WorldWideScience

Sample records for bed net trial

  1. Community trial of insecticide-treated bed net use promotion in southern Ghana: the Net Use Intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Botwe, Augustine Aboagye; Selby, Richmond Ato; Franklin, Nadra; Shaw, Willard D

    2011-06-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria transmission and related morbidity and child mortality; however, incorrect and inconsistent use limits their protective factors. This community trial titled the Net Use Intervention study sought to bridge the gap between ITN ownership and use in southern (coastal) Ghana and to determine the best mix of communication tools to affect behavior of ITN owners to consistent use while maintaining optimal internal and external validity. This two-group, non-randomized experiment evaluated a multichannel, multisector intervention process over the course of 8 weeks. A longitudinal cohort was scientifically sampled from six intervention and six control communities for both baseline and posttest surveys. The posttest survey showed no change in knowledge of ITNs in the intervention or control. In terms of use the previous night, there was a strong and statistically significant intervention effect (OR = 1.67; p promotion efforts succeeded well beyond the planners' expectations, not only promoting usage but also dramatically increasing demand for new ITNs.

  2. The effect of household heads training on long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets utilization: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated significant impact in reducing malaria-related childhood morbidity and mortality. However, utilization of LLITN by under-five children is not satisfactory in many sub-Saharan African countries due to behavioural barriers. Previous studies had focused on the coverage and ownership of LLITN. The effect of skill-based training for household heads on LLITN utilization had not yet been investigated. A cluster-randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN was done in Ethiopia to fill this knowledge gap. Methods The study included 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in southwest Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. All households in each group received free LLITN. Data were collected at baseline, six and 12 months of the follow up periods. Utilization of LLITN in the control and intervention villages was compared at baseline and follow up periods. Results A total of 21,673; 14,735 and 13,758 individuals were included at baseline, sixth and twelfth months of the project period. At the baseline survey, 47.9% of individuals in the intervention villages and 68.4% in the control villages reported that they had utilized LLITN the night before the survey. At the six month, 81.0% of individuals in the intervention villages and 79.3% in the control villages had utilized LLITN. The utilization of LLITN in all age groups in the intervention villages was increased by 17.7 percentage point (95% CI 9.7-25.6 at sixth month and by 31.0 percentage point (95% CI 16.9-45.1 at the twelfth month. Among under-five children, the LLITN utilization increased by 31.6 percentage point (95% CI 17.3-45.8 at the sixth month and 38.4 percentage point (95% CI 12.1-64.7 at the twelfth months of the project period. Conclusion Household level skill

  3. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei Xu

    Full Text Available Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas.This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI. Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people, however only 169 (48.0% households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2% residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05, however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN was significantly lower (34.5%, P<0.0001. The annual cash income per person (ACIP was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (P<0.0001, where families with an ACIP of CNY10000 or more were much more likely to use nets. House type was strongly associated with bed net use (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 2.81, 7.91; P<0.0001, where those with traditional wood walls and terracotta roofs were significantly more likely to use nets, and the head of household's knowledge was an independent factor (OR: 5.04, 95% CI: 2.72, 9.35; P<0.0001, where those who knew bed nets prevent malaria were significantly more likely to use nets too.High bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  4. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor Corine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neither indoor residual spraying (IRS nor long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are able to fully interrupt transmission in holoendemic Africa as single interventions. The combining of IRS and LLINs presents an opportunity for improved control and management of pyrethroid resistance through the simultaneous presentation of unrelated insecticides. Method Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bed nets were deliberately holed with either six or 80 holes to examine the effect of increasing wear and tear on protectiveness. Anopheles gambiae were genotyped for the kdr gene to assess the combination's potential to prevent the selection of pyrethroid resistance. Results The frequency of kdr was 84%. The overall mortality rates of An. gambiae were 37% and 49% with the six-hole and 80-hole LLINs, respectively, and reached 57% with chlorfenapyr IRS. Overall mortality rates were significantly higher with the combination treatments (82-83% than with the LLIN or IRS individual treatments. Blood feeding (mosquito biting rates were lowest with the 6-hole LLIN (12%, intermediate with the 80-hole LLIN (32% and highest with untreated nets (56% with the 6-hole and 54% with the 80-hole nets. Blood feeding (biting rates and repellency of mosquitoes with the combination of LLIN and chlorfenapyr IRS showed significant improvement compared to the IRS treatment but did not differ from the LLIN treatments indicating that the LLINs were the primary agents of personal protection. The combination killed significantly higher proportions of Cx. quinquefasciatus (51%, 41% than the LLIN (15%, 13% or IRS (32% treatments. Conclusion The chlorfenapyr IRS component was largely responsible for controlling pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and the LLIN component was largely

  5. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibatou; Vigninou, Estelle; Asidi, Alex; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2011-11-16

    Neither indoor residual spraying (IRS) nor long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are able to fully interrupt transmission in holoendemic Africa as single interventions. The combining of IRS and LLINs presents an opportunity for improved control and management of pyrethroid resistance through the simultaneous presentation of unrelated insecticides. Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved) were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bed nets were deliberately holed with either six or 80 holes to examine the effect of increasing wear and tear on protectiveness. Anopheles gambiae were genotyped for the kdr gene to assess the combination's potential to prevent the selection of pyrethroid resistance. The frequency of kdr was 84%. The overall mortality rates of An. gambiae were 37% and 49% with the six-hole and 80-hole LLINs, respectively, and reached 57% with chlorfenapyr IRS. Overall mortality rates were significantly higher with the combination treatments (82-83%) than with the LLIN or IRS individual treatments. Blood feeding (mosquito biting) rates were lowest with the 6-hole LLIN (12%), intermediate with the 80-hole LLIN (32%) and highest with untreated nets (56% with the 6-hole and 54% with the 80-hole nets). Blood feeding (biting) rates and repellency of mosquitoes with the combination of LLIN and chlorfenapyr IRS showed significant improvement compared to the IRS treatment but did not differ from the LLIN treatments indicating that the LLINs were the primary agents of personal protection. The combination killed significantly higher proportions of Cx. quinquefasciatus (51%, 41%) than the LLIN (15%, 13%) or IRS (32%) treatments. The chlorfenapyr IRS component was largely responsible for controlling pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and the LLIN component was largely responsible for blood feeding inhibition and personal

  6. Sleeping arrangement and house structure affect bed net use in villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa Yoshihide

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although insecticide-treated bed nets are effective tools, use often does not follow ownership. House structure and space arrangements may make the attempt to use bed nets difficult, especially for school age children. The objectives of this study were to explore whether an individual's sleeping arrangements and house structure affect bed net use in villages along Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Methods Sleeping arrangements of residents were directly observed for use of a bed net, use of a bed, and location. House size, number and types of rooms, bed availability, and residents' ages were estimated. The family heads and mothers were asked about the reason for not using bed nets. Individual bed net use was examined against age and sleeping arrangement. Net use at the household level was examined against four variables: bed availability, bed net availability, house size, and number of rooms. Results Bed net use by children between five and 15 years of age was lower than that among the other age classes. However, age was dropped from the final model, and sleeping arrangement was significantly associated with net use. Net use was significantly associated with bed availability, number of rooms and their interaction. Conclusion Net use was affected by sleeping arrangement and availability of suitable locations for hanging nets, in addition to net availability. Most residents had likely not realized that sleeping arrangement was a factor in net use. The ease of hanging a net is particularly important for children.

  7. Reported bed net ownership and use in social contacts is associated with uptake of bed nets for malaria prevention in pregnant women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Erly, Steven; Adusei, Charity; Bell, Melanie L; Kessie, David Komla; Biritwum-Nyarko, Alberta; Ehiri, John

    2017-01-04

    Despite progress made in the last decades, malaria persists as a pressing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection and serious health outcomes for themselves and their unborn child. Risk can be mitigated through appropriate use of control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets. Although social networks can influence uptake of preventive strategies, the role of social influence on bed net ownership has not been explored. During an evaluation of a bed net distribution programme, the influence of non-health care advisors on ownership and use of bed nets by pregnant women in Kumasi, Ghana was examined. Data were collected through in-person interviews with 300 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in an urban hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants were asked about their bed net ownership, bed net use, and information about three personal contacts that they go to for pregnancy advice. Information about these advisors was combined into an influence score. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between the score and bed net ownership. Those who owned a bed net were further assessed to determine if interpersonal influence was associated with self-reported sleeping under the bed net the previous night. Of the 294 women in the analysis, 229 (78%) reported owning bed nets. Of these bed net owners, 139 (61%) reported using a bed net the previous night. A dose response relationship was observed between the interpersonal influence score and bed net ownership and use. Compared to the lowest influence score, those with the highest influence score (>1 SD above the mean) were marginally more likely to own a bed net [OR = 2.37, 95% CI (0.87, 6.39)] and much more likely to use their bed net [5.38, 95% CI (1.89, 15.25)] after adjusting for other factors. Interpersonal influence appears to have modest impact on ownership and use of bed nets by pregnant women in an urban area of Ghana. Further

  8. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  9. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  10. Effect of training on the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets on the burden of malaria among vulnerable groups, south-west Ethiopia: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Tariku

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN is hampered by behavioural factors such as low awareness and negative attitude of the community. The aim of this study was to present the design and baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN. Methods This baseline survey was undertaken from February to March, 2009 as part of a randomized cluster trial. A total of 11 intervention and 11 control Gots (villages were included in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Centre, south-west Ethiopia. House to house visit was done in 4135 households to collect information about the use of LLITN and socio-demographic variables. For the diagnosis of malaria and anaemia, blood samples were collected from 2410 under-five children and 242 pregnant women. Results One fourth of the households in the intervention and control Gots had functional LLITN. Only 30% of the observed LLITN in the intervention and 28% in the control Gots were hanged properly. Adults were more likely to utilize LLITN than under-five children in the control and intervention Gots. The prevalence of malaria in under-five children in the intervention and control Gots was 10.5% and 8.3% respectively. The intervention and control Gots had no significant difference concerning the prevalence of malaria in under-five children, [OR = 1.28, (95%CI: 0.97, 1.69]. Eight (6.1% pregnant women in the intervention and eight (7.2% in the control Gots were positive for malaria (P = 0.9. Children in the intervention Gots were less likely to have anaemia than children in the control Gots, [OR = 0.75, (95%CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Conclusion The availability and utilization of LLITN was low in the study area. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia was high. Intervention strategies of malaria should focus on high risk population and vulnerable groups.

  11. Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets in a Malaria Control Program in Chabahar, Southeast Baluchistan, I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in the Chabahar District of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran on the efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a suspension formulation of deltamethrin (K-O THRIN® against malaria vectors. Treated nets were used in three villages, and in the two control villages, one used untreated nets and the other used indoor spraying with deltamethrin (WP 10%, without nets. Treatment of polyester mosquito net with a target dose of 25 mg/m2 active ingredi¬ent, carried out in mid-April 2005. Bioassays repeated on domestically used nets over 7 months showed persistence of al¬most 100% mortality of Anopheles. stephensi over this period. Adult mosquitoes were collected by pyrethroid space spray catch of living quarters and stables, cattle bait and pit shelter catches. Overall, An. culicifacies Giles s.l predominated (49.8%, followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l.(36.9%, An. pulcherrimus Theobald (7.3 %, An. dthali Patton (5.7% and An. fluviatilis James (0.3%. Acknowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP study showed that about 97% of respondents in communities agreed that they would like to participate in malaria control activities such as personal protection using im¬pregnation bed net. Therefore, in planning for future large scale trials, comparison of new compounds and formulations such as tablets and long lasting insecticides impregnated bed net is recommended.

  12. Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets in a Malaria Control Program in Chabahar, Southeast Baluchistan, I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in the Chabahar District of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran on the efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a suspension formulation of deltamethrin (K-O THRIN® against malaria vectors. Treated nets were used in three villages, and in the two control villages, one used untreated nets and the other used indoor spraying with deltamethrin (WP 10%, without nets. Treatment of polyester mosquito net with a target dose of 25 mg/m2 active ingredi¬ent, carried out in mid-April 2005. Bioassays repeated on domestically used nets over 7 months showed persistence of al¬most 100% mortality of Anopheles. stephensi over this period. Adult mosquitoes were collected by pyrethroid space spray catch of living quarters and stables, cattle bait and pit shelter catches. Overall, An. culicifacies Giles s.l predominated (49.8%, followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l.(36.9%, An. pulcherrimus Theobald (7.3 %, An. dthali Patton (5.7% and An. fluviatilis James (0.3%. Acknowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP study showed that about 97% of respondents in communities agreed that they would like to participate in malaria control activities such as personal protection using im¬pregnation bed net. Therefore, in planning for future large scale trials, comparison of new compounds and formulations such as tablets and long lasting insecticides impregnated bed net is recommended.

  13. The association between household bed net ownership and all-cause child mortality in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Yukich, Joshua O

    2016-09-17

    Malaria continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Madagascar. It has been estimated that the malaria burden costs Madagascar over $52 million annually in terms of treatment costs, lost productivity and prevention expenses. One of the key malaria prevention strategies of the Government of Madagascar consists of large-scale mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN). Although there is ample evidence that child mortality has decreased in Madagascar, it is unclear whether increases in LLIN ownership have contributed to this decline. This study analyses multiple recent cross-sectional survey data sets to examine the association between household bed net ownership and all-cause child mortality. Data on household-level bed net ownership confirm that the percentage of households that own one or more bed nets increased substantially following the 2009 and 2010 mass LLIN distribution campaigns. Additionally, all-cause child mortality in Madagascar has declined during the period 2008-2013. Bed net ownership was associated with a 22 % reduction in the all-cause child mortality hazard in Madagascar. Mass bed net distributions contributed strongly to the overall decline in child mortality in Madagascar during the period 2008-2013. However, the decline was not solely attributable to increases in bed net coverage, and nets alone were not able to eliminate most of the child mortality hazard across the island.

  14. Reports of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets catching on fire: a threat to bed net users and to successful malaria control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egrot, Marc; Houngnihin, Roch; Baxerres, Carine; Damien, Georgia; Djènontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Pennetier, Cédric; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck

    2014-06-28

    One of the control tools to reduce malaria transmission is the use of LLINs. However, several studies show that household bed net use is quite low. A study was developed to better understand the cultural factors that might explain these gaps in Benin. One reason mentioned is that bed nets can catch on fire and cause harm. This paper presents a summary of these findings, their analysis and the ensuing issues. This anthropological study is based on an inductive qualitative approach, including 91 semi-structured interviews conducted from July 2011 to March 2012 in a health district in Southern Benin. Fifty-six persons stated that bed nets can catch on fire but do not always refer to specific facts. However, 34 of the 56 people narrate specific events they heard or experienced. 39 accounts were geographically located and situated in time, with various details. In 27 situations, people were burned, for which 12 people reportedly died. The disparity between these results and the dearth of bibliographic documentation in the initial search prompted a more in-depth literature review: 16 contributions between 1994 and 2013 were found. Bed net fires were noted in 10 countries, but it is impossible to ascertain the frequency of such events. Moreover, bodily harm can be significant, and several cases of death attributed to bed net fires were noted. Indisputably, the use of bed nets to reduce the impact of this terrible disease is an optimal control method. However, the perception that LLINs have a potentially negative effect hinders the use rate in the real world, at least for some. If some people fear the risk of fires, this possibility must be addressed during information and prevention sessions on malaria, with a communication strategy tailored to specific social contexts. Moreover, all possible measures should be taken to limit the harm suffered by individuals and their families.

  15. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Seidlein Lorenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals for one night from 21.00 to 6.00 hrs inside and outside of bed nets using sensors and omni-directional thermo-anemometers. An investigator set up a bed net with a mesh size of 220 holes per inch2 in each study household and slept under the bed net to simulate a realistic environment. The attenuation of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm was between 33.1 C (The Gambia and 26.2 C (Thailand. The bed net attenuated the airflow from a minimum of 27% (Philippines to a maximum of 71% (The Gambia. Overall the bed nets reduced airflow compared to un-attenuated airflow from 9 to 4 cm sec-1 or 52% (p -2 reduced airflow by 55% (mean; range 51 - 73%. A denser net (200 holes inch-2 attenuated airflow by 59% (mean; range 56 - 74%. Discussion Despite concerted efforts to increase the uptake of this intervention in many areas uptake remains poor. Bed nets reduce airflow, but have no influence on temperature and humidity. The discomfort associated with bed nets is likely to be most intolerable during the hottest and most humid period of the year, which frequently coincides with the peak of malaria vector densities and the force

  16. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  17. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Bruun, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two...... of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C) were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm) was between 33.1 C (The Gambia) and 26.2 C (Thailand...... was detected between the inside and outside of the bed net. Wind tunnel experiments with 11 different mesh-sized bed nets showed an overall reduction in airflow of 64% (range 55 - 71%) compared to un-attenuated airflow. As expected, airflow decreased with increasing net mesh size. Nets with a mesh of 136 holes...

  18. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the extensive ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs over the last decade, the effective lifespan of these nets, especially their physical integrity, under true operational conditions is not well-understood. Usefulness of nets declines primarily due to physical damage or loss of insecticidal activity. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was used to determine the physical condition and to identify predictors of poor physical condition for bed nets owned by individuals from communities in Kwale County, coastal Kenya. A proportionate hole index (pHI was used as a standard measure, and the cut-offs for an ‘effective net’ (offer substantial protection against mosquito bites and ‘ineffective nets’ (offer little or no protection against mosquito bites were determined (pHI ≤88 (about ≤500 cm2 of holes surface area and pHI of >88 (≥500 cm2 of holes surface area, respectively. Results The vast majority (78% of the surveyed nets had some holes. The median pHI was 92 (range: 1–2,980. Overall, half of the nets were categorized as ‘effective nets’ or ‘serviceable nets’. Physical deterioration of nets was associated with higher use and washing frequency. Young children and older children were found to use ineffective bed nets significantly more often than infants, while the physical integrity of nets owned by pregnant women was similar to those owned by infants. Estuarine environment inhabitants owned nets with the worst physical condition, while nets owned by the coastal slope inhabitants were in fairly good physical condition. The results suggest that bed nets are optimally utilized when they are new and physically intact. Thereafter, bed net utilization decreases gradually with increasing physical deterioration, with most net owners withdrawing physically damaged nets from routine use. This withdrawal commonly happens following 1.5 years of use, making bed net use the most

  19. The ParkinsonNet trial: design and baseline characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, S.H.J.; Nijkrake, M.J.; Borm, G.F.; Kwakkel, G.; Roos, R.A.; Berendse, H.W.; Adang, E.M.M.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Munneke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The companion paper describes how implementation of professional networks (ParkinsonNet) may improve the quality and efficiency of allied health care in Parkinson's disease (PD). We designed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate this ParkinsonNet concept for one allied health discipline,

  20. Comparing ownership and use of bed nets at two sites with differential malaria transmission in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Hayden, Mary H; Olsen, Heather; Cavanaugh, Jamie L; Ruberto, Irene; Agawo, Maurice; Munga, Stephen

    2016-04-14

    Challenges persist in ensuring access to and optimal use of long-lasting, insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Factors associated with ownership and use may differ depending on the history of malaria and prevention control efforts in a specific region. Understanding how the cultural and social-environmental context of bed net use may differ between high- and low-risk regions is important when identifying solutions to improve uptake and appropriate use. Community forums and a household, cross-sectional survey were used to collect information on factors related to bed net ownership and use in western Kenya. Sites with disparate levels of transmission were selected, including an endemic lowland area, Miwani, and a highland epidemic-prone area, Kapkangani. Analysis of ownership was stratified by site. A combined site analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with use of all available bed nets. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with ownership and use of owned bed nets. Access to bed nets as the leading barrier to their use was identified in community forums and cross-sectional surveys. While disuse of available bed nets was discussed in the forums, it was a relatively rare occurrence in both sites. Factors associated with ownership varied by site. Education, perceived risk of malaria and knowledge of individuals who had died of malaria were associated with higher bed net ownership in the highlands, while in the lowlands individuals reporting it was easy to get a bed net were more likely to own one. A combined site analysis indicated that not using an available bed net was associated with the attitudes that taking malaria drugs is easier than using a bed net and that use of a bed net will not prevent malaria. In addition, individuals with an unused bed net in the household were more likely to indicate that bed nets are difficult to use, that purchased bed nets are better than freely distributed ones, and that bed nets should only

  1. Household bed net ownership and use among under-5 children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuorah DC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Chidiebere Osuorah,1,2 Chijioke Elias Ezeudu,2 Stanley Kenechi Onah,2 Obinna Tochukwu Anyabolu31Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Banjul, The Gambia; 2Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra, Nigeria; 3School of Health and Social Care, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UKBackground: Malaria remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with children under 5 years accounting for 86% of all malaria deaths. For effective control of malaria, WHO recommends rapid diagnosis and effective treatment, insecticide-treated bed nets, and indoor residual spraying. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets has been shown to be the most cost-effective strategy in preventing this infection. However, despite the Roll Back Malaria subsidized and free bed net distribution initiatives in some Africa countries, bed net uptake and usage still remains low in many households.Aim: This study aimed to investigate household characteristics and child factors that determine bed net ownership and use amongst under-5 children and the effect of its usage on malaria parasitemia in under-5 children in Nigeria.Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 5895 households was obtained from the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in the 2010 Nigeria demographic and health survey, with a minimum of 67 households enrolled per state. Appropriate statistical tools were used to identify the characteristics of households that owned a bed net and to examine the association between the households and child-level factors that predict the use of bed net and malaria prevalence among under-5 children within these households.Results: The rate of households bed net ownership in Nigeria is about 45.5%. About 48.5% of under-5 children in 33.9% of households surveyed, use a bed net during sleep. There was a strong correlation between households ownership and child

  2. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  3. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that tension strength with one grab and one hook better represent how holes are generated in bed nets in real life. Methods Measurements of bursting strength and tension strengths in the two directions are analysed for eight model nets created for the study. The nets were made in the most commonly used denier (75 and 100 D) and mesh (156 holes/inch2) for multifilament polyester yarns, texturized or not, and with 4 or 6 sided holes. All were made from one polyester quality. Data was arranged in a randomized, complete block design and analysed for significant variables and their interactions. Data was then subjected to regression analyses using net square metre weight as a weighting factor with stepwise removal of variables. This revealed how the four textile variables interacted and allowed for making predictions for the strength of commercial nets in polyester or polyethylene. Results For the model nets, higher denier provided higher bursting strength and tension strengths, texturizing weakened nets and four-sided holes were stronger than six-sided holes. Even when compensating for square metre weight, 100 D nets are stronger than 75 D nets. Results for the commercial polyester net nets are less clear, probably because of different qualities of polyester. Tensile strength: a 75 denier net knitted tightly to provide the same square metre weight as a standard 100 denier net therefore does not obtain the same strength. Polyethylene nets are made of mono-fibre yarns and, therefore, have higher tension strength in both directions than multifilament polyester nets. For bursting strength results overlap for 100 denier yarns of both yarn types. As a class, commercial polyethylene nets are stronger than commercial polyester net whatever method is used for evaluation. Conclusion Tension strength measured in the length and width directions of the net using one hook

  4. Efficacy of Permethrin Treated Bed Nets Against Leishmania major Infected Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Tobin; Davidson, Silas A; Kobylinski, Kevin; Menses, Claudio; Rowton, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are a potential tool to help control sand flies and prevent Leishmaniasis. However, little is currently known about the response of Leishmania infected sand flies to ITNs. In this study, Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies were infected with the parasite Leishmania major. Infected and noninfected sand flies were then evaluated against permethrin treated and untreated bed nets in a laboratory assay that required sand flies to pass through suspended netting material to feed on a mouse serving as an attractive host. The number of sand flies passing through the nets and blood feeding was recorded. There was not a significant difference in the ability of infected or noninfected sand flies to move through treated or untreated nets. Fewer sand flies entered the permethrin treated nets compared to the untreated nets, indicating that permethrin creates an effective barrier. The results show that in addition to reducing the nuisance bites of noninfected sand flies, ITNs also protect against Leishmania infected sand flies and therefore can play in key role in reducing the rates of Leishmaniasis. This study is important to the Department of Defense as it continues to develop and field new bed nets to protect service members.

  5. Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuage Lucy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs continues to offer potential strategy for malaria prevention in endemic areas. However their effectiveness, sustainability and massive scale up remain a factor of socio-economic and cultural variables of the local community which are indispensable during design and implementation stages. Methods An ethnographic household survey was conducted in four study villages which were purposefully selected to represent socio-economic and geographical diversity. In total, 400 households were randomly selected from the four study villages. Quantitative and qualitative information of the respondents were collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Malaria was reported the most frequently occurring disease in the area (93% and its aetiology was attributed to other non-biomedical causes like stagnant water (16%, and long rains (13%. Factors which significantly caused variation in bed net use were occupant relationship to household head (χ2 = 105.705; df 14; P = 0.000, Age (χ2 = 74.483; df 14; P = 0.000, village (χ2 = 150.325; df 6; P = 0.000, occupation (χ2 = 7.955; df 3; P = 0.047, gender (χ2 = 4.254; df 1; P = 0.039 and education levels of the household head or spouse (χ2 = 33.622; df 6; P = 0.000. The same variables determined access and conditions of bed nets at household level. Protection against mosquito bite (95% was the main reason cited for using bed nets in most households while protection against malaria came second (54%. Colour, shape and affordability were some of the key potential factors which determined choice, use and acceptance of bed nets in the study area. Conclusion The study highlights potential social and economic variables important for effective and sustainable implementation of bed nets-related programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  7. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Mancheno, M; Alarcon, J; Pesse, K

    1995-10-01

    Between 1991 and 1994, an intervention program with permethrin- and lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets was carried out over a period of nine months in each of five endemic, malarious areas of Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. This program was evaluated through household surveys, blood sampling, in-depth longitudinal studies, and entomologic analysis. Eighty-four communities (including approximately 35,000 individuals) were paired according to malaria incidence, size, and coverage with bed nets and then randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The results showed that peoples' acceptance of the measure was related to their perception of an immediate protective effect against insects. The effectiveness of the bed nets, measured as a reduction of malaria incidence in intervention communities as against control communities, showed large variations between and within the study areas. The protective efficacy varied between 0% and 70% when looking only at the postintervention differences between intervention and control groups. The average protection was 40.8% when considering a four-month incidence of clinical malaria attacks and 28.3% when considering a two-week malaria incidence. Important factors for the success of the bed net program were insect susceptibility to pyrethroids, high coverage with impregnated bed nets, high malaria incidence, good community participation, high mosquito densities when people go to bed, and a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum. In one area, where DDT spraying in the control communities was executed, the effectiveness of bed net impregnation was slightly better than that of spraying.

  8. Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. In southern coastal Kenya, bed net use was negligible in 1997-1998 when Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.s. were the primary malaria vectors, with An. arabiensis and Anopheles merus playing a secondary role. Since 2001, bed net use has increased progressively and reached high levels by 2009-2010 with corresponding decline in malaria transmission. Methods To evaluate the impact of the substantial increase in household bed net use within this area on vector density, vector composition, and human-vector contact, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were collected in the same region during 2009-2010 using pyrethrum spray catches and clay pots for indoor and outdoor collections respectively. Information on bed net use per sleeping spaces and factors influencing mosquito density were determined in the same houses using Poisson regression analysis. Species distribution was determined, and number of mosquitoes per house, human-biting rates (HBR, and entomological inoculation rate (EIR were compared to those reported for the same area during 1997-1998, when bed net coverage had been minimal. Results Compared to 1997-1998, a significant decline in the relative proportion of An. gambiae s.s. among collected mosquitoes was noted, coupled with a proportionate increase of An. arabiensis. Following > 5 years of 60-86% coverage with bed nets, the density, human biting rate and EIR of indoor resting mosquitoes were reduced by more than 92% for An. funestus and by 75% for An. gambiae s.l. In addition, the host feeding choice of both vectors shifted more toward non

  9. Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku, Francis M; King, Charles H; Mungai, Peter; Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Muchiri, Eric M; Walker, Edward D; Kitron, Uriel

    2011-12-13

    Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting) for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. In southern coastal Kenya, bed net use was negligible in 1997-1998 when Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.s. were the primary malaria vectors, with An. arabiensis and Anopheles merus playing a secondary role. Since 2001, bed net use has increased progressively and reached high levels by 2009-2010 with corresponding decline in malaria transmission. To evaluate the impact of the substantial increase in household bed net use within this area on vector density, vector composition, and human-vector contact, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were collected in the same region during 2009-2010 using pyrethrum spray catches and clay pots for indoor and outdoor collections respectively. Information on bed net use per sleeping spaces and factors influencing mosquito density were determined in the same houses using Poisson regression analysis. Species distribution was determined, and number of mosquitoes per house, human-biting rates (HBR), and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) were compared to those reported for the same area during 1997-1998, when bed net coverage had been minimal. Compared to 1997-1998, a significant decline in the relative proportion of An. gambiae s.s. among collected mosquitoes was noted, coupled with a proportionate increase of An. arabiensis. Following > 5 years of 60-86% coverage with bed nets, the density, human biting rate and EIR of indoor resting mosquitoes were reduced by more than 92% for An. funestus and by 75% for An. gambiae s.l. In addition, the host feeding choice of both vectors shifted more toward non-human vertebrates. Besides bed net use, malaria vector abundance

  10. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). Methods The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia’s cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. Results The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value <0.001). Treatment was associated with a 42 percent reduction in the odds of self-reported fever (p-value <0.001) and with a 49 percent reduction in the odds of self-reported malaria (p-value 0.002). This was accomplished at a cost of approximately five US$ per ITN to Zambia’s NMCP. Conclusions The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial. PMID:23506170

  11. Managing insecticide resistance in malaria vectors by combining carbamate-treated plastic wall sheeting and pyrethroid-treated bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennetier Cédric

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistance is now widespread in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This resistance may compromise malaria vector control strategies that are currently in use in endemic areas. In this context, a new tool for management of resistant mosquitoes based on the combination of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and carbamate-treated plastic sheeting was developed. Methods In the laboratory, the insecticidal activity and wash resistance of four carbamate-treated materials: a cotton/polyester blend, a polyvinyl chloride tarpaulin, a cotton/polyester blend covered on one side with polyurethane, and a mesh of polypropylene fibres was tested. These materials were treated with bendiocarb at 100 mg/m2 and 200 mg/m2 with and without a binding resin to find the best combination for field studies. Secondly, experimental hut trials were performed in southern Benin to test the efficacy of the combined use of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and the carbamate-treated material that was the most wash-resistant against wild populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Results Material made of polypropylene mesh (PPW provided the best wash resistance (up to 10 washes, regardless of the insecticide dose, the type of washing, or the presence or absence of the binding resin. The experimental hut trial showed that the combination of carbamate-treated PPW and a pyrethroid-treated bed net was extremely effective in terms of mortality and inhibition of blood feeding of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae. This efficacy was found to be proportional to the total surface of the walls. This combination showed a moderate effect against wild populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, which were strongly resistant to pyrethroid. Conclusion These preliminary results should be confirmed, including evaluation of entomological, parasitological, and clinical parameters. Selective pressure on resistance

  12. Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sexton Alexis R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insecticide-treated bed nets are the preeminent malaria control means; though there is no consensus as to a best practice for large-scale insecticide-treated bed net distribution. In order to determine the paramount distribution method, this review assessed literature on recent insecticide treated bed net distribution programmes throughout sub-Saharan Eastern Africa. Inclusion criteria were that the study had taken place in sub-Saharan Eastern Africa, targeted malaria prevention and control, and occurred between 1996 and 2007. Forty-two studies were identified and reviewed. The results indicate that distribution frameworks varied greatly; and consequently so did outcomes of insecticide-treated bed net use. Studies revealed consistent inequities between urban and rural populations; which were most effectively alleviated through a free insecticide-treated bed net delivery and distribution framework. However, cost sharing through subsidies was shown to increase programme sustainability, which may lead to more long-term coverage. Thus, distribution should employ a catch up/keep up programme strategy. The catch-up programme rapidly scales up coverage, while the keep-up programme maintains coverage levels. Future directions for malaria should include progress toward distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

  13. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of

  14. Effects of untreated bed nets on the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and Wuchereria bancrofti in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkot, T R; Garner, P; Paru, R; Dagoro, H; Barnes, A; McDougall, S; Wirtz, R A; Campbell, G; Spark, R

    1990-01-01

    The impact of untreated bed nets on the transmission of human malaria and filariasis in a village in a hyperendemic area of Papua New Guinea was studied. In anopheline mosquitoes, the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite antigen positivity rate, filarial infection rates and human blood indices dropped significantly after bed nets were introduced. This reduction in human-vector contact did not affect mosquito density as no significant difference in either landing rates or indoor resting catches was found. The number of bed nets in a house and ownership of dogs were factors significantly associated with a reduction in the number of indoor resting mosquitoes. However, the reduction in the P. falciparum sporozoite antigen rate in mosquitoes was not accompanied by a reduction in either malaria parasite or antibody prevalences or titres against the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein.

  15. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  16. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  17. Freely distributed bed-net use among Chano Mille residents, south Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loha Eskindir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A huge discrepancy was reported between ownership versus utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. To acquire the benefits of ITNs, households need to use and not merely own them. The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of, and assess factors related to ITN use in one village in south Ethiopia. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 8,121 residents (in 1,388 households was carried out from April 2009 to April 2011 (101 weeks. Every week, individuals were asked whether they slept under an ITN the night before the interview. Descriptive statistics was used to report the availability and use of ITN. A negative, binomial, probability, distribution model was fitted to find out significant predictors of ITN use. Reasons for not using ITN were summarized. Results The total number of ITNs available at the beginning of the study was 1,631 (1.68 ITNs per household. On week 48, 3,099 new ITNs (PermaNet2.0 were distributed freely (2.3 ITNs per household. The number of households who received at least one new ITN was 1,309 (98.4%. The percentage of children Conclusions The ITN use fraction reached to a maximum of 69% despite near universal coverage (98.4% was achieved. Gender, age differences and distance from vector breeding site were associated with ITN use. Strategies may need to be designed addressing disproportions in ITN use, lack of convenient space to hang more than one ITN (for those receiving more than one, and measures to prolong usable life of ITNs.

  18. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  19. THE IMPACT OF WASHING ON THE EFICACY OF (DELTAMETHRIN "LONG LASTING IMPREGNATED BED NET" IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of washing on the decrease in the effectiveness of the Long Lasting Impregnated Bed Net = IBN (deltamethrin at a dosage of 55 mg/m2 on polyester 100%. The study was conducted by bioassay test on a sample 20 x 20 cm2 (untreated mosquito net, in the laboratory of the IBN (deltamethin and a control bed net (20 x 20 cm2; using malaria vectors Anophelesmaculatus and Anopheles aconitus. The bioassay test was conducted every day (4 replicates with 10-15 mosquitoes/cone. The test was conducted until a mortality of 70% was reached. The exposure time was 3 minutes (recording knockdown mosquitoes, holding for 24 hours and counting the dead mosquitoes after 24 hours. Before the next bioassay test, the bed net sample was washed 3 times using 3 gram solid/hardsoap, and shaken on a shaker. Results show that the residual effect of the IBN decrease slowly after washing which has lost its effectiveness after 45 washings (Mortality< 70%. 

  20. Possession of bed nets in Haut-Katanga (DRC): prevalence-elastic behaviour or performance of health care system delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Juliette; Thuilliez, Josselin; Herbreteau, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an empirical multi-disciplinary strategy that enables to identify prevalence-elastic behaviours influencing the possession of mosquito nets and to assess the relative performance of health centers in promoting the possession of nets in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We use a household survey conducted in 2009 in Haut Katanga, DRC. We combine these data with estimates on malaria prevalence from the Malaria Atlas project. Results show that households behave rationally with respect to the disease, meaning that the cause for a low possession of nets should be found elsewhere. They also show that health centers are not the most effective in promoting possession of bed nets, in areas where they are most needed for malaria control.

  1. Experimental hut evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr on bed nets for the control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, F W; Lyimo, I N; Oxborough, R M; Malima, R; Tenu, F; Matowo, J; Feston, E; Mndeme, R; Magesa, S M; Rowland, M

    2008-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in East Africa and to identify effective dosages for net treatment in comparison with the commonly used pyrethroid deltamethrin. Chlorfenapyr was evaluated on bed nets in experimental huts against A. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus in Northern Tanzania, at application rates of 100-500 mg/m(2). In experimental huts, mortality rates in A. arabiensis were high (46.0-63.9%) for all dosages of chlorfenapyr and were similar to that of deltamethrin-treated nets. Mortality rates in C. quinquefasciatus were higher for chlorfenapyr than for deltamethrin. Despite a reputation for being slow acting, >90% of insecticide-induced mortality in laboratory tunnel tests and experimental huts occurred within 24 h, and the speed of killing was no slower than for deltamethrin-treated nets. Chlorfenapyr induced low irritability and knockdown, which explains the relatively small reduction in blood-feeding rate. Combining chlorfenapyr with a more excito-repellent pyrethroid on bed nets for improved personal protection, control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and pyrethroid resistance management would be advantageous.

  2. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  3. Impact of cyfluthrin (Solfac EW050 impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in the city of Mbandjock : lessons for the nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio-Nkondjio Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide treated materials remain the mainstay for malaria prevention. The current study reports on the entomological impact of cyfluthrin impregnated bed nets on malaria transmission in Mbandjock, a semi urban locality in southern Cameroon. Several findings pertaining to the recent distribution of LLINs across Cameroon are discussed. Methods Malaria transmission and vector bionomics were monitored before and after impregnated net coverage. Bed nets were distributed in Mbandjock, whereas the locality of Nkoteng was free of bed nets during the entire study period. January to June 1997 represented the period before bed net coverage and September 1997 to September 1998 was the period after bed net coverage. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Mosquito genus and species were identified with morphological and molecular diagnostic tools. Anopheline salivary glands and ovaries were dissected to determine female infectious status and parity rates respectively. Results A total of 6959 anophelines corresponding to 6029 in Mbandjock and 930 in Nkoteng were collected in the course of the study. Seven species were recorded in both cities : Anopheles coustani, An. funestus, An. gambiae sl, An. moucheti, An. ziemanni, An. nili and An. paludis. An. gambiae s.l. (>95% An. gambiae S molecular form was the most abundant species representing 75.6% and 86.6% of the total anophelines caught in Mbandjock before and after bed net coverage respectively. The human biting rate (HBR in Mbandjock decreased from 17 bites/human/night before bed net coverage to less than 4 bites/human/night during the first 7 months following impregnated bed net coverage. A significant decrease of mosquito parity rate was recorded when comparing the period before (52% and after (46.5% bed net distribution. The average infection rate of malaria vectors significantly decreased from 5.3% before to 1.8% after bed net coverage (p  Conclusion The study

  4. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an

  5. Socio-cultural factors influencing insecticide treated bed net utilization in a malaria endemic city in north-central Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akosu JT; Mbaawuaga EM; Gyuse AN; Enenebeaku MNO; Okwori EE; Peters EJ; Akpan S; Odey F; Etukumana EA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the socio-cultural factors influencing the rate of utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in a malaria endemic city of Makurdi, north central Nigeria. Methods:The study was cross-sectional in nature using systematic sampling method to identify households. Both quantitative and qualitative data was generated from adult women using structured and semi structured questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on rate and patterns of utilization of ITNs. Information such as age, educational level, marital status, awareness or otherwise of the existence of malaria, and factors influencing rate of ownership and utilization of ITNs were obtained. FGDs were used to obtain qualitative information on rate of utilization of ITNs not captured in the questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. Results: Among the respondents interviewed, 97.0%(2 013/2 075) were aware of existence of malaria and 87.0%of these (1 751/2 013) would associate it with mosquitoes. The rate of ownership of any bed net, ITNs and untreated bed nets (UTNs) was 25.1%, 17.0%and 8.3%, respectively. Utilization of ITNs among children was 30.0%(112/373) and UTNs 12.9%(48/373). Positive contributors to ITNs utilization were literacy, enhanced economy, experience of marriage, and being gainfully employed (P<0.05);while negative contributors were ignorance, poverty and some cultural beliefs and values. Conclusions: A more synchronized advocacy should be carried out on the potential benefits of ITNs utilization and sustained. Also ITNs should be made available to the people of the community at minimal or no cost.

  6. A randomized trial to evaluate a launderable bed protection system for hospital beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Edmond A; Allen, Steven; Gray, Larry; Kaufman, Cynthia

    2012-07-26

    Hospital beds are potential reservoirs of bacteria in hospitals. Preventing contamination of the bed and providing a cleaner surface should help prevent hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Most hospital beds are cleaned between patients (terminal cleaning) using quaternary ammonia compounds (quats). The study had two objectives: identify levels of bacterial contamination on beds (including the mattress and bed deck) and evaluate a new launderable cover. Hospital beds on a bariatric surgery ward were randomized to either receive or not receive a launderable cover (Trinity Guardion, Batesville, IN). Bacterial counts on the surface of the mattress, the bed deck, and the launderable cover were then collected using Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count Plates (Petrifilm™, 3M™, St. Paul, MN, USA) (Petrifilm™) at three time periods (before patient use, after discharge, and after terminal cleaning). Standard hospital linen was used in all rooms. The launderable cover (n = 28) was significantly cleaner prior to patient use than were the cleaned mattresses (n = 38) (1.1 CFU/30 cm2 vs. 7.7 CFU/30 cm2; p = 0.0189). The mattresses without launderable covers became significantly contaminated during use (7.7 CFU/30 cm2 on admission vs. 79.1 CFU/30 cm2 after discharge; p bed deck was more contaminated (6.7 CFU/30 cm2 after discharge compared to 30.9 CFU/30 cm2 after terminal cleaning; p = 0.031). Terminal cleaning fails to eliminate bacteria from the surface of the hospital mattress. The launderable cover provides a cleaner surface than does terminal cleaning with quats, and the cover protects the bed from contamination during use.

  7. Grain yield, net blotch and scald of barley in Finnish official variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ROBINSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on grain yield, and terminal severity of net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis from Finnish official barley (Hordeum vulgare variety trials were analysed to indicate the pattern of disease incidence over six years and five sites for nineteen barley genotypes, and the effect of the diseases on yield and the genotype by environment interaction for yield. The effect of climatic factors on net blotch severity were also investigated. The genotype by site interaction for net blotch severity was not statistically significant, but that for yield was. Net blotch severity differed between years, but was similar across sites and there were statistically significant first order interactions between year, site and genotype. 'Saana' and 'Thule' had relatively low mean terminal net blotch scores and their reaction to the disease was less sensitive to the environment than was that of 'Tyra' for example. Analysis of yield data adjusted for net blotch severity indicated that the magnitude of the genotype by environment interaction terms were not accounted for to any significant degree by differences in relative net blotch resistances among the barley genotypes. Overall, mean scores for scald severity were lower than those for net blotch. Terminal net blotch severity was correlated with May rainfall and growing degree days.;

  8. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  9. Geographical factors affecting bed net ownership, a tool for the elimination of Anopheles-transmitted lymphatic filariasis in hard-to-reach communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Stanton

    Full Text Available Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN, and ITN density (ITNs per person for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30% and ITN (9% coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01, and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p<0.0001. Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures, distance to main rivers (any bed net only and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only. Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67-7.70. This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF

  10. The effectiveness of a nationwide universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins O. F. Zamawe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated mosquito bed nets (ITNs has been associated with improved malaria outcomes, recent reports indicate that the campaign is losing its sparkle in some countries. In Malawi, the universal coverage campaign was implemented in 2012, but its impacts are yet to be ascertained. Thus, this study examined the effects of the campaign on malaria morbidity among children in Malawi. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional study. The study used nationally-representative malaria indicator survey (MIS data collected in 2012 and 2014. In total, the analysis included 4193 children between the ages of 6 and 59 months (2171 from 2012 MIS and 2022 from 2014 MIS. ITNs coverage and malaria morbidity before (2012 = pre-test/control and after (2014 = post-test/treated the universal coverage campaign of ITNs were compared. The treated and control samples were matched on measured relevant covariates using propensity scores. Results The mean number of ITNs per household improved significantly from 1.1 (SD 1.0 in 2012 to 1.4 (SD 1.1 in 2014 (p < 0.001. Nonetheless, the prevalence of malaria among children increased considerably from 27.7 % (2012 to 32.0 % (2014 (p = 0.002. The risk of malaria was also significantly higher in 2014 compared to 2012 (RR = 1.14; 95 % CI 1.01–1.29. Besides, the use of bed nets was not significantly associated with malaria morbidity in 2014 (RR = 0.92; 95 % CI 0.76–1.12, but it was in 2012 (RR = 0.83; 95 % CI 0.70–1.00. Conclusions The universal coverage campaign of ITNs was not associated with a reduced burden of malaria among children in Malawi. This was likely due to increased insecticide resistance, inconsistent use of bed nets and under-utilization of other methods of malaria control. This calls for a multifaceted approach in the fight against malaria instead of simple dependence on ITNs. In particular, local or community level

  11. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of a nationwide universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamawe, Collins O F; Nakamura, Kanan; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-10-18

    Although the universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated mosquito bed nets (ITNs) has been associated with improved malaria outcomes, recent reports indicate that the campaign is losing its sparkle in some countries. In Malawi, the universal coverage campaign was implemented in 2012, but its impacts are yet to be ascertained. Thus, this study examined the effects of the campaign on malaria morbidity among children in Malawi. This is a repeated cross-sectional study. The study used nationally-representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) data collected in 2012 and 2014. In total, the analysis included 4193 children between the ages of 6 and 59 months (2171 from 2012 MIS and 2022 from 2014 MIS). ITNs coverage and malaria morbidity before (2012 = pre-test/control) and after (2014 = post-test/treated) the universal coverage campaign of ITNs were compared. The treated and control samples were matched on measured relevant covariates using propensity scores. The mean number of ITNs per household improved significantly from 1.1 (SD 1.0) in 2012 to 1.4 (SD 1.1) in 2014 (p universal coverage campaign of ITNs was not associated with a reduced burden of malaria among children in Malawi. This was likely due to increased insecticide resistance, inconsistent use of bed nets and under-utilization of other methods of malaria control. This calls for a multifaceted approach in the fight against malaria instead of simple dependence on ITNs. In particular, local or community level malaria interventions should go hand in hand with the universal coverage campaign.

  13. Isopachs of total net coal in beds >1.2' thick, A - G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field (dan*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick for the A through G coal...

  14. Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Zhao, Ruijun; Prosper, Olivia

    2016-05-21

    Although malaria prevalence has witnessed a significant reduction within the past decade, malaria still constitutes a major health and economic problem, especially to low-income countries. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remain one of the primary measures for preventing the malignant disease. Unfortunately, the success of ITN campaigns is hampered by improper use and natural decay in ITN-efficacy over time. Many models aimed at studying malaria transmission and control fail to account for this decay, as well as mosquito demography and feeding preferences exhibited by mosquitoes towards humans. Omitting these factors can misrepresent disease risk, while understanding their effects on malaria dynamics can inform control policy. We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify disease risks and corresponding ITN coverage, as well as feeding preference levels for which the disease can be controlled or eradicated. Our study leads to important insights that could assist in the design and implementation of better malaria control strategies. We conclude that ITNs that can retain their effectiveness for longer periods will be more appropriate in the fight against malaria and that making more ITNs available to highly endemic regions is

  15. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  16. The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets against African anopheline mosquitoes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strode

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes.We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization-recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut, deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs using the risk difference (RD. Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01; moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95. For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87; moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60; high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54. For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68; moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; high resistance, RD 0

  17. How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of

  18. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable

  19. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  20. Glycoform and net charge heterogeneity in gp120 immunogens used in HIV vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RV144 clinical trial showed for the first time that vaccination could provide modest but significant protection from HIV-1 infection. To understand the protective response, and to improve upon the vaccine's efficacy, it is important to define the structure of the immunogens used in the prime/boost regimen. Here we examined the heterogeneity in net charge, attributable to glycoform variation, of the gp120 immunogens contained in the AIDSVAX B/E vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isoelectric focusing and glycosidase digestion were used to assess variation in net charge of the gp120s contained in the AIDSVAX B/E vaccine used in the RV144 trial. We observed 16 variants of MN-rgp120 and 24 variants of A244-rgp120. Glycoform variation in gp120 produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells was compared to glycoform variation in gp120 produced in the 293F human embryonic kidney cell line, often used for neutralization assays. We found that gp120 variants produced in CHO cells were distinctly more acidic than gp120 variants produced in 293 cells. The effect of glycoform heterogeneity on antigenicity was assessed using monoclonal antibodies. The broadly neutralizing PG9 MAb bound to A244-rgp120, but not to MN-rgp120, whether produced in CHO or in 293. However, PG9 was able to bind with high affinity to MN-rgp120 and A244-rgp120 produced in 293 cells deficient in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MN- and A244-rgp120 used in the RV144 trial exhibited extensive heterogeneity in net charge due to variation in sialic acid-containing glycoforms. These differences were cell line-dependent, affected the antigenicity of recombinant envelope proteins, and may affect assays used to measure neutralization. These studies, together with recent reports documenting broadly neutralizing antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120, suggest that glycoform variation is a key variable to be considered in the production

  1. Glycoform and Net Charge Heterogeneity in gp120 Immunogens Used in HIV Vaccine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Morales, Javier F.; O'Rourke, Sara M.; Tatsuno, Gwen P.; Berman, Phillip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The RV144 clinical trial showed for the first time that vaccination could provide modest but significant protection from HIV-1 infection. To understand the protective response, and to improve upon the vaccine's efficacy, it is important to define the structure of the immunogens used in the prime/boost regimen. Here we examined the heterogeneity in net charge, attributable to glycoform variation, of the gp120 immunogens contained in the AIDSVAX B/E vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings Isoelectric focusing and glycosidase digestion were used to assess variation in net charge of the gp120s contained in the AIDSVAX B/E vaccine used in the RV144 trial. We observed 16 variants of MN-rgp120 and 24 variants of A244-rgp120. Glycoform variation in gp120 produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells was compared to glycoform variation in gp120 produced in the 293F human embryonic kidney cell line, often used for neutralization assays. We found that gp120 variants produced in CHO cells were distinctly more acidic than gp120 variants produced in 293 cells. The effect of glycoform heterogeneity on antigenicity was assessed using monoclonal antibodies. The broadly neutralizing PG9 MAb bound to A244-rgp120, but not to MN-rgp120, whether produced in CHO or in 293. However, PG9 was able to bind with high affinity to MN-rgp120 and A244-rgp120 produced in 293 cells deficient in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Conclusions/Significance MN- and A244-rgp120 used in the RV144 trial exhibited extensive heterogeneity in net charge due to variation in sialic acid-containing glycoforms. These differences were cell line-dependent, affected the antigenicity of recombinant envelope proteins, and may affect assays used to measure neutralization. These studies, together with recent reports documenting broadly neutralizing antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120, suggest that glycoform variation is a key variable to be considered in the production and evaluation of

  2. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops was both reported and observed, and may

  3. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Malima Robert; Maxwell Caroline; Magesa Stephen; Tungu Patrick; Masue Dennis; Sudi Wema; Myamba Joseph; Pigeon Olivier; Rowland Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, P...

  4. Rationale and protocol of MetNET-2 trial: Lanreotide Autogel plus metformin in advanced gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Prinzi, Natalie; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Femia, Daniela; Milione, Massimo; Perrone, Federica; Tamborini, Elena; Concas, Laura; Pulice, Iolanda; Vernieri, Claudio; Corti, Francesca; Buzzoni, Roberto; de Braud, Filippo

    2017-08-01

    Metformin (MET) has recently emerged as a potentially active agent in cancer prevention and treatment. MET is thought to exert its antitumor effects either via modification of systemic metabolism or through cell-autonomous effects (e.g., activation of AMPK and inhibition of the mTOR pathway). Preliminary findings of the PRIME-NET study suggest that the addition of MET to treatment with everolimus (EVE) and/or somatostatin analogs (SSAs) can provide clinical benefit in diabetic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients. In light of this and other retrospective evidence of MET's anticancer activity in NETs, prospective studies are needed. A pilot, single-arm, open-label, prospective study (MetNET-2 trial, NCT02823691) was designed to evaluate the safety of MET in combination with lanreotide in well-differentiated gastrointestinal (WD GI) and lung NETs.

  5. Willingness to pay for small solar powered bed net fans: results of a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Briët, Olivier J T; Ahorlu, Collins K; Nardini, Peter; Keating, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are one of the main interventions recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria vector control. LLINs are ineffective if they are not being used. Subsequent to the completion of a cluster randomized cross over trial conducted in rural Greater Accra where participants were provided with the 'Bɔkɔɔ System'-a set of solar powered net fan and light consoles with a solar panel and battery-or alternative household water filters, all trial participants were invited to participate in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction to determine the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the fan and light consoles and to estimate the demand curve for the units. Results demonstraed a mean WTP of approximately 55 Cedis (~13 USD). Demand results suggested that at a price which would support full manufacturing cost recovery, a majority of households in the area would be willing to purchase at least one such unit.

  6. “People will say that I am proud”: a qualitative study of barriers to bed net use away from home in four Ugandan districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased access and ownership, barriers to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use persist. While barriers within the home have been well documented, the challenges to net use when sleeping away from home remain relatively unexplored. This study examines common situations in which people sleep away from home and the barriers to ITN use in those situations. Methods To explore these issues, a group of researchers conducted 28 in-depth interviews and four focus groups amongst adults from net-owning households in four Ugandan districts. Results In addition to sleeping outside during hot season, participants identified social events, livelihood activities, and times of difficulty as circumstances in which large numbers of people sleep away from home. Associated challenges to ITN use included social barriers such as fear of appearing proud, logistical barriers such as not having a place to hang a net, and resource limitations such as not having an extra net with which to travel. Social disapproval emerged as an important barrier to ITN use in public settings. Conclusions Unique barriers to ITN use exist when people spend the night away from home. It is essential to identify and address these barriers in order to reduce malaria exposure in such situations. For events like funerals or religious “crusades” where large numbers of people sleep away from home, alternative approaches, such as spatial repellents may be more appropriate than ITNs. Additional research is required to identify the acceptability and feasibility of alternative prevention strategies in situations where ITNs are unlikely to be effective. PMID:24602371

  7. Malaria vectors and their blood-meal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson A; Mulaya, Nicholas L; Musaki, Sandra K; Shiroko, Joan N; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2016-02-09

    Blood-meal sources of malaria vectors affect their capacity to transmit the disease. Most efficient malaria vectors prefer human hosts. However, with increasing personal protection measures it becomes more difficult for them to find human hosts. Here recent malaria vector blood-meal sources in western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors, outdoors and exiting through windows were collected in three study areas within the western Kenya highlands from June 2011 to June 2013. A census of people, livestock and of insecticide-treated nets was done per house. Mosquito blood-meal sources were determined as human, goat, bovine or chicken using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. Most (86.3 %) households possessed at least one bed net, 57.2 % had domesticated animals and 83.6 % had people sharing houses with livestock at night. Most (94.9 %) unfed malaria vectors were caught exiting through windows. Overall, 53.1 % of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto obtained blood-meals from humans, 26.5 % from goats and 18.4 % from bovines. Single blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. from humans were 26.5 %, 8.2 % from bovines and 2.0 % from goats. Mixed blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. identified included: 24.5 % human/goat, 10.2 % human/bovine, 8.2 % human/bovine/goat and also 8.2 % bovine/goat. One An. arabiensis mosquito obtained blood-meal only from humans. An unusually high frequency of animal and mixed human-animal blood meals in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.s. was revealed in the western Kenya highlands where bed net coverage is above the WHO target. The shift in blood-meal sources from humans to livestock is most likely the vectors' response to increased bed net coverage and the close location of livestock frequently in the same house as people at night. Livestock-targeted interventions should be considered under these circumstances to address residual malaria transmission.

  8. 基于VB.NET的无线电设备综合测试平台%Synthesis test bed for radio device based on VB.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀敏; 张燕; 毛兴鹏

    2012-01-01

    无线电设备的测试需要较多的专业知识,而且步骤繁琐.为简化无线电设备的测试过程和缩短测试时间,以VB.NET为基础研究了一种无线电设备综合测试平台.该平台能够自动控制各种无线电通信设备,实现各种参数的自动测量和处理,并自动完成数据的记录及报表的生成.使用该平台可以极大地简化人工操作的复杂度、缩短测量时间并进一步提高测试结果的准确性和权威性.%Professional knowledge is a precondition for testing radio devices and the process is so complicated. To simplify the process and shorten the time, a synthesis test bed for radio device is designed based on VB . NET. Utilizing the proposed test bed, all apparatus needed for test are connected, and every parameter is measured and processed automatically, before data recording and reports building. By utilizing the test bed proposed, the complexity of operating is simplified, the measure time is shortea The veracity and the authority of the test result is improved further.

  9. 'A bite before bed': exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Mary K; Kahindi, Sam C; Oriango, Robin M; Owaga, Chrispin; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Mabuka, Danspaid; Nyangau, Dennis; Abel, Lucy; Atieno, Elizabeth; Awuor, Stephen; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Stevenson, Jennifer

    2015-06-25

    The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use LLINs. It is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in order to estimate the extent to which LLINs protect the inhabitants from vector bites. Mosquito collections were made for six consecutive nights each month between June 2011 and May 2012. CDC light-traps were set next to occupied LLINs inside and outside randomly selected houses and emptied hourly. The net usage of residents, their hours of house entry and exit and times of sleeping were recorded and the individual hourly exposure to vectors indoors and outdoors was calculated. Using these data, the true protective efficacy of nets (P*), for this population was estimated, and compared between genders, age groups and from month to month. Primary vector species (Anopheles funestus s.l. and Anopheles arabiensis) were more likely to feed indoors but the secondary vector Anopheles coustani demonstrated exophagic behaviour (p malaria vectors from 1.3 to 0.47 bites per night. The P* for the population over the study period was calculated as 51% and varied significantly with age and season (p malaria vector bites. It is likely that P* would be estimated to be greater if the overall suppression of the local vector population due to widespread community net use could be taken into account. However, the overlap of early biting habit of vectors and human activity in this region indicates that additional methods of vector control are required to limit transmission. Regular surveillance of both vector behaviour and domestic human-behaviour patterns would assist the planning of future

  10. Study protocol for "Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET)": a pragmatic trial comparing implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rachel; Hollombe, Celine; Bunce, Arwen; Nelson, Christine; Davis, James V; Cowburn, Stuart; Perrin, Nancy; DeVoe, Jennifer; Mossman, Ned; Boles, Bruce; Horberg, Michael; Dearing, James W; Jaworski, Victoria; Cohen, Deborah; Smith, David

    2015-10-16

    Little research has directly compared the effectiveness of implementation strategies in any setting, and we know of no prior trials directly comparing how effectively different combinations of strategies support implementation in community health centers. This paper outlines the protocol of the Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET), a trial designed to compare the effectiveness of several common strategies for supporting implementation of an intervention and explore contextual factors that impact the strategies' effectiveness in the community health center setting. This cluster-randomized trial compares how three increasingly hands-on implementation strategies support adoption of an evidence-based diabetes quality improvement intervention in 29 community health centers, managed by 12 healthcare organizations. The strategies are as follows: (arm 1) a toolkit, presented in paper and electronic form, which includes a training webinar; (arm 2) toolkit plus in-person training with a focus on practice change and change management strategies; and (arm 3) toolkit, in-person training, plus practice facilitation with on-site visits. We use a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis: (i) baseline surveys on study clinic characteristics, to explore how these characteristics impact the clinics' ability to implement the tools and the effectiveness of each implementation strategy; (ii) quantitative data on change in rates of guideline-concordant prescribing; and (iii) qualitative data on the "how" and "why" underlying the quantitative results. The outcomes of interest are clinic-level results, categorized using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, within an interrupted time-series design with segmented regression models. This pragmatic trial will compare how well each implementation strategy works in "real-world" practices. Having a better understanding of how different

  11. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malima Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed, but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0. After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0 but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0. Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0. For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid

  12. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch...... methods. In each village, ten paired houses were selected for mosquitoes sampling. Sampling was done in fortnight case and study was undertaken for six months in both Kilimanjaro (Northern Tanzania) and Dodoma (Central Tanzania) regions. RESULTS: A total of 6,883 mosquitoes were collected including: 5......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1...

  13. Insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Gamble

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection from malaria with insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of benefit has been inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review of randomised trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three cluster-randomised and two individually randomised trials met the inclusion criteria; four from Africa (n = 6,418 and one from Thailand (n = 223. In Africa, ITNs compared to no nets increased mean birth weight by 55 g (95% confidence interval [CI] 21-88, reduced low birth weight by 23% (relative risk [RR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98, and reduced miscarriages/stillbirths by 33% (RR 0.67, 0.47-0.97 in the first few pregnancies. Placental parasitaemia was reduced by 23% in all gravidae (RR 0.77, 0.66-0.90. The effects were apparent in the cluster-randomised trials and the one individually randomised trial in Africa. The trial in Thailand, which randomised individuals to ITNs or untreated nets, showed reductions in anaemia and fetal loss in all gravidae, but not reductions in clinical malaria or low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: ITNs used throughout pregnancy or from mid-pregnancy onwards have a beneficial impact on pregnancy outcome in malaria-endemic Africa in the first few pregnancies. The potential impact of ITNs in pregnant women and their newborns in malaria regions outside Africa requires further research.

  14. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Greta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Methods Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. Results No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Conclusions Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma.

  15. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented.

  16. Use of intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in four Kenyan districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, H L; Noor, A M; Ochola, S A; Snow, R W

    2004-02-01

    The roll back malaria (RBM) movement promotes the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) and intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) of malaria infection as preventive measures against the adverse effects of malaria among pregnant women in Africa. To determine the use of these preventive measures we undertook a community-based survey of recently pregnant women randomly selected from communities in four districts of Kenya in December 2001. Of the 1814 women surveyed, only 5% had slept under an ITN. More than half of the 13% of women using a bednet (treated or untreated) had bought their nets from shops or markets. Women from rural areas used bednets less than urban women (11% vs. 27%; P commodity supply and service costs to clients will be the greatest impediments to reaching RBM targets.

  17. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p repellency of DEET or IR3535 on LLIRNs. Vice versa, DEET and IR3535 increased spatial and excitatory repellency and reduced landing and probing frequency on LLIRNs resulting in strongly enhanced biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent

  18. Circulating pressurized fluidized bed. Trial operation, phase 1c. Final report; Zirkulierende Druckwirbelschicht. Versuchsbetrieb, Phase 1c. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, J.; Schmitt, J.; Wedel, G. von; Winkler, K.

    1993-09-01

    Since March `89, the Deutsche Babcock Energie und Umwelttechnik AG have been operating a 15 MW{sub th} experimental pressurized fluidized bed facility. The plant was first designed as a stationary pressurized fluidized bed and was optimized and tested in a 2000-h period of trial operation. In view of the good results of the plant and the technical superiority of the circulating fluidized bed technology, the experimental facility was converted into a circulating pressurized fluidized bed system. The reconstruction work was started in February `91, and from October `91 onwards the circulating pressurized fluidized bed system was optimized and tested in a 900-h trial operation period. This report explains the concept of circulating pressurized fluidized bed technology as applied by the Deutsche Babcock Energie und Umwelttechnik AG and presents the results of circulating trial operation. The results of circulating and stationary fluidized bed trial operation are compared. This comparison is particularly significant as all marginal systems of the plant, i.e. for combustion air supply, flue gas discharge, coal supply and ash removal, have remained unmodified during the reconstruction phase. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Maerz `89 betreibt die Deutsche Babcock Energie und Umwelttechnik AG eine 15 MW{sub th} Druckwirbelschicht Versuchsanlage. In einer ersten Versuchsphase wurde die Anlage als stationaere Druckwirbelschicht konzipiert und in einem 2000-stuendigen Versuchsbetrieb optimiert und getestet. Ausgehend von den guten Ergebnissen aus dem stationaeren, druckaufgeladenen Versuchsbetrieb und in Anbetracht der aus dem atmosphaerischen Bereich bekannten Vorteile der zirkulierenden gegenueber der stationaeren Wirbelschicht wurde die Versuchsanlage ab Februar `91 in eine zirkulierende Druckwirbelschicht umgebaut. Ab Oktober `91 wurde die zirkulierende Druckwirbelschicht in einem 900-stuendigen Versuchsbetrieb optimiert und getestet. In diesem Bericht wird das von der Deutsche

  19. Spatial models for the rational allocation of routinely distributed bed nets to public health facilities in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Peter M; Odera, Patroba A; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2017-09-12

    In high to moderate malaria transmission areas of Kenya, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are provided free of charge to pregnant women and infants during routine antenatal care (ANC) and immunization respectively. Quantities of LLINs distributed to clinics are quantified based on a combination of monthly consumption data and population size of target counties. However, this approach has been shown to lead to stock-outs in targeted clinics. In this study, a novel LLINs need quantification approach for clinics in the routine distribution system was developed. The estimated need was then compared to the actual allocation to identify potential areas of LLIN over- or under-allocation in the high malaria transmission areas of Western Kenya. A geocoded database of public health facilities was developed and linked to monthly LLIN allocation. A network analysis approach was implemented using the location of all public clinics and topographic layers to model travel time. Estimated travel time, socio-economic and ANC attendance data were used to model clinic catchment areas and the probability of ANC service use within these catchments. These were used to define the number of catchment population who were likely to use these clinics for the year 2015 equivalent to LLIN need. Actual LLIN allocation was compared with the estimated need. Clinics were then classified based on whether allocation matched with the need, and if not, whether they were over or under-allocated. 888 (70%) public health facilities were allocated 591,880 LLINs in 2015. Approximately 682,377 (93%) pregnant women and infants were likely to have attended an LLIN clinic. 36% of the clinics had more LLIN than was needed (over-allocated) while 43% had received less (under-allocated). Increasing efficiency of allocation by diverting over supply of LLIN to clinics with less stock and fully covering 43 clinics that did not receive nets in 2015 would allow for complete matching of need with distribution. The

  20. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  1. How do the results of the RADIANT trials impact on the management of NET patients? A systematic review of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pusceddu, S.; de Braud, F; Lo Russo, G; Concas, L.; Femia, D.; Vernieri, C.; Indini, A.; Formisano, B.; Buzzoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the last five years, everolimus has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of different origins; its efficacy and safety were explored in the RADIANT trials, the last of which (RADIANT-4) has been recently published (December 2015). Overall, evidence collected from the RADIANT studies holds promise to change clinical practice for the treatment of NETs. In this paper, we comment on the role of everolimus within the therapeutic algorithm for NETs treatment, ba...

  2. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  3. Effects of an intervention to increase bed alarm use to prevent falls in hospitalized patients: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Ronald I; Chandler, A Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C; Waters, Teresa M; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J; Kessler, Lori A; Miller, Stephen T

    2012-11-20

    Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Pre-post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, -1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. National Institute on Aging.

  4. How do the results of the RADIANT trials impact on the management of NET patients? A systematic review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; De Braud, Filippo; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Concas, Laura; Femia, Daniela; Vernieri, Claudio; Indini, Alice; Formisano, Barbara; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2016-07-12

    In the last five years, everolimus has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of different origins; its efficacy and safety were explored in the RADIANT trials, the last of which (RADIANT-4) has been recently published (December 2015). Overall, evidence collected from the RADIANT studies holds promise to change clinical practice for the treatment of NETs.In this paper, we comment on the role of everolimus within the therapeutic algorithm for NETs treatment, based on the systematic analysis of the RADIANT trials and our experience.

  5. Co-bedding as a Comfort measure For Twins undergoing painful procedures (CComForT Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Co-bedding, a developmental care strategy, is the practice of caring for diaper clad twins in one incubator (versus separating and caring for each infant in separate incubators), thus creating the opportunity for skin-to-skin contact and touch between the twins. In studies of mothers and their infants, maternal skin-to-skin contact has been shown to decrease procedural pain response according to both behavioral and physiological indicators in very preterm neonates. It is uncertain if this comfort is derived solely from maternal presence or from stabilization of regulatory processes from direct skin contact. The intent of this study is to compare the comfort effect of co-bedding (between twin infants who are co-bedding and those who are not) on infant pain response and physiologic stability during a tissue breaking procedure (heelstick). Methods/Design Medically stable preterm twin infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit will be randomly assigned to a co-bedding group or a standard care group. Pain response will be measured by physiological and videotaped facial reaction using the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale (PIPP). Recovery from the tissue breaking procedure will be determined by the length of time for heart rate and oxygen saturation to return to baseline. Sixty four sets of twins (n = 128) will be recruited into the study. Analysis and inference will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If twin contact while co-bedding is determined to have a comforting effect for painful procedures, then changes in current neonatal care practices to include co-bedding may be an inexpensive, non invasive method to help maintain physiologic stability and decrease the long term psychological impact of procedural pain in this high risk population. Knowledge obtained from this study will also add to existing theoretical models with respect to the exact mechanism of comfort through touch. Trial registration NCT00917631 PMID:20003351

  6. Bio-efficacy of new long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets against Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae from central and northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio, Ana Paula; Marrune, Pelágio; de Deus, Nilsa; Mbofana, Francisco; Muianga, Pedro; Kampango, Ayubo

    2015-09-17

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) are one of the main methods used for controlling malaria transmission in Mozambique. The proliferation of several types of LLINs and the re-emergence of insecticide resistance in the local vector populations poses challenges to the local malaria control programme on selecting suitable insecticide-based vector control products. Therefore, this study evaluated the insecticide susceptibility and bio-efficacy of selected new LLINs against wild populations of Anopheles funestus sensu lato and A. gambiae s.l. from Northern and Central Mozambique. The study also investigated whether the insecticide contents on the LINNs fabrics were within the WHOPES recommended target range. The susceptibility of 2-5 day old wild female A. funestus and A. gambiae sensu stricto against the major classes of insecticides used for vector control, viz: deltamethrin (0.05 %), permethrin (0.75 %), propoxur (0.1 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %) and DDT (4 %), was determined using WHO cylinder susceptibility tests. WHO cone bioassays were conducted to determine the bio-efficacy of both pyrethroid-only LLINs (Olyset(®), Permanet 2.0(®), NetProtect(®) and Interceptor(®)) and, Permanet 3.0(®) a combination LLIN against A. funestus s.s, from Balama, Mocuba and Milange districts, respectively. The bio-efficacy of LLINs against the insectary-susceptible A. arabiensis (Durban strain) was assessed, as well. Untreated bed net swatches were used as negative controls. Chemical analyses, by high performance liquid chromatography, were undertaken to assess whether the insecticide contents on the LLINs fabrics fell within recommended target dose ranges. The frequency of kdr gene mutations was determined from a random sample of A. gambiae s.s. from both WHO susceptibility and cone bioassay experiments. Anopheles funestus from Balama district showed resistance to deltamethrin and possible resistance to permethrin, propoxur and bendiocarb, whilst A. gambiae from

  7. Field trial on a novel control method for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti by the systematic use of Olyset® Net and pyriproxyfen in Southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunoda Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jars, tanks, and drums provide favorable rearing/breeding sites for Aedes aegypti in Vietnam. However, the use of insecticides to control mosquitoes at such breeding sites has not been approved in Vietnam since they are also often sources of drinking water, making larval vector control difficult. Mosquito nets pre-treated with long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs form an effective measure for malaria control. We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti to evaluate the efficacy of covering ceramic jars with lids comprising one type of LLITN, Olyset® Net, in inhibiting oviposition by adult females, and to evaluate the effect of treating other breeding containers, such as flower vases, inside and around the outside of houses with a slow-release pyriproxyfen formulation to kill pupae. Methods We selected 313 households for the trial and 363 households for the control in Tan Chanh, Long An province, Vietnam. In the trial area, Olyset® Net lids were used to cover five major types of water container (ceramic jars, cylindrical concrete tanks, other concrete tanks, plastic drums, and plastic buckets, while pyriproxyfen was used to treat flower vases and ant traps. We also monitored dengue virus transmission by measuring anti-dengue IgM and IgG levels in healthy residents in both control and trial areas to estimate the effectiveness of Olyset® Net at controlling the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Results The container-index and house-index for immature Ae. aegypti fell steeply one month after treatment in the trial area. Lids with Olyset® Net that fit container openings clearly seemed to reduce the presence of immature Ae. aegypti as the density of pupae decreased 1 month after treatment in the trial area. Pyriproxyfen was also effective at killing pupae in the water containers in the trial area. Although the dengue seroconversion rate was not influenced by Olyset® Net, it was lower in two-five year old

  8. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  9. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Heng, S.; Gryseels, C.; Canier, L.; Kim, S.; Van Roey, K.; Kerkhof, K.; Khim, N.; Mao, S.; Menard, D.; Coosemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We

  10. Hypofractionated helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy of the prostate bed after prostatectomy with or without the pelvic lymph nodes - the PRIAMOS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Sonja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence on safety and efficacy of primary hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer is accumulating, data on postoperative hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed and of the pelvic lymph nodes is still scarce. This phase II trial was initiated to investigate safety and feasibility of hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed alone or with the pelvic lymph nodes. Methods/design A total of 80 prostate cancer patients with the indication for adjuvant radiotherapy will be enrolled, where 40 patients with a low risk of lymph node involvement (arm 1 and another 40 patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement (arm 2 will each receive 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed. Arm 2 will be given 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes additionally. Helical Tomotherapy and daily image guidance will be used. Discussion This trial was initiated to substantiate data on hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed and generate first data on adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy of the pelvic lymph nodes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01620710

  11. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  12. Pragmatic, cluster randomized trial of a policy to introduce low-low beds to hospital wards for the prevention of falls and fall injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Terry P; Bell, Rebecca A R; Varghese, Paul N

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a policy to introduce low-low beds for the prevention of falls and fall injuries on wards that had not previously accessed low-low beds. This was a pragmatic, matched, cluster randomized trial with wards paired according to rate of falls. Intervention and control wards were observed for a 6-month period after implementation of the low-low beds on the intervention wards. Data from a 6-month period before this were also collected and included in analyses to ensure comparability between intervention and control group wards. Public hospitals located in Queensland, Australia. Patients of 18 public hospital wards. Provision of one low-low bed for every 12 on a hospital ward, with written guidance for identifying patients at greatest risk of falls. Falls and fall injuries in the hospital measured using a computerized incident reporting system. There were 10,937 admissions to control and intervention wards combined during the pre-intervention period. There was no significant difference in the rate of falls per 1,000 occupied bed days between intervention and control group wards after the introduction of the low-low beds (generalized estimating equation coefficient=0.23, 95% confidence interval=-0.18-0.65, P=.28). The rate of bed falls, falls resulting in injury, and falls resulting in fracture also did not differ between groups. Some difficulties were encountered in intervention group wards in using the low-low beds as directed. A policy for the introduction of low-low beds did not appear to reduce falls or falls with injury, although larger studies would be required to determine their effect on fall-related fractures.

  13. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  14. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: controlling for net ideation. The results of this study indicate that mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  15. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Colorado • Fort Bliss, Texas These sites served as test beds for the Army’s Net Zero Initiative, specifically, Net Zero Water , and the Army provided...have sustainability, energy efficiency, water conservation, recycling, pollution prevention, and green procurement programs in place that they can...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release

  16. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomi trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidwani, K; Picado, A; Rijal, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is the world’ second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness...... against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is unknown. This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial. Methods: As part of a paired-cluster randomized controlled clinical trial in VL-endemic regions of India...

  17. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picado, Albert; Singh, Shri Prakash; Rijal, Suman

    2010-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.......To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal....

  18. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  19. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  20. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  1. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  2. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Wright, Alexandra; West, Philippa A; Tigererwa, Robinson; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rowland, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001) relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  3. [Postoperative bed header position after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural haematoma: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Paternina-Caicedo, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M; Sabogal-Barrios, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have suggested the possible influence of postoperative bed header position on the risk of symptomatic recurrences and medical complications in patients who have been intervened due chronic subdural haematomas. Nevertheless, this hypothesis has not been assessed by a meta-analysis. All randomised controlled trials analysing symptomatic recurrence rates in patients who underwent burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural haematomas, describing postoperative bed header positioning, were included. The primary outcome was risk of recurrence and the secondary outcome were the risks of reoperation and medical complications. Results were presented as pooled relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 4 controlled studies were included. Pooled relative risks were: symptomatic recurrences 0.51 ([95% CI: 0.22-1.16]; P=.11), reoperations, 1.07 ([95% CI: 0.42-2.69]; P=.89) and medical complications, 1.15 ([95% CI: 0.7-1.91]; P=.58). No statistically significant heterogeneity was found in any of the analyses. There were no differences regarding frequency of symptomatic recurrences, reoperations or medical complications in patients who were maintained in a flat position compared with those whose bed header was elevated during the postoperative course. Despite there being consistency between the results, there is a potential risk of bias; thus proscribing definitive recommendations until studies with higher methodological quality are available. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available Indoor residual spraying (IRS combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001 relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction <0.001. This trial provides conclusive evidence that combining carbamate IRS and ITNs produces major reduction in Anopheles density and entomological inoculation rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  5. Trials with portable screen rooms modified for use as animal-baited net traps for mosquito collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, D P; Darsie, R F; Story, R

    1985-06-01

    Trials in Larimer County, Colorado during July and August 1984, with recreational screen rooms modified as large animal-baited mosquito traps are described. The two units tested are free-standing, portable and require no external support. In all-night trials, 462.5 mosquitoes/trap night were captured with horse bait compared with 367/trap night with CDC light traps. In 2-hour evening comparisons, mosquitoes collected per trapping period totalled 416 for horse-bait traps, 132 for light traps, and 93 for human-bait traps. Animal-baited screen rooms offer an alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance.

  6. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  7. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  8. Reducing bed rest time from five to three hours does not increase complications after cardiac catheterization: the THREE CATH Trial 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Roselene; Hilário, Thamires de Souza; Reich, Rejane; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to compare the incidence of vascular complications in patients undergoing transfemoral cardiac catheterization with a 6F introducer sheath followed by 3-hour versus 5-hour rest. Methods: randomized clinical trial. Subjects in the intervention group (IG) ambulated 3 hours after sheath removal, versus 5 hours in the control group (CG). All patients remained in the catheterization laboratory for 5 hours and were assessed hourly, and were contacted 24, 48, and 72 h after hospital discharge. Results: the sample comprised 367 patients in the IG and 363 in the GC. During cath lab stay, hematoma was the most common complication in both groups, occurring in 12 (3%) IG and 13 (4%) CG subjects (P=0.87). Bleeding occurred in 4 (1%) IG and 6 (2%) CG subjects (P=0.51), and vasovagal reaction in 5 (1.4%) IG and 4 (1.1%) CG subjects (P=0.75). At 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h bruising was the most commonly reported complication in both groups. None of the comparisons revealed any significant between-group differences. Conclusion: the results of this trial show that reducing bed rest time to 3 hours after elective cardiac catheterization is safe and does not increase complications as compared with a 5-hour rest. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT-01740856 PMID:27463113

  9. Bigraphical Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mackie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation, which has been used to define efficient evaluators for functional calculi, and specifically lambda calculi with patterns. However, the flat structure of interaction nets forces pattern matching and functional behaviour to be encoded at the same level, losing some potential parallelism. In this paper, we introduce bigraphical nets, or binets for short, as a generalisation of interaction nets using ideas from bigraphs and port graphs, and we present a formal notation and operational semantics for binets. We illustrate their expressive power by examples of applications.

  10. Short-term cost-effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder: Results from the SOPHO-NET trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Nina; Konnopka, Alexander; Beutel, Manfred E; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Juergen; Salzer, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Joerg; Leichsenring, Falk; Leibing, Eric; König, Hans-Helmut

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the short-term cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to waiting list (WL). The analysis was conducted alongside the SOPHO-NET multi-center efficacy trial. Patients were randomly assigned to CBT (n=209), PDT (n=207), or WL (n=79). Resource use was assessed prior and during treatment to determine direct and absenteeism costs. Unadjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated based on remission and response rates. To visualize statistical uncertainty, cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) were constructed based on adjusted net-benefit regression. Different values for the society׳s willingness to pay (WTP) were assumed. Both interventions were more efficacious than WL but were associated with increased direct costs besides intervention costs. Unadjusted ICERs per responder were €3615 for CBT and €4958 for PDT. Unadjusted ICERs per remitted patient were €5788 and €10,733. CEACs revealed a high degree of uncertainty: applying the 97.5% probability threshold, CBT proved cost-effective at a WTP ≥€16,100 per responder and ≥€26,605 per remitted patient. Regarding PDT cost-effectiveness only was certain for response at a WTP ≥€27,290. The WL condition is assumed to represent untreated patients, although the expectation to start treatment in the near future probably affects symptom severity and health care utilization. At the end of treatment cost-effectiveness of CBT and PDT compared to WL is uncertain and depends on the societal WTP. The interventions may induce a more adequate utilization of other health care services - involving increased costs. Development of costs and effects in the long-run should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Net Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibatou; Vigninou, Estelle; Asidi, Alex; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2011-01-01

    .... Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved) were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus...

  13. Effects of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs on parasite genetics population structure: I. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by microsatellite markers in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Mary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs reduce malaria transmission and are an important prevention tool. However, there are still information gaps on how the reduction in malaria transmission by ITNs affects parasite genetics population structure. This study examined the relationship between transmission reduction from ITN use and the population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in an area of high ITN coverage in western Kenya. Methods Parasite genetic diversity was assessed by scoring eight single copy neutral multilocus microsatellite (MS markers in samples collected from P. falciparum-infected children ( Results There were no significant changes in overall high mixed infections and unbiased expected heterozygosity between baseline (%MA = 94% and He = 0.75 and follow up (%MA = 95% and He = 0.79 years. However, locus specific analysis detected significant differences for some individual loci between the two time points. Pfg377 loci, a gametocyte-specific MS marker showed significant increase in mixed infections and He in the follow up survey (%MA = 53% and He = 0.57 compared to the baseline (%MA = 30% and He = 0.29. An opposite trend was observed in the erythrocyte binding protein (EBP MS marker. There was moderate genetic differentiation at the Pfg377 and TAA60 loci (FST = 0.117 and 0.137 respectively between the baseline and post-ITN parasite populations. Further analysis revealed linkage disequilibrium (LD of the microsatellites in the baseline (14 significant pair-wise tests and ISA = 0.016 that was broken in the follow up parasite population (6 significant pairs and ISA = 0.0003. The locus specific change in He, the moderate population differentiation and break in LD between the baseline and follow up years suggest an underlying change in population sub-structure despite the stability in the overall genetic diversity and multiple infection levels. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that although P

  14. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  15. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  16. Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cader SA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Samária Ali Cader,1 Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale,1 Victor Emmanuel Zamora,2 Claudia Henrique Costa,2 Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas11Laboratory of Human Kinetics Bioscience, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, 2Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, School of Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT and identify predictors of successful weaning.Methods: Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14 that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT® device or to a control group (n = 14 that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer.Results: The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H2O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4–10, and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/min/L, 95% CI −26 to 6 in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (Χ2 = 1.47; P = 0.20. However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08–18.06. The receiver

  17. Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Hurt, N; Lyimo, E O

    1998-01-01

    The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers and retail shops. The ITNs were sold for US$ 5.0-9.2, with profit margins of 9-16%. Net treatment cost US$ 0.33, with commission fees of 75%. Net transport and treatment were partially subsidized. Some outlets established their own fund by ITN sales. Sales of nets and treatments were seasonal, and certain net types were preferred. Demand for insecticide treatment was generally low. Changes in net coverage were assessed in two villages. A range of outlet features were compared qualitatively. Our experience supports suggestions that ITN technology should be delivered through MCH care services and demonstrates that specific promotion and innovation are necessary to achieve substantial net treatment levels. A large-scale ITN project in the same area and other ITN studies should lead to better understanding of ITN implementation at the population level.

  18. Rationale and protocol of the MetNET-1 trial, a prospective, single center, phase II study to evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus in combination with octreotide LAR and metformin in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; de Braud, Filippo; Concas, Laura; Bregant, Cristina; Leuzzi, Livia; Formisano, Barbara; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway signalling and autocrine activation of the mTOR pathway, mediated through insulin-like growth factor-1, have been implicated in the proliferation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) cells. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has shown antitumor benefit in pNETs alone and in combination with octreotide LAR in RADIANT-1 and RADIANT-3 studies. Although everolimus-based phase II/III trials have improved progression-free survival for pNET, its use has not impacted on prolonging overall survival. Metformin has recently shown some anti-cancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies by its indirect properties to decrease insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and by its antitumour effect to promote AMPK activation and consequently inhibition to TSC1-2/mTOR complex. In light of even more retrospective evidence of metformin's anticancer activity, a prospective evaluation is required to either confirm or discard these preliminary findings. With the aim to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of metformin in combination with everolimus and octreotide LAR in pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor patients, a single arm, prospective, single center phase II study was designed (MetNET-1 trial, NCT 02294006). Forty-three patients are expected to be evaluated. The study is ongoing, and recruitment is estimated to be completed in August 2016. The results will be anticipated in 2017.

  19. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  20. Quantification of patient migration in bed: catalyst to improve hospital bed design to reduce shear and friction forces and nurses' injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Susan E; Davis, Kermit G; Wiggermann, Neal; Williamson, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to quantify the movement of hospital bed occupants relative to the bed in typical bed articulations. Movement of a patient in bed results in two common adverse events: (a) increase in shear and friction forces between the patient and bed, which are extrinsic pressure ulcer risk factors, and (b) musculoskeletal injuries to nurses, resulting from repositioning patients who have migrated down in bed. The study involved 12 participants who lay supine in three hospital beds, which were articulated to common positions. Body movement relative to the bed was quantified with the use of motion capture. Cumulative movement, net displacement, and torso compression (shoulder to trochanter distance) were calculated for different bed types and bed movements. Bed design and bed movement had a significant effect on most of the dependent variables. Bed design (e.g., type) influenced cumulative movement by up to 115%, net displacement by up to 70%, and torso compression by about 20%. Bed movement (e.g., knee elevation) reduced cumulative migration by up to 35%. The quantification of patient migration provides a metric for evaluating the interaction between body and bed surfaces. Overall, the measures were sensitive to design changes in bed frames, bed articulations, and mattress inflation. Documentation of the cumulative movement, net displacement, and torso compression provides hospital bed designers quantifiable measures for reducing migration and potentially shear and friction forces when designing bed frames, bed articulations, and mattresses. Optimization of these metrics may ultimately have an impact on patient and caregiver health.

  1. Ação de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina sobre a morbidade da malária em uma área da Amazônia Brasileira The effect of bed nets impregnated with deltamethrin on malaria morbidity in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barberino Santos

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992 foi feita uma investigação sobre o efeito protetor do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, em uma população do município de Costa Marques, Rondônia, sujeita à transmissão malárica. Os mosquiteiros impregnados se comportaram de modo semelhante aos não impregnados, sem modificar os índices de infecção na época de baixa transmissão. A análise multivariada, por idade e títulos de anticorpos, mostrou uma proteção significante para o grupo com mosquiteiros impregnados contra o risco de infecção, apenas na estação de alta transmissão, quando os mosquiteiros foram usados mais regularmente. Não houve diferença no efeito de ambos os tipos de mosquiteiros na prevenção de elevadas parasitemias. Ao fim do estudo, ocorreu diminuição da prevalência de esplenomegalia em ambos os grupos, porém houve uma aparente recuperação da taxa normal de hematócrito em menores de 15 anos de idade em uso de mosquiteiros impregnados.In 1992 an investigation regarding the value of insecticide impregnated mosquito nets was conducted in the municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia. Impregnated mosquito nets gave similar protection to those not impregnated, without modifying the incidence of infection during the season of low transmission. The multivariate analysis for age and antibody titre showed a significant protection of impregnated nets against the risk of infection only in the season of high transmission, when bed nets were used more correctly. There was no difference in the effect of both kinds of bed nets in the prevention of high parasitaemia. At the end of the study, there was a reduction of the prevalence of splenomegaly in both groups but hematocrit values rose to normal in the below 15 year olds using impregnated nets.

  2. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. METHOD: The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. RESULTS: Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets. CONCLUSION: Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and

  4. Factors Associated With Dropout During Recruitment and Follow-Up Periods of a mHealth-Based Randomized Controlled Trial for Mobile.Net to Encourage Treatment Adherence for People With Serious Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannisto, Kati Anneli; Korhonen, Joonas; Adams, Clive E; Koivunen, Marita Hannele; Vahlberg, Tero; Välimäki, Maritta Anneli

    2017-02-21

    Clinical trials are the gold standard of evidence-based practice. Still many papers inadequately report methodology in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), particularly for mHealth interventions for people with serious mental health problems. To ensure robust enough evidence, it is important to understand which study phases are the most vulnerable in the field of mental health care. We mapped the recruitment and the trial follow-up periods of participants to provide a picture of the dropout predictors from a mHealth-based trial. As an example, we used a mHealth-based multicenter RCT, titled "Mobile.Net," targeted at people with serious mental health problems. Recruitment and follow-up processes of the Mobile.Net trial were monitored and analyzed. Recruitment outcomes were recorded as screened, eligible, consent not asked, refused, and enrolled. Patient engagement was recorded as follow-up outcomes: (1) attrition during short message service (SMS) text message intervention and (2) attrition during the 12-month follow-up period. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify which demographic factors were related to recruitment and retention. We recruited 1139 patients during a 15-month period. Of 11,530 people screened, 36.31% (n=4186) were eligible. This eligible group tended to be significantly younger (mean 39.2, SD 13.2 years, Pintervention. Attrition from the SMS text message intervention was 4.8% (27/563). The patient dropout rate after 12 months was 0.36% (4/1123), as discovered from the register data. In all, 3.12% (35/1123) of the participants withdrew from the trial. However, dropout rates from the patient survey (either by paper or telephone interview) were 52.45% (589/1123) and 27.8% (155/558), respectively. Almost all participants (536/563, 95.2%) tolerated the intervention, but those who discontinued were more often women (21/27, 78%; P=.009). Finally, participants' age (P<.001), gender (P<.001), vocational education (P=.04), and employment status

  5. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  6. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder--study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA--net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Cholemkery, Hannah; Elsuni, Leyla; Kroeger, Anne K; Bender, Stephan; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-01-07

    Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA-FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. The SOSTA - net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. ISRCTN94863788--SOSTA--net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

  8. Efficacy of Olyset® Duo, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Alphonsine A; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Djenontin, Armel; Kabran, Jean-Paul K; Dosso, Youssouf; Kone, Aboubacar; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative tools and molecules are urgently needed for effective vector control. One of the most promising strategies to prevent or delay the development of resistance is to use at least two molecules having unrelated modes of action in combination in the same bed net. We evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, a new polyethylene long-lasting insecticidal net (LN) product, Olyset® Duo, incorporating permethrin (PER) and pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator (IGR). PPF alone or in combination with permethrin had a significant impact on fertility (7-12% reduction relative to control) and no effect on fecundity of wild multi-resistant An. gambiae s.s. These results triggered crucial research questions on the behaviour of targeted mosquitoes around the LN. To maximize the sterilizing effect of PPF in the combination, there would be a need for a trade-off between the necessary contact time of the insect with PPF and the surface content of the pyrethroid insecticide that is bioavailable and induces excito-repellency. © A.A. Koffi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  9. Efficacy of Olyset® Duo, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d’Ivoire: an experimental hut trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alphonsine A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative tools and molecules are urgently needed for effective vector control. One of the most promising strategies to prevent or delay the development of resistance is to use at least two molecules having unrelated modes of action in combination in the same bed net. We evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d’Ivoire, a new polyethylene long-lasting insecticidal net (LN product, Olyset® Duo, incorporating permethrin (PER and pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator (IGR. PPF alone or in combination with permethrin had a significant impact on fertility (7–12% reduction relative to control and no effect on fecundity of wild multi-resistant An. gambiae s.s. These results triggered crucial research questions on the behaviour of targeted mosquitoes around the LN. To maximize the sterilizing effect of PPF in the combination, there would be a need for a trade-off between the necessary contact time of the insect with PPF and the surface content of the pyrethroid insecticide that is bioavailable and induces excito-repellency.

  10. REFINE (REducing Falls in In-patieNt Elderly) using bed and bedside chair pressure sensors linked to radio-pagers in acute hospital care: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Opinder; Drummond, Avril; Kendrick, Denise; Grainge, Matthew J; Vass, Catherine; Sach, Tracey; Gladman, John; Avis, Mark

    2014-03-01

    falls in hospitals are a major problem and contribute to substantial healthcare burden. Advances in sensor technology afford innovative approaches to reducing falls in acute hospital care. However, whether these are clinically effective and cost effective in the UK setting has not been evaluated. pragmatic, parallel-arm, individual randomised controlled trial of bed and bedside chair pressure sensors using radio-pagers (intervention group) compared with standard care (control group) in elderly patients admitted to acute, general medical wards, in a large UK teaching hospital. Primary outcome measure number of in-patient bedside falls per 1,000 bed days. 1,839 participants were randomised (918 to the intervention group and 921 to the control group). There were 85 bedside falls (65 fallers) in the intervention group, falls rate 8.71 per 1,000 bed days compared with 83 bedside falls (64 fallers) in the control group, falls rate 9.84 per 1,000 bed days (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-1.22; P = 0.51). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to time to first bedside fall (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.95; 95% CI: 0.67-1.34; P= 0.12). The mean cost per patient in the intervention group was £7199 compared with £6400 in the control group, mean difference in QALYs per patient, 0.0001 (95% CI: -0.0006-0.0004, P= 0.67). bed and bedside chair pressure sensors as a single intervention strategy do not reduce in-patient bedside falls, time to first bedside fall and are not cost-effective in elderly patients in acute, general medical wards in the UK. isrctn.org identifier: ISRCTN44972300.

  11. Factors Associated With Dropout During Recruitment and Follow-Up Periods of a mHealth-Based Randomized Controlled Trial for Mobile.Net to Encourage Treatment Adherence for People With Serious Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Joonas; Adams, Clive E; Koivunen, Marita Hannele; Vahlberg, Tero; Välimäki, Maritta Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical trials are the gold standard of evidence-based practice. Still many papers inadequately report methodology in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), particularly for mHealth interventions for people with serious mental health problems. To ensure robust enough evidence, it is important to understand which study phases are the most vulnerable in the field of mental health care. Objective We mapped the recruitment and the trial follow-up periods of participants to provide a picture of the dropout predictors from a mHealth-based trial. As an example, we used a mHealth-based multicenter RCT, titled “Mobile.Net,” targeted at people with serious mental health problems. Methods Recruitment and follow-up processes of the Mobile.Net trial were monitored and analyzed. Recruitment outcomes were recorded as screened, eligible, consent not asked, refused, and enrolled. Patient engagement was recorded as follow-up outcomes: (1) attrition during short message service (SMS) text message intervention and (2) attrition during the 12-month follow-up period. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify which demographic factors were related to recruitment and retention. Results We recruited 1139 patients during a 15-month period. Of 11,530 people screened, 36.31% (n=4186) were eligible. This eligible group tended to be significantly younger (mean 39.2, SD 13.2 years, P<.001) and more often women (2103/4181, 50.30%) than those who were not eligible (age: mean 43.7, SD 14.6 years; women: 3633/6514, 55.78%). At the point when potential participants were asked to give consent, a further 2278 refused. Those who refused were a little older (mean 40.2, SD 13.9 years) than those who agreed to participate (mean 38.3, SD 12.5 years; t1842=3.2, P<.001). We measured the outcomes after 12 months of the SMS text message intervention. Attrition from the SMS text message intervention was 4.8% (27/563). The patient dropout rate after 12 months was 0.36% (4/1123), as

  12. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  13. "Before we used to get sick all the time": perceptions of malaria and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs in a rural Kenyan community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jacqueline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading global cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, despite recent advances in treatment and prevention technologies. Scale-up and wide distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs could rapidly decrease malarial disease in endemic areas, if used properly and continuously. Studies have shown that effective use of LLINs depends, in part, upon understanding causal factors associated with malaria. This study examined malaria beliefs, attitudes, and practices toward LLINs assessed during a large-scale integrated prevention campaign (IPC in rural Kenya. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 IPC participants who received LLINs as part of a comprehensive prevention package of goods and services. One month after distribution, interviewers asked these individuals about their attitudes and beliefs regarding malaria, and about their use of LLINs. Results Virtually all participants noted that mosquitoes were involved in causing malaria, though a substantial proportion of participants (47 percent also mentioned an incorrect cause in addition to mosquitoes. For example, participants commonly noted that the weather (rain, cold or consumption of bad food and water caused malaria. Regardless, most participants used the LLINs they were given and most mentioned positive benefits from their use, namely reductions in malarial illness and in the costs associated with its diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions Attitudes toward LLINs were positive in this rural community in Western Kenya, and respondents noted benefits with LLIN use. With improved understanding and clarification of the direct (mosquitoes and indirect (e.g., standing water causes of malaria, it is likely that LLIN use can be sustained, offering effective household-level protection against malaria.

  14. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... few days or weeks. This is called bed rest. Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. Net ecosystem exchange from five land-use transitions to bioenergy crops from four locations across the UK - The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Harris, Zoe M.; McCalmont, Jon; Rylett, Daniel; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan G.; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Morrison, Ross; Alberti, Giorgio; Donnison, Ian; Siebicke, Lukas; Morison, James; Taylor, Gail; McNamara, Niall P.

    2016-04-01

    A major part of international agreements on combating climate change is the conversion from a fossil fuel economy to a low carbon economy. Bioenergy crops have been proposed as a way to improve energy security while reducing CO2 emissions to help mitigate the effects of climate change. However, the impact of land-use change from a traditional land use (e.g., arable and grassland) to bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse gas balance (GHG) and carbon stocks are poorly quantified at this time. The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) to provide scientific evidence within the UK on a range of land-use conversions (LUC) to bioenergy crops. The ELUM network consists of seven partners investigating five LUCs in four locations including Scotland, Wales, North and South England. Transitions included grasslands to short rotation forestry (SRF), to short rotation coppice willow (SRC) and to Miscanthus and arable to SRC and Miscanthus Measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) along with continuous measurements of meteorological conditions were made at seven sub-sites over a two-year period. Results showed that, over two years, two of the land-uses, a grassland in South England and a grassland conversion to Miscanthus in Wales were net sources of carbon. The greatest carbon sink was into the SRF site in Scotland followed by the SRC willow in South England. The annual terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) for the SRC willow in North and South Sussex sites were similar, but the annual GPP at the South England site was about 27% higher than that the North England site. Establishing a long term network will allow us to continue monitoring the effects of land use change on whole ecosystem carbon balance, providing an insight into which types of LUC are suitable for bioenergy cropping in the UK.

  18. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  19. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  20. Short Text Messages to Encourage Adherence to Medication and Follow-up for People With Psychosis (Mobile.Net): Randomized Controlled Trial in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, Maritta; Kannisto, Kati Anneli; Vahlberg, Tero; Hätönen, Heli; Adams, Clive E

    2017-07-12

    A text messaging service (short message service [SMS]) has the potential to target large groups of people with long-term illnesses such as serious mental disorders, who may have difficulty with treatment adherence. Robust research on the impact of mobile technology interventions for these patients remains scarce. The main objective of our study was to investigate the impact of individually tailored short text messages on the rate of psychiatric hospital readmissions, health care service use, and clinical outcomes. In addition, we analyzed treatment costs. Between September 2011 and November 2012, we randomly assigned 1139 people to a tailored text message intervention (n=569) or usual care (n=570). Participants received semiautomated text messages for up to 12 months or usual care. The primary outcome, based on routinely collected health register data, was patient readmission into a psychiatric hospital during a 12-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were related to other service use, coercion, medication, adverse events, satisfaction, social functioning, quality of life, and economic factors (cost analysis). There was 98.24% (1119/1139) follow-up at 12 months. Tailored mobile telephone text messages did not reduce the rate of hospital admissions (242/563, 43.0% of the SMS group vs 216/556, 38.8% of the control group; relative risk 1.11; 95% CI 0.92-1.33; P=.28), time between hospitalizations (mean difference 7.0 days 95% CI -8.0 to 24.0; P=.37), time spent in a psychiatric hospital during the year (mean difference 2.0 days 95% CI -2.0 to 7.0; P=.35), or other service outcomes. People who received text messages were less disabled, based on Global Assessment Scale scores at the time of their readmission, than those who did not receive text messages (odds ratio 0.68; 95% CI 0.47-0.97; P=.04). The costs of treatment were higher for people in the SMS group than in the control group (mean €10,103 vs €9210, respectively, PControlled Trial Number (ISRCTN

  1. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  2. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  4. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  6. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), and (7) cost

  9. Efficacy of malaria prevention during pregnancy in an area of low and unstable transmission: an individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial using intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets in the Kabale Highlands, southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Clarke, Siân E; Hutchison, Coll L; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Magnussen, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are recommended malaria interventions during pregnancy; however, there is limited information on their efficacy in areas of low malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. An individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial involving 5775 women of all parities examined the effect of IPTp, ITNs alone, or ITNs used in combination with IPTp on maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in a highland area of southwestern Uganda. The overall prevalence of malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW was 15.0%, 14.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Maternal and fetal outcomes were generally remarkably similar across all intervention groups (P>0.05 for all outcomes examined). A marginal difference in maternal haemoglobin was observed in the dual intervention group (12.57g/dl) compared with the IPTp and ITN alone groups (12.40g/dl and 12.44g/dl, respectively; P=0.04), but this was too slight to be of clinical importance. In conclusion, none of the preventive strategies was found to be superior to the others, and no substantial additional benefit to providing both IPTp and ITNs during routine antenatal services was observed. With ITNs offering a number of advantages over IPTp, yet showing comparable efficacy, we discuss why ITNs could be an appropriate preventive strategy for malaria control during pregnancy in areas of low and unstable transmission. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that there are ways to control bed bugs. Getting good, solid information is the first step in both prevention and control. While there is no chemical quick fix, there are effective strategies to control bed bugs involving both non-chemical and chemical methods. Bed bugs can be hard to find and ...

  11. Isopachs of total net coal, lower Blackhawk Formation, southern Wasatch Plateau, UT (wsthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick in the lower Blackhawk Formation, southern...

  12. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  13. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  14. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  15. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  16. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...

  17. A NET Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eLu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis.

  18. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil [Center for Breast Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: radiat@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery.

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  2. Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.

  3. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  4. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachabilit......, and not controllable by the system itself, or they are part of the system itself and therefore we need not worry about them)....

  6. Hospital-Level Changes in Adult ICU Bed Supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David J; Seymour, Christopher W; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Although the number of intensive care beds in the United States is increasing, little is known about the hospitals responsible for this growth. We sought to better characterize national growth in intensive care beds by identifying hospital-level factors associated with increasing numbers of intensive care beds over time. We performed a repeated-measures time series analysis of hospital-level intensive care bed supply using data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All United States acute care hospitals with adult intensive care beds over the years 1996-2011. None. None. We described the number of beds, teaching status, ownership, intensive care occupancy, and urbanicity for each hospital in each year of the study. We then examined the relationship between increasing intensive care beds and these characteristics, controlling for other factors. The study included 4,457 hospitals and 55,865 hospital-years. Overall, the majority of intensive care bed growth occurred in teaching hospitals (net, +13,471 beds; 72.1% of total growth), hospitals with 250 or more beds (net, +18,327 beds; 91.8% of total growth), and hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (net, +10,157 beds; 54.0% of total growth). In a longitudinal multivariable model, larger hospital size, teaching status, and high intensive care occupancy were associated with subsequent-year growth. Furthermore, the effects of hospital size and teaching status were modified by occupancy: the greatest odds of increasing ICU beds were in hospitals with 500 or more beds in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.9; 95% CI, 14.0-25.5; p hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 7.3; 95% CI, 5.3-9.9; p bed expansion in the United States is occurring in larger hospitals and teaching centers, particularly following a year with high ICU occupancy.

  7. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  8. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  9. Clinical trials to estimate the efficacy of preventive interventions against malaria in paediatric populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Zarifah

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen publication of a considerable number of clinical trials of preventive interventions against clinical malaria in children. There has been variability in the specification of end-points, case definitions, analysis methods and reporting and the relative lack of standardization complicates the ability to make comparative evaluations between trials. Methods To prepare for a WHO consultation on design issues in malaria vaccine trials, controlled trials of preventive interventions against malaria in children in endemic countries were identified in which clinical malaria, or death, had been one of the main end-points. Trials were included that evaluated the impact of vaccines, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN, intermittent presumptive or preventive therapy in infants (IPTi or, in one instance, vitamin A supplementation. Methods that had been used in these trials were summarized and compared in order to identify issues that were directly relevant to the design of malaria vaccine trials. Results 29 controlled trials of preventive malaria interventions were identified, of which eight were vaccine trials. Vaccine trials that were designed to detect an effect on clinical malaria all reported the incidence rate of first episodes of clinical malaria as their primary endpoint. Only one trial of a preventive intervention (of ITN was identified that was designed to detect an effect on severe malaria. A group of larger trials were designed to detect an effect of impregnated bed nets or curtains on all-cause mortality as the primary end-point. Key methodological and reporting differences between trials are noted in the text. Two issues have been identified that are of some concern. Firstly, the choice of primary endpoint is not stated in the reports of a number of the trials and, secondly, the relationship between pre-specified analysis plans and trial reports is rarely made clear. Conclusion This article reports an

  10. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers: a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...... the different kinds of analysis. It has, however, turned out that it only is necessary to turn to functions when we deal with invariant analysis, and this means that we now use the expression representation for all purposes — except for the calculation of invariants. This change is important for the practical...

  12. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  13. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  14. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  15. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  17. Mobile robot sense net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  18. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  19. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  20. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  1. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  2. Moving-bed sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  3. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  4. Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  5. On the structure of turbulent gravel bed flow: Implications for sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Seyed Hossein; Righetti, Maurizio; Wharton, Geraldene; Romano, Giovanni Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the turbulent flow field over gravel particles as a first step towards understanding sediment transport in a gravel bed river. Specifically, the vertical momentum flux in gravel bed turbulent flow was investigated with particular attention to the near-bed region. Spatial organization of vertical momentum flux was studied with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a horizontal layer 1mm above the gravel crests. The vertical momentum flux through the water column was described with digital PIV measurements in three vertical planes. The data showed that near the gravel bed, net turbulent momentum flux spatially varies with respect to bed topography. Analysis of the vertical velocity data revealed that near the gravel particle crests, there is a significant net vertical form-induced momentum flux approximately with the same order of magnitude as the net vertical turbulent momentum flux. Above the crests, total net vertical momentum flux is positive. However, below the crests, despite noticeable positive form-induced momentum flux, total net vertical momentum flux is negative. Results of quadrant analysis show that variation of turbulent net vertical momentum flux through water column is in agreement with prevalence of upward movement of low velocity flow (known as ejection) above gravel crests and downward movement of high velocity flow (known as sweep) below gravel crests. Below gravel crests (- 0.1 particles but their contribution is not sufficient to move fine particles in the longitudinal direction.

  6. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass.

  7. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw...... of the production and use of biomass for different outputs based on demand. Finally, we conduct sensitivity analysis for expected technological improvements and factors that could increase the energy performance....

  8. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  9. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  10. Self-organizing nets for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2004-05-01

    Given some optimization problem and a series of typically expensive trials of solution candidates sampled from a search space, how can we efficiently select the next candidate? We address this fundamental problem by embedding simple optimization strategies in learning algorithms inspired by Kohonen's self-organizing maps and neural gas networks. Our adaptive nets or grids are used to identify and exploit search space regions that maximize the probability of generating points closer to the optima. Net nodes are attracted by candidates that lead to improved evaluations, thus, quickly biasing the active data selection process toward promising regions, without loss of ability to escape from local optima. On standard benchmark functions, our techniques perform more reliably than the widely used covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. The proposed algorithm is also applied to the problem of drag reduction in a flow past an actively controlled circular cylinder, leading to unprecedented drag reduction.

  11. Evaluation of bioefficacy of毩-cypermethrin in long lasting impregnated net (Interceptor®) using analytical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Mamivandpoor Hossein; Shayeghi Mansoreh; Abai Mohammad Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Raeisi Ahmad; Abtahi Mohammad; Rafie Fatemeh; Nikpour Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate relationship betweenα-cypermethrin residues in Interceptor® nets by using HPTLC methods and mortality percentage in standardWHO's method "cone test" after repeated washings.Methods: Interceptor® containing 毩-cypermethrin was provided byBASF Company. The washing procedure and bioassay tests were carried out according to theWHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, An. stephensi was exposed to impregnated bed net for three minutes and then mortality measured after24 hour recovery period. Chemical analysis was carried out in chemical laboratory by using high performance thin layer chromatography method.Results:Result of cone bioassay method showed that washing reduced the efficacy of Interceptor® bed net from100% in unwashed nets to15% at20 washes. After 20 washes, nets contain (61.2±2.8)mg/m2resulting15%mortality in cone test. Killing activity was reduced when nets were washed.Conclusions:Results will provide an essential clue for monitoring and evaluation of bioefficacy of any long lasting impregnated bed net for quality control. Findings of this study will be useful forWHO, local investigators and people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for malaria vector control.

  12. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary.......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...

  13. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...... been trend-setting for collective bargaining in all three countries, but with very different effects on working time. Organized decentralization seems to pave the way for fewer straitjackets, whereas the opposite seems to be the case with regard to disorganized decentralization....

  14. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  15. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to their work can be found in the individual papers and in the available bibliographies of Petri nets, e.g., Stefan Dress et. al: Bibliography of Petri Nets. In: G. Rozenberg (ed.): Advances in Petri Nets 1987, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 266, Springer-Verlag 1987, 309-451. Updated versions...... of this bibliography will appear in Advances of Petri Nets with regular intervals. In the preparation of the book the editors have been assisted by an advisory board consisting of the following well-known Petri net researchers: M. Ajmone-Marsan, H.J. Genrich, C. Girault, W. Reisig, M. Silva and P.S. Thiagarajan...

  16. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  17. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  18. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  19. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  20. Which family members use the best nets? An analysis of the condition of mosquito nets and their distribution within households in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Angela; Lines, Jo; Hanson, Kara

    2010-07-22

    Household ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) is increasing, and coverage targets have been revised to address universal coverage with ITNs. However, many households do not have enough nets to cover everyone, and the nets available vary in physical condition and insecticide treatment status. Since 2004, the Government of Tanzania has been implementing the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), which distributes vouchers for ITNs through antenatal clinics to target pregnant women and their infants. This analysis aimed to determine the following: (1) coverage patterns of bed nets within households according to physical condition and treatment status; (2) who might be at risk if mosquitoes were diverted from occupants of untreated nets to those not using nets? (3) the degree to which those at highest risk of malaria use the most protective nets. Data from the 2006 TNVS household survey were analysed to assess within-household distribution of net use. The associations between net characteristics and net user were also evaluated. Multivariate analysis was applied to the relationship between the number of holes per net and user characteristics while adjusting for confounders. In households with a net:person ratio better than 1:4 (one net for every four household members), more than 80% of the people in such households reported using a net the previous night. ITNs were most likely to be used by infants, young children (1-4 y), and women of childbearing age; they were least likely to be used by older women (>or=50 y), older children (5-14 y), and adult men. The nets used by infants and women of childbearing age were in better-than-average physical condition; the nets used by older women and older children were in worse-than-average condition; while young children and adult men used nets in intermediate (average) condition. When adjusted for confounders, the nets used by young and older children had more holes than nets used by infants. Infants and other

  1. Which family members use the best nets? An analysis of the condition of mosquito nets and their distribution within households in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lines Jo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs is increasing, and coverage targets have been revised to address universal coverage with ITNs. However, many households do not have enough nets to cover everyone, and the nets available vary in physical condition and insecticide treatment status. Since 2004, the Government of Tanzania has been implementing the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, which distributes vouchers for ITNs through antenatal clinics to target pregnant women and their infants. This analysis aimed to determine the following: (1 coverage patterns of bed nets within households according to physical condition and treatment status; (2 who might be at risk if mosquitoes were diverted from occupants of untreated nets to those not using nets? (3 the degree to which those at highest risk of malaria use the most protective nets. Methods Data from the 2006 TNVS household survey were analysed to assess within-household distribution of net use. The associations between net characteristics and net user were also evaluated. Multivariate analysis was applied to the relationship between the number of holes per net and user characteristics while adjusting for confounders. Results In households with a net:person ratio better than 1:4 (one net for every four household members, more than 80% of the people in such households reported using a net the previous night. ITNs were most likely to be used by infants, young children (1-4 y, and women of childbearing age; they were least likely to be used by older women (≥50 y, older children (5-14 y, and adult men. The nets used by infants and women of childbearing age were in better-than-average physical condition; the nets used by older women and older children were in worse-than-average condition; while young children and adult men used nets in intermediate (average condition. When adjusted for confounders, the nets used by young and older children had more holes

  2. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  3. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  4. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  5. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  6. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  7. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  8. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... taxonomies (‘Folksonomy’) and ‘Weblogs’. Also, platforms, programming and software are today very often created in open communities – as seen in the ‘Free/Open Source’ movement. On the other side, following the technological development, the network also has become essential in the art sphere. Artists focus...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...

  9. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  10. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  11. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  12. Bioassay evaluation on the efficacy of α-cypermethrin impregnated into long lasting insecticide treated nets using Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Mamivand Poor Hossein; Shayeghi Mansoreh; Abai Mohamad Reza; Raeisi Ahmad; Nikpoor Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bioefficacy of α-cypermethrin impregnated into long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs- INTERCEPTOR®) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The effectiveness of bed net impregnated withα-cypermethrin (INTERCEPTOR®) with washing was evaluated. The washing procedure and bioassay tests were carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, An. stephensi was exposed to impregnated bed net for three minutes and then mortality measured after 24 h recovery period. Knockdown was also measured according to the logarithmic times. Results:Result of cone bioassay method showed that bioefficacy ofα-cypermethrin decreased from 100%in unwashed to 15%in 20 washes. KT50 was measure as one minute in one wash and increased to 40 min in 20 washes. Discussion: Findings of this study provide guideline for malaria vector control authorities and people using pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets.

  13. Study on Guidance Law of UAV Net Recovery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; ZHAO Shao-song; WANG Yong-sheng; ZHANG Yu-zhuo

    2007-01-01

    The design and realization of a net recovery system is introduced, which can recover UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) reliably and safely. The mathematical model is built, and the horizontal and vertical guidance law is studied based on the aerodynamic parameters and actual flying trial data of a certain UAV. The simulation result shows that this system can realize the recovery safely, stably and accurately.

  14. Seasonal variations in selectivity of plaice trammel nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The size selectivity of plaice trammel nets was measured in an experiment using catch at length data from six different mesh sizes. Three trials at different times of the year were conducted on a traditional Danish gill-netter giving a total catch of 17,163 plaice-one of the largest European gill...

  15. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  16. ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaretta, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is for .NET developers who already have experiencedeveloping web applications with ASP.NET MVC and want to learn thenew features introduced in the new release of ASP.NET MVC. ASP.NETMVC 2 has been built with the goal to increase productivity andmake ASP.NET MVC ready for enterprise development. This Wrox Bloxguides the reader through the new features by explaining how to usedata scaffolding and automatic validation, how to write customvalidators, how to create multi-area projects, and how and when touse async controllers. It also covers the new automatic HTMLEncoding feature int

  17. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  18. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...transformation-scale models (i.e. models which treat the physics of waves propagating from offshore areas into the coastline). Each phase is further divided...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  19. Efficacy of the Olyset Duo net against insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Todjinou, Damien; Odjo, Abibath; Malone, David; Ismail, Hanafy; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2016-09-14

    Olyset Duo is a new long-lasting insecticidal net treated with permethrin (a pyrethroid) and pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator that disrupts the maturation of oocytes in mosquitoes exposed to the net. We tested the Olyset Duo net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which transmit malaria parasites, in laboratory bioassays and in a trial in Benin using experimental huts that closely resemble local habitations. Host-seeking mosquitoes that entered to feed were free to contact the occupied nets and were collected the next morning from exit traps. Surviving blood-fed mosquitoes were observed for effects on reproduction. Control nets were treated with pyrethroid only or pyriproxyfen only, and nets were tested unwashed and after 20 standardized washes. The Olyset Duo net showed improved efficacy and wash resistance relative to the pyrethroid-treated net in terms of mosquito mortality and prevention of blood feeding. The production of offspring among surviving blood-fed A. gambiae in the hut trial was reduced by the pyriproxyfen-treated net and the Olyset Duo net both before washing (90 and 71% reduction, respectively) and after washing (38 and 43% reduction, respectively). The degree of reproductive suppression in the hut trial was predicted by laboratory tunnel tests but not by cone bioassays. The overall reduction in reproductive rate of A. gambiae with the Olyset Duo net in the trial was 94% with no washing and 78% after 20 washes. The Olyset Duo net has the potential to provide community control of mosquito populations and reduce malaria transmission in areas of high insecticide resistance.

  20. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  1. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  2. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  3. Celebrating 40 years anaerobic sludge bed reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Zee, F.P.; Frijters, C.T.M.J.; Ersahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology evolved from localized lab-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations at a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small foot print and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best perf

  4. Efficacy of commercially available ultrasonic pest repellent devices to affect behavior of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yturralde, K M; Hofstetter, R W

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the potential for acoustic communication in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), or the use of sound as cues in host location, although many hemipterans are known to communicate with sound. Most behavioral research has focused on bed bug pheromones that are used in aggregation and as alarm signals. We investigated the influence of sound as a deterrent and as an attractant, either of which could ultimately be used to monitor and control bed bugs. Female bed bugs were tested in two-choice tests with four different commercially available ultrasonic repellent devices. We found that female bed bugs were equally likely to occur in arenas with or without sound produced by ultrasonic devices. These devices did not repel or attract bed bugs during choice trials. However, more bed bugs preferred the middle corridor between the test (sound) and control (no sound) arenas when the sound devices were played. Bed bugs were also more likely to exit the middle corridor during control trials compared with treatment trials with ultrasonic devices. Our results confirm that commercial devices producing ultrasound are not a promising tool for repelling bed bugs.

  5. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, W.; Ingen, J. van; Andrejak, C.; Angeby, K.; Bauriaud, R.; Bemer, P.; Beylis, N.; Boeree, M.J.; Cacho, J.; Chihota, V.; Chimara, E.; Churchyard, G.; Cias, R.; Daza, R.; Daley, C.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Domingo, D.; Drobniewski, F.; Esteban, J. De; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Folkvardsen, D.B.; Gibbons, N.; Gomez-Mampaso, E.; Gonzalez, R.; Hoffmann, H.; Hsueh, P.R.; Indra, A.; Jagielski, T.; Jamieson, F.; Jankovic, M.; Jong, Eefje de; Keane, J.; Koh, W.J.; Lange, B. de; Leao, S.; Macedo, R.; Mannsaker, T.; Marras, T.K.; Maugein, J.; Milburn, H.J.; Mlinko, T.; Morcillo, N.; Morimoto, K.; Papaventsis, D.; Palenque, E.; Paez-Pena, M.; Piersimoni, C.; Polanova, M.; Rastogi, N.; Richter, E.; Ruiz-Serrano, M.J.; Silva, A.; Silva, M.P. da; Simsek, H.; Soolingen, D. van; Szabo, N.; Thomson, R.; Fernandez, T. Tortola; Tortoli, E.; Totten, S.E.; Tyrrell, G.; Vasankari, T.; Villar, M.; Walkiewicz, R.; Winthrop, K.L.; Wagner, D.; Trials, G. Nontuberculous

    2013-01-01

    A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the Tubercu

  6. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, W.; Ingen, J. van; Andrejak, C.; Angeby, K.; Bauriaud, R.; Bemer, P.; Beylis, N.; Boeree, M.J.; Cacho, J.; Chihota, V.; Chimara, E.; Churchyard, G.; Cias, R.; Daza, R.; Daley, C.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Domingo, D.; Drobniewski, F.; Esteban, J. De; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Folkvardsen, D.B.; Gibbons, N.; Gomez-Mampaso, E.; Gonzalez, R.; Hoffmann, H.; Hsueh, P.R.; Indra, A.; Jagielski, T.; Jamieson, F.; Jankovic, M.; Jong, Eefje de; Keane, J.; Koh, W.J.; Lange, B. de; Leao, S.; Macedo, R.; Mannsaker, T.; Marras, T.K.; Maugein, J.; Milburn, H.J.; Mlinko, T.; Morcillo, N.; Morimoto, K.; Papaventsis, D.; Palenque, E.; Paez-Pena, M.; Piersimoni, C.; Polanova, M.; Rastogi, N.; Richter, E.; Ruiz-Serrano, M.J.; Silva, A.; Silva, M.P. da; Simsek, H.; Soolingen, D. van; Szabo, N.; Thomson, R.; Fernandez, T. Tortola; Tortoli, E.; Totten, S.E.; Tyrrell, G.; Vasankari, T.; Villar, M.; Walkiewicz, R.; Winthrop, K.L.; Wagner, D.; Trials, G. Nontuberculous

    2013-01-01

    A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the

  7. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The Net4Care platform provides the ability to quickly create quality tele-health applications interfacing with HL7 and IHE/XDS. Net4Care features a modular server- and client-side based on OSGi and aims at providing support for a telemedicine software ecosystem. A typical deployment scenario is a...

  8. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  9. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  10. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  11. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses. RESULTS: A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar

  12. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Muela Ribera, Joan; Soto, Veronica; Tenorio, Alex; Hoibak, Sarah; Aguirre, Angel Rosas; Toomer, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos Cuentas, Alejandro; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Background While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. Methods The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). Results A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001). Conclusion Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent

  13. Mosquito Nets Treated with a Mixture of Chlorfenapyr and Alphacypermethrin Control Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in West Africa: e87710

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corine Ngufor; Andreas A Kudom; Pelagie Boko; Abibathou Odjo; David Malone; Mark Rowland

    2014-01-01

    .... Methods The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid...

  14. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  17. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  18. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  20. Isopachs of net coal thickness, Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, NM and CO (sjbthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This as a shapefile and coverage showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than 1.2' thick for the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New...

  1. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under pr

  2. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  3. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, W.M.; Ribberink, J.S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under pr

  4. Net coal thickness in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1 ft thick for the Cameo/Fairfield coal...

  5. Wealth, mother's education and physical access as determinants of retail sector net use in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurovac Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN provide real hope for the reduction of the malaria burden across Africa. Understanding factors that determine access to ITN is crucial to debates surrounding the optimal delivery systems. The influence of homestead wealth on use of nets purchased from the retail sector is well documented, however, the competing influence of mother's education and physical access to net providers is less well understood. Methods Between December 2004 and January 2005, a random sample of 72 rural communities was selected across four Kenyan districts. Demographic, assets, education and net use data were collected at homestead, mother and child (aged Results Homestead heads and guardians of 3,755 children Conclusion Approaches to promoting access to nets through the retail sector disadvantage poor and remote communities where mothers are less well educated.

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  8. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  9. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  10. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  11. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  12. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  13. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  14. Do Size and Insecticide Treatment Matter? Evaluation of Different Nets against Phlebotomus argentipes, the Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari Lal Das

    Full Text Available In the Indian subcontinent, Leishmania donovani, the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL is transmitted by the sand fly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LN have been postulated as alternative or complement to Indoor Residual Spraying but there are few field studies evaluating the entomological efficacy of different nets against this vector. We conducted two crossover trials in a VL endemic area in Nepal to compare the barrier effect of (1 LN with different mesh sizes (156 holes/inch2 vs 625 holes/inch2 and (2 alpha-cypermethrin treated LN and untreated nets having the same mesh size (156 holes/inch2. Each crossover trial had two arms consisting of a sequence of two different nets for 8 nights. We used 10 cattle sheds per trial. A cow placed under the net was used as bait. CDC light traps placed inside the nets were used to evaluate the number of P. argentipes crossing the net barrier. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE population-averaged models adjusted by night and sequence were used to estimate the barrier effect of the different nets. The crossover trials conducted in a rural village in Morang district (South-eastern Nepal demonstrated that reducing the size of the holes in treated nets (625 holes/inch2 increased the barrier effect of LN by 77% (95% confidence interval (CI: 56%-88% compared with treated nets with larger holes (156 holes/inch2. Treating nets with alpha-cypermethrin reduced the number of P. argentipes captured inside the nets by 77% (95% CI: 27%-93% compared with untreated nets. The effectiveness and acceptability of finer mesh pyrethroid treated LN should be tested for VL prevention in a randomized controlled trial.

  15. Do Size and Insecticide Treatment Matter? Evaluation of Different Nets against Phlebotomus argentipes, the Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Murari Lal; Rowland, Mark; Austin, James W.; De Lazzari, Elisa; Picado, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian subcontinent, Leishmania donovani, the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by the sand fly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LN) have been postulated as alternative or complement to Indoor Residual Spraying but there are few field studies evaluating the entomological efficacy of different nets against this vector. We conducted two crossover trials in a VL endemic area in Nepal to compare the barrier effect of (1) LN with different mesh sizes (156 holes/inch2 vs 625 holes/inch2) and (2) alpha-cypermethrin treated LN and untreated nets having the same mesh size (156 holes/inch2). Each crossover trial had two arms consisting of a sequence of two different nets for 8 nights. We used 10 cattle sheds per trial. A cow placed under the net was used as bait. CDC light traps placed inside the nets were used to evaluate the number of P. argentipes crossing the net barrier. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) population-averaged models adjusted by night and sequence were used to estimate the barrier effect of the different nets. The crossover trials conducted in a rural village in Morang district (South-eastern Nepal) demonstrated that reducing the size of the holes in treated nets (625 holes/inch2) increased the barrier effect of LN by 77% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56%–88%) compared with treated nets with larger holes (156 holes/inch2). Treating nets with alpha-cypermethrin reduced the number of P. argentipes captured inside the nets by 77% (95% CI: 27%–93%) compared with untreated nets. The effectiveness and acceptability of finer mesh pyrethroid treated LN should be tested for VL prevention in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:25494099

  16. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  17. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding;

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... performance improvement, such as measures derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve, the net benefit function, and the Brier score, cannot be large due to poorly fitting risk functions....

  18. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well.......This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  19. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  20. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  1. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  2. The use of mosquito nets and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in rural South Central Somalia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been resurgent efforts in Africa to estimate the public health impact of malaria control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs following substantial investments in scaling-up coverage in the last five years. Little is known, however, on the effectiveness of ITN in areas of Africa that support low transmission. This hinders the accurate estimation of impact of ITN use on disease burden and its cost-effectiveness in low transmission settings. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, four cross-sectional studies were undertaken between March-June 2007 across three livelihood groups in an area of low intensity malaria transmission in South Central Somalia. Information on bed net use; age; and sex of all participants were recorded. A finger prick blood sample was taken from participants to examine for parasitaemia. Mantel-Haenzel methods were used to measure the effect of net use on parasitaemia adjusting for livelihood; age; and sex. A total of 10,587 individuals of all ages were seen of which 10,359 provided full information. Overall net use and parasite prevalence were 12.4% and 15.7% respectively. Age-specific protective effectiveness (PE of bed net ranged from 39% among <5 years to 72% among 5-14 years old. Overall PE of bed nets was 54% (95% confidence interval 44%-63% after adjusting for livelihood; sex; and age. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bed nets confer high protection against parasite infection in South Central Somalia. In such areas where baseline transmission is low, however, the absolute reductions in parasitaemia due to wide-scale net use will be relatively small raising questions on the cost-effectiveness of covering millions of people living in such settings in Africa with nets. Further understanding of the progress of disease upon infection against the cost of averting its consequent burden in low transmission areas of Africa is therefore required.

  3. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  4. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  5. [From the national competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) emerged the German Liver Foundation (Deutsche Leberstiftung)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardtke, S; Wiebner, B; Manns, M P

    2016-04-01

    The competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) was founded in 2002 with funding from the German government and has influenced the research on viral hepatitis in Germany. HepNet collaborator sites have been involved in numerous national and international investigator-initiated, as well as industry-sponsored, phase 1-3 studies. Within the HepNet Study-House, many groundbreaking investor-initiated trials have been completed and are still ongoing. For example, the acute hepatitis C trials and trials on chronic hepatitis D (delta), which led to therapy optimization. Continuation of the competence network on viral hepatitis has been achieved by the foundation of the German Liver Foundation, which has been an external cooperation partner of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) for two years. The well-established HepNet Study-House acts here as the clinical trial platform for all DZIF hepatitis trials.

  6. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  7. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  8. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  11. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  12. Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.

  13. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  14. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  15. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  16. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  17. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    which can be processed using land-based composting, in-vessel composting systems , digesters , and dehydrators. Challenges with composting post...source reduction. Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) – EMSs can track and measure the installation’s progress in reducing waste sources and...cannot be used anymore, then donated to be repurposed (e.g., rags, bedding for veterinary clinics and animal shelters). Drain Plastic Bottles before

  18. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  19. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  20. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  1. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  2. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  3. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  4. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    narcissistic ―me‖ generation to a perceived lack of respect for authority. The Net Generation displays high self-esteem and confidence but appear much more...by our adversaries, especially by terrorist organizations that continually look for vulnerabilities to exploit. Location- based social networking

  5. Durability associated efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets after five years of household use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been strongly advocated for use to prevent malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and have significantly reduced human-vector contact. PermaNet® 2.0 is among the five LLINs brands which have been given full approval by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES. The LLINs are expected to protect the malaria endemic communities, but a number of factors within the community can affect their durability and efficacy. This study evaluated the durability, efficacy and retention of PermaNet® 2.0 after five years of use in a Tanzanian community. Method Two to three day- old non blood-fed female mosquitoes from an insectary susceptible colony (An. gambiae s.s, this colony was established at TPRI from Kisumu, Kenya in 1992 and wild mosquito populations (An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus were used in cone bioassay tests to assess the efficacy of mosquito nets. Findings The knockdown effect was recorded after three minutes of exposure, and mortality was recorded after 24 hours post-exposure. Mortality of An. gambiae s.s from insectary colony was 100% while An. arabiensis and Cx.quinquefasciatus wild populations had reduced mortality. Insecticide content of the new (the bed net of the same brand but never used before and used PermaNet® 2.0 was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that, in order to achieve maximum protection against malaria, public health education focusing on bed net use and maintenance should be incorporated into the mass distribution of nets in communities.

  6. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  7. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  8. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  9. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-04-15

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  10. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  11. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  12. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  13. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  14. Bed bugs in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Safdar, Nasia; Beier, John C; Doggett, Stephen L

    2012-11-01

    Infestations caused by bed bugs have resurfaced during the past decade across all continents. Even though bed bugs primarily cause skin manifestations in humans, a major stigma is placed upon people or institutions found to carry them. It is important for healthcare facilities to be prepared for this pest by implementing policies, carefully selecting materials used for hospital furniture, and educating providers on early identification and control.

  15. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  16. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions—(1) Years to which loss may be carried—(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of Interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide net coated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin, against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koama Bayili; Severin Ndo; Moussa Namountougou; Roger Sanou; Abdoulaye Ouattara; Roch K Dabire; Anicet G Ouedraogo; David Malone; Abdoulaye Diabate

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present WHOPES phase II analogue study, the utility of chlorfenapyr, a pyrrole class insecticide mixed with alpha-cypermethrin on a long-lasting mosquito bed net was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l...

  18. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  19. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  20. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    reclaim system does not enable Fort Carson to achieve its net zero water goal, which is to reclaim water through the WWTP equal to or greater than the...Class A Recycled Water Plant WWTP rapid infiltration basin #1 (of 4) 426,000 gal water supply storage reservoir Primary Lagoon for WWTP 6 7...cost of water = Longer time to payback  Double charged for incoming and outgoing  Army owned WWTP – true cost of water = water/sewer rates It

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Integrated Net Zero Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Program Office (Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations and Environment) 5850 21st Street, Building 211, Second Floor Fort...of energy, water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A...water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A Net Zero

  2. Process expression of bounded Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲辉

    1996-01-01

    The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.

  3. Effects of head-down bed rest on complex heart rate variability: Response to LBNP testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Rigney, David R.; Wood, Margie L.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1994-01-01

    Head-down bed rest is used to model physiological changes during spaceflight. We postulated that bed rest would decrease the degree of complex physiological heart rate variability. We analyzed continuous heart rate data from digitized Holter recordings in eight healthy female volunteers (age 28-34 yr) who underwent a 13-day 6 deg head-down bed rest study with serial lower body negative pressure (LBNP) trials. Heart rate variability was measured on a 4-min data sets using conventional time and frequency domain measures as well as with a new measure of signal 'complexity' (approximate entropy). Data were obtained pre-bed rest (control), during bed rest (day 4 and day 9 or 11), and 2 days post-bed rest (recovery). Tolerance to LBNP was significantly reduced on both bed rest days vs. pre-bed rest. Heart rate variability was assessed at peak LBNP. Heart rate approximate entropy was significantly decreased at day 4 and day 9 or 11, returning toward normal during recovery. Heart rate standard deviation and the ratio of high- to low-power frequency did not change significantly. We conclude that short-term bed rest is associated with a decrease in the complex variability of heart rate during LBNP testing in healthy young adult women. Measurement of heart rate complexity, using a method derived from nonlinear dynamics ('chaos theory'), may provide a sensitive marker of this loss of physiological variability, complementing conventional time and frequency domain statistical measures.

  4. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  5. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  6. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  7. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    , etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  8. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple......ClinicalDocument object. This software component is adopted by several Danish companies as PHMR engine for telemedical applications, and is used in the process of writing the Danish PHMR standard....

  9. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  10. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  11. Comparison of multiple steam treatment durations for control of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Robert T; McDonald, Danny L; Gold, Roger E

    2013-09-01

    The factors contributing to the current resurgence of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. populations across the United States and elsewhere include, among others, the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and population management practices. This has led to the development and attempted refinement of many non-chemical control methods that contribute to an IPM approach to solving the current bed bug population density increase in urban dwellings. One such approach is the use of heat in the form of steam to provide an effective mechanism for controlling localized infestations of bed bugs. The work reported herein was designed to refine our understanding of the duration of bed bug/steam contact necessary to affect mortality of bed bugs in laboratory trials. Beg bug eggs, nymphs and adults were exposed to three steam treatment exposure periods in these trials. Mean percentage mortality of bed bug eggs was 100% (regardless of duration of exposure), and that of nymphs and adults ranged from 88.0 to 94.0%. Survivorship of nymphs and adults in the trials was the result of experimental protocol restrictions that would not usually be associated with actual pest management efforts. The treatment equipment used in these trials is portable and relatively inexpensive and represents a non-chemical means of killing all life stages of bed bugs. While this method would likely be seen as an inefficient means of remediating a mature bed bug infestation within a structure, it does represent a practical component of integrated management of this pest insect. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Net sustainable buildings: Approaching future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2012-11-01

    For a net sustainable building (NSB), the paper develops its definition, and gives its characteristics. The NSB should provide the maximum thermal comfort were its energy consumption is totally covered by energy of renewable origin during its life cycle. The covered energy consumption should be operational and embodied. The used renewable energy may be that of sun and of anergy. The building may be furthermore evaluated regarding its status with regard to the mismatch, primary energy, emergy, exergy, fossil energy, carbon and dissemination.

  13. 1990 Joint Military Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Office of Net Assessment 6 Deputy Director for Theater Assessments and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis ...countermeasures electronic countermeasures European Economic Community electronic warfare -F- FOFA FY follow-on-forces attack fiscal year -G... analysis of current and projected capabilities of US forces, assisted by allies where appropriate, to deter war and, if deterrence fails, to terminate the

  14. Head-of-bed elevation in critically ill patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, Norma A; Frantz, Rita A

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are confused by conflicting guidelines about the use of head-of-bed elevation to prevent aspiration and pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. Research-based information in support of guidelines for head-of-bed elevation to prevent either condition is limited. However, positioning of the head of the bed has been studied more extensively for the prevention of aspiration than for the prevention of pressure ulcers, especially in critically ill patients. More research on pressure ulcers has been conducted in healthy persons or residents of nursing homes than in critically ill patients. Thus, the optimal elevation for the head of the bed to balance the risks for aspiration and pressure ulcers in critically ill patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation and tube feedings is unknown. Currently available information provides some indications of how to position patients; however, randomized controlled trials where both outcomes are evaluated simultaneously at various head-of-bed positions are needed.

  15. Isopachs of total net coal in A-D coal zones, Yampa Coal Field (yam*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick for the A, B, C, and D coal...

  16. Residual Mosquito Barrier Treatments on U.S. Military Camouflage Netting in a Southern California Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    inte- rior and exterior residual sprays on structures and treated bed nets have their own rich history and may be considered a bar- rier treatment...cühimanus\\ laboratory and field-evaluation in the Dominican Republic. Mcd Vet Entomol 1993:7:36.3-8. 12. Huehne WH: Barrier spraying at Kelantan side of Thai

  17. Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current Technology/ Manufacturing Readiness Levels (TRL/MRL 3-4) to the point where they are viable candidates (TRL/ MRL-6) for shortening the time and cost for insertion of new aluminum alloys and revolutionary manufacturing methods into the development/improvement of space structures. Conventional cyrotank manufacturing processes require fabrication of multiple pieces welded together to form a complete tank. A variety of near net shape manufacturing processes has demonstrated excellent potential for enabling single-piece construction of components such as domes, barrels, and ring frames. Utilization of such processes can dramatically reduce the extent of welding and joining needed to construct cryogenic tanks and other aerospace structures. The specific focus of this project is to successfully mature the integrally stiffened cylinder (ISC) process in which a single-piece cylinder with integral stiffeners is formed in one spin/flow forming process. Structural launch vehicle components, like cryogenic fuel tanks (e.g., space shuttle external tank), are currently fabricated via multipiece assembly of parts produced through subtractive manufacturing techniques. Stiffened structural panels are heavily machined from thick plate, which results in excessive scrap rates. Multipiece construction requires welds to assemble the structure, which increases the risk for defects and catastrophic failures.

  18. Reducing Respiratory Health Risks to Horses and Workers: A Comparison of Two Stall Bedding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stable air quality and the choice of bedding material are an important health issue both in horses and people working or visiting horse stables. Risks of impaired respiratory health are those that can especially be avoided by improving air quality in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions; where horses are kept most of the day and year indoors throughout their life. This study examined the effect of two bedding materials; wood shavings and peat; on stable air quality and health of horses. Ammonia and dust levels were also measured to assess conditions in the stable. Ammonia was not detected or was at very low levels (<0.25 ppm in the boxes in which peat was used as bedding; but its concentration was clearly higher (1.5–7.0 ppm in stalls with wood shavings as bedding. Personal measurements of workers revealed quite high ammonia exposure (5.9 ppm8h in the boxes in which wood shavings were used; but no exposure was Animals 2015, 5 966 observed in stalls bedded with peat. The respiratory symptoms in horses increased regardless of the bedding material at the beginning of the study. The health status of the horses in the peat bedding group returned to the initial level in the end of the trial but horses bedded with wood shavings continued to be symptomatic. The hooves of the horses with peat bedding had a better moisture content than those of the horses bedded with wood shavings. The results suggest that peat is a better bedding material for horses than wood shavings regarding the health of both horses and stable workers.

  19. Tritium recovery from helium purge stream of solid breeder blanket by cryogenic molecular sieve bed. 2. Regeneration operation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Regeneration operation is a very important operation, because it is the most influential factor for deciding the net operation cycle time and the minimum dimension of Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB). However, the experimental data of CMSB regeneration operation was not so sufficient that even the optimum regeneration procedure could not be decided yet. This work was focused on getting the primary information about various regeneration procedures. (author)

  20. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  1. Introduktion til udvikling af bayesianske net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Bogen introducerer på let og uformelt de centrale grundbegreber i bayesianske net og introducerer til en udviklingsmetode for software, som inkluderer bayesianske net. Metoden kaldes BNAD og inkluderer aktiviteterne preprojekt, kvalitativ modellering, kvantitativ modellering samt...

  2. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  3. RadNet Databases and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet data are available for viewing in a searchable database or as PDF reports. Historical and current RadNet monitoring data are used to estimate long-term trends in environmental radiation levels.

  4. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  5. Repellent effect of alphacypermethrin-treated netting against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Kamal, A; Gogo, E; Saidi, M; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2014-04-01

    For > 20 yr, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius persists as a begomovirus vector and is a serious problem in tomato production in many parts of the world. In tropical countries, the use of netting to protect horticultural crops has proven to be an effective and sustainable tool against Lepidoptera but not against small insects. This study evaluated the repellent effect of AgroNet 0.9T, a 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size netting treated with alphacypermethrin insecticide against B. tabaci. This pyrethroid insecticide is known to have toxic and repellent effects against mosquitoes and has been used for treatment of mosquito nets. Two nontreated netting materials were used as control: AgroNet 0.9NT with 0.9-mm pore diameter and 40-mesh size and AgroNet 0.4NT with 0.4-mm pore diameter and 80-mesh size. The behavior of B. tabaci and its parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan as they progressed through the treated netting was studied in the laboratory in choice and no-choice tests. The development of wild B. tabaci population on tomato plants protected by the same nets was followed in two field trials implemented in Njoro, Kenya. Results obtained with the no-choice tests showed a significant reduction of movement on the treated net with 40-mesh (19%) compared with nontreated netting (35 and 46% with 80- and 40-mesh, respectively). The mortality of B. tabaci was significantly higher (two-fold) in the test tube containing only the treated netting compared with the nontreated one. The repellent effect of the treated netting was also demonstrated against E. formosa, but it did not have this toxic effect. Unlike for B. tabaci, the treated and nontreated nets appeared to have a similar repellent effect on E. formosa in the choice test, which suggests a learning behavior of the parasitoid. In both field tests, B. tabaci population was significantly lower on tomato protected by the treated net compared with the same nontreated net. However there was no significant difference in B. tabaci

  6. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  7. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if...

  9. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  10. No such thing as the Net Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. H.M.M. van Vliet

    2009-01-01

    The propagandization of a Net Generation adds nothing to our understanding of the digital behaviour of young people. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the whole concept of a Net Generation rests on incorrect assumptions. Hence, arguments based on a Net Generation are not only irreleva

  11. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  12. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Keeffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  13. Disproportional changes in hematocrit, plasma volume, and proteins during exercise and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L.

    1972-01-01

    The interrelationships between the changes in plasma volume, hematocrit, and plasma proteins during muscular exercise and bed rest were investigated. Proportionally, the changes in hematocrit are always smaller than the changes in plasma volume. For this reason changes in the concentration of blood constituents can only be quantitated on the basis of plasma volume changes. During short periods of intensive exercise, there was a small loss of plasma proteins. With prolonged submaximal exercise there was a net gain in plasma protein, which contributes to stabilization of the vascular volume. Prolonged bed rest induced hypoproteinemia; this loss of plasma protein probably plays an important role in recumbency hypovolemia.

  14. Field efficacy of a new mosaic long-lasting mosquito net (PermaNet® 3.0 against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors: a multi centre study in Western and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigeon Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the spread of pyrethroid-resistance in malaria vectors in Africa, new strategies and tools are urgently needed to better control malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a new mosaic long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN, i.e. PermaNet® 3.0, against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in West and Central Africa. Methods A multi centre experimental hut trial was conducted in Malanville (Benin, Vallée du Kou (Burkina Faso and Pitoa (Cameroon to investigate the exophily, blood feeding inhibition and mortality induced by PermaNet® 3.0 (i.e. a mosaic net containing piperonyl butoxide and deltamethrin on the roof comparatively to the WHO recommended PermaNet® 2.0 (unwashed and washed 20-times and a conventionally deltamethrin-treated net (CTN. Results The personal protection and insecticidal activity of PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 were excellent (>80% in the "pyrethroid-tolerant" area of Malanville. In the pyrethroid-resistance areas of Pitoa (metabolic resistance and Vallée du Kou (presence of the L1014F kdr mutation, PermaNet® 3.0 showed equal or better performances than PermaNet® 2.0. It should be noted however that the deltamethrin content on PermaNet® 3.0 was up to twice higher than that of PermaNet® 2.0. Significant reduction of efficacy of both LLIN was noted after 20 washes although PermaNet® 3.0 still fulfilled the WHO requirement for LLIN. Conclusion The use of combination nets for malaria control offers promising prospects. However, further investigations are needed to demonstrate the benefits of using PermaNet® 3.0 for the control of pyrethroid resistant mosquito populations in Africa.

  15. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  16. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...

  17. Mapping PUNITY to UniNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoFu(周国富); YUAN ChongYi(袁崇义)

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of the interleaving assumption and the single resource inPUNITY (Petri net and UNITY) and Petri net respectively, this paper proposes a set of mappingrules from PUNITY to UniNet. Based on these rules, problems of one field can be transformed toproblems of the other field and powerful tools of Petri net and UNITY can be used. The papergives a sketch of the mapping rules and applies the rules to an example. Meanwhile, the mappingrules can help computer to translate PUNITY to UniNet easily.

  18. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  19. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...... concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed...

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  1. Verifying Time Petri Nets by Linear Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宣东

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to solving some verification problems of time Petri nets using linear programming. The approach is based on the observation that for loop-closed time Petri nets, it is only necessary to investigate a finite prefix of an untimed run of the underlying Petri net. Using the technique the paper gives solutions to reachability and bounded delay timing analysis problems. For both problems algorithms are given, that are decision procedures for loop-closed time Petri nets, and semi-decision procedures for general time Petri nets.

  2. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) .... tool is being successfully implemented within the country. the goal of ... by the sub-county health management team before .... declining uptake could be attributed to supply chain.

  3. Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, N; Deeks, J; Sheldon, T A; Song, F; Fletcher, A W

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of pressure relieving beds, mattresses and cushions (support surfaces) in the prevention and treatment of pressure sores. Searches of 19 databases, hand searching of journals, conference proceedings, and bibliographies. Randomised controlled trials evaluating support surfaces for the prevention or treatment of pressure sores. There was no restriction on articles based on language or publication status. Data extraction and assessment of study quality was undertaken by two reviewers independently. Trials with similar patients, comparisons, and outcomes were pooled. Where pooling was inappropriate, trials are discussed in a narrative review. 29 RCTs of support surfaces for pressure sore prevention were identified. Some high specification foam mattresses were more effective than 'standard' hospital foam mattresses in moderate-high risk patients. Pressure relieving mattresses in the operating theatre reduced the incidence of pressure sores post-operatively. The relative merits of alternating and constant low pressure, and of the different alternating pressure devices are unclear. Seat cushions and simple, constant low-pressure devices have not been adequately evaluated. Limited evidence suggests that low air loss beds reduce the incidence of pressure sores in intensive care. 6 RCTs of support surfaces for pressure sore treatment were identified. There is good evidence that air-fluidised and low air loss beds improve healing rates. Seat cushions have not been adequately evaluated. 2 RCTs evaluated surfaces for both prevention and treatment in the same trial. PREVENTION - There is good evidence of the effectiveness of high specification foam over standard hospital foam, and pressure relief in the operating theatre. Treatment - There is good evidence of the effectiveness of air-fluidised and low air loss devices as treatments. Overall, however, it is impossible to determine the most effective surface for either prevention or treatment.

  4. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start w...

  5. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  6. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  7. Impact of different discharge patterns on bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhecheng

    2011-01-01

    Beds are one of the most important resources in a healthcare system. How to manage beds efficiently is an important indicator of the efficiency of the healthcare system. Bed management is challenging to many healthcare service providers in many aspects. In recent years, population growth and aging society impose extra pressure on bed requirement. There are usually two key performance indicators of a bed management system: bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time. In this paper, different discharge patterns and their impacts on the bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time are studied. A discrete event simulation model is constructed to evaluate the existing discharge pattern in a Singapore regional hospital using actual hospital admission and discharge transaction data. Then different discharge patterns are tested in the same context. Simulation results show that a proper discharge pattern significantly smoothes the fluctuation of bed occupancy rate and reduce the bed waiting time.

  8. Advances in the Treatment of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNETs)

    OpenAIRE

    Strosberg, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have led to significant advancements in treatment options for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Sunitinib and everolimus have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of progressive pancreatic NETs based on phase III trial data demonstrating improvements in progression-free survival. Cytotoxic drugs such as temozolomide and capecitabine have been associated with high radiographic response rates; however data derives primarily from ...

  9. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  10. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  11. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  12. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  13. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  14. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  15. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  16. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  17. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  18. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  19. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  20. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  1. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  2. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  3. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  4. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6070 - Bed board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed board. 880.6070 Section 880.6070 Food and... GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6070 Bed board. (a) Identification. A bed board is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  6. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  7. Delivering insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention: innovative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krezanoski PJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Krezanoski1–3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Medicine and Pedatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The wide-scale adoption of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs has led to significant reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide. Delivery of ITNs to the 3.2 billion people at risk of malaria requires multiple steps in diverse settings. The effectiveness of the delivery of ITNs in order to prevent malaria relies on activities that include ITN manufacturing and design, integration into national and international malaria prevention policies, supplying and distributing ITNs to households and individuals, and, finally, programs focused on spurring demand for and use of ITNs by individuals at risk. This paper reviews some recent innovative strategies for ITN delivery across these four domains, places these innovations within the context of the history of ITN deployment, and identifies opportunities to further improve the effectiveness of this ubiquitous public health tool. Keywords: malaria, insecticide-treated bed nets, prevention, access, ownership, use, policies

  8. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  9. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  10. Petri Nets for Biologically Motivated Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri nets are a general and well-established model of concurrent and distributed computation and behaviour, including that taking place in biological systems. In this survey paper, we are concerned with intrinsic relationships between Petri nets and two formal models inspired by aspects of the functioning of the living cell: membrane systems and reaction systems. In particular, we are interested in the benefits that can result from establishing strong semantical links between Petri nets and membrane systems and reaction systems. We first discuss Petri nets with localities reflecting the compartmentalisation modelled in membrane systems. Then special attention is given to set-nets, a new Petri net model for reaction systems and their qualitative approach to the investigation of the processes carried out by biochemical reactions taking place in the living cell.

  11. Effect of insecticide treated nets fence in protect- ing cattle against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was carried out to assess the effect of insecticide treated net in pro- tecting cattle ... Tsetse flies invade vast areas of the fertile and well rain-fed lowlands of south- western ..... Taylor, D.B., Moon, R.D., and Mark, D.R., 2012. Economic ...

  12. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Long-term and high resolution measurements of bed level changes in a temperate, microtidal coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Pejrup, Morten; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a long-term monitoring program of bed level changes measured during 8 yr at an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal, temperate coastal lagoon. Additionally, bed level measurements obtained at a 10-min temporal resolution at the same tidal flat and at the bed of a ...... are not seriously threatened by the expected sea level rise in the 21st century.......This study presents the results of a long-term monitoring program of bed level changes measured during 8 yr at an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal, temperate coastal lagoon. Additionally, bed level measurements obtained at a 10-min temporal resolution at the same tidal flat and at the bed...... of a nearby tidal channel are presented. Short-term changes in bed level are one or two orders of magnitude larger than the annual net-deposition rate, which shows that the environment is highly dynamic with respect to erosion, transport and deposition of fine-grained sediment. Some seasonality in the bed...

  14. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  15. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  16. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  17. Modeling of economic systems with Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Valeryevich Skorodumov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling is one of the most important tools to study complex systems. Components of both continuous and discrete nature are present in the behavior of contemporary economic systems. The article uses formalism of nested hybrid Petri nets as a tool to study complex economic systems. The author describes basic approaches of simulation modelling, concepts of classical Petri nets, modified means of nested hybrid Petri nets, benefits of their use for systems modeling. The article presents the concept of a universal system of simulation modeling. On the basis of considered approaches the article proposes to develop a universal system of simulation modeling on the basis of the modified machine Petri nets

  18. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  19. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  20. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  1. Discrete, Continuous, and Hybrid Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Petri Nets were introduced and still successfully used to analyze and model discrete event systems especially in engineering and computer sciences such as in automatic control. Recently this discrete Petri Nets formalism was successfully extended to continuous and hybrid systems. This monograph presents a well written and clearly organized introduction in the standard methods of Petri Nets with the aim to reach an accurate understanding of continuous and hybrid Petri Nets, while preserving the consistency of basic concepts throughout the book. The book is a monograph as well as a didactic tool

  2. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  3. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  4. Capability of Neutrophils to Form NETs Is Not Directly Influenced by a CMA-Targeting Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maueröder, Christian; Schall, Nicolas; Meyer, Frédéric; Mahajan, Aparna; Garnier, Benjamin; Hahn, Jonas; Kienhöfer, Deborah; Hoffmann, Markus H.; Muller, Sylviane

    2017-01-01

    During inflammatory reaction, neutrophils exhibit numerous cellular and immunological functions, notably the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and autophagy. NETs are composed of decondensed chromatin fibers coated with various antimicrobial molecules derived from neutrophil granules. NETs participate in antimicrobial defense and can also display detrimental roles and notably trigger some of the immune features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. Autophagy is a complex and finely regulated mechanism involved in the cell survival/death balance that may be connected to NET formation. To shed some light on the connection between autophagy and NET formation, we designed a number of experiments in human neutrophils and both in normal and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice to determine whether the synthetic peptide P140, which is capable of selectively modulating chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in lymphocytes, could alter NET formation. P140/Lupuzor™ is currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials involving SLE patients. Overall our in vitro and in vivo studies established that P140 does not influence NET formation, cytokine/chemokine production, or CMA in neutrophils. Thus, the beneficial effect of P140/Lupuzor™ in SLE is apparently not directly related to modulation of neutrophil function. PMID:28191006

  5. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. complex forcing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcom O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  6. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. Complex forcing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcolm O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T. M.

    2007-09-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  7. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  8. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  9. Incremental Net Effects in Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, Stan; Conklin, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A regular problem in regression analysis is estimating the comparative importance of the predictors in the model. This work considers the 'net effects', or shares of the predictors in the coefficient of the multiple determination, which is a widely used characteristic of the quality of a regression model. Estimation of the net effects can be a…

  10. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  11. Net Tuition Trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Coleman, James; Zhong, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the latest trends in net tuition for American higher education. Affordability has become a topic of concern for many, but there is a lack of information on the relevant concepts of tuition, primarily published vs. net. This report seeks to shed light on this topic. While few doubt that published tuition rates (sticker price)…

  12. Reachability via Compositionality in Petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sobocinski, Paweł; Stephens, Owen

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for checking reachability in Petri nets that relies on a recently introduced compositional algebra of nets. We prove that the technique is correct, and discuss our implementation. We report promising experimental results on some well-known examples.

  13. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is sep

  14. Link-Net : improving railcar fleet management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, G.; Partington, M. [Procor Limited, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Information about Link-Net, a new rail car information facility available on Netscape, was presented. Link-Net was developed by Ontario`s Procor Limited. It can be used to find a comprehensive list of data on rail fleet management, down to details about the status of single cars. 6 figs.

  15. Net Shape Manufacturing of Aeroengine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) and Net shape HIPping are two net shape manufacturing technologies which are being studied in the IRC. The direct... laser fabrication technique can produce 3-D components from their CAD files from metal powder and using a laser, the movement of which follows the paths

  16. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect...

  17. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  18. Policy for the Net and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Internet information policy: an awareness of new policy issues, attempts to apply existing legal regulations to new processes, and the need for new policies for the Net. Explores policy issues that affect the structure of government, the economy, society, designers of the Net, and international issues. Contains 658…

  19. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our app

  20. Hospital Bed Type, the Electronic Medical Record, and Safe Bed Elevation in the Intensive Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Zachary W; Duquaine, Damon; Ohkuma, Rika; Schneider, Eric B; Whitman, Glenn J R

    2016-01-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, head of bed (HOB) elevation above 30° decreases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The research team studied (a) compliance with proper HOB elevation in their cardiac surgical intensive care unit, (b) the accuracy of HOB angles recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and (c) the effect of bed type on (a) and (b). Nurses were polled to discover how HOB angles were measured in practice. HOB angles were compliant in 80% of observations. Compliance was more frequent in beds with side-of-bed angle indicators (SBI) than beds with under-bed angle indicators (UBI; 88% vs 77%, P = .04). Charting in the EMR was accurate in 50% of SBI bed observations but only 20% of UBI bed observations (P bed type. Bedside indicators are underutilized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  2. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  3. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  4. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  5. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  6. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...... inspiration to researchers on how to possibly build their own customized systems....

  7. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  8. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  9. Evaluation of efficacy of Interceptor(®) G2, a long-lasting insecticide net coated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin, against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayili, Koama; N'do, Severin; Namountougou, Moussa; Sanou, Roger; Ouattara, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Anicet G; Malone, David; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2017-05-08

    Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa to many of the currently used insecticides. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies including the development of new insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance. To maintain progress against malaria, it is necessary to identify other residual insecticides for mosquito nets. In the present WHOPES phase II analogue study, the utility of chlorfenapyr, a pyrrole class insecticide mixed with alpha-cypermethrin on a long-lasting mosquito bed net was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l. Bed nets treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin and mixture of both compounds were tested for their efficacy on mosquitoes. Washed (20 times) and unwashed of each type of treated nets and were tested according to WHOPES guidelines. Efficacy of nets were expressed in terms of blood-feeding inhibition rate, deterrence, induced exophily and mortality rate. The evaluation was conducted in experimental huts of Vallée du Kou seven (VK7) in Burkina Faso (West Africa) following WHOPES phase II guidelines. In addition, a WHOPES phase I evaluation was also performed. Mixture treated nets killed significantly (P  0.05) different from nets treated with chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m(2) unwashed (86%). The washed and unwashed nets treated with the mixtures resulted in personal protection against An. gambiae s.l. biting 34 and 44%. In contrast the personal protection observed for washed and unwashed alpha-cypermethrin treated nets generated (14 and 24%), and chlorfenapyr solo treated net was rather low (22%). Among all nets trialled, the combination of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin on bed nets provided better mortality in phase II after 20 washes. Results suggest that this combination could be a potential insecticide resistance management tool for preventing malaria transmission in areas compromised by the spread of pyrethroid resistance.

  10. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  11. Control of nitrogen oxides in pressurised bed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; Kelsall, G.J. (British Coal Corp., Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of a wide range of operating parameters on NO {sub x} formation and evaluates techniques for reduction of NO {sub x} emissions from pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC) systems. The level of excess air is shown to be the dominant parameter, although fluidisation conditions may also be important, as may the bed temperature. In terms of the overall PFBC combined cycle, staging at the bed surface gives the best results, since some 65% reduction in NO{sub x} levels can be achieved without adverse effects on the off-gas temperature or combustor performance. Studies of the use of ammonia injection have been undertaken in parallel with the staged combustion trials. The effectiveness of this technique is strongly dependent on injection location, on gas temperature and on the composition of the gas/solid streams. The implications for a commercial plant are that while staged combustion may be effective for full-load conditions, at part-load ammonia injection may be a better technique for NO{sub x} control.

  12. Injury scores and locomotor disorders of Holstein cows in a free-stall facility with different beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cecchin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders in 36 multiparous Holstein cows confined in a free-stall model system with two types of beds at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in the city of Coronel Pacheco / MG. Rubber composite beds and sand beds were compared and the hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders were assessed for severity scores. There was no difference between the scores or hock lesions observed at the beginning and end of the trial period for knee injuries in both beds. The two beds offer the same conditions of comfort, injury rates, and hull health, at least in the short term.

  13. The Impact of Putting Mubarak on Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 3,2011,83-year-old former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was put on trial,lying on a hospital bed an iron cage in a Cairo courtroom. Zhang Zhongxiang,Deputy Director of the Department of the West Asian and African Studies at the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies,believes that the Mubarak trial will not only aggravate conflict among Egyptian people, but also complicate the regional tensions and

  14. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  15. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  16. Isopachs of net coal in the B and D coal zones, Deserado study area, Lower White River coal field, CO (des*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick for the B and D coal zones,...

  17. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  18. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  19. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  20. Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out at the Poultry Sector of the School of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Grande Dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. In both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2 using two genetic strains (Cobb® or Ross®; two sexes (male or female, and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings. In each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. The birds were placed in 4.5 m² boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. All birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. Feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days, grower diet (22 - 35 days, and finisher diet (36 - 45 days. On day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. The following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. Ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. The analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. Several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. Results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. However, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male Ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings

  1. The Mode of Net-Virus Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanXiuming; LiYing; JiaoJian; LiuYang; RenYong; QiuBen; CaoYiqun

    2004-01-01

    The computer network is not only of benefit to people, but also helpful for the spreading of viruses. The net-viruses spread more widely and rapidly than the traditional viruses, and network has become the major path of the virus spreading. The author analyzes the mode of the net-virus spreading, including E-mail spreading, positive scanning spreading and through-server spreading. Then some defense strategies in the anti-virus field are introduced, and some countermeasures of the net computer users are discussed.

  2. Net worth and housing equity in retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Todd; Nicholas S. Souleles

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the trends in the life-cycle profiles of net worth and housing equity between 1983 and 2004. The net worth of older households significantly increased during the housing boom of recent years. However, net worth grew by more than housing equity, in part because other assets also appreciated at the same time. Moreover, the younger elderly offset rising house prices by increasing their housing debt, and used some of the proceeds to invest in other assets. We also consider ho...

  3. Net-a-Porter我是传奇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏

    2011-01-01

    创立11年,市值3.5亿英镑。平均每月全球有数百万人登录,平均每天送出1000件商品,平均每笔订单达850美元。在金融危机影响最深重的2O08年,Net-a-Porter销售飙升234%。这些数字足以记录出奢侈品购物网站先驱Net-a-Porter的成就。Net-a-Porter,是一个传奇。

  4. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  5. News from KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Ulrich F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (Germany); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  6. Bohrification of local nets of observables

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiten, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Recent results by Spitters et. al. suggest that quantum phase space can usefully be regarded as a ringed topos via a process called Bohrification. They show that quantum kinematics can then be interpreted as classical kinematics, internal to this ringed topos. We extend these ideas from quantum mechanics to algebraic quantum field theory: from a net of observables we construct a presheaf of quantum phase spaces. We can then naturally express the causal locality of the net as a descent condition on the corresponding presheaf of ringed toposes: we show that the net of observables is local, precisely when the presheaf of ringed toposes satisfies descent by a local geometric morphism.

  7. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically, the....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  8. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field

  9. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  13. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  14. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-03-18

    Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  15. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  16. Physician-patient communication in single-bedded versus four-bedded hospital rooms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Goossensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether physician-patient communication in multi-bedded rooms differs from communication in single rooms during ward rounds. Methods: Ward rounds in single bedded patient rooms and ward rounds in four bedded rooms were audiotaped and analyzed with an adapted version of MIARS.

  17. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  18. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  20. Up and Running with Omeka.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Posner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial introduces the reader to Omeka.net, a free platform for building collection-based websites, ideal for museums and archives, but also scholars looking to build a digital exhibit.

  1. DEUS and the DEUS TraiNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Described are the formation of DEUS (Danish Enterprise University System) consortium and DEUS TraiNet as examples of European collaboration program. The organization, technology, computer conferencing, service, and multimedia training of the programs are summarized. (YP)

  2. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  4. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  5. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  6. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  7. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  8. Netting bias in tropical bird studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates-Estrada, R.; Dowell, B.A.; Fallon, J.E.; Robbins, C.S.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    Mist netting is the method most commonly used for gathering quantitative information on birds in the American tropics. Point count surveys or other methods often are used in conjunction with netting to reduce some of the many biases associated with netting, specially the failure of stationary nets within 2 m of the ground to sample birds of the tall canopy. We compare totals by both methods. Even close to the ground there are biases related to time of day and mesh size that have not been addressed in tropical studies. Some researchers operate nets all day, others only in the morning or in the morning and evening. Since 1986 we have netted birds and conducted point count surveys at more than 130 sites representing a broad spectrum of habitats in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. Using data only from those days when we could operate nets continuously from about dawn to dusk, we compare capture rates throughout the day to show the bias per part-day operations for certain families and species of birds and for the ratio of neotropical migrants to resident birds. More than half of 5000+ birds captured were caught after noon. Trochilidae and parulinae were captured primarily in the morning, Dendrocolaptidae in the middle of the day. Tyrannidae were more active than most birds in early afternoon, and Turdinae had morning and evening peaks. At each site we use a combination of 30-mm and 36-mm nets. The 30-mm mesh consistently captured more seedeaters, gnatcatchers, and small warblers, whereas the 36-mm mesh was more effective for birds of thrush size and larger.

  9. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  10. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  11. Proteases, neutrophils, and periodontitis: the NET effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauseef, William M

    2014-10-01

    Neutrophils exert potent antimicrobial activities in their role as first-line cellular defenders against infection. The synergistic and collective actions of oxidants and granule proteins, including serine proteases, support the microbial killing in phagosomes, where most neutrophil-mediated antimicrobial action occurs. In addition to phagocytosis, specific stimuli prompt neutrophils to extrude a matrix of DNA, histones, and granule proteins to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can trap microbes. Mice lacking the serine proteases necessary for NET production are more susceptible to infection, an observation suggesting that functional NETs are required for host protection. In this issue of the JCI, Sørensen and colleagues characterize neutrophils from a patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. The patient has an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, resulting in neutrophils lacking elastase, a serine protease required for NET production. Despite the inability to form NETS, neutrophils from this patient killed pathogens in vitro, and the patient did not exhibit evidence of an increased propensity toward bacterial infections. Together, these results suggest that proteases in human neutrophils are dispensable for protection against bacterial infection and that the ability to generate NETs in vitro does not compromise host defense.

  12. Effects of different types of bedding materials on behavioral development in laboratory CD1 mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito; Ogata, Akio; Inomata, Akiko; Nakae, Dai

    2014-10-01

    Male and female mice were housed in cages, containing different types of bedding materials (wood flakes or pulp chips), from 4 weeks of age in the F0 generation to 11 weeks of age in the F1 generation; selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation. There were no adverse effects of bedding materials on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratios at the time of birth. With regard to behavioral development parameters, bedding materials did not influence any variables (p > 0.05) in both sexes. Regarding exploratory behavior in the F1 generation, number of defecations significantly varied (p = 0.0203) with bedding materials in males at 3 weeks of age. The number of horizontal activities also significantly varied (p = 0.0342) with bedding materials in males at 8 weeks of age. Multiple-T water maze performance data indicated that the time required was significantly shortened across trials in pulp chips group than wood flakes group in males (p = 0.0211). Moreover, all spontaneous behavior variables in males significantly varied with bedding materials, particularly the average time of movement was significantly different (p = 0.0037) in distance between parallel lines of types of bedding materials in the F1 generation. The present study shows that bedding materials influence the neurobehavioral development in mice.

  13. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  14. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...

  15. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  16. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described

  17. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  18. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  19. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  20. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  1. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  2. Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Dwyer, Dominic E; Peñas, Pablo F; Russell, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations.

  3. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  4. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described b

  5. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  6. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Two Novel Bioassays to Assess the Effects of Pyrethroid-Treated Netting on Knockdown-Susceptible Versus Resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Steven; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Meaghan; Beaty, Barry J; Black, William C; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla

    2015-03-01

    We describe 2 new mosquito bioassays for use with insecticide-treated netting or other textiles. The 1st is a cylinder bioassay in which a mosquito is forced to contact treated material regardless of where it lands within the bioassay construct. The 2nd is a repellency/irritancy and biting-inhibition bioassay (RIBB) in which human arms and breath are used as attractants. Mosquitoes have the choice to pass through holes cut in untreated or treated netting to move from a center release chamber into side chambers to reach arms and potentially bite. Trials were conducted with pyrethroid-susceptible (New Orleans), moderately resistant (Hunucmá), and highly resistant (Vergel) strains of Aedes aegypti. Tests with netting treated with different pyrethroids demonstrated the utility of the cylinder bioassay to quantify knockdown and mortality following exposure to treated netting, and of the RIBB to quantify spatial repellency/contact irritancy of the treated netting and biting inhibition after females land on and then pass through holes in the treated netting. Both tested brands of pyrethroid-treated mosquitocidal netting (DuraNet® and NetProtect®) were effective against New Orleans but ineffective against Vergel strains. Mortality in the cylinder bioassay was 100% for New Orleans for all tested brands of treated netting, but only 10-14% for Vergel. Rates of passage through treated netting to reach a human arm in the RIBB were 10-15% for New Orleans versus 24-37% for Vergel. The reduction in biting after passage through treated netting, compared with untreated netting in the same trial replicates, was 12-39% for New Orleans versus ≤9% for Vergel.

  8. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  9. Reservoir evaluation of thin-bedded turbidites and hydrocarbon pore thickness estimation for an accurate quantification of resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoniyi, Bayonle; Stow, Dorrik

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the assessment of and production from turbidite reservoirs is to take full account of thin and medium-bedded turbidites (succession, they can go unnoticed by conventional analysis and so negatively impact on reserve estimation, particularly in fields producing from prolific thick-bedded turbidite reservoirs. Field development plans often take little note of such thin beds, which are therefore bypassed by mainstream production. In fact, the trapped and bypassed fluids can be vital where maximising field value and optimising production are key business drivers. We have studied in detail, a succession of thin-bedded turbidites associated with thicker-bedded reservoir facies in the North Brae Field, UKCS, using a combination of conventional logs and cores to assess the significance of thin-bedded turbidites in computing hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT). This quantity, being an indirect measure of thickness, is critical for an accurate estimation of original-oil-in-place (OOIP). By using a combination of conventional and unconventional logging analysis techniques, we obtain three different results for the reservoir intervals studied. These results include estimated net sand thickness, average sand thickness, and their distribution trend within a 3D structural grid. The net sand thickness varies from 205 to 380 ft, and HPT ranges from 21.53 to 39.90 ft. We observe that an integrated approach (neutron-density cross plots conditioned to cores) to HPT quantification reduces the associated uncertainties significantly, resulting in estimation of 96% of actual HPT. Further work will focus on assessing the 3D dynamic connectivity of the low-pay sands with the surrounding thick-bedded turbidite facies.

  10. Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  11. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  12. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  13. Bed bugs: they are back! The role of the school nurse in bed bug management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciscione, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of bed bugs in all facets of our society. Bed bugs have even been found in schools, causing unnecessary exclusion of students and unfounded hysteria. School nurses are again called upon to be front-line sources of information to quell the hysteria and confusion related to this unsavory condition. By arming themselves with the best evidence regarding proper identification of bed bugs and their bites and information about integrated prevention measures to control transmission of infestations, school nurses can contribute to the control and management of bed bugs and aid in the overall battle against this "new and improved" invasion of the bed bugs.

  14. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  15. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  16. Test-retest reliability of the net joint power transferred by the lower limbs during walking in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the measurement of net joint power during repeated gait measurements within one day and between two different measurement days. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied men who underwent repeated gait measurements within a day and between days participated in this research. An acceptable trial was one in which the participant complied with the range of walking speed 1.45 m/s ± 5%. Three-dimensional angles, angular velocities, net moments of force and net power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were determined using external passive reflective markers, an 8-camera motion analysis system and two force plates. RESULTS: This study presents the patterns of the net power in the fundamental joints of the lower limbs in young healthy men at standard gait velocity. Intraclass correlation coefficients for net joint power measure reached values in the range of .70 to .89 on the first day, from .69 to .86 on the second day, and from .67 to .83 in total. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the measurement of the peak net joint power within one day and between the two measurement days was evaluated as satisfactory. The study provides the value of minimal detectable change for the peak net power of the lower limb in the sagittal plane during gait. The net joint power appears to be a reliable measure and could be used in practice.

  17. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  18. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  19. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to figure out the bed load transport processes using direct and surrogate measurement methods for the free flowing reach of the Drau River and its most important tributary Isel River, both large Alpine gravel-bed rivers, situated in the south western part of Austria. There are some techniques for bed load measurements in natural streams; we used collecting moving particles and indirectly determining transport intensity at the study sites. Former measurements in the study reach were performed also using mobile bed load samplers and fixed bed load samplers. Individually they all are adequate bed load measurement instruments - used in combination they are complementing one another, whereas each applied separately leads to specific deficits. The investigation payed special attention on results out of the geophone installations, whereas steel plate vibrations (the plates are mounted on top of concrete structures even with the river bed surface) caused by bed load particles with a diameter larger than about 20 mm are inducing a signal into the geophones. The signal above a defined threshold voltage than is recorded in a computer system as the sum of impacts during one minute intervals. The spatio-temporal distribution of the transported bed load material, its amount and the transport processes itself could be figured out for the first time out of continuous data collection since 2006 for large alpine gravel-bed rivers. Before building up the gauging stations there were no continuous recordings of bed load transport processes in large alpine rivers over their entire cross section, hence the investigation promises a better process understanding and the possibility to determine bed load transport rates and a rough approximation of the grain size distributions of the transported bed load material under different flow conditions. A relation between detected geophone records, the flow discharge and direct bed load sampling methods (Large Helley Smith

  20. On different regime relations between bed load transport and bed topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Duan, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Bed load transport is determined by the effective part of the total shear stress subtracting the form drag that arises from bed topography. Wang et al. (2004) quantified the overall topographic roughness of the channel bed with the parameter Sp and claimed that the increasing Sp corresponds with increasing flow resistance and decreasing bed load transport rate due to increasing form drag and decreasing skin friction. However, the flume experiments for non-uniform sediment transport on steep slope at the University of Arizona show opposite results that bed load transport increases with Sp. We investigate the physical reason of the contrasting results for the full understanding of the different regimes between bed load transport and bed topography. We develop the energy conveyance equation for water flow and bed load transport and apply it to the development of the equilibrium relation between bed load transport and energy dissipation due to the form drag. The energy theory for bed load transport shows that since our flume experiments achieved the equilibrium transport state with water and sediment circulating supplying, the bed topography Sp is determined by the flow and sediment grain size, and the bed load transport is positively related to the energy dissipation rate which is thus positively related to Sp. However, in the field experiment of Wang et al. (2004), at first, the referenced Sp is determined by the most recent significant flood whereas the bed load transport is always below the transport capacity with insufficient sediment supply. After one-time sediment feed, the bed load transport rapidly varies from ephemeral full capacity state to sediment starving state. In this process, the removal of relative fine sediment results in the rapid increment of Sp from the instant equilibrium state to the referenced Sp whereas the coarsen bed leads to decrement of bed load transport. Eventually, the sediment starving state results in the increasing Sp and decreasing

  1. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  2. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  3. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  4. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality.

  5. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors. PMID:28229101

  6. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  7. Review of FEWS NET biophysical monitoring requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, K W; Underwood, L W [Science Systems and Applications, Incorporated, 411 West Michigan Street, Poplarville, MS 39470 (United States); Brown, M E [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614.4, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Verdin, J P [United States Geological Survey, National Integrated Drought Information System, NOAA/ESRL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)], E-mail: kenton_ross@ssaihq.com, E-mail: molly.brown@nasa.gov, E-mail: verdin@usgs.gov, E-mail: lauren_underwood@ssaihq.com

    2009-04-15

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users; it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and, subsequently, to assess whether such data would be beneficial as FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard; that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand; and that rainfall and vegetation products are valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  8. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  9. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  10. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  11. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  13. Analysis of Reconfigurable Processors Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Petri net models for processing elements. The processing elements include: a general-purpose processor (GPP, a reconfigurable element (RE, and a hybrid element (combining a GPP with an RE. The models consist of many transitions and places. The model and associated analysis methods provide a promising tool for modeling and performance evaluation of reconfigurable processors. The model is demonstrated by considering a simple example. This paper describes the development of a reconfigurable processor; the developed system is based on the Petri net concept. Petri nets are becoming suitable as a formal model for hardware system design. Designers can use Petri net as a modeling language to perform high level analysis of complex processors designs processing chips. The simulation does with PIPEv4.1 simulator. The simulation results show that Petri net state spaces are bounded and safe and have not deadlock and the average of number tokens in first token is 0.9901 seconds. In these models, there are only 5% errors; also the analysis time in these models is 0.016 seconds.

  14. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  15. Co-Fuelling of Peat with Meat and Bone Meal in a Pilot Scale Bubbling Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Orjala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m3 limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO2 emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m3, while in all trials NOx emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m3. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m3. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 °C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications.

  16. Co-Fuelling of peat with meat and bone meal in a pilot scale bubbling bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, K.; Cummins, E. J.; Fagan, C. C. [Biosystems Engineering, Bioresources Research Centre, UCD School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, Belfield, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Orjala, M. [VTT Bioenergy, Koivurannantie, P.O. Box 1603, FIN- 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m{sup 3} limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO{sub 2} emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m{sup 3}, while in all trials NO{sub x} emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m{sup 3}. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m{sup 3}. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 {sup o}C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications. (authors)

  17. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  18. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  19. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  20. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.