolysis process. Then the residence time of all particles in the active coating area can be obtained using the CFD-DEM simulation method. The residence time distribution can be used as a criterion for evaluating the gas-solid contact efficiency and operation performance of the coating furnace. At last different coating parameters of the coating furnace are compared based on the proposed criterion. And also, the future research emphasis is discussed. (author)

  16. Process Evaluation of AISI 4340 Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelis, Elias; Hespos, Michael R.; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.

    2018-01-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) involves the consolidation of metal powder, layer by layer, through laser melting and solidification. In this study, process parameters are optimized for AISI 4340 steel to produce dense and homogeneous structures. The optimized process parameters produce mechanical properties at the center of the build plate that are comparable to wrought in the vertical and horizontal orientations after heat treatment and machining. Four subsequent builds are filled with specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior as a function of location and orientation. Variations in the mechanical properties are likely due to recoater blade interactions with the powder and uneven gas flow. The results obtained in this study are analyzed to assess the reliability and reproducibility of the process. A different build evaluates the performance of near-net-shaped tensile specimens angled 35°-90° from the build plate surface (horizontal). Ductility measurements and surface roughness vary significantly as a function of the build angle. In the stress-relieved and as-built conditions, the mechanical behavior of vertically oriented specimens exhibits somewhat lower and more variable ductility than horizontally oriented specimens. Therefore, several process variables affect the mechanical properties of parts produced by the L-PBF process.

  17. Application of process tomography in gas-solid fluidised beds in different scales and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. G.; Che, H. Q.; Ye, J. M.; Tu, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Yang, W. Q.; Ocone, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-solid fluidised beds are commonly used in particle-related processes, e.g. for coal combustion and gasification in the power industry, and the coating and granulation process in the pharmaceutical industry. Because the operation efficiency depends on the gas-solid flow characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the flow behaviour. This paper is about the application of process tomography, including electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave tomography (MWT), in multi-scale gas-solid fluidisation processes in the pharmaceutical and power industries. This is the first time that both ECT and MWT have been applied for this purpose in multi-scale and complex structure. To evaluate the sensor design and image reconstruction and to investigate the effects of sensor structure and dimension on the image quality, a normalised sensitivity coefficient is introduced. In the meantime, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis based on a computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model and a two-phase fluid model (TFM) is used. Part of the CPFD-TFM simulation results are compared and validated by experimental results from ECT and/or MWT. By both simulation and experiment, the complex flow hydrodynamic behaviour in different scales is analysed. Time-series capacitance data are analysed both in time and frequency domains to reveal the flow characteristics.

  18. Process integration for biological sulfate reduction in a carbon monoxide fed packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sinharoy, Arindam; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2018-05-09

    This study examined immobilized anaerobic biomass for sulfate reduction using carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole carbon source under batch and continuous fed conditions. The immobilized bacteria with beads made of 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showed best results in terms of sulfate reduction (84 ± 3.52%) and CO utilization (98 ± 1.67%). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), sulfate loading rate and CO loading rate on sulfate and CO removal was investigated employing a 1L packed bed bioreactor containing the immobilized biomass. At 48, 24 and 12 h HRT, the sulfate removal was 94.42 ± 0.15%, 89.75 ± 0.47% and 61.08 ± 0.34%, respectively, along with a CO utilization of more than 90%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results obtained showed that only the initial CO concentration significantly affected the sulfate reduction process. The reactor effluent sulfate concentrations were 27.41 ± 0.44, 59.16 ± 1.08, 315.83 ± 7.33 mg/L for 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L of influent sulfate concentrations respectively, under the optimum operating conditions. The sulfate reduction rates matched well with low inlet sulfate loading rates, indicating stable performance of the bioreactor system. Overall, this study yielded very high sulfate reduction efficiency by the immobilized anaerobic biomass under high CO loading condition using the packed bed reactor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrogen cycling processes and microbial community composition in bed sediments in the Yukon River at Pilot Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repert, Deborah A.; Underwood, Jennifer C.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun

    2014-01-01

    Information on the contribution of nitrogen (N)-cycling processes in bed sediments to river nutrient fluxes in large northern latitude river systems is limited. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling processes in bed sediments and N speciation and loading in the Yukon River near its mouth at the Bering Sea. We conducted laboratory bioassays to measure N-cycling processes in sediment samples collected over distinct water cycle seasons. In conjunction, the microbial community composition in the bed sediments using genes involved in N-cycling (narG, napA, nosZ, and amoA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences was examined. Temporal variation was observed in net N mineralization, nitrate uptake, and denitrification rate potentials and correlated strongly with sediment carbon (C) and extractable N content and microbial community composition rather than with river water nutrient concentrations. The C content of the bed sediment was notably impacted by the spring flood, ranging from 1.1% in the midst of an ice-jam to 0.1% immediately after ice-out, suggesting a buildup of organic material (OM) prior to scouring of the bed sediments during ice break up. The dominant members of the microbial community that explained differences in N-processing rates belonged to the genera Crenothrix,Flavobacterium, and the family of Comamonadaceae. Our results suggest that biogeochemical processing rates in the bed sediments appear to be more coupled to hydrology, nutrient availability in the sediments, and microbial community composition rather than river nutrient concentrations at Pilot Station.

  20. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  1. Multivariate statistical process control of a continuous pharmaceutical twin-screw granulation and fluid bed drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A F; Sarraguça, M C; Fonteyne, M; Vercruysse, J; De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Lopes, J A

    2017-08-07

    A multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) strategy was developed for the monitoring of the ConsiGma™-25 continuous tablet manufacturing line. Thirty-five logged variables encompassing three major units, being a twin screw high shear granulator, a fluid bed dryer and a product control unit, were used to monitor the process. The MSPC strategy was based on principal component analysis of data acquired under normal operating conditions using a series of four process runs. Runs with imposed disturbances in the dryer air flow and temperature, in the granulator barrel temperature, speed and liquid mass flow and in the powder dosing unit mass flow were utilized to evaluate the model's monitoring performance. The impact of the imposed deviations to the process continuity was also evaluated using Hotelling's T 2 and Q residuals statistics control charts. The influence of the individual process variables was assessed by analyzing contribution plots at specific time points. Results show that the imposed disturbances were all detected in both control charts. Overall, the MSPC strategy was successfully developed and applied. Additionally, deviations not associated with the imposed changes were detected, mainly in the granulator barrel temperature control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  3. Simulation of a bubbling fluidized bed process for capturing CO2 from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hoo; Yi, Chang-Keun; Jo, Sung-Ho; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Park, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    We simulated a bubbling bed process capturing CO 2 from flue gas. It applied for a laboratory scale process to investigate effects of operating parameters on capture efficiency. The adsorber temperature had a stronger effect than the regenerator temperature. The effect of regenerator temperature was minor for high adsorber temperature. The effect of regenerator temperature decreased to level off for the temperature >250 .deg. C. The capture efficiency was rather dominated by the adsorption reaction than the regeneration reaction. The effect of gas velocity was as appreciable as that of adsorber temperature. The capture efficiency increased with the solids circulation rate since it was ruled by the molar ratio of K to CO 2 for solids circulation smaller than the minimum required one (G s, min ). However, it leveled off for solids circulation rate >G s, min . As the ratio of adsorber solids inventory to the total solids inventory (x w1 ) increased, the capture efficiency increased until x w1 =0.705, but decreased for x w1 >0.705 because the regeneration time decreased too small. It revealed that the regeneration reaction was faster than the adsorption reaction. Increase of total solids inventory is a good way to get further increase in capture efficiency

  4. Stability of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping during room temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Takatori, Satoshi; Fukui, Naoki; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka; Furuta, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (ACBs), such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcylobutanone (TCB) are specific products in the irradiated liquid. Thus, DCB and TCB are suitable for indicators of the irradiation history of food. We previously reported DCB and TCB concentrations in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping (instant Gyudon mixes which were made from a beef, onion and soy sauce and could be preserved for a long term at room temperature) after storage for one year. Here, we have evaluated the stability of ACBs preserved in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping at room temperature for three years. Although interfering peaks were detected frequently after the storage at room temperature, it was possible for the detection of the irradiation history and there was no apparent decrease of ACBs concentrations in comparison with the one year storage after irradiation. These results concluded that DCB and TCB formed in retort pouch would be stable at room temperature for three years. (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from the mineralisation process in a Sludge Treatment Reed Bed system: Seasonal variation and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission data from the mineralisation process in Sludge Treatment Reed Bed systems (STRB) are scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and to investigate seasonal variations in order to estimate ...

  6. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  7. The Performance of the Trickle Bed Reactor Packed with the Pt/SDBC Catalyst Mixture for the CECE Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungwoo Paek; Do-Hee Ahn; Heui-Joo Choi; Kwang-Rag Kim; Hongsuk Chung; Sung-Paal Yim; Minsoo Lee; Kyu-Min Song; Soon Hwan Sohn

    2006-01-01

    The CECE (Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange) process with a hydrophobic catalyst is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy waste water streams because of its high separation factor and mild operating conditions. The CECE process is composed of an electrolysis cell and a LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column. This paper describes the experimental results of the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in a trickle bed reactor packed with a hydrophobic catalyst for the development of the LPCE column of the CECE process. The hydrophobic Pt/SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) catalyst has been developed by Korean researchers for the LPCE column of WTRF (Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility). An experimental apparatus was constructed for the various experiments with the different parameters, such as hydrogen flow rate, temperature, and the structure of the mixed catalyst column. The catalyst column was packed with a mixture of hydrophobic catalyst and hydrophilic packing (Dixon gauze ring). The performance of the catalyst bed was expressed as an overall rate constant Kya. To improve the performance of the trickle bed, the modification of the catalyst bed design (changing the shape of the catalyst complex and diluting with inert) has been investigated. (author)

  8. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Gui Keting

    2009-01-01

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO 2 removal. Results showed that SO 2 removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300 Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity.

  9. Optimization of startup and shutdown operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhou; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Raisch, Jörg; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2011-06-24

    This paper presents new multistage optimal startup and shutdown strategies for simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes. The proposed concept allows to adjust transient operating conditions stage-wise, and provides capability to improve transient performance and to fulfill product quality specifications simultaneously. A specially tailored decomposition algorithm is developed to ensure computational tractability of the resulting dynamic optimization problems. By examining the transient operation of a literature separation example characterized by nonlinear competitive isotherm, the feasibility of the solution approach is demonstrated, and the performance of the conventional and multistage optimal transient regimes is evaluated systematically. The quantitative results clearly show that the optimal operating policies not only allow to significantly reduce both duration of the transient phase and desorbent consumption, but also enable on-spec production even during startup and shutdown periods. With the aid of the developed transient procedures, short-term separation campaigns with small batch sizes can be performed more flexibly and efficiently by SMB chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  11. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  12. Prediction of microstructure, residual stress, and deformation in laser powder bed fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Jamshidinia, M.; Boulware, P.; Kelly, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process has been investigated significantly to build production parts with a complex shape. Modeling tools, which can be used in a part level, are essential to allow engineers to fine tune the shape design and process parameters for additive manufacturing. This study focuses on developing modeling methods to predict microstructure, hardness, residual stress, and deformation in large L-PBF built parts. A transient sequentially coupled thermal and metallurgical analysis method was developed to predict microstructure and hardness on L-PBF built high-strength, low-alloy steel parts. A moving heat-source model was used in this analysis to accurately predict the temperature history. A kinetics based model which was developed to predict microstructure in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint was extended to predict the microstructure and hardness in an L-PBF build by inputting the predicted temperature history. The tempering effect resulting from the following built layers on the current-layer microstructural phases were modeled, which is the key to predict the final hardness correctly. It was also found that the top layers of a build part have higher hardness because of the lack of the tempering effect. A sequentially coupled thermal and mechanical analysis method was developed to predict residual stress and deformation for an L-PBF build part. It was found that a line-heating model is not suitable for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The layer heating method is a potential method for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The experiment was conducted to validate the model predictions.

  13. Prediction of microstructure, residual stress, and deformation in laser powder bed fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Jamshidinia, M.; Boulware, P.; Kelly, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process has been investigated significantly to build production parts with a complex shape. Modeling tools, which can be used in a part level, are essential to allow engineers to fine tune the shape design and process parameters for additive manufacturing. This study focuses on developing modeling methods to predict microstructure, hardness, residual stress, and deformation in large L-PBF built parts. A transient sequentially coupled thermal and metallurgical analysis method was developed to predict microstructure and hardness on L-PBF built high-strength, low-alloy steel parts. A moving heat-source model was used in this analysis to accurately predict the temperature history. A kinetics based model which was developed to predict microstructure in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint was extended to predict the microstructure and hardness in an L-PBF build by inputting the predicted temperature history. The tempering effect resulting from the following built layers on the current-layer microstructural phases were modeled, which is the key to predict the final hardness correctly. It was also found that the top layers of a build part have higher hardness because of the lack of the tempering effect. A sequentially coupled thermal and mechanical analysis method was developed to predict residual stress and deformation for an L-PBF build part. It was found that a line-heating model is not suitable for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The layer heating method is a potential method for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The experiment was conducted to validate the model predictions.

  14. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  15. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  16. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Alexander M; Küng, Vera E; Pobel, Christoph; Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2017-09-22

    The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts.

  17. Slow sedimentary processes on-a-chip: experiments on porous flow effects on granular bed creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Maldarelli, C.; Shattuck, M.; Morris, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Steep soils dynamics is hard to catch. they exhibit very slow granular creep most of the time, and sometimes, mostly under or after rain, turn into a landslide, a very fast avalanche flow.The conditions of transition from soil creep to avalanching remains a lot non-understood, and Safe Factor law (empirical criteria, function of rain intensity and duration). On another side, in marine fast deposition environments, compaction drives vertical porous flow, which makes bed shear resistance change, and form over time bed size patterns (pipes, dishes) or mechanical heterogeneities.Capturing how the slow creep dynamics depends on the porous flow would allow for much more accurate landscape evolution modeling.We present here preliminary results of an experimental investigation of one the major triggering condition for soils destabilization: rain infiltration, and more generally porous flow through a tilted granular bed. In a quasi-2D microfluidics channel, a flat sediment bed made of spherical particles is prepared, in fully submerged condition. It is thereafter tilted (at slope under critical slope of avalanching) and simultaneously put under vertical weak porous flow (well under the critical flow of liquefaction regarding positive pressure gradients). The two control parameters are varied, and local particles concentration and motion are measured. Interestingly, although staying in the sub-critical creeping regime, we observe an acceleration of the bed deformation downward, as the porous flow and the bed slope are increased, until the criteria for avalanching is reached. Those results appear to present similitudes with the case of tilted dry sediment bed under controlled vibrations. Consequently it opens the discussion about a potential universal model of landslides triggering due to frequent seismological and rainstorm events.

  18. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  19. Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yangming; Liu, Hong; Shen, Zhemin; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-10-15

    To avoid electrolyte leakage and gas bubbles in the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactors using a gas diffusion cathode, we developed a trickle bed cathode by coating a layer composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (C-PTFE) onto graphite chips instead of carbon cloth. The trickle bed cathode was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, in which carbon black, PTFE, and a surfactant were considered as the determinant of the performance of graphite chips. In the reactor assembled by the trickle bed cathode, H2O2 was generated with a current of 0.3A and a current efficiency of 60%. This performance was attributed to the fine distribution of electrolyte and air, as well as the effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte-cathode interface. In terms of H2O2 generation and current efficiency, the developed trickle bed reactor had a performance comparable to that of the conventional E-Fenton reactor using a gas diffusion cathode. Further, 123 mg L(-1) of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution was decomposed in the optimized trickle bed reactor as E-Fenton reactor. The decolorization ratio reached 97% within 20 min, and the mineralization reached 87% within 3h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Orlanes, Denmark F; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality ( F 0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats. Retorting at 113°C/232 min resulted in differences in all the physical parameters examined ( particle size). Significant pH differences were observed (6·53, 6·63 and 6·66 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively). Preference ratios were 0·38, 0·31 and 0·31 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively ( P  = 0·067). It can be concluded that different retorting temperature-time profiles with equal F 0 value significantly affect physical characteristics and tended to affect palatability of moist cat food.

  1. 77 FR 25206 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Information Collection; Underground Retorts AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION...

  2. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  3. Pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide in a fixed bed reactor using the clathrate hydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Hydrate based gas separation (HBGS) process with silica sand and silica gel as contact medium was employed to capture CO 2 from fuel gas mixture. Gas uptake measurement at three different pressures (7.5, 8.5 and 9.0 MPa) and 274.15 K were conducted for hydrate formation kinetics and overall conversion of water to hydrate, rate of hydrate formation were determined. Water conversion of up to 36% was achieved with silica sand bed compared to 13% conversion in the silica gel bed. Effect of driving force on the rate of hydrate formation and gas consumption was significant in silica sand bed whereas it was found to be insignificant in silica gel bed. Hydrate dissociation experiments by thermal stimulation (at constant pressure) alone and a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation were carried out for complete recovery of the hydrated gas. A driving force of 23 K was found to be sufficient to recover all the hydrated gas within 1 h. This study indicates that silica sand can be an effective porous media for separation of CO 2 from fuel gas when compared to silica gel. - Highlights: ► The clathrate process for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide in a novel fixed bed reactor is presented. ► Performance of two contact media (silica gel and silica sand) was investigated. ► Water to hydrate conversion was higher in a silica sand column. ► A pressure reduction and thermal stimulation approach is presented for a complete recovery of the hydrated gas

  4. Effect of Fluidized Bed Stirring on Drying Process of Adhesive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to optimize fluidized bed drying of wet and adhesive particles (with an initial diameter of about 580 mm with the use of stirring, and discusses the influence of stirring on the total drying time. The goal was to demonstrate the positive effect of stirring a fluidized bed to the drying time, to find the optimal parameters (stirrer design, speed, and size. Experiments were conducted on a drying chamber in batch operation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of stirring on the total drying time. The drying chambers were 85 mm, 100 mm, and 140 mm in diameter. An optimal stirrer shape and speed were specified. Our arrangement of the fluidized bed resulted in a decrease in drying time by up to 40 %.

  5. Experimental analysis and evaluation of the mass transfer process in a trickle-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, J.D.; Lima, F.R.A.; Abreu, C.A.M.; Knoechelmann, A.

    2003-01-01

    A transient experimental analysis of a three-phase descendent-cocurrent trickle-bed H2O/CH4-Ar/g -Al2O3 system was made using the stimulus-response technique, with the gas phase as a reference. Methane was used as a tracer and injected into the argon feed and the concentration vs time profiles were obtained at the entrance and exit of the bed, which were maintained at 298K and 1.013 10(5) Pa. A mathematical model for the tracer was developed to estimate the axial dispersion overall gas-liquid...

  6. Improvements in discharge apparatus for retorts used for the distillation of coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1937-05-20

    The discharge apparatus for retorts used for the distillation of coal or shale is comprised of a casing which is adapted to be horizontally disposed below the discharge for residue material of a retort and closely connected thereto. The casing has a cylindrical chamber therein and inlet and outlet parts, a rotor within said chamber carried by a slowly rotating spindle journaled in bearings in said casing the said rotor having a pair of diametrically oppositely disposed pockets which on rotation of the rotor are respectively adapted to receive a supply of material fed to the inlet port of the said casing from the retort and to discharge same to the outlet port of the said casing. The latter and the said rotor on its periphery has a pair of spaced annular registering grooves whereby water under pressure can be supplied to said grooves and the internal wall of the said casing contiguous said rotor has a channel to which water under pressure can be supplied said channel being disposed centrally between the inlet and outlet ports of the casing and communicating with said grooves. On rotation of the rotor the residue material is carried in the pockets therein and can be served from said channel with water in the said channel with grooves to wet and cool same. The water in said grooves and channels also forms a water seal between said rotor and casing whereby gases from the retort are prohibited from passing through said discharge apparatus during supplies of residue material being made to the rotor from the retort.

  7. Development of a visiometric process analyzer for real-time monitoring of bottom spray fluid-bed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Celine Valeria; Wang, Li Kun; Wan Sia Heng, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Particle recirculation within the partition column is a major source of process variability in the bottom spray fluid-bed coating process. However, its locality and complex nature make it hidden from the operator. The aim of this study was to take snapshots of the process by employing a visiometric process analyzer based on high-speed imaging and ensemble correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify particle recirculation. High-speed images of particles within the partition column of a bottom spray fluid-bed coater were captured and studied by morphological image processing and ensemble correlation PIV. Particle displacement probability density function (PDF) obtained from ensemble correlation PIV was consistent with validation experiments using an image tracking method. Particle displacement PDF was further resolved into particle velocity magnitude and particle velocity orientation histograms, which gave information about particle recirculation probability, thus quantifying the main source of process variability. Deeper insights into particle coating process were obtained and better control of coat uniformity can thus be achieved with use of the proposed visiometric process analyzer. The concept of visiometric process analyzers was proposed and their potential applications in pharmaceutical processes were further discussed.

  8. In Situ 3D Monitoring of Geometric Signatures in the Powder-Bed-Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process via Vision Sensing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Liu, Xingjian; Wen, Shifeng; He, Piyao; Zhong, Kai; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-12

    Lack of monitoring of the in situ process signatures is one of the challenges that has been restricting the improvement of Powder-Bed-Fusion Additive Manufacturing (PBF AM). Among various process signatures.

  9. The quality of microorganism on coal bed methane processing with various livestock waste in laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, E. T.; Kurnani, Tb. B. A.; Hidayati, Y. A.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.; Harlia, E.

    2018-02-01

    Coal-bed Methane (CBM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal and has been developed as future energy source. Organic materials are required as nutrition source for methanogenic microbes. The addition of cattle waste in the formation of CBM on coal media can be utilized as organic materials as well as methanogenic microbe sources. This research covered study of total amount of anaerobic microbes, methane production, protozoa, fungi and endoparasites. Descriptive approach is conducted for this study. Media used for culturing methanogens is Nutrient Agar in powder form and Lactose Broth with the addition of rumen fluid. The technique for counting microbes is through Total Plate Count in anaerobic Hungate tube, methane was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC), while identification of protozoa, fungi and endoparasites based on its morphology is conducted before and after anaerobic fermentation process. Incubation period is 30 days. The results showed that growth of anaerobic microbes from dairy cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 3.57×103 CFU/ml and fresh feces is 3.38 × 104 CFU/ml, growth of anaerobic microbes from beef cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 7.0 × 105 CFU/ml; fresh feces is 7.5 x 104 CFU/ml; and rumen contents of about 1.33 × 108 CFU/ml. Methane production in dairy cattle waste in sludge and fresh feces amounted to 10.57% and 2.39%, respectively. Methane production in beef cattle waste in sludge accounted for 5.95%; in fresh feces it is about 0.41%; and rumen contents of 4.92%. Decreasing of protozoa during fermentation to 84.27%, dominated by Eimeria sp. Decreasing of fungi to 16%, dominated by A. Niger, A. Flavus, A. Fumigatus and Monilia sitophila. Decreasing of endoparasitic worms to 15%, dominated by Strongylus sp. and Fasciola sp. The growth of anaerobic microbes and methane production indicated that dairy cattle waste and beef cattle waste have potential as source of methanogenic microbes, meanwhile the decreasing amount of protozoa

  10. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  11. STUDY OF GAS SEPARATION PROCESS BY DYNAMIC ADSORPTION IN FIXED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Solomon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of mass transfer at gas separation by dynamic adsorption in fixed bed of impregnated silica gel is presented in this work. By means of a mathematical model based on constants and coefficient easy to evaluate, the distributions of adsorbate concentration in gas and solid phases were determined as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed, under isothermal conditions.With this aim, water vapors from air were adsorbed in a fixed bed of impregnated silica gel. The values of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kv, were determined experimentally at several values of air superficial velocity, an air relative humidity of 69�20at 38 °C. The influence of the gas flow velocity and initial water concentration in adsorbent on the distribution of water concentration in both phases was established as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed. The results obtained allow one to determination of the local adsorption rate.

  12. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for clean coal technology thrust COMMISSIONED PLANTS Slagment Hot Gas Generator Client : Slagment Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98% burnout to provide hot gases for the drying...

  13. Development of an experimental radioisotope based process tomography system for research applications in a cold trickle bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Madhusudan; Kumar, Pravesh; Kumar, Umesh; Acharya, Rajesh; Singh, Gursharan

    2009-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical engineering applications, random and structured packing are used in process columns to enhance the heat and mass transfer between two phases. The packing used in such columns is meant to obtain a high specific interfacial area. It is of paramount importance for scale-up and design of trickle bed process columns, to understand and predict the complex multiphase fluid dynamics. In simplified terms, the phase holdup, solid packing distribution in terms of density and gas and liquid velocities among other important parameters need to be qualitatively and quantitatively understood. In the petrochemical industry, many processes are carried out using fixed bed reactors with concurrent upward and downward gas and liquid flows. In order to characterize the liquid and gas flow distribution through a mock-up column, data on planar and volume density distribution using computed tomographic measurements are very helpful. The paper describes the development efforts of a multi-detector 137 Cs radioisotope based in-situ tomography scanner suitable for 600mm dia. cold trickle bed reactor. The development work is at present in progress. The schematics and development of the scanner gantry is described in this paper. (author)

  14. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  15. An assessment of biological processes close to the sea bed in a slope region and its significance to the assessment of sea bed disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, P.M.; Ellis, C.J.; Angel, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Vertical profiles of planktonic and micronektonic biomass observed close to the sea bed along a transect running up the continental slope on the southern flank of the Porcupine Seabight (to the southwest of Ireland) showed that a doubling in biomass concentration occurs from 100 to 10m above the sea bed. Comparison with biomass concentrations at two deep water stations, one in the Seabight and the other in the Rockall Trough, showed that there was a consistent increase in standing crop close to the sea bed over the slope. Supplementary data were collected on the northern flank of the Seabight. Analysis of both taxonomic groups and individual species showed that some taxa were more abundant near the sea floor and extended their vertical ranges to greater depths over the slope than over deep water, other taxa were unaffected. The implications to the problem of assessing the safety of sea bed disposal of high level radioactive waste are summarised. (author)

  16. Application of digital image processing methods on the cluster structure at the wall of a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-guang; Zhao, Zeng-wu; Li, Bao-wei; Wu, Wen-fei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Environment and Energy

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes experiments to investigate the cluster structure of gas-particle flow at the wall region of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The setup is in a cold scale-model circulating fluidized bed with a riser that has a 0.30 m 0.28 m cross-section and is 2.9 m tall. A video camera was utilized to visualize the cluster structure through a transparent Plexiglas wall. An image processing system was used to analyze images, which were obtained under different superficial gas velocities and solid circulating rates. The results show that distinctly different cluster structures exist in the different operating conditions, which the number, shape and size of the clusters are affected by main air flow.

  17. Experimental analysis and evaluation of the mass transfer process in a trickle-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A transient experimental analysis of a three-phase descendent-cocurrent trickle-bed H2O/CH4-Ar/g -Al2O3 system was made using the stimulus-response technique, with the gas phase as a reference. Methane was used as a tracer and injected into the argon feed and the concentration vs time profiles were obtained at the entrance and exit of the bed, which were maintained at 298K and 1.013 10(5 Pa. A mathematical model for the tracer was developed to estimate the axial dispersion overall gas-liquid mass transfer and liquid-solid mass transfer coefficients. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and shown to be in good agreement. The model was validated by two additional experiments, and the values of the coefficients obtained above were confirmed.

  18. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  19. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  20. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  1. Adaptation of the continuous cold-trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous cold-trap system consisting of fluidized condensor and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF 6 . Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF 6 -air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the 2-in.-dia. fluidized-bed cold-trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condensor

  2. Focused beam reflectance method as an innovative (PAT) tool to monitor in-line granulation process in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshihabi, Firas; Vandamme, Thierry; Betz, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    Fluidized bed granulation is a commonly used unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. But still to obtain and control the desired granule size is challenging due to many process variables affecting the final product. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) is an increasingly popular particle growth analysis technique. FBRM tool was installed in two different locations inside a fluidized bed granulator (GPCG2, Glatt, Binzen) in order to monitor the granulation growth kinetics. An experimental design was created to study the effect of process variables using FBRM probe and comparing the results with the one's measured by sieve analysis. The probe location is of major importance to get smooth and robust curves. The excess feeding of binder solution might lead to agglomeration and thus to process collapse, however this phenomenon was clearly detected with FBRM method. On the other hand, the process variables at certain levels might affect the FBRM efficiency by blocking the probe window with sticky particles. A good correlation was obtained (R(2) = 0.95) between FBRM and sieve analysis mean particle size. The proposed in-line monitoring tool enables the operator to select appropriate process parameters and control the wet granulation process more efficiently.

  3. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  4. The processing of bed ashes of fluidized bed boilers to an applicable ingredient for building materials. Het bewerken van bedassen van wervelbedketels tot een geschikte grondstof voor toepassing in bouwprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, W

    1988-01-01

    A study- and test program has been carried out to determine in what way bed ashes of fluidized bed boilers can be processed to applicate the products in building products. The program consisted of selecting applicable ashes; physical-chemical research; slack lime, present in the ashes; grinding and wind-sifting of the ashes; evaluation of the quality of the acquired samples for application in calcium-silicate brick and in mortar; the making of flow-sheets of the processing in the potential demonstration projects. The used sample was a bed ash with active CaO content of 21%. Conclusions were stated and recommendations were made. 6 figs., 6 refs., 9 tabs., 2 app.

  5. SPOUTED BED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR COATED NUCLEAR FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  6. Functionalization of polymer powders for SLS-processes using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmitt, Adeliene; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Recently additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers have gained more importance for industrial applications [1]. Tailor-made modification of polymers is essential in order to make these processes more efficient and to cover the industrial demands. The so far used polymer materials show weak performance regarding the mechanical stability of processed parts. To overcome this limitation, a new route to functionalize the surface of commercially available polymer particles (PA12; PE-HD; PP) using an atmospheric plasma jet in combination with a fluidized bed reactor has been investigated. Consequently, an improvement of adhesion and wettability [2] of the polymer surface without restraining the bulk properties of the powder is achieved. The atmospheric plasma jet process can provide reactive species at moderate temperatures which are suitable for polymer material. The functionalization of the polymer powders improves the quality of the devices build in a SLS-process.

  7. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  8. Development of a reduction process of ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium dioxide in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.; Riella, H.G.

    1990-07-01

    Laboratory development of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) reduction to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) using fluidized bed furnace technique is described. The reaction is carried out at 500-550 0 C using hydrogen, liberated from cracking of ammonia, as a reducing agent. As the AUC used is obtained from uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) it contains considerable amount of fluoride (approx. 500μg/g) as contaminant. The presence of fluoride leads to high corrosion rates and hence the fluoride concentration is reduced by pyrohydrolisis of UO 2 . Physical and Chemical properties of the final product (UO 2 ) obtained were characterized. (author) [pt

  9. Mechanisms of flow through compressible porous beds in sedimentation, centrifugation, deliquoring, and ceramic processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-25

    The major topics covered in the investigation include: centrifugation; cake filtration; sedimentation and thickening; capillary suction operations; ceramics, slip casting; optimization studies; and wastewater. The research program was aimed at the specific areas of solid/liquid separation including sedimentation, thickening, cake filtration, centrifugation, expression, washing, deep-bed filtration, screening, and membrane separation. Unification of the theoretical approaches to the various solid/liquid separation operations was the principle objective of the research. Exploring new aspects of basic separation mechanisms, verification of theory with experiment, development of laboratory procedures for obtaining data for design, optimizing operational methods, and transferring the results to industry were part of the program.

  10. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  11. Stability of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping during room temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Takatori, Satoshi; Fukui, Naoki; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka; Furuta, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (ACBs), such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcylobutanone (TCB) are specific products from irradiated lipid. Thus, DCB and TCB are suitable for indicators of the irradiation history of food. The purpose of this study was to clarify the stability of ACBs in food, kept at room temperature for a long period. We evaluated DCB and TCB in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping (instant Gyudon mixes which were made from a beef, onion and soy sauce), which could be preserved for a long term at room temperature, after storage for one year. DCB and TCB were detected at doses of 0.6-4.5 kGy in irradiated retort pouch Gyudon topping. The peaks of DCB and TCB were separated from other peaks on the chromatogram with GC-MS. The concentration of DCB and TCB were periodically determined till 12 months later of irradiation. The dose-response curves of DCB and TCB were almost identical with those obtained from the samples after the 12 months storage at room temperature. These results concluded that DCB and TCB formed in retort pouch would stable at room temperature at least 12 months. (author)

  12. Arrangement of furnaces and retorts for the distillation of shale, etc. [injection of hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahore, M

    1846-01-31

    The patent is concerned with the distillation of dried materials, the distillation being facilitated by injection of hot air into the retorts. Figures show apparatus for heating the air, consisting of a series of pipes, connected together and placed horizontally in the interior of the furnace on bricks arranged in such a way that the flames and smoke circulate, as shown, around each pipe, touching first all the surface of the large one placed in the center. The air enters this tube, and from it passes into the others which it runs through successively, coming finally into the last pipe, being heated in this journey to a very high temperature. The last tube ends in a bell from which different branches start, each supplied with stop-cocks, to lead this hot air into the different sections of the retort. With the stop-cocks the quantity of air can be regulated at will, in the compartment of the retort, for accelerating the operation more or less.

  13. Electrodialysis reversal: Process and cost approximations for treating coal-bed methane waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajtar, E.T.; Bagley, D.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Brackish waters with total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations less than 10,000 mg/L are extracted from coal-beds in the Wyoming Powder River basin to facilitate the production of coal-bed methane. These waters frequently require treatment before disposal or use. Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) has not yet been used to treat these waters but this technology should be suitable. The question is whether EDR would be cost-effective. The purpose of this work, then, was to develop models for predicting the cost of EDR for brackish waters. These models, developed from data available in the literature, were found to predict actual EDR costs as a function of TDS removal, influent flow rate, chemical rejection efficiency, water recovery, electricity use, and labor cost within 10% of reported values. The total amortized cost for removing 1,000 mg/L of TDS from 10,000 m{sup 3}/day of influent assuming no concentrate disposal costs was predicted to range from $0.23/m{sup 3} to $0.85/m{sup 3} and was highly dependent on capital cost and facility life. Concentrate disposal costs significantly affected total treatment cost, providing a total treatment cost range from $0.38/m{sup 3} to $6.38/m{sup 3}, depending on concentrate disposal cost and water recovery. Pilot demonstrations of EDR in the Powder River basin should be conducted to determine the achievable water recovery when treating these waters.

  14. Biological reduction of nitrates in wastewaters from nuclear processing using a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt.% NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /day, in the nuclear fuel cycle. The biological reduction of nitrate in wastewater to gaseous nitrogen, accompanied by the oxidation of a nutrient carbon source to gaseous carbon dioxide, is an ecologically sound and cost-effective method of treating wastewaters containing nitrates. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The denitrification bacteria are a mixed culture derived from garden soil; the major strain is Pseudomonas. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25- to 0.50-mm-diam coal fluidization particles, which are then fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . This paper describes the results of a biodenitrification R and D program based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 g N(NO 3 - ) per day per liter of empty bioreactor volume. 4 figures, 7 tables

  15. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  16. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  17. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  18. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    , but no variations were detected in the no response and direction selective response tasks. It is suggested that the negative shift in color selective response task on the 3rd day of bed rest are a result of fluid redistribution. And feature selection was more affected than motion selection in the head down bed rest. The variations in cognitive processing speed observed for the combined color-direction selective response task are suggested to reflect the interaction between top-down mechanisms and hierarchical physiological characteristics during 30 days head-down bed rest.

  19. Process Stability Identification Through Dynamic Study of Single-bed Ammonia Reactor with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In ammonia reactor system, a feed-effluent heat exchanger (FEHE is typically installed to utilize reaction-generated heat to heat the reactor’s feed. Utilizing energy from exothermic reaction to the incoming feed stream is often called “autothermic operation”. Despite the advantage of FEHE, there is a risk of utilizing FEHE in a reactor system such as instability of process temperature or known as hysteresis. Hysteresis phenomena in chemical process could cause operational problems, for example it could damage the integrity of the equipment’s material. This paper aims to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE, particularly to propose a way to prevent instability within the system. The dynamic simulation of the single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE was performed with Aspen HYSYS v8.8. The result of the simulation result shows that hysteresis phenomenon in the ammonia reactor system occurs when the feed’s temperature is below a certain value. If the feed temperature reaches that value, the temperature of the reactor’s outlet oscillates. One of the solution to keep the feed temperature above that critical value is by installing a trim heater within the system. Based on the simulation, trim heater installation within the system is able to prevent hysteresis in the system evaluated.

  20. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  1. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  2. Development and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled-release pellets by fluid bed coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkilineni Bhanu Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop controlled-release pellets of diltiazem HCl with ethyl cellulose and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate as the release rate retarding polymers by fluid bed coating technique. The prepared pellets were evaluated for drug content, particle size, subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Differential Scanning Calori metry (DSC, and evaluated for in vitro release. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulations for a period of 3 months. The drug content was in the range of 97%-101%. The mean particle size of the drug-loaded pellets was in the range 700-785 μm. The drug release rate decreased as the concentration of ethyl cellulose increased in the pellet formulations. Among the prepared formulations, FDL10 and FDL11 showed 80% drug release in 16 h, matching with USP dissolution test 6 for diltiazem HCl extended-release capsules. SEM photographs confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature with a smooth surface. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug-loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC studies. Stability studies indicated that the pellets were stable.

  3. Aggregation in particle rich environments: a textural study of examples from volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts, and fluidized bed processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Huber, Matthew S.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Poesges, Gisela; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2018-04-01

    Aggregation is a common process occurring in many diverse particulate gas mixtures (e.g. those derived from explosive volcanic eruptions, meteorite impact events, and fluid bed processing). It results from the collision and sticking of particles suspended in turbulent gas/air. To date, there is no generalized model of the underlying physical processes. Here, we investigate aggregates from 18 natural deposits (16 volcanic deposits and two meteorite impact deposits) as well as aggregates produced experimentally via fluidized bed techniques. All aggregates were analyzed for their size, internal structuring, and constituent particle size distribution. Commonalities and differences between the aggregate types are then used to infer salient features of the aggregation process. Average core to rim ratios of internally structured aggregates (accretionary lapilli) is found to be similar for artificial and volcanic aggregates but up to an order of magnitude different than impact-related aggregates. Rim structures of artificial and volcanic aggregates appear to be physically similar (single, sub-spherical, regularly-shaped rims) whereas impact-related aggregates more often show multiple or irregularly shaped rims. The particle size distributions (PSDs) of all three aggregate types are similar (< 200 μm). This proves that in all three environments, aggregation occurs under broadly similar conditions despite the significant differences in source conditions (particle volume fraction, particle size distribution, particle composition, temperature), residence times, plume conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature), and dynamics of fallout and deposition. Impact-generated and volcanic aggregates share many similarities, and in some cases may be indistinguishable without their stratigraphic context.

  4. Design, scale-up, Six Sigma in processing different feedstocks in a fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boravelli, Sai Chandra Teja

    This thesis mainly focuses on design and process development of a downdraft biomass gasification processes. The objective is to develop a gasifier and process of gasification for a continuous steady state process. A lab scale downdraft gasifier was designed to develop the process and obtain optimum operating procedure. Sustainable and dependable sources such as biomass are potential sources of renewable energy and have a reasonable motivation to be used in developing a small scale energy production plant for countries such as Canada where wood stocks are more reliable sources than fossil fuels. This thesis addresses the process of thermal conversion of biomass gasification process in a downdraft reactor. Downdraft biomass gasifiers are relatively cheap and easy to operate because of their design. We constructed a simple biomass gasifier to study the steady state process for different sizes of the reactor. The experimental part of this investigation look at how operating conditions such as feed rate, air flow, the length of the bed, the vibration of the reactor, height and density of syngas flame in combustion flare changes for different sizes of the reactor. These experimental results also compare the trends of tar, char and syngas production for wood pellets in a steady state process. This study also includes biomass gasification process for different wood feedstocks. It compares how shape, size and moisture content of different feedstocks makes a difference in operating conditions for the gasification process. For this, Six Sigma DMAIC techniques were used to analyze and understand how each feedstock makes a significant impact on the process.

  5. Waste truck-tyre processing by flash pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.; Alvarez, J.; Amutio, M.; Mkhize, N.M.; Danon, B.; Gryp, P.; Görgens, J.F. van der; Bilbao, J.; Olazar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flash pyrolysis improves TPO and limonene yields vs. slow pyrolysis. • The most suitable temperature for TPO and limonene maximization was 475 °C. • Operating at 575 °C gas yields and char quality was enhanced. • Temperature showed a limited effect on sulphur distribution among products. - Abstract: The flash pyrolysis of waste truck-tyres was studied in a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) operating in continuous regime. The influence of temperature on product distribution was analysed in the 425–575 °C range. A detailed characterization of the pyrolysis products was carried out in order to assess their most feasible application. Moreover, special attention was paid to the sulphur distribution among the products. The analysis of gaseous products was carried out using a micro-GC and the tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) by means of GC-FID using peak areas for quantification, with GC/MS for identification and elemental analysis. Finally, the char was subjected to elemental analysis and surface characterization. According to the results, 475 °C is an appropriate temperature for the pyrolysis of waste tyres, given that it ensures total devolatilisation of tyre rubber and a high TPO yield, 58.2 wt.%. Moreover, the quality of the oil is optimum at this temperature, especially in terms of high concentrations of valuable chemicals, such as limonene. An increase in temperature to 575 °C reduced the TPO yield to 53.9 wt.% and substantially changed its chemical composition by increasing the aromatic content. However, the quality of the recovered char was improved at high temperatures.

  6. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the hydrolytic and acidogenic fermentation in a leach-bed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeuber, Heike; Kleinsteuber, Sabine [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy; UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Schroeder, Martina [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy

    2012-12-15

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic feedstock not competing with food production can contribute to a sustainable bioenergy system. The hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of solid substrates such as straw. Hence, a detailed understanding of the metabolic processes during the steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis is required to improve process control strategies. The fermentation products formed during the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage as a model substrate in a leach-bed process were determined by gas and liquid chromatography. The bacterial community dynamics was monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The community profiles were correlated with the process data using multivariate statistics. The batch process comprised three metabolic phases characterized by different fermentation products. The bacterial community dynamics correlated with the production of the respective metabolites. In phase 1, lactic and acetic acid fermentations dominated. Accordingly, bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were detected. In phase 2, the metabolic pathways shifted to butyric acid fermentation, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and a dominance of the genus Clostridium. In phase 3, phylotypes affiliated with Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae prevailed, accompanied by the formation of caproic and acetic acids, and a high gas production rate. A clostridial butyric type of fermentation was predominant in the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage, whereas propionic-type fermentation was marginal. As the metabolite composition resulting from acidogenesis affects the subsequent methanogenic performance, process control should focus on hydrolysis/acidogenesis when solid substrates are digested. (orig.)

  7. A novel integrated thermally coupled moving bed reactors for naphtha reforming process with hydrodealkylation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranshahi, Davood; Saeedi, Reza; Azizi, Kolsoom; Nategh, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thermally coupled reactor in CCR naphtha reforming process is modeled. • The required heat of Naphtha process is attained with toluene hydrodealkylation. • A new kinetic model involving 32 pseudo-component and 84 reactions is proposed. • The aromatics and hydrogen production increase 19% and 23%, respectively. - Abstract: Due to the importance of catalytic naphtha reforming process in refineries, development of this process to attain the highest yield of desired products is crucial. In this study, continuous catalyst regeneration naphtha reforming process with radial flow is coupled with hydrodealkylation of toluene to prevent energy loss while enhancing aromatics and hydrogen yields. In this coupled process, heat is transferred between hot and cold sections (from hydrodealkylation of toluene to catalytic naphtha reforming process) using the process integration method. A steady-state two-dimensional model, which considers coke formation on the catalyst pellets, is developed and 32 pseudo-components with 84 reactions are investigated. Kinetic model utilized for HDA process is homogeneous and non-catalytic. The modeling results reveal an approximate increase of 19% and 23% in aromatics and hydrogen molar flow rates, respectively, in comparison with conventional naphtha reforming process. The improvement in aromatics production evidently indicates that HDA is a suitable process to be coupled with naphtha reforming.

  8. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  9. Integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed-membrane hybrid process for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban Kenari, Seyedeh Laleh; Barbeau, Benoit

    2017-04-15

    Newly developed ceramic membrane technologies offer numerous advantages over the conventional polymeric membranes. This work proposes a new configuration, an integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed (PFB)-ceramic MF/UF hybrid process, for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water. A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this process with respect to iron and manganese control as well as membrane fouling. In addition, the fouling of commercially available ceramic membranes in conventional preoxidation-MF/UF process was compared with the hybrid process configuration. In this regard, a series of experiments were conducted under different influent water quality and operating conditions. Fouling mechanisms and reversibility were analyzed using blocking law and resistance-in-series models. The results evidenced that the flux rate and the concentration of calcium and humic acids in the feed water have a substantial impact on the filtration behavior of both membranes. The model for constant flux compressible cake formation well described the rise in transmembrane pressure. The compressibility of the filter cake substantially increased in the presence of 2 mg/L humic acids. The presence of calcium ions caused significant aggregation of manganese dioxide and humic acid which severely impacted the extent of membrane fouling. The PFB pretreatment properly alleviated membrane fouling by removing more than 75% and 95% of iron and manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Online process control of a pharmaceutical intermediate in a fluidized-bed drier environment using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, Julia; Karner, Martin; Andre, Max; Rueland, Jochen; Huck, Christian W

    2010-05-15

    In the production plant of an antibiotic substance, a new fluidized-bed drier has been installed. For online process control of the drying progress and determination of the ideal drying end point, a continuous near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) measuring setup was implemented to rapidly and simultaneously gain all essential product information. A bypass system outside the drier combined with a robust process probe proved to provide the best sampling system geometry. The spectrometer was equipped with an additional laboratory probe for complementary offline analysis. Multivariate calibrations for product assay, water content, and residual solvent were calculated, optimized, and compared for the two probes. The final root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) for the process probe could be reduced to 0.81% for the product assay, 0.25% for water, and 0.06% for acetone. The laboratory-probe prediction values show good agreement with reference data during the testing period. The calibrations of the process probe were checked by comparing its predictions to those of the validated laboratory probe. The monitoring system could be automated to a large extent, and product quality could be improved considerably. The established technology is of high importance for the pharmaceutical industry carrying out high-throughput routine analysis because of its advantages in terms of of time and cost reductions.

  11. Optimization of process parameters in flash pyrolysis of waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin Raj, R.; Robert Kennedy, Z.; Pillai, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-recyclable, hazards, under-utilized waste tyre was converted to useful fuel. ► Design of experiment was used to optimize the process parameters. ► Fuel compatibility for IC engines was tested by standard fuel testing procedures. ► Optimized process parameters were tested and the empirical model validated. - Abstract: Pyrolysis process offers solution to utilize huge quantity of worn out automobile tyres to produce fuel for energy needs. Shredded tyre wastes were subjected to pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure under inert gas atmosphere in a fluidized bed combustion setup. The shredded tyre particle size, the feed rate of the feed stock, and the pyrolysis temperature were varied systematically as per the designed experiment to study their influence on product yield. Maximizing the oil yield and subduing the gas and char yield is the objective to optimize the process parameters. A low pyrolysis temperature of 440 °C with low feed rate increases the residence time in the combustion reactor yielding maximum oil. The physical properties of raw pyrolysis oil, distilled oil and the evolved gases were done to find its suitability to utilize them as alternatives to the conventional fuels

  12. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  13. Handling zone dividing method in packed bed liquid desiccant dehumidification/regeneration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.H.; Jiang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Dehumidifier and regenerator are the most significant components in liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems, in which air directly contacts liquid desiccant and heat and mass transfer process occurs between the two fluids. Heat transfer process and mass transfer process within dehumidifier/regenerator influence each other and should not be separately considered. Based on the previous reachable handling region analysis, a zonal method is proposed in present study. Four zones are divided in the psychrometric chart according to the relative position of inlet air to inlet desiccant including two dehumidification zones, zone A and zone D, and two regeneration zones, zone B and zone C. In zone A or C, mass transfer is key process, and counter-flow configuration has the best mass transfer performance and parallel-flow is the poorest in the same operating conditions. In zone B or D, heat transfer is governing process, parallel-flow has the best mass transfer performance and counter-flow is the poorest. In order to obtain better mass transfer performance, liquid desiccant should be cooled (in zone A) rather than air (in zone D) in dehumidifier, and liquid desiccant should be heated (in zone C) rather than air (in zone B) in regenerator. The divided zones and the corresponding zonal properties will be helpful to the design and optimization of dehumidifiers and regenerators.

  14. HTR combustion head end comparison of the shaft furnace and fluidized bed processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnert, R.; Kaiser, G.; Pirk, H.; Tillessen, U.

    1975-01-15

    Two methods are described for the combustion of the graphite of HTR fuel elements, a sufficient description of the principles being given to permit an understanding of the processes. The present state of the technology of the two processes is then compared on the basis of the results obtained at Gulf General Atomic. Finally, the possibilities of further development are examined using a pilot plant designed to deliver a reactor power of 7000 MWe as the basis. The present report is a collection of facts. It contains neither an evaluation nor a recommendation. A summarized comparison of the state of the technology and the possibilities of development is given in tabular form.

  15. Mathematical modeling of the whole expanded bed adsorption process to recover and purify chitosanases from the unclarified fermentation broth of Paenibacillus ehimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Padilha, Carlos Eduardo; Fortunato Dantas, Paulo Victor; de Sousa, Francisco Canindé; de Santana Souza, Domingos Fabiano; de Oliveira, Jackson Araújo; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Everaldo Silvino

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a general rate model was applied to the entire process of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) for the chitosanases purification protocol from unclarified fermentation broth produced by Paenibacillus ehimensis using the anionic adsorbent Streamline ® DEAE. For the experiments performed using the expanded bed, a homemade column (2.6cm×30.0cm) was specially designed. The proposed model predicted the entire EBA process adequately, giving R 2 values higher than 0.85 and χ 2 as low as 0.351 for the elution step. Using the validated model, a 3 3 factorial design was used to investigate other non-tested conditions as input. It was observed that the superficial velocity during loading and washing steps, as well as the settled bed height, has a strong positive effect on the F objective function used to evaluate the production of the purified chitosanases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated

  17. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large...... are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules...

  18. Organizational learning as a test-bed for business process reengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Leinsdorff, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The fact that a company's learning ability may prevent strategic drift and the fact that many companies are undertaking BPR (business process reengineering) projects leads us to ask whether all these BPR activities promote organizational learning. Within this framework, we studied the extent...... of Enzyme Business, Novo Nordisk A/S. The result of the analysis is that a correlation between BPR and organizational learning has been established, i.e. the BPR elements: customer focus, process orientation, high level of ambition, clean sheet principle, performance measuring, the business system diamond...... to which BPR promotes organizational learning by focusing on the project group and the steering committee. This paper is based partly on a theoretical study of the significant characteristics of BPR and of organizational learning and partly on a field study carried out in cooperation with the business unit...

  19. High temperature fluidized bed zero valent iron process for flue gas nitrogen monoxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chen, S.S.; Tang, C.H.; Chang, Y.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Liu, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are generated from a variety of sources, and are critical components of photochemical smog. Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been used to remove NO x in a number of studies. The ZVI process requires no extra chemicals or catalysts. In this study, a fluidized ZVI process for removing NO x from flue gases was proposed. The study examined the effects of temperature, ZVI dosage and influent NO concentrations, and observed the kinetic effects between the fluidized ZVI and NO x . A life cycle analysis of the process was also provided. The parametric analysis was conducted in a series of column studies using a continuous emissions monitoring system. Minimum fluidization velocity equations were provided, and the drag coefficient was determined. Capacities of ZVI for NO removal at different temperatures were calculated. Results of the study suggested that temperature, influent concentrations, and flow rates all influenced kinetic coefficients. Different temperatures resulted in different rates of NO removal. It was concluded that between 673 K and 773 K, almost complete NO removals were achieved. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. ► We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. ► The need for research in this area was identified. ► We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. ► Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H 2 S) – Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

  1. Differences in fundamental and functional properties of HPMC co-processed fillers prepared by fluid-bed coating and spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, QianQian; Zhou, MiaoMiao; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to develop novel co-processed tablet fillers based on the principle of particle engineering for direct compaction and to compare the characteristics of co-processed products obtained by fluid-bed coating and co-spray drying, respectively. Water-soluble mannitol and water-insoluble calcium carbonate were selected as representative fillers for this study. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), serving as a surface property modifier, was distributed on the surface of primary filler particles via the two co-processing methods. Both fundamental and functional properties of the products were comparatively investigated. The results showed that functional properties of the fillers, like flowability, compactibility, and drug-loading capacity, were effectively improved by both co-processing methods. However, fluid-bed coating showed greater advantages over co-spray drying in some aspects, which was mainly attributed to the remarkable differences in some fundamental properties of co-processed powders, like particle size, surface topology, and particle structure. For example, the more irregular surface and porous structure induced by fluid-bed coating could contribute to better compaction properties and lower lubricant sensitivity due to the increasing contact area and mechanical interlocking between particles under pressure. More effective surface distribution of HPMC during fluid-bed coating was also a contributor. In addition, such a porous agglomerate structure could also reduce the separation of drug and excipients after mixing, resulting in the improvement in drug loading capacity and tablet uniformity. In summary, fluid-bed coating appears to be more promising for co-processing than spray drying in some aspects, and co-processed excipients produced by it have a great prospect for further investigations and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of the Sugar Cane Bagasse'Sprotein Enrichment Processes, in a Packed-Bed Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julián-Ricardo, María Caridad; Ramos-Sánchez, Luís Beltrán; Gómez-Atanay, Angel Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    The residues of the sugar industry have been used usually, natural or processed in the animal alimentation and have been developed a lot of investigations that are allowed obtain protein enrichment products by solid state fermentation (SSF). However, the technologies employed in the production have limitations that are restraining their commercialization. This investigation was directed to find solutions to the problems that are presented and was planted like objective: to obtain a mathematical model for the scale-up of the sugar cane bagasse´s protein enrichment process, using the Candida utilis yeast, in a packed-bed bioreactor. The experimental work was realized in a pilot plant that have an installation for the air accommodation that is supply for the bioreactor, with a temperature of 30 ºC and more than 95 % of relative humidity. Was used a mathematical model compose by a pseudohomogenous energy balance and the mass balances for the biomass overgrowth and the substrate consumption. The validation studies, was realized by the temperatures comparisons axially measure in 10 L and 100 L bioreactor and the temperatures calculated by simulation. The statistic treatment demonstrate that doesn´t exist big differences between the middle temperatures, for a confidence level of 95 %. The analysis realized to characterize the obtained product, allowed establish that it is accord to quality specifications of the protein enrichment feed. (author)

  3. The performance of a trickle-bed reactor packed with a Pt/SDBC catalyst mixture for the CECE process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Seungwoo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Choi, Heui-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Lee, Minsoo; Yim, Sung-Paal; Chung, Hongsuk; Song, Kyu-Min; Sohn, Soon Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) process with a hydrophobic catalyst is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy wastewater streams because of its high separation factor and mild operating conditions. A hydrophobic platinum/styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer (Pt/SDBC) catalyst which was developed for the liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) column of the Wolsong tritium removal facility (WTRF) has been tested in a trickle bed reactor for the design of the CECE process. An experimental apparatus has been built for the testing of the catalyst at various temperatures and gas velocities. The catalyst column was packed with a mixture of a hydrophobic catalyst and a hydrophilic packing (Dixon gauze ring) to improve the liquid distribution and vapor/liquid transfer area. Many tests have been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to measure the activity of the catalyst, K y a (1 s -1 ), under various operating conditions. K y a increases with the hydrogen flow rates in the range of 0.4-1.6 m s -1 at STP. The height of the catalyst column was determined from these K y a values according to the reaction temperatures and hydrogen flow rates

  4. The performance of a trickle-bed reactor packed with a Pt/SDBC catalyst mixture for the CECE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Seungwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: swpaek@kaeri.re.kr; Ahn, Do-Hee; Choi, Heui-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Lee, Minsoo; Yim, Sung-Paal; Chung, Hongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Sohn, Soon Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) process with a hydrophobic catalyst is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy wastewater streams because of its high separation factor and mild operating conditions. A hydrophobic platinum/styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer (Pt/SDBC) catalyst which was developed for the liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) column of the Wolsong tritium removal facility (WTRF) has been tested in a trickle bed reactor for the design of the CECE process. An experimental apparatus has been built for the testing of the catalyst at various temperatures and gas velocities. The catalyst column was packed with a mixture of a hydrophobic catalyst and a hydrophilic packing (Dixon gauze ring) to improve the liquid distribution and vapor/liquid transfer area. Many tests have been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to measure the activity of the catalyst, K{sub y}a (1 s{sup -1}), under various operating conditions. K{sub y}a increases with the hydrogen flow rates in the range of 0.4-1.6 m s{sup -1} at STP. The height of the catalyst column was determined from these K{sub y}a values according to the reaction temperatures and hydrogen flow rates.

  5. Real-Time Signal Processing for Multiantenna Systems: Algorithms, Optimization, and Implementation on an Experimental Test-Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haustein Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently realized concept of a reconfigurable hardware test-bed suitable for real-time mobile communication with multiple antennas is presented in this paper. We discuss the reasons and prerequisites for real-time capable MIMO transmission systems which may allow channel adaptive transmission to increase link stability and data throughput. We describe a concept of an efficient implementation of MIMO signal processing using FPGAs and DSPs. We focus on some basic linear and nonlinear MIMO detection and precoding algorithms and their optimization for a DSP target, and a few principal steps for computational performance enhancement are outlined. An experimental verification of several real-time MIMO transmission schemes at high data rates in a typical office scenario is presented and results on the achieved BER and throughput performance are given. The different transmission schemes used either channel state information at both sides of the link or at one side only (transmitter or receiver. Spectral efficiencies of more than 20 bits/s/Hz and a throughput of more than 150 Mbps were shown with a single-carrier transmission. The experimental results clearly show the feasibility of real-time high data rate MIMO techniques with state-of-the-art hardware and that more sophisticated baseband signal processing will be an essential part of future communication systems. A discussion on implementation challenges towards future wireless communication systems supporting higher data rates (1 Gbps and beyond or high mobility concludes the paper.

  6. Process engineering and optimization of glycerol separation in a packed-bed reactor for enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Yoshida, Ayumi; Tamadani, Naoki; Kuratani, Nobuyuki; Noda, Hideo; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-11-01

    A process model for efficient glycerol separation during methanolysis in an enzymatic packed-bed reactor (PBR) was developed. A theoretical glycerol removal efficiency from the reaction mixture containing over 30% methyl esters was achieved at a high flow rate of 540 ml/h. To facilitate a stable operation of the PBR system, a batch reaction prior to continuous methanolysis was conducted using oils with different acid values and immobilized lipases pretreated with methyl esters. The reaction system successfully attained the methyl ester content of over 30% along with reduced viscosity and water content. Furthermore, to obtain a high methyl ester content above 96% continuously, long-term lipase stability was confirmed by operating a bench-scale PBR system for 550 h, in which the intermediates containing methyl esters and residual glycerides were fed into the enzyme-packed columns connected in series. Therefore, the developed process model is considered useful for industrial biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration of array eddy current technology for real-time monitoring of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni; Boulware, Paul; Gaah, Kingsley

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at various fabrication stages is required to assure quality of feedstock and solid builds. Industry efforts are shifting towards solutions that can provide real-time monitoring of additive manufacturing (AM) fabrication process layer-by-layer while the component is being built to reduce or eliminate dependence on post-process inspection. Array eddy current (AEC), electromagnetic NDE technique was developed and implemented to directly scan the component without physical contact with the powder and fused layer surfaces at elevated temperatures inside a LPBF chamber. The technique can detect discontinuities, surface irregularities, and undesirable metallurgical phase transformations in magnetic and nonmagnetic conductive materials used for laser fusion. The AEC hardware and software were integrated with the L-PBF test bed. Two layer-by-layer tests of Inconel 625 coupons with AM built discontinuities and lack of fusion were conducted inside the L-PBF chamber. The AEC technology demonstrated excellent sensitivity to seeded, natural surface, and near-surface-embedded discontinuities, while also detecting surface topography. The data was acquired and imaged in a layer-by-layer sequence demonstrating the real-time monitoring capabilities of this new technology.

  8. On-line monitoring of glucose and/or lactate in a fermentation process using an expanded micro-bed flow injection analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, M P; Lali, A M; Mattiasson, B

    1999-01-01

    A novel flow injection biosensor system for monitoring fermentation processes has been developed using an expanded micro bed as the enzyme reactor. An expanded bed reactor is capable of handling a mobile phase containing suspended matter like cells and cell debris. Thus, while the analyte is free to interact with the adsorbent, the suspended particulate matter passes through unhindered. With the use of a scaled down expanded bed in the flow injection analysis (FIA) system, it was possible to analyse samples directly from a fermentor without the pretreatment otherwise required to extract the analyte or remove the suspended cells. This technique, therefore, provides a means to determine the true concentrations of the metabolites in a fermentor, with more ease than possible with other techniques. Glucose oxidase immobilised on STREAMLINE was used to measure glucose concentration in a suspension of dead yeast cells. There was no interference from the cell particles even at high cell densities such as 15 gm dry weight per litre. The assay time was about 6 min. Accuracy and reproducibility of the system was found to be good. In another scheme, lactate oxidase was covalently coupled to STREAMLINE for expanded bed operation. With the on-line expanded micro bed FIA it was possible to follow the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei.

  9. Deposition behavior of colloid in filtration process through glass beads packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinju, Hirofumi; Nagasaki, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoru; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the deposition behavior in colloid transport through porous media by conducting column experiments and batch experiments using polystyrene latex particles and spherical glass beads. The conclusion of this present work are summarized as follows: (1) The comparison between the results of the batch and the column experiments indicated that the deposition was enhanced in the column experiments compared with the batch experiments due to particles trapped by the effect of slow field. (2) Colloid BTCs showed three different stages of deposition which can be characterized by the different rate of the change in the C/C O . Three stages can be explained by the existence of large area of weak deposition sites and small area of strong deposition sites on the collector surfaces. (3) The amount of deposited particles until the beginning of the third stage was larger for lower flow velocity. (4) The results of the column experiments revealed that breakthrough behavior of colloidal particles of the second run after back wash process is affected by remaining particles on collector surfaces. (J.P.N.)

  10. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  11. Analysis of orientation patterns in Olduvai Bed I assemblages using GIS techniques: implications for site formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    Mary Leakey's excavations at Olduvai Beds I and II provided an unparalleled wealth of data on the archaeology of the early Pleistocene. We have been able to obtain axial orientations of the Bed I bone and stone tools by applying GIS methods to the site plans contained in the Olduvai Volume 3 monograph (Leakey, 1971). Our analysis indicates that the Bed I assemblages show preferred orientations, probably caused by natural agents such as water disturbance. These results, based on new GIS techniques applied to paleoanthropological studies, have important implications for the understanding of the formative agents of Olduvai sites and the behavioral meaning of the bone and lithic accumulations in Bed I. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  13. Process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J

    1910-12-11

    A process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas from Australian bituminous shale by distillation and decomposition in the presence of water vapor is characterized by the fact that the gasification is suitably undertaken with gradual filling of a retort and with simultaneous introduction of water vapor at a temperature not exceeding 1,000/sup 0/ C. The resulting amount of gas is heated in the same or a second heated retort with freshly supplied vapor.

  14. Batch statistical process control of a fluid bed granulation process using in-line spatial filter velocimetry and product temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2011-04-18

    Fluid bed granulation is a batch process, which is characterized by the processing of raw materials for a predefined period of time, consisting of a fixed spraying phase and a subsequent drying period. The present study shows the multivariate statistical modeling and control of a fluid bed granulation process based on in-line particle size distribution (PSD) measurements (using spatial filter velocimetry) combined with continuous product temperature registration using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Via the continuous in-line monitoring of the PSD and product temperature during granulation of various reference batches, a statistical batch model was developed allowing the real-time evaluation and acceptance or rejection of future batches. Continuously monitored PSD and product temperature process data of 10 reference batches (X-data) were used to develop a reference batch PLS model, regressing the X-data versus the batch process time (Y-data). Two PLS components captured 98.8% of the variation in the X-data block. Score control charts in which the average batch trajectory and upper and lower control limits are displayed were developed. Next, these control charts were used to monitor 4 new test batches in real-time and to immediately detect any deviations from the expected batch trajectory. By real-time evaluation of new batches using the developed control charts and by computation of contribution plots of deviating process behavior at a certain time point, batch losses or reprocessing can be prevented. Immediately after batch completion, all PSD and product temperature information (i.e., a batch progress fingerprint) was used to estimate some granule properties (density and flowability) at an early stage, which can improve batch release time. Individual PLS models relating the computed scores (X) of the reference PLS model (based on the 10 reference batches) and the density, respectively, flowabililty as Y-matrix, were developed. The scores of the 4 test

  15. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 1: Process performance and gas product characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Results from five experimental campaigns with Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT-CFB) gasification of straw and/or municipal sewage sludge (MSS) from three different Danish municipal waste water treatment plants in pilot and demonstration scale are analyzed and compared. The gasification...... process is characterized with respect to process stability, process performance and gas product characteristics. All experimental campaigns were conducted at maximum temperatures below 750°C, with air equivalence ratios around 0.12 and with pure silica sand as start-up bed material. A total of 8600kg...... particles in the system. Co-gasification of MSS with sufficient amounts of cereal straw was found to be an effective way to mitigate these issues as well as eliminate thermal MSS drying requirements. Characterization of gas products and process performance showed that even though gas composition varied...

  16. Moving-bed: a stable and rapidly recovering process; El sistema de biomasa fija sobre lecho movil: un proceso estable y de rapida recuperacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco Munguira, A.; Jorda Llona, J. R.; Farre Solsona, C.; Cortacans Torre, J. A.

    2005-07-01

    A moving-bed biofilm process is presented for the treatment of soft drink factory outlet. Once the system has been stabilized regarding oxygen, nutrient addition and pH control, the process goes on up to a 95% and over 98% reduction of COD and BOD, respectively, rapidly recovering from toxic shacks. Sludge production is larger than expected due to a higher yield of bacteria growing on a sugar-rich influent. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Fluidized Bed Biodenitrification Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendt, T. M; Heider, Jr., P. F; Kaplan, A. M

    1978-01-01

    .... Nitrate reduction efficiency with the conical column was excellent using either conventional alcohol carbon/energy sources or less conventional dairy whey and sugar beet molasses carbon/energy sources...

  18. Characteristic and antioxidant activity of retorted gelatin hydrolysates from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Ho, Hsin-Yi; Chu, Yuh-Jwo; Chow, Chau-Jen

    2008-09-01

    Alkali-pretreated cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was extracted in a retort (121°C) for 30min to obtain a retorted skin gelatin hydrolysate (RSGH). The molecular mass distributions and antioxidant activities of cobia RSGH and enzyme-treated RSGHs (ET-RSGHs) derived from bromelain, papain, pancreatin, and trypsin digestion were then characterized. The molecular mass distribution of the RSGH ranged mainly between 20,000 and 700Da and those of ET-RSGHs ranged between 6500 and 700Da. The DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effects (%) of 10mg/ml of RSGH and 10mg/ml of the four ET-RSGHs were 55% and 51-61%, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition (%) of RSGH and ET-RSGHs (10mg/ml) were 58% and 60-71% on the fifth day in a linoleic acid model system, respectively. The 3Kd-ET-RSGHs, obtained by using a series of centrifugal ultrafiltration filters (molecular weight cut-offs of 10, 5, and 3kDa done sequentially with decreasing pore size), exhibited dramatically improved antioxidant activity, with most of the molecular mass ranging below 700Da. Compared to 10mg/ml of the RSGH, 10mg/ml of 3Kd-ET-RSGHs exhibited 45-65% more scavenging of DPPH radical and 24-38% more inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The peptides with molecular masses below 700Da in the ET-RSGHs or 3Kd-ET-RSGHs significantly affect the antioxidant properties. These peptides are composed of a small number of amino acids or free amino acids and have the potential to be added as antioxidants in foods. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  20. Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Samária Ali; de Souza Vale, Rodrigo Gomes; Zamora, Victor Emmanuel; Costa, Claudia Henrique; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and identify predictors of successful weaning. Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14) that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT(®) device or to a control group (n = 14) that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer. The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H(2)O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4-10), and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/ min/L, 95% CI -26 to 6) in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (χ(2) = 1.47; P = 0.20). However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08-18.06). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area beneath the curve of 0.877 ± 0.06 for the Tobin index and 0.845 ± 0.07 for maximum inspiratory pressure. The IMT intervention significantly increased maximum inspiratory pressure and significantly reduced the Tobin index; both measures are considered to be good extubation indices. IMT was associated with a reduction in noninvasive positive

  1. PRODUCTION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASE ESTERIFICATION IN PACKED BED REACTOR: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANARIAH MOHD DOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acylglycerols (or glycerides are formed of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol classes. In this study, an alternative method to produce MCA from esterifying palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD with the presence of oil palm mesocarp lipase (OPML which is a plant-sourced lipase and PFAD is also cheap by-product is developed in a packed bed reactor. The production of medium-chain acylglycerols (MCA by lipase-catalysed esterification of palm oil fatty acid distillate with glycerol are optimize in order to determine the factors that have significant effects on the reaction condition and high yield of MCA. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (30-240 min, enzyme load (0.5-1.5 kg, silica gel load (0.2-1.0 kg, and solvent amount (200-600 vol/wt. Reaction time, enzyme loading and solvent amount strongly effect MCA synthesis (p0.05 influence on MCA yield. Best-fitting models were successfully established for MCA yield (R 2 =0.9133. The optimum MCA yield were 75% from the predicted value and 75.4% from the experimental data for 6 kg enzyme loading, a reaction time of 135min and a solvent amount of 350 vol/wt at 65ºC reaction temperature. Verification of experimental results under optimized reaction conditions were conducted, and the results agreed well with the predicted range. Esterification products (mono-, di- and triacylglycerol from the PBR were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The chromatograms showed the successful fractionation of esterified products in this alternative method of process esterification.

  2. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were

  3. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were previously not amenable to low cost limestone treatment.

  4. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  5. On suitability of novel fluidised bed technique for separation of metallic powders during commercial powder metallurgical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritherdon, J; Dechsiri, C; Jones, AR; Hoffmann, AC; Wright, IG

    Experiments have been performed to test the efficiency with which a novel fluidised bed technique could separate different metallic powders in terms of size and density. The overall aim was to assess the potential of this technique for the commercial separation of defective powder fractions from

  6. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  7. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S.N.; Bawa, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60 Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F 0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities. - Highlights: → A combination processing involving gamma irradiation and retort processing. → Combination processing reduced microbial loads. → Minimum dose of 4.0 kGy together with retort processing at F 0 -2.0 is required to achieve commercial sterility.

  8. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R., E-mail: kumardfrl@gmail.com [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S.N.; Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with {sup 60}Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F{sub 0} value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities. - Highlights: > A combination processing involving gamma irradiation and retort processing. > Combination processing reduced microbial loads. > Minimum dose of 4.0 kGy together with retort processing at F{sub 0}-2.0 is required to achieve commercial sterility.

  9. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R

    2014-08-01

    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  11. Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cader SA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Samária Ali Cader,1 Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale,1 Victor Emmanuel Zamora,2 Claudia Henrique Costa,2 Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas11Laboratory of Human Kinetics Bioscience, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, 2Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, School of Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT and identify predictors of successful weaning.Methods: Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14 that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT® device or to a control group (n = 14 that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer.Results: The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H2O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4–10, and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/min/L, 95% CI −26 to 6 in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (Χ2 = 1.47; P = 0.20. However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08–18.06. The receiver

  12. Modeling of an axial flow, spherical packed-bed reactor for naphtha reforming process in the presence of the catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranshahi, D.; Pourazadi, E.; Paymooni, K.; Bahmanpour, A.M.; Rahimpour, M.R.; Shariati, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Improving the octane number of the aromatics' compounds has always been an important matter in refineries and lots of investigations have been made concerning this issue. In this study, an axial-flow spherical packed-bed reactor (AF-SPBR) is considered for naphtha reforming process in the presence of catalyst deactivation. Model equations are solved by the orthogonal collocation method. The AF-SPBR results are compared with the plant data of a conventional tubular packed-bed reactor (TR). The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on aromatic and hydrogen production rates and catalyst activity have been investigated. Higher production rates of aromatics can successfully be achieved in this novel reactor. Moreover, results show the capability of flow augmentation in the proposed configuration in comparison with the TR. This study shows the superiority of AF-SPBR configuration to the conventional types. (author)

  13. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-06

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF6 by fluidized-bed processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF 6 and on purification of the UF 6 . Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF 2 were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO 3 and the direct fluorination of UO 3 to UF 6

  15. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF/sub 6/ by fluidized-bed processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF/sub 6/ and on purification of the UF/sub 6/. Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO/sub 3/) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF/sub 2/ were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO/sub 3/ and the direct fluorination of UO/sub 3/ to UF/sub 6/.

  16. Combining microwave resonance technology to multivariate data analysis as a novel PAT tool to improve process understanding in fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Vera; Herdling, Thorsten; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Lochmann, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A set of 192 fluid bed granulation batches at industrial scale were in-line monitored using microwave resonance technology (MRT) to determine moisture, temperature and density of the granules. Multivariate data analysis techniques such as multiway partial least squares (PLS), multiway principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate batch control charts were applied onto collected batch data sets. The combination of all these techniques, along with off-line particle size measurements, led to significantly increased process understanding. A seasonality effect could be put into evidence that impacted further processing through its influence on the final granule size. Moreover, it was demonstrated by means of a PLS that a relation between the particle size and the MRT measurements can be quantitatively defined, highlighting a potential ability of the MRT sensor to predict information about the final granule size. This study has contributed to improve a fluid bed granulation process, and the process knowledge obtained shows that the product quality can be built in process design, following Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) principles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  18. Quality risk management of top spray fluidized bed process for antihypertensive drug formulation with control strategy engendered by Box-behnken experimental design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharya, Amit; Patel, Paresh U; Shenoy, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Shivang

    2013-01-01

    Lacidipine (LCDP) is a very low soluble and highly biovariable calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. To increase its apparent solubility and to reduce its biovariability, solid dispersion fluid bed processing technology was explored, as it produces highly dispersible granules with a characteristic porous structure that enhances dispersibility, wettability, blend uniformity (by dissolving and spraying a solution of actives), flow ability and compressibility of granules for tableting and reducing variability by uniform drug-binder solution distribution on carrier molecules. Main object of this quality risk management (QRM) study is to provide a sophisticated "robust and rugged" Fluidized Bed Process (FBP) for the preparation of LCDP tablets with desired quality (stability) and performance (dissolution) by quality by design (QbD) concept. THIS STUDY IS PRINCIPALLY FOCUSING ON THOROUGH MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE FBP BY WHICH IT IS DEVELOPED AND SCALED UP WITH A KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRITICAL RISKS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS ANALYZED BY RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS LIKE: Qualitative Initial Risk-based Matrix Analysis (IRMA) and Quantitative Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA) to identify and rank parameters with potential to have an impact on In Process/Finished Product Critical Quality Attributes (IP/FP CQAs). These Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) were further refined by DoE and MVDA to develop design space with Real Time Release Testing (RTRT) that leads to implementation of a control strategy to achieve consistent finished product quality at lab scale itself to prevent possible product failure at larger manufacturing scale.

  19. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  20. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  1. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, H K

    1917-11-20

    A gas suitable for use in containers or motor-vehicles, etc., and consisting mainly of methane, is obtained by distilling at a temperature not exceeding 500/sup 0/C bastard cannel coal, lignite, wood, peat, shale, etc., in an horizontal or vertical retort, through which the material is continuously fed in a thin layer or column by means of a screw conveyor or the like. Cracking or dissociation of the gaseous products is prevented by introducing into the retort part of the gas which is the result of the process and which is compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres and allowed to expand into the retort to cool and carry away the gaseous products produced. These are then passed through condensers for extracting liquid hydrocarbons, and other hydrocarbons are extracted by passage through washing-oils. The gas is then compressed by a water-cooled pump to a pressure of 15 atmospheres, whereby a spirit similar to petrol is formed, and a stable gas left which is mainly methane, part of the gas being used to carry out the process described above.

  2. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  3. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  4. Production of specifically structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot enzyme bed reactor: process optimization by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    Pilot production of specifically structured lipids by Lipozyme IM-catalyzed interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed reactor without the use of solvent. Medium chain triacylglycerols and oleic acid were used as model substrates. Response surface methodology was applied...... and the production of mono-incorporated and di-incorporated structured lipids with multiple regression and backward elimination. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the incorporation was 0.93, and that for the di-incorporated products was 0.94. The optimal conditions were flow rate, 2 ml/min; temperature, 65...

  5. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  6. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  7. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Mondino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA process for post-combustion CO2 capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO2 purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO2 purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO2 purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO2/N2 selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.

  8. An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Wang, Jenny; Kiss, Andrew M.; Martin, Aiden A.; Depond, Philip J.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Thampy, Vivek; Fong, Anthony Y.; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Stone, Kevin H.; Tassone, Christopher J.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Toney, Michael F.; Van Buuren, Anthony; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2018-05-01

    In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation. We also present experimental results using Ti-6Al-4V, a widely used aerospace alloy, as a model system. Both imaging and diffraction experiments were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Melt pool dynamics were imaged at frame rates up to 4 kHz with a ˜1.1 μm effective pixel size and revealed the formation of keyhole pores along the melt track due to vapor recoil forces. Diffraction experiments at sampling rates of 1 kHz captured phase evolution and lattice contraction during the rapid cooling present in LPBF within a ˜50 × 100 μm area. We also discuss the utility of these measurements for model validation and process improvement.

  9. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  10. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, E.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Juárez, E.; Salvador, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  11. Shaft-retort for treating waste materials, like washery waste, bituminous shale, oil-bearing sands and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, H

    1916-10-29

    A shaft-retort for converting waste materials, like washery waste, bituminous shale, oil-bearing sands, brown coal and non-coking mineral coal to oil and tar by supplying heat through the shaft wall formed of an iron-sheet to the material, which is forced through a feeding member perforated for the removal of gases and vapors, and moved downward in a thin layer on the shaft wall; that is characterized by the fact that the iron heating sheet is made rotatable for the purpose of equalizing overheating of itself and the material to be treated.

  12. Treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater by a Fenton-like process in a continuous packed-bed reactor filled with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Matos, Luis C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Duarte, Filipa [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Maldonado-Hodar, F.J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Mendes, Adelio [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Madeira, Luis M., E-mail: mmadeira@fe.up.pt [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation with the Fenton's reagent was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The packed-bed was filled with iron-impregnated activated carbon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increment of temperature increases the Chicago Sky Blue removal and mineralization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of iron leaching were below 0.4 ppm in the outlet effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to reach a dye conversion of 88% in steady-state. - Abstract: In this work, oxidation with a Fenton-like process of a dye solution was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. Activated carbon Norit RX 3 Extra was impregnated with ferrous sulfate and used as catalyst (7 wt.% of iron). The effect of the main operating conditions in the Chicago Sky Blue (CSB) degradation was analyzed. It was found that the increase in temperature leads to a higher removal of the dye and an increased mineralization. However, it also increases the iron leaching, but the values observed were below 0.4 ppm (thus, far below European Union limits). It was possible to reach, at steady-state, a dye conversion of 88%, with a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of ca. 47%, being the reactor operated at 50 Degree-Sign C, pH 3, W{sub cat}/Q = 4.1 g min mL{sup -1} (W{sub cat} is the mass of catalyst and Q the total feed flow rate) and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} feed concentration of 2.25 mM (for a CSB feed concentration of 0.012 mM). The same performance was reached in three consecutive cycles.

  13. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  14. Application of Distributed Temperature Sensing for coupled mapping of sedimentation processes and spatio-temporal variability of groundwater discharge in soft-bedded streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebok, Eva; Duque, C; Engesgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , maximum and mean streambed temperatures as well as the daily amplitude and standard deviation of temperatures. The identified potential high-discharge areas were mostly located near the channel banks, also showing temporal variability because of the scouring and redistribution of streambed sediments......The delineation of groundwater discharge areas based on Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) data of the streambed can be difficult in soft-bedded streams where sedimentation and scouring processes constantly change the position of the fibre optic cable relative to the streambed. Deposition...... variability in streambed temperatures between October 2011 and January 2012. Detailed monthly streambed elevation surveys were carried out to monitor the position of the fibre optic cable relative to the streambed and to quantify the effect of sedimentation processes on streambed temperatures. Based...

  15. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Scaled-up electrochemical reactor with a fixed bed three-dimensional cathode for electro-Fenton process: Application to the treatment of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmayssem, Ayman; Taha, Samir; Hauchard, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development of an open undivided electrochemical reactor with a compact fixed bed of glassy carbon pellets as three-dimensional cathode for the application of electro-Fenton process. Bisphenol A (BPA) was chosen as model molecule in order to improve its efficiency to the treatment of persistent pollutants. The study of the BPA removal efficiency in function of the applied current intensity was investigated in order to determine the limiting current of O 2 reduction (optimal conditions of H 2 O 2 production at flow rate of 0.36 m 3 .h −1 ) which was 0.8 A (0.5 A/100 g of glassy carbon pellets). Many parameters have been carried out using this electro-Fenton reactor namely degradation kinetics, influence of anodic reactions on DSA, effect of initial pollutant concentration. In the optimal current condition, the global production rate of H 2 O 2 and ·OH was investigated. The yield of electro-Fenton reaction (conversion of H 2 O 2 to ·OH) was very high (> 90%). The absolute rate of BPA degradation was determined as 4.3 × 10 9 M −1 s −1 . COD, TOC and BOD 5 measurements indicated that only few minutes of treatment by electro-Fenton process were needed to eliminate BPA for dilute solutions (10 and 25 mg.L −1 ). In this case, the biodegradability of the treated solutions occurred rapidly. For higher concentration levels, an efficient removal of BPA appeared for treatment time higher than 1 hour and more than 90 minutes were necessary to obtain the biodegradability of BPA solutions. In optimum conditions, the scale-up of the electrochemical reactor applied to electro-Fenton process was suggested and depended on the concentration level of the pollutant. The operating parameters of the scaled-up reactor might be deduced from the new section of each fixed bed exposed to the flow, from values of liquid flow velocity and from the corresponding limiting current density obtained with the reactor at laboratory scale. The compact fixed bed

  17. Heavy metal removal from produced water using retorted shale; Remocao de metais pesados em aguas produzidas utilizando xisto retortado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos A.F.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Silva Junior, Carlos N.; Assuncao, Ary L.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2004-07-01

    The Production of oil and gas is usually accompanied by the production of large volume of water that can have significant environmental effects if not properly treated. In this work, the use of retort shale was investigated as adsorbent agent to remove heavy metals in produced water. Batch adsorption studies in synthetic solution were performed for several metal ions. The efficiency removal was controlled by solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial ion concentration and agitation times. Two simple kinetic models were used, pseudo-first- and second-order, were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The produced water samples were treated by retorted shale under optimum adsorption conditions. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elements present in produced water samples from oil field in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The removal was found to be approximately 20-50% for Co, Ni, Sr and above 80% for Cr, Ba, Hg and Pb. (author)

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  19. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  20. Assessment of attenuation processes in a chlorinated ethene plume by use of stream bed Passive Flux Meters, streambed Point Velocity Probes and contaminant mass balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønde, Vinni Kampman; McKnight, Ursula S.; Annable, Michael

    , however studies contradicting this have also been reported. Since dilution commonly reduces contaminant concentrations in streams to below quantification limits, use of mass balances along the pathway from groundwater to stream is unusual. Our study is conducted at the low-land Grindsted stream, Denmark......Chlorinated ethenes (CE) are abundant groundwater contaminants and pose risk to both groundwater and surface water bodies, as plumes can migrate through aquifers to streams. After release to the environment, CE may undergo attenuation. The hyporheic zone is believed to enhance CE attenuation......, which is impacted by a contaminant plume. CE have been observed in the stream water; hence our study site provides an unusual opportunity to study attenuation processes in a CE plume as it migrates through the groundwater at the stream bank, through the stream bed and further to the point of fully mixed...

  1. Using a Near-Bed Sediment Flux Sensor to Measure Wave Formed Bedform Migrations and Formation Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Traykovski, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    My research program focuses on identifying and quantifying sediment erosion, transport, and deposition processes on the continental shelf through state of the art observational techniques in both fine...

  2. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E.; Alavi Moghaddam, M.R.; Hashemi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  3. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) as a source of high quality process heat for sustainable oil sands expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.; Kuhr, R.

    2008-01-01

    Bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading consumes large quantities of natural gas for production of steam, hot water and hydrogen. Massive expansion of bitumen production is planned in response to energy demands, oil prices, and the desire for energy security. The PBMR in its Process Heat configuration supports applications that compete in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable way with natural gas fired boilers and steam methane reforming. The PBMR has the benefit of size, passive nuclear safety characteristics (encompassing Generation IV safety principles), high reliability, high temperature process heat (750-950 o C) in a modular design suited to the oil sands industry. (author)

  4. Degradation and COD removal of catechol in wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Ali Ahmad; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2015-07-01

    The effect of ozonation catalyzed with MgO/granular activated carbon (MgO/GAC) composite as a pretreatment process on the performance of cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor (CRBR) for the catechol removal from wastewater has been investigated. CRBR with acclimated biomasses could efficiently remove catechol and its related COD from wastewater at organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.82 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 9 h). Then, OLR increased to 15.64 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 4.5 h) and CRBR failed. Catalytic ozonation process (COP) used as a pre-treatment and could improve the performance of the failed CRBR. The overall removal efficiency of the combined process attained respective steady states of 91% and 79% for degradation and COD removal of catechol. Therefore, the combined process is more effective in degradation and COD removal of catechol; it is also a viable alternative for upgrading industrial wastewater treatment plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  6. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values 2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds

  7. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  8. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    The coal to hydrogen project utilizes the iron/iron oxide looping process to produce high purity hydrogen. The input energy for the process is provided by syngas coming from gasification process of coal. The reaction pathways for this process have been studied and favorable conditions for energy efficient operation have been identified. The Magnetically Stabilized Porous Structure (MSPS) is invented. It is fabricated from iron and silica particles and its repeatable high performance has been demonstrated through many experiments under various conditions in thermogravimetric analyzer, a lab-scale reactor, and a large scale reactor. The chemical reaction kinetics for both oxidation and reduction steps has been investigated thoroughly inside MSPS as well as on the surface of very smooth iron rod. Hydrogen, CO, and syngas have been tested individually as the reducing agent in reduction step and their performance is compared. Syngas is found to be the most pragmatic reducing agent for the two-step water splitting process. The transport properties of MSPS including porosity, permeability, and effective thermal conductivity are determined based on high resolution 3D CT x-ray images obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and pore-level simulations using a lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE)-based mesoscopic model developed during this investigation. The results of those measurements and simulations provide necessary inputs to the development of a reliable volume-averaging-based continuum model that is used to simulate the dynamics of the redox process in MSPS. Extensive efforts have been devoted to simulate the redox process in MSPS by developing a continuum model consist of various modules for conductive and radiative heat transfer, fluid flow, species transport, and reaction kinetics. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for species transport of chemically reacting flow in porous media have been investigated and verified numerically. Both approaches lead to correct

  9. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  10. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  11. Retrieval process development and enhancements: Hydraulic test bed integrated testing. Fiscal year 1995 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.; Tucker, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, is testing the performance of a technology of high-pressure waterjet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside waste storage tanks. Waste stimulants have been designed to challenge this retrieval process, and this technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste stimulants, at target retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of postulated deployment systems. The approach has been demonstrated to be versatile in dislodging and conveying a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes, through the use of simple and reliable in-tank components

  12. Detection system for location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongbing, E-mail: liuhb07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Dong, E-mail: dudong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, An; Chang, Baohua; Han, Zandong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Ayada [Shanghai Electric Power Generation Group Shanghai Generator Works, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A detection system for locations of pebbles transported in pipes is introduced. • The detection system is based on vibration signal processing, which is original. • The characteristics of the vibration signals of the pipe are analyzed. • The experiment shows that the detection results are accurate. • The research provides an important basis for the design of the reactor. - Abstract: Pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors have many advantages such as inherent safety, high efficiency, etc., and have been considered as a candidate for Generation IV nuclear reactors. During the operation of the reactor, there are thousands of fuel pebbles transported in the pipes outside the core by gravity and helium flow. The pattern of the pipes which consist of straight and arc sections is very complex. When a fuel pebble is transported, it will constantly collide with the pipes, especially in the arc sections. The collisions will lead to the vibration of the pipes. This paper aims to provide a detection system for the location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing. Before the reactor is running, the system acquires the vibration signals of several key sections by sensors. Then the frequency characteristics of the signals are obtained by joint time–frequency analysis. When the reactor is running, the system detects the signals and processes them based on their frequency characteristics in real time. According to the results of the processing, the system can correctly judge whether the fuel pebble has passed through the section and records the time of the passing. The experiment validates the accuracy and reliability of the detection results. In this way, the operational condition of the reactor can be monitored so that the normal running of the reactor can be ensured. Additionally, the detection data are of great significance to the evaluation and optimization of the reactor performance

  13. Detection system for location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbing; Du, Dong; Huang, An; Chang, Baohua; Han, Zandong; He, Ayada

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A detection system for locations of pebbles transported in pipes is introduced. • The detection system is based on vibration signal processing, which is original. • The characteristics of the vibration signals of the pipe are analyzed. • The experiment shows that the detection results are accurate. • The research provides an important basis for the design of the reactor. - Abstract: Pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors have many advantages such as inherent safety, high efficiency, etc., and have been considered as a candidate for Generation IV nuclear reactors. During the operation of the reactor, there are thousands of fuel pebbles transported in the pipes outside the core by gravity and helium flow. The pattern of the pipes which consist of straight and arc sections is very complex. When a fuel pebble is transported, it will constantly collide with the pipes, especially in the arc sections. The collisions will lead to the vibration of the pipes. This paper aims to provide a detection system for the location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing. Before the reactor is running, the system acquires the vibration signals of several key sections by sensors. Then the frequency characteristics of the signals are obtained by joint time–frequency analysis. When the reactor is running, the system detects the signals and processes them based on their frequency characteristics in real time. According to the results of the processing, the system can correctly judge whether the fuel pebble has passed through the section and records the time of the passing. The experiment validates the accuracy and reliability of the detection results. In this way, the operational condition of the reactor can be monitored so that the normal running of the reactor can be ensured. Additionally, the detection data are of great significance to the evaluation and optimization of the reactor performance

  14. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  15. Environmental Benefit Assessment for the Carbonation Process of Petroleum Coke Fly Ash in a Rotating Packed Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Si-Lu; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Ye-Mei; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-09-19

    A high-gravity carbonation process was deployed at a petrochemical plant using petroleum coke fly ash and blowdown wastewater to simultaneously mineralized CO 2 and remove nitrogen oxides and particulate matters from the flue gas. With a high-gravity carbonation process, the CO 2 removal efficiency was found to be 95.6%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 600 kg CO 2 per day, at a gas flow rate of 1.47 m 3 /min under ambient temperature and pressure. Moreover, the removal efficiency of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters was 99.1% and 83.2%, respectively. After carbonation, the reacted fly ash was further utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The results indicated that cement with carbonated fly ash exhibited superior compressive strength (38.1 ± 2.5 MPa at 28 days in 5% substitution ratio) compared to the cement with fresh fly ash. Furthermore, the environmental benefits for the high-gravity carbonation process using fly ash were critically assessed. The energy consumption of the entire high-gravity carbonation ranged from 80 to 169 kWh/t-CO 2 (0.29-0.61 GJ/t-CO 2 ). Compared with the scenarios of business-as-usual and conventional carbon capture and storage plant, the economic benefit from the high-gravity carbonation process was approximately 90 and 74 USD per ton of CO 2 fixation, respectively.

  16. The pebble-bed high-temperature reactor as a source of nuclear process heat. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.; Schulten, R.; Kugeler, M.; Niessen, H.F.; Roeth-Kamat, M.; Hohn, H.; Woike, O.; Germer, J.H.

    1974-08-01

    The characteristic questions concerning a process heat reactor with high helium outlet temperatures are dealt with in this volume like e.g. fuel element design, corrosion, and fission product release. Furthermore, some possibilities of the technical realization of the hot-gas ducting and intermediate heat exchangers are described. Important parameters for the design of the reactor such as core power density, helium inlet and outlet temperatures, helium pressure and fuel cycle burn-up and conversion and the effect of these on the primary circuit are investigated. The important question regarding which reactor vessel is to be chosen for nuclear process heat plants is discussed with the aid of the integrated and non-integrated concepts using prestressed concrete, cast iron and cast steel. Thereafter, considerations on the safety of the nuclear plant are given. Finally, mention is made of the availability of the nuclear plant and of the status of development of the HTR technology. (orig.) [de

  17. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  18. Total quality management in a 300-bed community hospital: the quality improvement process translated to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M

    1992-09-01

    Winter Park Memorial Hospital (Winter Park, Florida) began implementation of a well-strategized plan for total quality management (TQM) in 1987. Having no guidelines for applying TQM to health care but using the industrial quality management techniques of Philip Crosby Associates, Inc, the hospital made the transition and saved thousands of dollars in the process. This article describes the transition, especially the integral part played by the Medical Staff Quality Council in changing the hospital's culture.

  19. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project. Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-06-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process

  20. The pebble-bed high-temperature reactor as a source of nuclear process heat. Vol. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Kugeler, K.; Kugeler, M.; Niessen, H.F.; Roeth-Kamat, M.; Woike, O.

    1974-08-01

    The necessary development steps, which have to be taken for the construction of a prototype plant for nuclear process heat, are enumerated. In particular, the work which is involved for the development of the nuclear steam-reforming technique, for the further development of the ball-shaped fuel elements at high gas outlet temperatures and for the reactor components, is described in detail. A brief survey of the needs of development of the IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) is given. An attempt is made to give overall time and cost estimates. (orig.) [de

  1. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Stromal vascular fraction isolated from lipo-aspirates using an automated processing system: bench and bed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kentaro; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Iida, Hideo; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kuno, Shinichiro; Hirohi, Toshitsugu; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-11-01

    The heterogeneous stromal vascular fraction (SVF), containing adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells (ASCs), can be easily isolated through enzymatic digestion of aspirated adipose tissue. In clinical settings, however, strict control of technical procedures according to standard operating procedures and validation of cell-processing conditions are required. Therefore, we evaluated the efficiency and reliability of an automated system for SVF isolation from adipose tissue. SVF cells, freshly isolated using the automated procedure, showed comparable number and viability to those from manual isolation. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed an SVF cell composition profile similar to that after manual isolation. In addition, the ASC yield after 1 week in culture was also not significantly different between the two groups. Our clinical study, in which SVF cells isolated with the automated system were transplanted with aspirated fat tissue for soft tissue augmentation/reconstruction in 42 patients, showed satisfactory outcomes with no serious side-effects. Taken together, our results suggested that the automated isolation system is as reliable a method as manual isolation and may also be useful in clinical settings. Automated isolation is expected to enable cell-based clinical trials in small facilities with an aseptic room, without the necessity of a good manufacturing practice-level cell processing area. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of granular activated carbon addition on the effluent properties and fouling potentials of membrane-coupled expanded granular sludge bed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, An; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Bai, Langming; Li, Guibai; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2014-11-01

    To mitigate membrane fouling of membrane-coupled anaerobic process, granular activated carbon (GAC: 50 g/L) was added into an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB). A short-term ultrafiltration test was investigated for analyzing membrane fouling potential and underlying fouling mechanisms. The results showed that adding GAC into the EGSB not only improved the COD removal efficiency, but also alleviated membrane fouling efficiently because GAC could help to reduce soluble microbial products, polysaccharides and proteins by 26.8%, 27.8% and 24.7%, respectively, compared with the control system. Furthermore, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy analysis revealed that GAC addition mainly reduced tryptophan protein-like, aromatic protein-like and fulvic-like substances. In addition, the resistance distribution analysis demonstrated that adding GAC primarily decreased the cake layer resistance by 53.5%. The classic filtration mode analysis showed that cake filtration was the major fouling mechanism for membrane-coupled EGSB process regardless of the GAC addition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of holding time variations to Ni and Fe content and morphology in nickel laterite limonitic reduction process by using coal-dolomite bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Fakhreza; Pintowantoro, Sungging; Yuwandono, Ridwan Bagus

    2018-04-01

    With the depletion of nickel sulfide ore resources, the nickel laterit processing become an attention to fulfill nickel world demans. Reducing laterite nickel by using a low cost carbonaceous reductan has proved produces high grade ferronickel alloy. In this research, reduction was carried out to low grade laterite nickel (limonite) with 1.25% nikel content by using CO gas reductant formed by reaction between coal and dolomite. Reduction process preceded by forming brickets mixture from limonit ore, coal, and Na2SO4, then the brickets placed inside crucible bed together with dolomit and reduced at temperature 1400 °C with holding time variations 4, 6, and 8 hours. EDX, XRD, and SEM test were carried out to find out the Ni and nickel grade after reduced, the phases that formed, and the morphology brickets after reduced. The reduction results shows that the highest increase on nickel grade was obtained by 8 hours holding time increasing 5.84 % from initial grade, and the highest recovery was obtained by 6 hours holding time with recovery 88.51 %. While the higest increase on Fe grade was obtained by 4 hours holding time, and the highest recovery Fe was obtained by 4 hours holding time with recovery 85.41%.

  5. On the role of heat and mass transfer into laser processability during selective laser melting AlSi12 alloy based on a randomly packed powder-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfeng; Yan, Biao; Guo, Lijie; Gu, Dongdong

    2018-04-01

    A newly transient mesoscopic model with a randomly packed powder-bed has been proposed to investigate the heat and mass transfer and laser process quality between neighboring tracks during selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi12 alloy by finite volume method (FVM), considering the solid/liquid phase transition, variable temperature-dependent properties and interfacial force. The results apparently revealed that both the operating temperature and resultant cooling rate were obviously elevated by increasing the laser power. Accordingly, the resultant viscosity of liquid significantly reduced under a large laser power and was characterized with a large velocity, which was prone to result in a more intensive convection within pool. In this case, the sufficient heat and mass transfer occurred at the interface between the previously fabricated tracks and currently building track, revealing a strongly sufficient spreading between the neighboring tracks and a resultant high-quality surface without obvious porosity. By contrast, the surface quality of SLM-processed components with a relatively low laser power notably weakened due to the limited and insufficient heat and mass transfer at the interface of neighboring tracks. Furthermore, the experimental surface morphologies of the top surface were correspondingly acquired and were in full accordance to the calculated results via simulation.

  6. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Moving-Bed Process for Residue Hydrotreating Procédé à lit mobile pour l'hydrotraitement des résidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzen J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of chemical, petrochemical or refining processes require contact between three phases : a liquid feed, a gaseous reactant and a solid catalyst. Frequently, the catalyst activity is reduced by poisoning of active sites or coke deposits. This is especially the case with the processes used in heavy residual oils hydrotreating. As the catalyst life is reduced, the substitution or regeneration of the inactive catalyst is frequently necessary. Various solutions, such, as fixed beds used with swing reactors, fluidized beds, or moving beds with down flow of the catalyst and co-current or counter-current of the feed, can be proposed to perform this task with a minimum of time and production losses. A theoretical comparison between the performances of the various technologies has been made by means of a detailed simulation of the behaviour of each of these catalytic beds over a long period. Of course, in the models, some assumptions are necessary, like the ideal fluid and solids flows. Nevertheless, the problem remains complex because hydrodynamic, kinetic, catalyst deactivation, or thermal effects occur simultaneously, within the particules and/or in the bed as a whole. Various pilot plant data are of course used in order to build the kinetic part of the models. This comparison shows a marked advantage for the moving bed with counter-current flow between feed and catalyst owing to the systematic optimum use of the catalyst potential. Consequently, a series of experiments was made on various sized cold mockups designed to simulate counter-current movind beds. These experiments were necessary to demonstrate the feasability of the process, to specify the relations among gas and liquid superficial velocities, particles and fluids properties, and hydrodynamic regimes, and to develop the scale-up rules. The main goal is to secure a uniform distribution of the two fluids through out the whole bed of catalyst, and at the same time a regular progression of

  8. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  9. Process for water-gas generation from degassed combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1906-05-23

    A process for water-gas generation in a continuous operation from degassed combustibles in the lower part of a vertical exterior-heated retort, whose middle part can serve to degas the combustibles, is described. It is characterized in that the water vapor employed is obtained by vaporizing water in the upper part of the retort by means of the waste heat from the heating gases, which had effected the coking of the combustibles before the water-gas recovery or after the latter.

  10. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  11. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

    2011-10-01

    The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

  13. Microbial processes at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets: a look at life below the Whillans Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Campen, R.; Vancleave, S.; Scherer, R. P.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater, saturated sediments and hundreds of subglacial lakes exist below the ice sheets of Antarctica. The few Antarctic subglacial environments sampled to date all contain viable microorganisms. This is a significant finding because microbes are known to be key in mediating biogeochemical cycles. In sediments, microbial metabolic activity can also result in byproducts or direct interactions with sediment particles that influence the physical and geochemical characteristics of the matrix they inhabit. Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), a fresh water lake under the Whillans Ice Stream that drains into the Ross Sea at its grounding zone, was recently sampled as part of the NSF-funded Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project. Sediments from both SLW and its grounding zone contain microbial taxa related to iron, sulfur, nitrogen and methane oxidizers. In addition to molecular data, biogeochemical measurements and culture based experiments on Whillans sediments support the notion that the system is chemosynthetic with energy derived in part by cycling inorganic compounds. Etch pitting and mineral precipitates on fossil sponge spicules suggest that spicules may also provide microbial nutrients in these environments. Perhaps the most widespread microbial process that affects sediment structure and mineral weathering is the production of extra polymeric substances (EPS). Several phylogenetic groups detected in Whillans sediments are known to produce EPS and we have observed its production in pure cultures enriched directly from these sediments. Our data sheds light on how microbial life persists below the Antarctic Ice Sheet despite extended isolation in icy darkness, and how these microbes may be shaping their environment.

  14. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kozlov, Aleksandr [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  15. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  16. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  17. A feasible enzymatic process for D-tagatose production by an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Pil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    To develop a feasible enzymatic process for d-tagatose production, a thermostable l-arabinose isomerase, Gali152, was immobilized in alginate, and the galactose isomerization reaction conditions were optimized. The pH and temperature for the maximal galactose isomerization reaction were pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C in the immobilized enzyme system and pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C in the free enzyme system. The presence of manganese ion enhanced galactose isomerization to tagatose in both the free and immobilized enzyme systems. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at the same pH and temperature. Under stable conditions of pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, the immobilized enzyme produced 58 g/L of tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 90 h by batch reaction, whereas the free enzyme produced 37 g/L tagatose due to its lower stability. A packed-bed bioreactor with immobilized Gali152 in alginate beads produced 50 g/L tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 168 h, with a productivity of 13.3 (g of tagatose)/(L-reactor.h) in continuous mode. The bioreactor produced 230 g/L tagatose from 500 g/L galactose in continuous recycling mode, with a productivity of 9.6 g/(L.h) and a conversion yield of 46%.

  18. A novel continuous process for synthesis of carbon nanotubes using iron floating catalyst and MgO particles for CVD of methane in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sarah; Khodadadi, Abasali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, Yadollah, E-mail: mortazav@ut.ac.ir [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, POB 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    A novel continuous process is used for production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron floating catalyst in situ deposited on MgO in a fluidized bed reactor. In the hot zone of the reactor, sublimed ferrocene vapors were contacted with MgO powder fluidized by methane feed to produce Fe/MgO catalyst in situ. An annular tube was used to enhance the ferrocene and MgO contacting efficiency. Multi-wall as well as single-wall CNTs was grown on the Fe/MgO catalyst while falling down the reactor. The CNTs were continuously collected at the bottom of the reactor, only when MgO powder was used. The annular tube enhanced the contacting efficiency and improved both the quality and quantity of CNTs. The SEM and TEM micrographs of the products reveal that the CNTs are mostly entangled bundles with diameters of about 10-20 nm. Raman spectra show that the CNTs have low amount of amorphous/defected carbon with I{sub G}/I{sub D} ratios as high as 10.2 for synthesis at 900 deg. C. The RBM Raman peaks indicate formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of 1.0-1.2 nm diameter.

  19. Source and depositional processes of coarse-grained limestone event beds in Frasnian slope deposits (Kostomłoty-Mogiłki quarry, Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2010-10-01

    The Kostomłoty-Mogiłki succession is situated in the Kostomłoty transitional zone between the shallow-water Kielce stromatoporoid-coral platform and the deeper Łysogóry basin. In the Kostomłoty-Mogiłki quarry, the upper part of the Szydłówek Beds and Kostomłoty Beds are exposed. The Middle-Upper Frasnian Kostomłoty Beds are composed of shales, micritic and nodular limestones with abundant intercalations of detrital limestones. The dark shales and the micritic and nodular limestones record background sedimentation. The interbedded laminated and detrital limestones reflect high-energy deposition (= event beds). These event beds comprise laminated calcisiltites, fine-grained calcarenites, coarse-grained grain-supported calcirudites fabrics, and matrix-supported calcirudites. The material of these event beds was supplied by both erosion of the carbonate-platform margin and cannibalistic erosion of penecontemporaneous detrital limestones building the slope of this platform. Storms and the tectonic activity were likely the main causes of erosion. Combined and gravity flows were the transporting mechanisms involved in the reworking and redeposition.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF CONSOLIDATION PROCESS OF CLAY SOILS FROM CAUSED BY THE DUTY PROCESS IN ERECTIONS THE ROAD BED OF HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Timofeeva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of consolidation process of condensed water-saturated clay soils of the floodable bridge-approach fill to the bridge across Kama River, erected by method called «Intensive technology», is presented. The method consists in the arrangement of drainage longitudinal and cross-section cuts for acceleration of consolidation of soils of the road bad and the base composed from the weak, strongly compressible water-saturated clay soils of different consistency.

  1. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  2. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Assessment of attenuation processes in a chlorinated ethene plume by use of stream bed Passive Flux Meters, streambed Point Velocity Probes and contaminant mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønde, V.; McKnight, U. S.; Annable, M. D.; Devlin, J. F.; Cremeans, M.; Sonne, A. T.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated ethenes (CE) are abundant groundwater contaminants and pose risk to both groundwater and surface water bodies, as plumes can migrate through aquifers to streams. After release to the environment, CE may undergo attenuation. The hyporheic zone is believed to enhance CE attenuation, however studies contradicting this have also been reported. Since dilution commonly reduces contaminant concentrations in streams to below quantification limits, use of mass balances along the pathway from groundwater to stream is unusual. Our study is conducted at the low-land Grindsted stream, Denmark, which is impacted by a contaminant plume. CE have been observed in the stream water; hence our study site provides an unusual opportunity to study attenuation processes in a CE plume as it migrates through the groundwater at the stream bank, through the stream bed and further to the point of fully mixed conditions in the stream. The study undertook the determination of redox conditions and CE distribution from bank to stream; streambed contaminant flux estimation using streambed Passive Flux Meters (sPFM); and quantification of streambed water fluxes using temperature profiling and streambed Point Velocity Probes (SBPVP). The advantage of the sPFM is that it directly measures the contaminant flux without the need for water samples, while the advantage of the SBPVP is its ability to measure the vertical seepage velocity without the need for additional geological parameters. Finally, a mass balance assessment along the plume pathway was conducted to account for any losses or accumulations. The results show consistencies in spatial patterns between redox conditions and extent of dechlorination; between contaminant fluxes from sPFM and concentrations from water samples; and between seepage velocities from SBPVP and temperature-based water fluxes. Mass balances and parent-metabolite compound ratios indicate limited degradation between the bank and the point of fully mixed stream

  4. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  5. Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Buasri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available : The continuous production of ethyl ester was studied by using a steady-state fixed bed reactor (FBR. Transesterification of palm stearin (PS and waste cooking palm oil (WCPO with ethanol in the presence of calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC solid catalyst was investigated. This work was determined the optimum conditions for the production of ethyl ester from PS and WCPO in order to obtain fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE with the highest yield. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, ethanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst bed height and reusability of catalyst in a reactor system on the yield of biodiesel were considered. The optimum conditions were the residence time 2-3 h, ethanol/oil molar ratio 16-20, reaction temperature at 800C, and catalyst bed height 300 mm which yielded 89.46% and 83.32% of the PS and WCPO conversion, respectively. CaO/PSAC could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. It has potential for industrial application in the transesterification of triglyceride (TG. The fuel properties of biodiesel were determined. Keywords: biodiesel, calcium oxide, ethyl ester, fixed bed reactor, palm shell activated carbon

  6. Mathematic modulation of a simulation program for a coal and wood counter-current moving bed gasifier, which includes pyrolysis and drying processes and processes alternatives; Modelagem matematica e simulacao em computador de gaseificador de leito fixo contra-corrente para carvoes e biomassa com inclusao de processos de pirolise, secagem e alternativas do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, M.L. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    A new version of a simulation program for coal and wood counter-current fixed bed gasifier has been completed and provides: all the principal information variables of the process throughout the bed as mass flow and composition for 13 gases and 6 solids, temperature of the gas and solid phases, reaction rates of combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and drying processes; composition, mass flow, temperature, combustion enthalpy and other produced gases physical and chemical properties; possibility of process alternatives analysis as volatiles recycling in order to eliminate tar, double withdrawn of gases and combinations. Comparisons between simulation and experimental results are presented. (author). 26 refs., 1 tab

  7. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  8. Fluidization bed coating of copper bars with epoxy powder

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Chiaw Min

    2014-01-01

    Fluidized bed coating (FBC) is a process where preheated material is dipped into a flowing liquid bed of powder. Although FBC has existed for more than half a century, however there is little knowledge about the fluidized bed design that gives excellent fluidization quality as well as reducing powder entrainment. The objectives of this thesis are to investigate the effect of two different types of distributor with different pressure drop on powder coating, hydrodynamics of fluidized bed coati...

  9. Process of heat-treating fuels of a bituminous nature, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1927-11-25

    A process is described of heat treating any kind of material of a bituminous nature usable as fuel, like shale, mineral coal, peat, etc., whereby the fuel undergoes in a retort or the like a distillation for recovering from it the total amount or the greatest part of gaseous or vaporous distillation products. The warm distillation residue is burned, characterized by the retorts, containing the fuel going through, being wholly or partly surrounded by materials to be heated. These materials and the warm distillation residue resulting from the distillation during the burning are moved forward independently one of the other.

  10. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  11. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  12. Process of distilling bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, M

    1859-05-19

    This new process consists of placing at the end of a tube or the end of one or more retorts, an aspirating pump and compressor or a blower with two valves doing the same work or, better yet, a fan for sucking the vapor from the shale as it is formed in order to prevent its accumulating in the retorts and being decomposed. A second tube, pierced with little holes, placed in series with the pump, blower, or fan, acts as a vessel or receiver for the water. The vapors from the shale are compressed by the aspirator in the receiver for the water and condensed completely, without loss of gas and disinfect themselves for the most part.

  13. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  14. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  15. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  16. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell activated carbon (KOH/JS was studied. The catalyst systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst bed height in packed bed reactor (PBR on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. SEM images showed that KOH was well distributed on the catalyst support. The optimum conditions for achieving the conversion yield of 86.7% consisted of a residence time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 60 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 16 and catalyst bed height of 250 mm. KOH/JS could be used repeatedly five times without any activation treatment, and no significant activity loss was observed. The results confirmed that KOH/JS catalyst had a great potential to be used for industrial application in the transesterification of WFO. The fuel properties of biodiesel were also determined.

  17. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  18. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  19. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  20. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  1. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  2. Fluid bed dryer and Aeropep solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Performance measurements were made on the model of the Fluidized-bed Calciner developed by Aerojet Liquid Rocket Co. The measurements were made over the period August 11-19, 1975, at the Sacramento location of the calciner. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the performance of the ALRC Fluidized Bed Concentrator for the processing of simulated waste containing realistic concentrations and chemical forms of radioiodine. (auth)

  3. Bed Load Variability and Morphology of Gravel Bed Rivers Subject to Unsteady Flow: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.

  4. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  5. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  6. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  7. Discussion of the applicability of overdammed fixed-bed reactors in nitrification processes; Beitrag zum Einsatz von ueberstauten Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter, H.O.

    1996-12-31

    The investigation aimed at developing a dimensioning method for overdammed fixed bed nitrification reactors with plug flow which takes account of the reactor height. Further, information was to be obtained for assessing sudden loads and for comparing energy consumption with the data of conventional activated sludge plants. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, fuer ueberstaute, pfropfendurchstroemte Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation einen Bemessungsansatz aufzustellen, welcher den Einfluss der Reaktorhoehe mit beruecksichtigt. Ferner sollten Erkenntnisse zur Beurteilung von Stossbelastungen sowie zum Energiebedarf im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Belebungsanlagen gewonnen werden. (orig./SR)

  8. Effect of heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitcberg, Alena, E-mail: alena.kreitcberg.1@ens.etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Brailovski, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.brailovski@etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Turenne, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.turenne@polymtl.ca [École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2900 boul. Édouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada)

    2017-03-24

    The effect of different heat treatments and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion IN625 alloy was studied. The heat treatments were: stress relief annealing, recrystallization annealing and low-temperature solution treatment. The resulting microstructure and crystallographic textures were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the as-built and post-treated IN625 alloy were obtained after tensile testing at room temperature and at 760 °C (1400 °F), and compared to those of an annealed wrought alloy of the same composition.

  9. Biodegradation of phenolic waste liquors in stirred-tank, packed-bed, and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D W; Hancher, G W; Chilcote, D D; Scott, C D

    1978-11-01

    The biological degradation of phenolic scrub liquors similar to those that arise in coal conversion processes was studied for symbiotic bacterial populations contained in a continuously stirred tank bioreactor, a three-phase packed-bed bioreactor, and a three-phase, fluidized-bed bioreactor. The conversions of phenol compounds were comparable in the three-phase, packed-bed bioreactor and the continuously stirred tank bioreactor; however, the packed-bed bioreactor degradation rates were as much as twice those in the continuously stirred tank bioreactor, and packed-bed bioreactor retention times were as low as one- tenth those of the continuously stirred tank bioreactors (minimum time was 12 hours).

  10. Biological floating bed and bio-contact oxidation processes for landscape water treatment: simultaneous removal of Microcystis aeruginosa, TOC, nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng; Liang, Dong Hui; Fu, Le; Wei, Li; Ma, Min

    2018-06-13

    The aim of this study was to identify algicidal bacteria J25 against the Microcystis aeruginosa (90.14%), Chlorella (78.75%), Scenedesmus (not inhibited), and Oscillatoria (90.12%). Meanwhile, we evaluate the SOD activity and efficiency of denitrification characteristics with Acinetobacter sp. J25. A novel hybrid bioreactor combined biological floating bed with bio-contact oxidation (BFBO) was designed for treating the landscape water, and the average removal efficiencies of nitrate-N, ammonia-N, nitrite-N, TN, TP, TOC, and algal cells were 91.14, 50, 87.86, 88.83, 33.07, 53.95, and 53.43%, respectively. A 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the microbial communities of the BFBO reactor samples. The results showed that Acinetobacter sp. J25 was the dominant contributor for effective removal of N, algal cells, and TOC in the BFBO reactor. And the relative abundance of Acinetobacter showed increase trend with the delay of reaction time. Graphical abstract Biological floating bed and bio-contact oxidation (BFBO) as a novel hybrid bioreactor designed for simultaneous removal Microcystis aeruginosa, TOC, nitrogen, and phosphorus. And high-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that Acinetobacter sp. J25 was the dominate species in the reactor and played key roles in the removal of N, TOC, and M. aeruginosa. Proposed reaction mechanism of the BFBO.

  11. Numerical investigation of flow and heat transfer in a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Hao, Li; Zhang, Luhong; Sun, Yongli; Xiao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution, a numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer performance in a pilot-scale multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein oxidation reaction is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Firstly, a two-dimensional CFD model is developed to simulate flow behaviors, catalytic oxidation reaction, heat and mass transfer adopting porous medium model on tube side to achieve the temperature distribution and investigate the effect of operation parameters on hot spot temperature. Secondly, based on the conclusions of tube-side, a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed-bed reactor comprising 790 tubes design with disk-and-doughnut baffles is proposed by comparing with segmental baffles reactor and their performance of fluid flow and heat transfer is analyzed to ensure the uniformity condition using molten salt as heat carrier medium on shell-side by three-dimensional CFD method. The results reveal that comprehensive performance of the reactor with disk-and-doughnut baffles is better than that of with segmental baffles. Finally, the effects of operating conditions to control the hot spots are investigated. The results show that the flow velocity range about 0.65 m/s is applicable and the co-current cooling system flow direction is better than counter-current flow to control the hottest temperature.

  12. Pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohnert, G.; Mueller-Frank, U.; Heil, J.

    1976-01-01

    A pebble-bed nuclear reactor of large power rating comprises a container having a funnel-shaped bottom forming a pebble run-out having a centrally positioned outlet. A bed of downwardly-flowing substantially spherical nuclear fuel pebbles is positioned in the container and forms a reactive nuclear core maintained by feeding unused pebbles to the bed's top surface while used or burned-out pebbles run out and discharge through the outlet. A substantially conical body with its apex pointing upwardly and its periphery spaced from the periphery of the container spreads the bottom of the bed outwardly to provide an annular flow down the funnel-shaped bottom forming the runout, to the discharge outlet. This provides a largely constant downward velocity of the spheres throughout the diameter of the bed throughout a substantial portion of the down travel, so that all spheres reach about the same burned-out condition when they leave the core, after a single pass through the core area

  13. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  14. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system are described for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. 10 figures

  15. Modelagem do processo de desidratação de lodo anaeróbio em leitos de secagem simulados Anaerobic sludge dewatering process modeling in simulated drying beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. A. Soares

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de leitos de secagem para a desidratação de lodo de descarte de reatores UASB, constitui excelente alternativa, face a sua simplicidade operacional e aos reduzidos custos de implantação. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise dos fenômenos que influenciam o processo de desidratação de lodo anaeróbio, a partir de simulação de leitos de secagem. Neste sentido, são feitas considerações sobre as características e o comportamento do lodo durante cada fase da secagem. Sugere-se também, um modelo matemático para representar o processo de secagem, obtido a partir dos dados experimentais.The employment of drying beds is an excellent option for dewatering of UASB reactor discarded sludge, because of their simple operation and low construction costs. This paper presents an anaerobic sludge dewatering process analysis of the most influential phenomenon based on drying beds simulation. Therefore, some considerations were made about sludge characteristics and behavior during each dewatering stage. A mathematical model for dewatering process representation obtained from experimental data is also suggested.

  16. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  17. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  18. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  19. How dynamic are ice-stream beds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Damon; Bingham, Robert G.; King, Edward C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Brisbourne, Alex M.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Hogg, Anna E.; Vaughan, David G.

    2018-05-01

    Projections of sea-level rise contributions from West Antarctica's dynamically thinning ice streams contain high uncertainty because some of the key processes involved are extremely challenging to observe. An especially poorly observed parameter is sub-decadal stability of ice-stream beds, which may be important for subglacial traction, till continuity and landform development. Only two previous studies have made repeated geophysical measurements of ice-stream beds at the same locations in different years, but both studies were limited in spatial extent. Here, we present the results from repeat radar measurements of the bed of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, conducted 3-6 years apart, along a cumulative ˜ 60 km of profiles. Analysis of the correlation of bed picks between repeat surveys shows that 90 % of the bed displays no significant change despite the glacier increasing in speed by up to 40 % over the last decade. We attribute the negligible detection of morphological change at the bed of Pine Island Glacier to the ubiquitous presence of a deforming till layer, wherein sediment transport is in steady state, such that sediment is transported along the basal interface without inducing morphological change to the radar-sounded basal interface. Given the precision of our measurements, the upper limit of subglacial erosion observed here is 500 mm a-1, far exceeding erosion rates reported for glacial settings from proglacial sediment yields, but substantially below subglacial erosion rates of 1.0 m a-1 previously reported from repeat geophysical surveys in West Antarctica.

  20. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  1. Transient quenching of superheated debris beds during bottom reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Ginsberg, T.; Klein, J.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental data suggest that for small liquid supply rate and low initial particle temperature, the bed quench process is a one-dimensional frontal phenomenon. The bed heat flux is constant during most of the duration of the quench period. The range of conditions which display one-dimensional frontal cooling characteristics is identified as the deep bed regime of bed quenching, and a limiting mathematical model was developed to describe the observed behavior. For large liquid supply rate and high initial bed temperature, the bed quench process is a complex phenomenon. Under these conditions, the bed heat flux displays a nonuniform time dependence. In order to characterize this shallow bed regime, it was necessary to develop a detailed transient model of the coolant-debris interaction. This model, while developed for the shallow bed regime, also applies to the deep bed regime. Numerical computations clearly demonstrate the importance of developing a general reliable model for the solid-fluid heat transfer coefficients

  2. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-03-22

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m{sup 2}, polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements

  3. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al 2 O 3 particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m 2 , polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements in

  4. A "Retort Courteous."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Mary E.

    1979-01-01

    Responds to article by Pauline Wilson (School Library Journal, v25 n6 Feb 1979) in terms of defining the role of children's librarians, clarifying the goals of children's services, making a case for such services, improving the impression made by children's librarians, determining appropriate preparation, and understanding and achieving quality…

  5. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Fluidized bed calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    A unique way to convert radioactive scrap into useful nuclear fuel products was developed for the Department of Energy at Hanford. An advanced, fluidized bed calciner is used to convert metallic nitrate scrap or waste solutions into benign, solid and gaseous products. There are broad potential applications of this concept beyond those in the nuclear industry

  7. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  8. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  9. Drying of materials in fluidized bed: mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildhagen, Gloria Regina S.; Silva, Eder F.; Calcada, Luis A.; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    A three phase mathematical model for drying process in a fluidized bed was established. This model representing a bubble, interstitial gas and solid phase was based on principles of mass and energy conservation and on empirical relations for heat and mass transfer between phases. A fluidized bed dryer was built to test the results of proposed model with those obtained by experiments using alumina particles as a bed charge. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results were observed(author)

  10. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  11. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  12. Installation of a three-dimensional simulation method for core-physical description of pebble bed reactors with multiple recycling process at the example of the AVR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotkamp, T.

    1984-01-01

    To describe the core-physical behaviour of pebble bed reactors simulation models are used, which reproduce the burn-up/recycling and - resulting - calculate criticality and neutron spectrum as well as neutron flux and temperature distribution. Modelling the AVR-reactor requires a three-dimensional treating for detailed considerations because of the graphite noses extending into the core. Such a system is built up in the present work and compared with the results of the two-dimensional model standardizated from operational side. The agreement is so good that the latter one is sufficient for the calculations accompanying the operation. The comparison with results of measurement is very satisfying in regard to fuel element distribution and temperature coefficient. As in all theoretical investigations there stays a discrepance of a little more than 1 nile against the measurement at the reactivity equivalence of the AVR rod-bank. On the other hand it is possible to reproduce the rod-bank curve resulting of the calibration very exactly with the present model. (orig.) [de

  13. A hybrid treatment of ozonation with limestone adsorption processes for the removal of Fe2+ in groundwater: Fixed bed column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Nor Azliza; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2017-10-01

    During pumping of groundwater to the surface, the reaction between dissolved iron (Fe2+) and oxygen causes oxidation to ferric iron (Fe3+), thereby increasing the concentration of Fe2+. In this research, the potential application of ozonation with limestone adsorption to remove Fe2+ from groundwater was investigated through batch ozonation and fixed-bed-column studies. Groundwater samples were collected from a University Science Malaysia tube well (initial concentration of Fe2+, Co=1.563 mg/L). The effect of varying ozone dosages (10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, and 25 g/Nm3) was analyzed to determine the optimum ozone dosage for treatment. The characteristics of the column data and breakthrough curve were analyzed and predicted using mathematical models, such as Adam Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. The data fitted well to the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, with correlation coefficient r2>0.93, but not to the Adam Bohart (r2=0.47). The total Fe2+ removed was 72% (final concentration of Fe2+, Ct=0.426 mg/L) at the maximum dosage of 25 g/Nm3 through ozonation only. However, the efficiency of Fe2+ removal was increased up to 99.5% (Ct=0.008 mg/L) when the hybrid treatment of ozonation with limestone adsorption was applied in this study. Thus, this integrated treatment was considerably more effective in removing Fe2+ than single ozonation treatment.

  14. Use of nuclear process heat from pebble bed high temperature reactors to obtain oil by tertiary recovery methods. Final report. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, H.; Hermges, H.; Kammel, R.; Kugeler, K.; Phlippen, P.W.; Scheuch, H.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidtlein, P.; Schreiner, P.

    1988-01-01

    Volume II of this report examines: 1. The use of nuclear process heat in the further processing of crude oil (refinery processes, heat coupling, steam reforming helium-heated pipe furnace), 2. Analyses for process questions, 3. Questions of economy, 4. Environmental aspects, 5. Work on underground methanisation. (RB) [de

  15. Effect of process temperature on morphology of CNTs grown in a vertically fluidized bed reactor with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrullah, Shazia, E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul Shima, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most researched materials due to their exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. Among the various techniques, catalytic chemical vapor deposition in a fluidized bed reactor is the most promising technique for bulk production of CNTs. To meet the demand of good quality along with the bulk production of CNTs, the effect of reaction temperature on the micro structures, morphology, diameter, quality and quantity of CNTs was investigated in these studies. CNTs were synthesized at process temperature ranging from 700-850°C by catalytic decomposition of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst a vertical fluidized bed reactor. The microstructures of the grown CNTs at different reaction temperatures were investigated by using scanning electron microscope. The results of this study depicted a positive correlation between the average diameter of CNTs and reaction temperature. Narrow diameters (35∼40 nm) of CNTs with fewer defects were found at the low and mild temperatures, in particular 800°C. At this temperature, a dynamic equilibrium between the rate of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} decomposition and CNTs quantity was found due to maximum carbon diffusion over catalyst. The CNTs produced with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst wer e also exhibiting high quality with relatively small mean outer diameter and fewer surface defects.

  16. Migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Stuber, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The migration through soil of organic solutes in an oil-shale process water (retort water) was studied by using soil columns and analyzing leachates for various organic constituents. Retort water extracted significant quantities of organic anions leached from ammonium-saturated-soil organic matter, and a distilled-water rinse, which followed retort-water leaching, released additional organic acids from the soil. After being corrected for organic constitutents extracted from soil by retort water, dissolved-organic-carbon fractionation analyses of effluent fractions showed that the order of increasing affinity of six organic compound classes for the soil was as follows: hydrophilic neutrals nearly equal to hydrophilic acids, followed by the sequence of hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic bases, hydrophobic bases, and hydrophobic neutrals. Liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aromatic amines in the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-base fractions showed that the relative order of the rates of migration through the soil column was the same as the order of migration on a reversed-phase, octadecylsilica liquid-chromatographic column.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that... minimum biobased content is 12 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in..., and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of...

  18. Process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1918-08-23

    A process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous minerals in rotary retorts heated from outside and flushed with water vapor or other oxygen-free gases is characterized by the fact that all kinds of minerals are carbonized, and that during the carbonization process the temperature of the superheated steam or gases is about 50/sup 0/ C higher than the temperature of the carbonized mineral.

  19. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  20. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  1. Determination of the uranium concentration in samples of raw, retorted and spent shale from Irati, Parana-Brazil, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    The feasibility of the determination of uranium in oil shale, by the fission track registration technique is studied. The wet and dry methods were employed, using a Bayer policarbonate, Makrofol KG, as detector. It was created a new variant of the dry method. The fission track registration technique was used in samples of raw, retorted and spent shale from Irati, Parana in Brazil, 16 μg U/g, 20 μg U/g and 20μg U/g were found, respectively, with a total error ranging from 19% to 20%. Some experimental results were included for illustration and comparison. The feasibility of the determination of uranium in oil shale from Irati was verified. (Author) [pt

  2. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  3. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  4. Tritium measurement technique using ''in-bed'' calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium ''heels'' from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and ''in-bed'' tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to 3 He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of ±1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed

  5. Removal of cesium from aluminum decladding wastes generated in irradiated target processing using a fixed-bed column of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, R.R.; Williams, D.F.; Bond, W.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.

    1994-09-01

    The removal of cesium (Cs) from a low-level liquid waste (LLLW) with a cation-exchange column was demonstrated using a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. The RF resin was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and is highly specific for the removal of Cs from an alkaline waste of high sodium content. It was determined that the RF resin would be suitable for removing Cs, the largest gamma radiation contributor, from the LLLW generated at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presently, the disposal of the LLLW is limited due to the amount of Cs contained in the waste. Cesium removal from the waste solution offers immediate benefits by conserving valuable tank space and would allow cask shipments of the treated waste should the present Laboratory pipelines become unavailable in the future. Preliminary laboratory tests of the RF resins, supplied from two different sources, were used to design a full-scale cation-exchange column for the removal of Cs from a Mark 42 SRL fuel element dejacketing waste solution. The in-cell tests reproduced the preliminary bench-scale test results. The initial Cs breakthrough range was 85--92 column volumes (CV). The resin capacity for Cs was found to be ∼0.35 meq per gram of resin. A 1.5-liter resin bed loaded a combined ∼1,300 Ci of 134 Cs and 137 Cs. A distribution coefficient of ∼110 CV was determined, based on a 50% Cs breakthrough point. The kinetics of the system was studied by examining the rate parameters; however, it was decided that several more tests would be necessary to define the mass transfer characteristics of the system

  6. Process for dosing fuels, especially baking fuels, into a fluidized-bed reactor, and process for operating such a device. Verfahren zur Dosierung von, insbesondere backenden, Brennstoffen in einen Wirbelschichtreaktor sowie Verfahren zum Betreiben einer solchen Vorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W.; Juengten, H.; Heek, K.H. van; Kirchhoff, R.; Wagener, H.

    1983-03-24

    A device for the controlled addition of fuels especially baking fuels into a fluidized-bed reactor is equipped with a jet pipe for the fuel transport which ends within the fluidized-bed reactor in a jet nozzle and is sheathed by a jacket pipe which ends in a cap jet and is filled with a fluid (jacket fluid); the jacket pipe is interrupted by the jet cap and the interruption is bypassed by a heat exchanger pipe (heat exchanger) which is preferably arranged within the fluidized-bed reactor. The part of the jet pipe which is near the jet nozzle can be surrounded by an annular gap nozzle for the jacket fluid bypassing the interruption in direction of the heat exchanger. In a mixing chamber loading materials for the fuel can be introduced and dissolved in the jacket fluid before it enters the cap jet. The fuel transport can be clock-controlled, e.g. by a control triangle. (orig.).

  7. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  8. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  9. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  10. The mechanism of char ignition in fluidized bed combustors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge about ignition processes of coal in fluidized beds is of importance for the start-up and dynamic control of these combustors. Initial experiments in a transparent fluidized bed scale model showed the existence of a considerable induction period for the ignition of char, especially at low

  11. Fluidized bed incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility is being designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot unit and represents a scale-up of nine. Title I engineering is at least 70 percent complete

  12. Modelling of Devolatilization in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseng, Mette; Lin, Weigang; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the devolatilization process in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The model is a combination of two submodels: single particle devolatilization and fluid dynamics. The single particle model includes the influence of both chemical kinetics and hea...

  13. A feasibility study for high-temperature titanium reduction from TiCl4 using a magnesiothermic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. L.; Zablotsky, D.

    2018-05-01

    The current industrial practice for titanium extraction is a complex procedure, which produces a porous reaction mass of sintered titanium particulates fused to a steel retort wall with magnesium and MgCl2 trapped in the interstices. The reactor temperature is limited to approx. 900 °C due to the formation of fusible TiFe eutectic, which corrodes the retort and degrades the quality of titanium sponge. Here we examine the theoretical foundations and technological possibilities to design a shielded retort of niobium-zirconium alloy NbZr(1%), which is resistant to corrosion by titanium at high temperature. We consider the reactor at a temperature of approx. 1150 °C. Supplying stoichiometric quantities of reagents enables the reaction in the gas phase, whereas the exothermic process sustains the combustion of the reaction zone. When the pathway to the condenser is open, vacuum separation and evacuation of vaporized magnesium dichloride and excess magnesium into the water-cooled condenser take place. As both the reaction and the evacuation occur within seconds, the yield of the extraction is improved. We anticipate new possibilities for designing a device combining the retort function to conduct the reduction in the gas phase with fast vacuum separation of the reaction products and distillation of magnesium dichloride.

  14. Biogas production from potato-juice, a by-product from potato-starch processing, in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/gVS-added. Ana......In this study, the utilization of potato-juice, the organic by-product from potato-starch processing, for biogas production was investigated in batch assay and in high rate anaerobic reactors. The maximum methane potential of the potato-juice determined by batch assay was 470mL-CH4/g...

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. Infant's bed climate and bedding in the Japanese home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura Ikeda, Rie; Fukai, Kiyoko; Okamoto Mizuno, Kazue

    2012-06-01

    to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0°C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  18. Alcoholic fermentation process and methane formation unit with biomass in fixed bed; Processo de fermentacao alcoolica e fermentador de metanizacao com biomassa em leito fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, Claude [Societe Generale de Techniques Nouvelles (France)

    1986-01-01

    The pollution, measured from Biochemical Oxygen Demand, is constituted primary of organic carbon. The pollution abatement is made traditionally by thr reduction of this carbon by an aerobic way. Were made some tries in order to recover this carbon as an energy source and the methane formation process arises like the most attractive alternative 2 figs.

  19. ETVS - a process for decentral processing of liquid, pasty and solid organic residues into electrical energy and ash, optionally with hydrosoft high-pressure dewatering, fluidized-bed drying, fluidized-bed gasification and heat-and-power cogeneration using product gas; ETVS - Ein Verfahren zur dezentralen Verwertung von fluessigen, pastoesen und festen biologischen Reststoffen in elektrische Energie und Asche, bedarfsweise mit Hydrosoft-Hochdruckentwaesserung, Wirbelschicht-Trockner, Wirbelschicht-Vergaser und Produktgas-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, C.; Eder, G. [Christian Eder Technology, Neunkirchen (Germany); Wied, E. [Bisanz GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    By means of the ETVS process, predominantly liquid organic residues can be converted into electrical energy and mineral ash decentrally, i.e. where they accrue. The process is exemplified with reference to sewage sludge. Sludge containing at least about 4 % dry residue is dewatered to the highest dry substance content possible. The obtained filter cakes are indirectly dried in a fluidized-bed drier using internal process waste heat. Then the organic sewage sludge constituents are gasified in an atmospheric fluidized bed system. The cleaned product gas is used to generate power in a cogeneration power plant, meeting the sewage treatment plant's in-house power demand. The ETVS process is self-sufficient in terms of thermal energy requirement from an initial dry substance content of the filter cake > 40 %. Incineration is a means of disposing of sewage sludge in accordance with the boundary conditions for sewage sludge disposal from 2005, laid down in the technical code on municipal waste. Combining the ETVS process with modern biological treatment stages makes for a substantial cut in the construction and operating cost of sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [German] Mit dem ETVS-Verfahren koennen ueberwiegend fluessige biologische Reststoffe dezentral, d.h. an der Anfallstelle in eigennutzbare elektrische Energie und mineralische Asche umgewandelt werden. Das Verfahren wird am Klaerschlamm beispielhaft dargestellt. Der Klaerschlamm wird ab einem Trockensubstanzgehalt von ca. 4%TR auf moeglichst hohe Trockensubstanzgehalte entwaessert und die dabei erzeugten Filterkuchen mit internen Prozessabwaermen in einem Wirbelschichttrockner indirekt getrocknet. Die organischen Bestandteile des Klaerschlammes werden anschliessend in einer ebenfalls atmosphaerischen Wirbelschichtanlage vergast. Der mit dem gereinigten Produktgas in einer KWK-Anlage erzeugte Strom wird zur Deckung des Eigenbedarfs der Klaeranlage verwandt. Durch die Veraschung liefert das ab einem

  20. Effect of process parameters on removal and recovery of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from electroplating wastewater by fixed-bed column of nano-dimensional titanium (IV) oxide agglomerates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debnath, S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal performances of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from water was investigated using agglomerated nanoparticle of hydrous titanium(IV) oxide (NTO) packed fixed bed. The parameters varied were the bed depth, flow rate and feed solution concentrations...

  1. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  2. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  3. Artificial neural network models for biomass gasification in fluidized bed gasifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Hernández, J. Alfredo; Bruno, Joan Carles

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied for modeling biomass gasification process in fluidized bed reactors. Two architectures of ANNs models are presented; one for circulating fluidized bed gasifiers (CFB) and the other for bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers (BFB). Both models determine...

  4. Mass and heat transfer between a fluidized bed and a freely moving submerged sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    For fluidized bed combustion and gasification of solid fuels, but also for various other fluidized bed processes such as drying, granulation and evaporation, mass and heat transport to (or from) a particle freely moving in the fluidized bed is of great importance. The combustion rate of a

  5. Management bedding : vrijloopstal met composterende bedding van houtsnippers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Wiersma, M.; Galama, P.J.; Szanto, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In de vrijloopstal liggen de koeien meestal op een organische bedding en scheiden daar mest (feces en urine) uit. Om de bedding voldoende droog en schoon te houden wordt er regelmatig nieuw strooisel aangevoerd en wordt de toplaag bewerkt. Op basis van onderzoek- en praktijkervaringen tot nu toe

  6. Commercially sterilized mussel meats (Mytilus chilensis): a study on process yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Bustamante, J; Simpson, R; Urtubia, A; Pinto, M; Teixeira, A

    2012-06-01

    The processing steps most responsible for yield loss in the manufacture of canned mussel meats are the thermal treatments of precooking to remove meats from shells, and thermal processing (retorting) to render the final canned product commercially sterile for long-term shelf stability. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of different combinations of process variables on the ultimate drained weight in the final mussel product (Mytilu chilensis), while verifying that any differences found were statistically and economically significant. The process variables selected for this study were precooking time, brine salt concentration, and retort temperature. Results indicated 2 combinations of process variables producing the widest difference in final drained weight, designated best combination and worst combination with 35% and 29% yield, respectively. Significance of this difference was determined by employing a Bootstrap methodology, which assumes an empirical distribution of statistical error. A difference of nearly 6 percentage points in total yield was found. This represents a 20% increase in annual sales from the same quantity of raw material, in addition to increase in yield, the conditions for the best process included a retort process time 65% shorter than that for the worst process, this difference in yield could have significant economic impact, important to the mussel canning industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Stabilizing effect of plasma discharge on bubbling fluidized granular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mao-Bin; Dang Sai-Chao; Ma Qiang; Xia Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Fluidized beds have been widely used for processing granular materials. In this paper, we study the effect of plasma on the fluidization behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed with an atmospheric pressure plasma discharger. Experiment results show that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with the discharge of plasma. When the discharge current reaches a minimum stabilization current C ms , air bubbles in the bed will disappear and the surface fluctuation is completely suppressed. A simplified model is proposed to consider the effect of electric Coulomb force generated by the plasma. It is found that the Coulomb force will propel the particles to move towards the void area, so that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with a high enough plasma discharge. (paper)

  8. The Effect of Bedding Structure on Mechanical Property of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical property of coal, influencing mining activity considerably, is significantly determined by the natural fracture distributed within coal mass. In order to study the effecting mechanism of bedding structure on mechanical property of coal, a series of uniaxial compression tests and mesoscopic tests have been conducted. The experimental results show that the distribution characteristic of calcite particles, which significantly influences the growth of cracks and the macroscopic mechanical properties of coal, is obviously affected by the bedding structure. Specifically, the uniaxial compression strength of coal sample is mainly controlled by bedding structure, and the average peak stress of specimens with axes perpendicular to the bedding planes is 20.00 MPa, which is 2.88 times the average amount of parallel ones. The test results also show a close relationship between the bedding structure and the whole deformation process under uniaxial loading.

  9. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  10. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Foster, P.J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  11. Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization using Ca(OH)2 in a fluidized bed reactor with bed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Oak; Roh, Hak Jae; Oh, Chang Sup; Kim, Yong Ha

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of present work is to reduce sulfur dioxide emission from power plant for the environment protection. The fluidized bed (FB) was used as the reactor with bed materials in a new semi-dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency (>98%). Fine powder of Ca(OH) 2 as sorbent and water were continuously fed separately to the bed reactor where bed materials (2 mm glass beads) were fluidized vigorously with flue gas (flow 720 Nm 3 / hr) using bench scale plant of stainless steel column. We have investigated different effects of water injection flow rate, Ca/ S molar ratio and weight of bed materials on SO 2 removal. The increments in the Ca/ S molar ratio and water injection flow rate have been resulted higher desulfurization efficiency with certain disadvantages such as higher sorbent cost and lower temperature of the treated flue gas, respectively. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  13. Multi-methodological characterisation of Costa Rican biochars from small-scale retort and top-lit updraft stoves and inter-methodological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Kaal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied common (pH, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry and less-common (infrared spectroscopy, GACS adsorption test, pyrolysis-GC-MS, hydrogen pyrolysis analytical procedures to a set of biochars from Costa Rica (bamboo stalk, cacao chaff, sawmill scrap, coconut husk and orchard prunings feedstocks. The biochars were produced by high temperature combustion in a top-lit updraft stove (TLUD and low temperature anaerobic charring in a retort (RET, the latter of which was heated by the gas that evolved from the TLUD. The RET biochars exhibit a smaller adsorption capacity, higher molecular diversity and larger proportion of thermolabile materials, because of the lower degree of thermochemical alteration (DTA and therefore limited formation of the microporous polycondensed aromatic matrix typical of the TLUD biochars. Multivariate statistics showed that DTA, not feedstock composition, controls biochar organic chemistry. The TLUD biochars might be better candidates for soil amendment because of their adsorption capacities and will probably exert a more prolonged effect because of their chemical stability. The cross-comparison of the methods showed the complementarity of especially elemental analysis, GACS, thermogravimetry, hypy and pyrolysis-GC-MS.

  14. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  15. Modeling of Powder Bed Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, H.-W.; Desmaison, O.; Megahed, M.; Peralta, A.; Neumann, J.

    2018-01-01

    Powder bed additive manufacturing offers unmatched capabilities. The deposition resolution achieved is extremely high enabling the production of innovative functional products and materials. Achieving the desired final quality is, however, hampered by many potential defects that have to be managed in due course of the manufacturing process. Defects observed in products manufactured via powder bed fusion have been studied experimentally. In this effort we have relied on experiments reported in the literature and—when experimental data were not sufficient—we have performed additional experiments providing an extended foundation for defect analysis. There is large interest in reducing the effort and cost of additive manufacturing process qualification and certification using integrated computational material engineering. A prerequisite is, however, that numerical methods can indeed capture defects. A multiscale multiphysics platform is developed and applied to predict and explain the origin of several defects that have been observed experimentally during laser-based powder bed fusion processes. The models utilized are briefly introduced. The ability of the models to capture the observed defects is verified. The root cause of the defects is explained by analyzing the numerical results thus confirming the ability of numerical methods to provide a foundation for rapid process qualification.

  16. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  17. A note on acoustic measurements of turbulence, suspended sediment, and bed forms in mobile bed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the challenges of hydraulic experimentation is designing experiments that are complex enough to capture relevant processes while retaining the simplicity necessary for useful, accurate measurements. The intricacy of the interactions between turbulent flows and mobile beds in rivers and stream...

  18. Research of Heat Rates Effect on the Process Of Fuel-Bed Gasification Of “Balakhtinskoe”, “Osinnikovskoe”, “Krasnogorskoe” and “Borodinskoe” Coal Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of fuel-bed gasification at different heating rates was conducted. Release of four gases (CO, NO, H2O, CO2 was determined. Optimal heating rate mode for this method of gasification was established.

  19. Hydrodynamic and biological study of a methanogenic bio-film process: the inverse turbulent bed reactor; Etude hydrodynamique et biologique d'un procede de methanisation a biofilm: le reacteur a lit turbule inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, S.

    2001-11-01

    This work deals with the operation and start-up of a turbulent bed reactor with ExtendospheresO as a support, for the anaerobic treatment of a food process wastewater. An hydrodynamic study was carried out to characterise the liquid flow and mixing with this carrier of small size (147 {mu}m) and density (0.7). Phase behaviour during fluidizing gas injection can be described by an homogeneous liquid-solid pseudo-fluid whose apparent viscosity depends on the solid concentration. A biological study showed that the initial contact between cells and particles caused a physiological adaptation of microorganisms to the presence of solid after a transitory inhibition of methane production. The methane yield has been showed to be an interesting parameter to monitor bio-film formation and detachment. A low hydraulic retention time during the start-up period has been decisive to reduce the lag-period during carrier colonization. A robust continuous operation of the reactor has been obtained using a pH-controlled feeding. Gas velocity has been shown to be an important parameter to control cells concentration, density and durability of the bio-film. (author)

  20. Pre-treatment processes of Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution in the batch and fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Morteza; Rakhshaee, Roohan; Ganji, Masuod Taghi

    2005-12-09

    Intact and treated biomass can remove heavy metals from water and wastewater. This study examined the ability of the activated, semi-intact and inactivated Azolla filiculoides (a small water fern) to remove Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from the aqueous solution. The maximum uptake capacities of these metal ions using the activated Azolla filiculoides by NaOH at pH 10.5 +/- 0.2 and then CaCl(2)/MgCl(2)/NaCl with total concentration of 2 M (2:1:1 mole ratio) in the separate batch reactors were obtained about 271, 111, 71 and 60 mg/g (dry Azolla), respectively. The obtained capacities of maximum adsorption for these kinds of the pre-treated Azolla in the fixed-bed reactors (N(o)) were also very close to the values obtained for the batch reactors (Q(max)). On the other hand, it was shown that HCl, CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, FeCl(2), SrCl(2), BaCl(2) and AlCl(3) in the pre-treatment processes decreased the ability of Azolla to remove the heavy metals in comparison to the semi-intact Azolla, considerably. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metals uptake by the activated Azolla was done more rapid than those for the semi-intact Azolla.

  1. Caracterização e uso de xisto para adsorção de chumbo (II em solução Characterization and use of retorted shale for adsorption of lead (II in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Existe um grande interesse no uso de materiais de baixo custo para remoção de metais pesados em águas residuais. Novas técnicas de processamento e adsorventes incluindo argilas, resinas sintéticas, turfa e quitosana tem sido estudados objetivando substituir o carvão ativado. No presente trabalho, xisto retortado (XR, um rejeito sólido da transformação térmica do xisto oleígeno, foi caracterizado com o objetivo de utilizá-lo como adsorventes para remoção de metais pesados. O aproveitamento desse rejeito é de grande interesse, uma vez que o Brasil possui a segunda maior reserva mundial de xisto oleígeno. Os rejeitos foram caracterizados por diferentes técnicas de caracterização, incluindo tamanho de partícula, análise termogravimétrica, fluorescência de raios X, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, difração de raios X, e microscopia eletrônica de varredura-EDS. As características dos pós foram adequadas para os experimentos de adsorção. Estudos de adsorção de Pb2+ pelo método de banho finito foram realizados. A remoção do Pb2+ foi superior a 85%.There has been a growing interest in the use of cost-effective materials to remove heavy metals from wastewater. New processing techniques and adsorbents including natural clays, synthetic resins, peat and chitosan have been studied aiming at replacing activated coal. In the present investigation, retorted shale, a solid residue of the thermal transformation of oil shale, was characterized with the objective of preparing heavy metals adsorbents. In addition to the direct environmental benefits from the technology to wastewater, Brazil has the second world reserve of oil shale. The fine residue was fully characterized by different techniques including particle size determination, thermogravimetric analyses, BET, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDS. The characteristics of the powder were appropriate for adsorption. Batch adsorption studies in Pb2+ synthetic solution

  2. Carbon Bed Mercury Emissions Control For Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB(reg s ign) carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98-99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as 'bed hot spots.' Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed

  3. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  4. Transient core-debris bed heat-removal experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Klein, J.; Klages, J.; Schwarz, C.E.; Chen, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    An experimental investigation is reported of the thermal interaction between superheated core debris and water during postulated light-water reactor degraded core accidents. Data are presented for the heat transfer characteristics of packed beds of 3 mm spheres which are cooled by overlying pools of water. Results of transient bed temperature and steam flow rate measurements are presented for bed heights in the range 218 mm-433 mm and initial particle bed temperatures between 530K and 972K. Results display a two-part sequential quench process. Initial frontal cooling leaves pockets or channels of unquenched spheres. Data suggest that heat transfer process is limited by a mechanism of countercurrent two-phase flow. An analytical model which combines a bed energy equation with either a quasisteady version of the Lipinski debris bed model or a critical heat flux model reasonably well predicts the characteristic features of the bed quench process. Implications with respect to reactor safety are discussed

  5. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  6. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  7. Chaotic hydrodynamics of fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Stappen, M.L.M. [Unit Process and Systems Engineering, Advanced Manufacturing Technology Group, Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The major goals of this thesis are: (1) to develop and evaluate an analysis method based on techniques from non-linear chaos theory to characterize the nonlinear hydrodynamics of gas-solids fluidized beds quantitatively; and (2) to determine the dependence of the chaotic invariants on the operating conditions and investigate how the chaos analysis method can be profitably applied to improve scale-up and design of gas-solids fluidized bed reactors. Chaos theory is introduced in chapter 2 with emphasis on analysis techniques for (experimental) time series, known from literature at the start of this work (1990-1991). In chapter 3, the testing of existing and newly developed techniques on both model and fluidized bed data is described. This leads to the development of the chaos analysis method to analyze measured pressure fluctuations time series of a fluidized bed. Following, in chapter 4, this method is tested and all choices for the parameters are evaluated. The influence of the experimental parameters and external disturbances on the measurements and analysis results is discussed and quantified. The result is a chaos measurement and analysis protocol, which is further used in this work. In chapter 5, the applications to fluidized beds are discussed. It is shown that the entropy is a good measure for the characterization of the dynamical behavior of gas-solids bubbling/slugging fluidized beds. Entropy is applied to characterize the influence of the operating conditions, to assess regime transitions and to analyze dimensionless similar beds of different scale. Quantitative design correlations that relate entropy to the operating parameters (including the bed diameter) are described. Finally, it is discussed how the results of this work might be used in scaling up the chaotic dynamics of fluidized beds. The overall conclusions and outlook from this work are presented in chapter 6. 182 refs.

  8. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  9. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  10. Measurement of the bed material of gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the physical properties of a gravel-bed river is important in the calculation of sediment transport and physical habitat values for aquatic animals. These properties are not always easy to measure. One recent report on flushing of fines from the Klamath River did not contain information on one location because the grain size distribution of the armour could not be measured on a dry river bar. The grain size distribution could have been measured using a barrel sampler and converting the measurements to the same as would have been measured if a dry bar existed at the site. In another recent paper the porosity was calculated from an average value relation from the literature. The results of that paper may be sensitive to the actual value of porosity. Using the bulk density sampling technique based on a water displacement process presented in this paper the porosity could have been calculated from the measured bulk density. The principle topics of this paper are the measurement of the size distribution of the armour, and measurement of the porosity of the substrate. The 'standard' method of sampling of the armour is to do a Wolman-type count of the armour on a dry section of the river bed. When a dry bar does not exist the armour in an area of the wet streambed is to sample and the measurements transformed analytically to the same type of results that would have been obtained from the standard Wolman procedure. A comparison of the results for the San Miguel River in Colorado shows significant differences in the median size of the armour. The method use to determine the porosity is not 'high-tech' and there is a need improve knowledge of the porosity because of the importance of porosity in the aquatic ecosystem. The technique is to measure the in-situ volume of a substrate sample by measuring the volume of a frame over the substrate and then repeated the volume measurement after the sample is obtained from within the frame. The difference in the

  11. Public hospital bed crisis: too few or too misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian A

    2010-08-01

    * Increasing demand on public hospital beds has led to what many see as a hospital bed crisis requiring substantial increases in bed numbers. By 2050, if current bed use trends persist and as the numbers of frail older patients rise exponentially, a 62% increase in hospital beds will be required to meet expected demand, at a cost almost equal to the entire current Australian healthcare budget. * This article provides an overview of the effectiveness of different strategies for reducing hospital demand that may be viewed as primarily (although not exclusively) targeting the hospital sector - increasing capacity and throughput and reducing readmissions - or the non-hospital sector - facilitating early discharge or reducing presentations and admissions to hospital. Evidence of effectiveness was retrieved from a literature search of randomised trials and observational studies using broad search terms. * The principal findings were as follows: (1) within the hospital sector, throughput could be substantially improved by outsourcing public hospital clinical services to the private sector, undertaking whole-of-hospital reform of care processes and patient flow that address both access and exit block, separating acute from elective beds and services, increasing rates of day-only or short stay admissions, and curtailing ineffective or marginally effective clinical interventions; (2) in regards to the non-hospital sector, potentially the biggest gains in reducing hospital demand will come from improved access to residential care, rehabilitation services, and domiciliary support as patients awaiting such services currently account for 70% of acute hospital bed-days. More widespread use of acute care and advance care planning within residential care facilities and population-based chronic disease management programs can also assist. * This overview concludes that, in reducing hospital bed demand, clinical process redesign within hospitals and capacity enhancement of non

  12. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  13. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  14. Quench cooling of superheated debris beds in containment during LWR core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Chen, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Light water reactor core meltdown accident sequence studies suggest that superheated debris beds may settle on the concrete floor beneath the reactor vessel. A model for the heat transfer processes during quench of superheated debris beds cooled by an overlying pool of water has been presented in a prior paper. This paper discusses the coolability of decay-heated debris beds from the standpoint of their transient quench characteristics. It is shown that even though a debris bed configuration may be coolable from the point of view of steady-state decay heat removal, the quench behavior from an initially elevated temperature may lead to bed melting prior to quench of the debris

  15. Fluidized bed incineration of transuranic contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A 9 kg/hr pilot scale fluidized bed incinerator is now being used for burning various types of radioactive waste at Rocky Flats Plant. General solid combustible waste containing halogenated materials is burned in a fluidized bed of sodium carbonate for in situ neutralization of thermally generated acidic gases. A variety of other production related materials has been burned in the incinerator, including ion exchange resin, tributyl phosphate solutions, and air filters. Successful operation of the pilot plant incinerator has led to the design and construction of a production site unit to burn 82 kg/hr of plant generated waste. Residues from incinerator operations will be processed into glass buttons utilizing a vitrification plant now under development

  16. Oxidation of tritium by hopcalite bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Shinnai, Kohsuke; Matsunaga, Sohichi; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko

    1984-08-01

    Oxidation by the catalyst bed with a metal oxide and subsequent adsorption to the porous dehydrative reagents is supposed to be effective process for scavenging tritium from an inert atmosphere. Use of spongy copper oxide or wires of copper oxide is not recommended to use as the metal oxide catalyst from the view point of mass transfer because of sintering and of limited effective surface area. Use of hopcalites and copper oxide-kieselguhr are examined in this study and it is concluded that hopcalites are more suitable as the metal oxide catalyst because they not only remain the oxidation power on hydrogen isotopes even at an ambient temperature, but also show a negligible drop in oxidation performances with repeated regeneration. The effective temperature is about 400/sup 0/C for hopcalites and 300-600/sup 0/C for copper oxide-kieselguhr to use as the oxidation bed of tritium.

  17. Oxidation of tritium by hopcalite bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Shinnai, Kohsuke; Matsunaga, Sohichi; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko

    1984-01-01

    Oxidation by the catalyst bed with a metal oxide and subsequent adsorption to the porous dehydrative reagents is supposed to be effective process for scavenging tritium from an inert atmosphere. Use of spongy copper oxide or wires of copper oxide is not recommended to use as the metal oxide catalyst from the view point of mass transfer because of sintering and of limited effective surface area. Use of hopcalites and copper oxide-kieselguhr are examined in this study and it is concluded that hopcalites are more suitable as the metal oxide catalyst because they not only remain the oxidation power on hydrogen isotopes even at an ambient temperature, but also show a negligible drop in oxidation performances with repeated regeneration. The effective temperature is about 400 0 C for hopcalites and 300--600 0 C for copper oxide-kieselguhr to use as the oxidation bed of tritium. (author)

  18. Numerical modeling of pyrolysis of sawdust in a packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingmin; Chen, Xiaoping [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    An unsteady, one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust in a packed bed. The sawdust bed was pyrolyzed using the hot gas and an electric heater outside the bed as the source of energy. The developed model includes mass, momentum and energy conservations of gas and solid within the bed. The gas flow in the bed is modeled using Darcy's law for fluid through a porous medium. The heat transfer model includes heat conduction inside the bed and convection between the bed and the hot gas. The kinetic model consists of primary pyrolysis reaction. A finite volume fully implicit scheme is employed for solving the heat and mass transfer model equations. A Runge-Kutta fourth order method is used for the chemical kinetics model equations. The model predictions of mass loss history and temperature were validated with published experimental results, showing a good agreement. The effects of inlet temperature on the pyrolysis process have been analyzed with model simulation. A sensitivity analysis using the model suggests that the predictions could be improved by considering the second reaction which could generate volatile flowing in the void.

  19. Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Wilson, Mark; Cole, Harold; Orozco, Nicole; Snowdon, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Bed, which includes adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. The first Multifiltration Bed was replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough. This bed was returned to ground in July 2011 for an engineering investigation. The water resident in the bed was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed. In addition, an unused Multifiltration Bed was evaluated after two years in storage to assess the generation of leachates during storage. This assessment was performed to evaluate the possibility that these leachates are impacting performance of the Catalytic Reactor located downstream of the Multifiltration Bed. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  20. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  1. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... you hire an expert, be sure it’s a company with a good reputation and request that it ...

  2. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  3. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  4. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  5. Fluid-bed methane proposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The first full scale plant for the production of methane from organic waste could be built in the next few years believes M.J. Nyns of the University of Louvain, Belgium, utilizing either expanded bed or fluidised bed systems, with more than one stage, in a continuous flow arrangement. Up to 8.0 m cubed gas/m cubed digester/day could be produced with residence times reduced to 34 hours.

  6. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Jared A. Frank; Anthony Brill; Vikram Kapila

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their em...

  7. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  8. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  9. Boiler for combustion fuel in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel combustion in fluidized bed combustion is a process that is current and which every day gives more attention and there are many studies that have been closely associated with this technology. This combustion technology is widespread and constantly improving the range of benefits it provides primarily due to reduced emissions. This paper presents the boilers for combustion in a fluidized bed, whit characteristics and advantages. Also is shown the development of this type of boilers in Republic of Serbia. In this paper is explained the concept of fluidized bed combustion. Boilers for this type of combustion can be improved and thereby increase their efficiency level. More detailed characteristics are given for boilers with bubbling and circulating fluidized bed as well as their mutual comparison.

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) is a unique and innovative coal-fueled technology that has the potential to meet these conditions and provide heat and/or process steam to small industrial, commercial, institutional and residential complexes. The potential of Pulse Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (PAFBC) technology has been amply demonstrated under the sponsorship of a previous DOE/METC contract (DE-AC21-88MC25069). The environmental performance of a coal-fired laboratory-scale system (1.5 million British Thermal Units per hour) (MMBtu/hr) significantly surpassed that of conventional bubbling and circulating fluidized-bed combustion units (see Table 1 for performance comparison). Prompted by these encouraging results in combustion, sulfur capture, emissions control, and enhanced heat transfer, Island Creek Coal Company (ICC) and Baltimore Thermal Energy Corporation expressed interest in the technology and offered to participate by providing host sites for field testing. EA's have been submitted independently for each of these field test sites. This submission addresses the preliminary testing of the PAFBC unit at Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International's (MTCI) Baltimore, MD facility

  11. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  12. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  13. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  14. Bed management team with Kanban web-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Santos, Ana Kelly Lima da Cruz; Alcântara, Antônia Celia de Castro; Lima, Carmen Sulinete Suliano da Costa; Rocha, Sabrina Gabriele Maia Oliveira; Cardoso, Roberto Melo; Cremonin, Jair Rodrigues

    2018-05-15

    To measure the effectiveness of the bed management process that uses a web-based application with Kanban methodology to reduce hospitalization time of hospitalized patients. Before-after study was performed. The study was conducted between July 2013 and July 2017, at the Unimed Regional Hospital of Fortaleza, which has 300 beds, of which 60 are in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is accredited by International Society for Quality in Healthcare. Patients hospitalized in the referred period. Bed management with an application that uses color logic to signal at which stage of high flow the patients meet, in which each patient is interpreted as a card of the classical Kanban theory. It has an automatic user signaling system for process movement, and a system for monitoring and analyzing discharge forecasts. Length of hospital stay, number of customer complaints related to bed availability. After the intervention, the hospital's overall hospital stay time was reduced from 5.6 days to 4.9 days (P = 0.001). The units with the greatest reduction were the ICUs, with reduction from 6.0 days to 2.0 (P = 0.001). The relative percentage of complaints regarding bed availability in the hospital fell from 27% to 0%. We conclude that the use of an electronic tool based on Kanban methodology and accessed via the web by a bed management team is effective in reducing patients' hospital stay time.

  15. Powder bed charging during electron-beam additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Zachary C.; Meyer, Harry M.; Nandwana, Peeyush; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Electrons injected into the build envelope during powder bed electron-beam additive manufacturing can accumulate on the irradiated particles and cause them to repel each other. Under certain conditions, these electrostatic forces can grow so large that they drive the particles out of the build envelope in a process known as “smoking”. In the present work, we investigate the causes of powder bed charging and smoking during electron-beam additive manufacturing. In the first part of the paper, we characterize the surface chemistry of a common feedstock material—gas-atomized Ti-6Al-4V powder—and find that a thick, electrically insulating oxide overlayer encapsulates the particles. Based on these experimental results, we then formulate an analytical model of powder bed charging in which each particle is approximated as a capacitor, where the particle and its substrate are the electrodes and the oxide overlayer is the dielectric. Using this model, we estimate the charge distribution in the powder bed, the electrostatic forces acting on the particles, and the conditions under which the powder bed will smoke. It is found that the electrical resistivity of the oxide overlayer strongly influences the charging behavior of the powder bed and that a high resistivity promotes charge accumulation and consequent smoking. This analysis suggests new quality control and process design measures that can help suppress smoking.

  16. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Diaz, K. E.; Limas-Ballesteros, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  18. Predicting Bed Mobility in a Simple River Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydzga, M. A.; Legleiter, C.; Dunne, T.

    2007-12-01

    Prediction of the frequency and spatial pattern of bed mobility in gravel bed rivers is central to a wide range of theoretical and applied interests ranging from sediment transport to the impacts of natural or managed floods on aquatic organisms. Although bed mobility has been investigated in numerous flume and field studies, accurate predictions of grain entrainment and transport in gravel bed rivers remain elusive. Alluvial rivers typically encompass a much wider range of hydraulic and sedimentological conditions than those that have been recreated in laboratory flume studies upon which many grain entrainment and transport models are based. These flume studies are limited to the examination of processes occurring over the short term, commonly with the absence of slower processes such as fine-grain infilling. On the other hand, in field studies key variables can not be controlled and the spatial complexity of processes and conditions complicate data collection and analysis. A unique opportunity currently exists to help bridge this gap between laboratory and field studies: a 3.2 km long, recently constructed, single thread, alternate bar, gravel bed river channel of the Merced River. This channel, constructed for ecosystem restoration purposes, is slowly developing greater complexity, but is still currently defined by a simple plan form and cross-sectional channel geometry compared to most natural gravel bed river channels. This channel can thus be considered a full-scale flume. In the six years since the channel was constructed, a wider range of sedimentological bed conditions have evolved than have been created in a laboratory flume. We are characterizing the bed grain sizes, flow field, grain entrainment, and the sedimentological or bed state conditions in this simple channel. The flow field is modeled using a calibrated, 2D hydrodynamic flow model, MD_SWMS. Grain entrainment is measured with both metal tags inserted into the bed, and painted rock tracers

  19. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, Jonathan [Studsvik Processing Facility Erwin, 151 T.C. Runnion Rd., Erwin, TN 37650 (United States); Myers, Corey [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the

  20. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, Jonathan; Myers, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the waste package

  1. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  2. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided

  3. Equilibrium modeling of gasification: Gibbs free energy minimization approach and its application to spouted bed and spout-fluid bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarungthammachote, S.; Dutta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Spouted beds have been found in many applications, one of which is gasification. In this paper, the gasification processes of conventional and modified spouted bed gasifiers were considered. The conventional spouted bed is a central jet spouted bed, while the modified spouted beds are circular split spouted bed and spout-fluid bed. The Gibbs free energy minimization method was used to predict the composition of the producer gas. The major six components, CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O, H 2 and N 2 , were determined in the mixture of the producer gas. The results showed that the carbon conversion in the gasification process plays an important role in the model. A modified model was developed by considering the carbon conversion in the constraint equations and in the energy balance calculation. The results from the modified model showed improvements. The higher heating values (HHV) were also calculated and compared with the ones from experiments. The agreements of the calculated and experimental values of HHV, especially in the case of the circular split spouted bed and the spout-fluid bed were observed

  4. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  5. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  6. Numerical simulation of resin degassing unit in gas-phase fluidized bed polyethylene process and its application%气相法PE装置脱挥单元的数值模拟及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文清

    2014-01-01

    基于费克扩散定理、亨利定律、质量守恒定律等,结合气相法工艺聚乙烯(PE)装置脱挥单元中脱气仓的运行情况,建立了脱气仓的数学模型。运用该模型定量分析了N2流量、停留时间、压力等操作条件对脱气仓操作曲线和脱挥性能的影响,模拟分析了300kt/a气相法PE装置脱挥单元,确定了优选操作条件:操作点应同时位于出口处组分的质量分数与N2流量关系曲线的转折点,以及N2流量与停留时间关系曲线的转折点附近;N2流量与PE流量之比为0.010~0.040。%The resin degassing unit mathematical model of gas-phase fluidized bed polyethylene process was established based on Fick's diffusion law, Henry's law, mass conservation equation and so on. Then the model was applied to quantitatively analyzing the impact of the operating conditions such as nitrogen flow rate, residence time and pressure on the operation curve of purge bin and degassing performance curve, and simulation analysis of resin degassing unit in a 300 kt/a gas-phase polyethylene installations was performed to determine the preferred operating conditions. Specific conditions: operating point should be located at the turning point on outlet mass percentage of the components-nitrogen flow curve and at the turning point on nitrogen flow-residence time curve, and the flow ratio of nitrogen to polyethylene ranged from 0.010 to 0.040.

  7. Characterization of the pneumatic behavior of a novel spouted bed apparatus with two adjustable gas inlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryczka, O.; Heinrich, S.; Miteva, V.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Jacob, M.; Morl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the importance of spouted bed technology has significantly increased in the context of drying processes as well as granulation, agglomeration or coating processes. Within this work the fluid dynamics of a novel spouted bed plant with two adjustable gas inlets is investigated. By analysis of

  8. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... A fully-coupled 1D mobile-bed model (CAR-. ICHAR) was introduced ...... for sediment trap, water level sensor, tail gate operated by lever arm at .... materials were brought back to upstream to feed the same through sediment ...

  9. Biological Phosphorus Removal in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helness, Herman

    2007-09-15

    The scope of this study was to investigate use of the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for biological phosphorus removal. The goal has been to describe the operating conditions required for biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in a MBBR operated as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and determine dimensioning criteria for such a process

  10. Population balance modelling of fluidized bed melt granulation: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Boerefijn, R.; Hounslow, M.J.; Salman, A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by our group to identify and quantify the rates processes active in fluidized bed melt granulation (FBMG). The process involves the identification and development of physically representative models to mechanistically describe FBMG using both

  11. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Safety and licensing evaluaion of German Pebble Bed Reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor, as developed in the Federal Republic of Germany, was reviewed from a United States Safety and Licensing perspective. The primary concepts considered were the steam cycle electric generating pebble bed (HTR-K) and the process heat pebble bed (PNP), although generic consideration of the direct cycle gas turbine pebble bed (HHT) was included. The study examines potential U.S. licensing issues and offers some suggestions as to required development areas

  12. Glacier seismology: eavesdropping on the ice-bed interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, F.; Röösli, C.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier sliding plays a central role in ice dynamics. A number of remote sensing and deep drilling initiatives have therefore focused on the ice-bed interface. Although these techniques have provided valuable insights into bed properties, they do not supply theorists with data of sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to rigorously test mathematical sliding laws. As an alternative, passive seismic techniques have gained popularity in glacier monitoring. Analysis of glacier-related seismic sources ('icequakes') has become a useful technique to study inaccessible regions of the cryosphere, including the ice-bed interface. Seismic monitoring networks on the polar ice sheets have shown that ice sliding is not only a smooth process involving viscous deformation and regelation of basal ice layers. Instead, ice streams exhibit sudden slip episodes over their beds and intermittent phases of partial or complete stagnation. Here we discuss new and recently published discoveries of basal seismic sources beneath various glacial bodies. We revisit basal seismicity of hard-bedded Alpine glaciers, which is not the result of pure stick-slip motion. Sudden changes in seismicity suggest that the local configuration of the subglacial drainage system undergoes changes on sub daily time scales. Accordingly, such observations place constraints on basal resistance and sliding of hard-bedded glaciers. In contrast, certain clusters of stick-slip dislocations associated with micro seismicity beneath the Greenland ice sheet undergo diurnal variations in magnitudes and inter event times. This is best explained with a soft till bed, which hosts the shear dislocations and whose strength varies in response to changes in subglacial water pressure. These results suggest that analysis of basal icequakes is well suited for characterizing glacier and ice sheet beds. Future studies should address the relative importance between "smooth" and seismogenic sliding in different glacial environments.

  13. Continuous cleaning of heat exchanger with recirculating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Kollbach, J.; Dahm, W.; Rautenbach, R.

    1987-01-01

    Fluidized bed heat exchangers for liquids have been studied in the United States, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Between 1965 and 1970, fluidized bed heat exchangers were developed in the United States as brine heaters in seawater desalination. Furthermore, their potential in the utilization of geothermal energy was tested between 1975 and 1980. In the Netherlands, fluidized bed heat exchangers have been developed since 1973 for brine heating and heat recovery in multistage flash evaporators for seawater desalination and, since about 1980, for applications in the process industry. The authors became interested in fluidized bed heat exchangers first in 1978 in connection with wastewater evaporation. The authors emphasize that the results of all these groups were in basic agreement. They can be summarized as follows: 1. The fluidized bed will in many cases maintain totally clean surfaces and neither scaling nor fouling will occur. In cases where even a fluidized bed cannot completely prevent scaling or fouling, the thickness of the layer is controlled. In these cases stable operation maintaining acceptable overall heat transfer coefficients is possible without cleaning. 2. There are always excellent heat transfer coefficients as low superficial velocities of less than ν < 0.5 m/s. 3. The pressure losses are comparable with those in normal heat exchangers since fluidized bed heat exchangers are mostly operated at low superficial velocities. 4. Feed flow may be varied between 50 and 150% or more of the design feed flow. 5. Erosion is negligible. 6. Fluidized bed particles can be manufactured from all sorts of chemically and mechanically resistant materials, such as sand, glass, ceramics, and metals

  14. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  15. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  16. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  17. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  18. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  19. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron

  20. Measurement of thermal expansion for a Li2TiO3 pebble bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisashi Tanigawa; Mikio Enoeda; Masato Akiba

    2006-01-01

    In the current design of the blanket with ceramic breeders, pebbles of breeding materials are packed into a container and used as a pebble bed. Thermal and mechanical conditions externally loaded on the bed affect thermal and mechanical properties of the bed. It is necessary to analyze thermo-mechanical properties of the bed under controlled thermal and mechanical conditions. In the present paper, thermal expansion of a Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed was investigated. Our apparatus consists of a tensile test-apparatus and a measurement chamber. Pebbles of Li 2 TiO 3 with 2 mm diameter were used. They were packed into a container made of alumina. At first, thermal expansion of the apparatus was calibrated because the measured deformation included thermal expansions of the load rods and the container. Instead of the pebble bed, a column made of copper was installed and thermal expansion of the system was measured for the calibration. Taking into account the estimated thermal expansion of the column, thermal expansion of the rods and the container could be analyzed. Based on the correction, thermal expansion of the pebble bed was measured under compression of 0.1 MPa. Temperature of the bed was regulated from room temperature to 973 K. From the measured expansion of the bed, average thermal expansion coefficient was estimated. For the beds with different packing factors ranging from 65.5 to 68.5 %, thermal expansion coefficients were 1.4 ± 0. 10-5 K -1 . In the first measurement of the beds without pre-loading, expansion coefficients were larger for the cooling process than heating. When the beds were successively heated and cooled, the difference decreased. This means that relocation of the pebbles arises in the first heat treatment and progress of compaction is larger in the cooling process than heating. After a few heat treatments, packing states of the beds reach stable and expansion coefficients for both heat and cooling processes are close. In the case of the beds that