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Sample records for bed net trial

  1. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  2. Factors affecting use of permethrin-treated bed nets during a randomized controlled trial in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaii, Jane A.; Hawley, William A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Gimnig, John E.; Vulule, John M.; Odhacha, Amos; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    Adherence with permethrin-treated bed net (ITN) use and their proper deployment was directly observed in 2,178 individuals (784 households) participating in a large-scale trial of ITNs on child mortality in western Kenya. The ITNs were distributed free of charge to ensure high coverage, resulting in

  3. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

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    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  4. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  5. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

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    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  6. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithuis, Frank M.; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U. Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A.; White, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector

  7. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  8. Implications of the western Kenya permethrin-treated bed net study for policy, program implementation, and future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Richard S.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Gimnig, John E.; Shi, Ya Ping; Vulule, John M.; Alaii, Jane A.; Hightower, Allen W.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    The fifth, and probably last, large-scale, group-randomized, controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) showed that ITNs are efficacious in reducing all-cause post-neonatal mortality in an area of intense, perennial malaria transmission. The trial helped to define pregnant

  9. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

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    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  10. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Vulule, John M.; Lo, Terrence Q.; Kamau, Luna; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Mathenge, Evan M.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hightower, Allen W.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) on malaria vectors was studied as part of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya. Indoor resting densities of fed Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in intervention houses were 58.5% (P = 0.010) and 94.5% (P = 0.001) lower,

  11. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  12. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Vulule, John M.; Ombok, Maurice; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Gimnig, John E.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial analyses of the effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on nearby households both with and without ITNs was performed in the context of a large-scale, group-randomized, controlled mortality trial in Asembo, western Kenya. Results illustrate a protective effect of ITNs on

  13. The effect of insecticide-treated bed net on malarial parasitaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... nets sold by a social marketing project were used as the intervention group. ... Keywords: Insecticide-treated bed net, Effectiveness, Malaria control, South-South Nigeria.

  14. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debashis; Priyanka, Jyoti; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Upfill-Brown, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent. Methods This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention. Findings Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching. Interpretation DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub

  15. Bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, G.; ter Kuile, F. O.; Jacoutot, V.; White, N. J.; Luxemburger, C.; Malankirii, L.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; Nosten, F.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective comparison of the antimalarial efficacy of bed nets was conducted with 341 pregnant women living in a mesoendemic malarious area of the Thai-Burmese border. Women in 3 adjacent study sites were allocated at random to receive either a single size permethrin-impregnated bed net (PIB), a

  16. The underlying reasons for very high levels of bed net use, and higher malaria infection prevalence among bed net users than non-users in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellemu, Daniel; Shemdoe, Aloysia; Makungu, Christina; Mlacha, Yeromini; Kannady, Khadija; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry F; Dillip, Angel

    2017-10-23

    Bed nets reduce malaria-related illness and deaths, by forming a protective barrier around people sleeping under them. When impregnated with long-lasting insecticide formulations they also repel or kill mosquitoes attempting to feed upon sleeping humans, and can even suppress entire populations of malaria vectors that feed predominantly upon humans. Nevertheless, an epidemiological study in 2012 demonstrated higher malaria prevalence among bed net users than non-users in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Focus group discussions were conducted with women from four selected wards of Dar es Salaam city, focusing on four major themes relating to bed net use behaviours: (1) reasons for bed net use, (2) reasons for not using bed nets, (3) stimuli or reminders for people to use a bed net (4) perceived reasons for catching malaria while using a bed net. An analytical method by framework grouping of relevant themes was used address key issues of relevance to the study objectives. Codes were reviewed and grouped into categories and themes. All groups said the main reason for bed net use was protection against malaria. Houses with well-screened windows, with doors that shut properly, and that use insecticidal sprays against mosquitoes, were said not to use bed nets, while frequent attacks from malaria was the main stimulus for people to use bed nets. Various reasons were mentioned as potential reasons that compromise bed net efficacy, the most common of which were: (1) bed net sharing by two or more people, especially if one occupant tends to come to bed late at night, and does not tuck in the net 71%; (2) one person shares the bed but does not use the net, moving it away from the side on which s/he sleeps 68%; (3) ineffective usage habits, called ulalavi, in which a sprawling sleeper either touches the net while sleeping up against it or leaves a limb hanging outside of it 68%. Less common reasons mentioned included: (1) Small bed nets which become un-tucked at night (31%); (2

  17. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Bruun, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two...... discomfort is a factor limiting bed net use and open a range of architectural possibilities to overcome this limitation. Keywords: Malaria; Bed nets; Africa; Tanzania; The Gambia; Asia; Thailand; Philippines; Airflow; Temperature; Humidity; Climate...... investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals...

  18. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  19. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

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    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  20. Social marketing of insecticide-treated bed net for malaria control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effectiveness of the insecticide-treated bed net in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria has been proved at all levels of malaria transmission. Several models on how to achieve massive coverage have been suggested, but social marketing of the nets is highly favoured for its ...

  1. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimnig, John E; Vulule, John M; Lo, Terrence Q; Kamau, Luna; Kolczak, Margarette S; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Mathenge, Evan M; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Nahlen, Bernard L; Hightower, Allen W; Hawley, William A

    2003-04-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) on malaria vectors was studied as part of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya. Indoor resting densities of fed Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in intervention houses were 58.5% (P = 0.010) and 94.5% (P = 0.001) lower, respectively, compared with control houses. The sporozoite infection rate in An. gambiae s.l. was 0.8% in intervention areas compared with 3.4% (P = 0.026) in control areas, while the sporozoite infection rates in An. funestus were not significantly different between the two areas. We estimated the overall transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in intervention areas to be 90% lower than in control areas. Permethrin resistance was not detected during the study period. As measured by densities of An. gambiae s.l., the efficacy of bed nets decreased if one or more residents did not sleep under a net or if bed nets had not been re-treated within six months. These results indicate that ITNs are optimally effective if used every night and if permethrin is reapplied at least biannually.

  2. Comparing ownership and use of bed nets at two sites with differential malaria transmission in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Hayden, Mary H; Olsen, Heather; Cavanaugh, Jamie L; Ruberto, Irene; Agawo, Maurice; Munga, Stephen

    2016-04-14

    Challenges persist in ensuring access to and optimal use of long-lasting, insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Factors associated with ownership and use may differ depending on the history of malaria and prevention control efforts in a specific region. Understanding how the cultural and social-environmental context of bed net use may differ between high- and low-risk regions is important when identifying solutions to improve uptake and appropriate use. Community forums and a household, cross-sectional survey were used to collect information on factors related to bed net ownership and use in western Kenya. Sites with disparate levels of transmission were selected, including an endemic lowland area, Miwani, and a highland epidemic-prone area, Kapkangani. Analysis of ownership was stratified by site. A combined site analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with use of all available bed nets. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with ownership and use of owned bed nets. Access to bed nets as the leading barrier to their use was identified in community forums and cross-sectional surveys. While disuse of available bed nets was discussed in the forums, it was a relatively rare occurrence in both sites. Factors associated with ownership varied by site. Education, perceived risk of malaria and knowledge of individuals who had died of malaria were associated with higher bed net ownership in the highlands, while in the lowlands individuals reporting it was easy to get a bed net were more likely to own one. A combined site analysis indicated that not using an available bed net was associated with the attitudes that taking malaria drugs is easier than using a bed net and that use of a bed net will not prevent malaria. In addition, individuals with an unused bed net in the household were more likely to indicate that bed nets are difficult to use, that purchased bed nets are better than freely distributed ones, and that bed nets should only

  3. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya II. Study design and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Shi, Ya Ping; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the study design and methods used in a large community-based, group-randomized, controlled trial of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) in an area with intense, perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya conducted between 1996 and 1999. A multi-disciplinary framework was

  4. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Shi, Ya Ping; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Lal, Altaf A.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a community-based, group-randomized, controlled trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) in an area with intense malaria transmission in western Kenya, a birth cohort (n = 833) was followed monthly until the age of 24 months to determine the potential beneficial and adverse effects of

  5. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Arudo, John; Vulule, John M.; Odhacha, Amos; Kachur, S. Patrick; Schoute, Erik; Rosen, Daniel H.; Sexton, John D.; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A group-randomized controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) was conducted in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya to test the effect of ITNs on all-cause mortality in children 1-59 months of age. Child deaths were monitored over a two-year

  6. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Gimnig, John E.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Lal, Altaf A.; Schoute, Erik; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that permethrin-treated bed nets and curtains reduce all-cause child mortality by 15-33% in areas with low or high but seasonal malaria transmission. This report describes the study site for a community-based, group-randomized, controlled

  7. Household bed net ownership and use among under-5 children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuorah DC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Chidiebere Osuorah,1,2 Chijioke Elias Ezeudu,2 Stanley Kenechi Onah,2 Obinna Tochukwu Anyabolu31Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Banjul, The Gambia; 2Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra, Nigeria; 3School of Health and Social Care, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UKBackground: Malaria remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with children under 5 years accounting for 86% of all malaria deaths. For effective control of malaria, WHO recommends rapid diagnosis and effective treatment, insecticide-treated bed nets, and indoor residual spraying. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets has been shown to be the most cost-effective strategy in preventing this infection. However, despite the Roll Back Malaria subsidized and free bed net distribution initiatives in some Africa countries, bed net uptake and usage still remains low in many households.Aim: This study aimed to investigate household characteristics and child factors that determine bed net ownership and use amongst under-5 children and the effect of its usage on malaria parasitemia in under-5 children in Nigeria.Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 5895 households was obtained from the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in the 2010 Nigeria demographic and health survey, with a minimum of 67 households enrolled per state. Appropriate statistical tools were used to identify the characteristics of households that owned a bed net and to examine the association between the households and child-level factors that predict the use of bed net and malaria prevalence among under-5 children within these households.Results: The rate of households bed net ownership in Nigeria is about 45.5%. About 48.5% of under-5 children in 33.9% of households surveyed, use a bed net during sleep. There was a strong correlation between households ownership and child

  8. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

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    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  9. Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya

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    Kabuage Lucy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs continues to offer potential strategy for malaria prevention in endemic areas. However their effectiveness, sustainability and massive scale up remain a factor of socio-economic and cultural variables of the local community which are indispensable during design and implementation stages. Methods An ethnographic household survey was conducted in four study villages which were purposefully selected to represent socio-economic and geographical diversity. In total, 400 households were randomly selected from the four study villages. Quantitative and qualitative information of the respondents were collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Malaria was reported the most frequently occurring disease in the area (93% and its aetiology was attributed to other non-biomedical causes like stagnant water (16%, and long rains (13%. Factors which significantly caused variation in bed net use were occupant relationship to household head (χ2 = 105.705; df 14; P = 0.000, Age (χ2 = 74.483; df 14; P = 0.000, village (χ2 = 150.325; df 6; P = 0.000, occupation (χ2 = 7.955; df 3; P = 0.047, gender (χ2 = 4.254; df 1; P = 0.039 and education levels of the household head or spouse (χ2 = 33.622; df 6; P = 0.000. The same variables determined access and conditions of bed nets at household level. Protection against mosquito bite (95% was the main reason cited for using bed nets in most households while protection against malaria came second (54%. Colour, shape and affordability were some of the key potential factors which determined choice, use and acceptance of bed nets in the study area. Conclusion The study highlights potential social and economic variables important for effective and sustainable implementation of bed nets-related programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. The phenomenon of diminishing –returns in the use of bed nets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... treated bed nets and prompt malaria therapy in Tororo. Uganda, concluded the .... namely vaccination, cure and quarantine and yet cure for malaria actually ..... It is therefore the anti-malarial medicines given to their children that are .... his great assistance in the preparation of the electronic version of this ...

  11. Perceptions on the effect of small electric fans on comfort inside bed nets in southern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mulako S; Briët, Olivier J T; Keating, Joseph; Ahorlu, Collins K; Yukich, Joshua O; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-12-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain insight into perceptions of participants about the net fan system in relation to LLIN use. While all study participants reported using LLINs, with mosquito nuisance prevention as the prime motivation, heat was also mentioned as a key barrier to net use. Respondents appreciated the net fans because they improved comfort inside bed nets. The LED light on the fan stand became the main source of light at night and positively influenced the perception of the intervention as a whole. The general acceptance of the net fan system by the study participants highlights the potential of the intervention to improve comfort inside mosquito nets. This, therefore, has a potential to increase bed net use in areas with low access to electricity.

  12. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia.

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    Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W

    2013-03-18

    Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.

  13. Comparing insecticide-treated bed net use to Plasmodium falciparum infection among schoolchildren living near Lake Victoria, Kenya.

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    Okoyo, Collins; Mwandawiro, Charles; Kihara, Jimmy; Simiyu, Elses; Gitonga, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Njenga, Sammy M; Snow, Robert W

    2015-12-22

    Under trial conditions insecticide-treated nets have been shown to provide significant clinical and mortality protection under a range of malaria transmission intensity conditions. There are, however, few operational impact data, notably in very intense transmission conditions. This study, reports on malaria infection among Kenyan schoolchildren living in areas of intense malaria transmission and their reported use of insecticide-treated bed nets. 5188 children in 54 schools were randomly sampled from seven counties surrounding Lake Victoria between May and June 2014. A questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren in classes 2-6 on the use of a long-lasting, insecticide-treated net (LLIN) the night before the survey and provided a single blood sample for a rapid diagnostic test for malaria infection. Analysis of the impact of insecticide-treated net use on malaria prevalence was undertaken using a multivariable, mixed effects, logistic regression at 95% confidence interval (CI), taking into account hierarchical nature of the data and results adjusted for school clusters. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 48.7%, two-thirds (67.9%) of the children reported using LLIN, 91.3% of the children reported that their households own at least one LLIN and the household LLIN coverage was 2.5 persons per one LLIN. The prevalence of infection showed variation across the counties, with prevalence being highest in Busia (66.9%) and Homabay (51.8%) counties, and lowest in Migori County (29.6%). Generally, malaria parasite prevalence differed between age groups and gender with the highest prevalence occurring in children below 7 years (50.6%) and males (52.2%). Adjusting for county and school, there was a significant reduction in odds of malaria infection among the schoolchildren who reported LLIN use the previous night by 14 % (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, P provide protection against infection among school-aged children.

  14. The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Ndjinga Julie K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most prominent disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2006 to combat the disease. However, the success of this bed net campaign depends on sufficient bed net use in all age groups. This study was designed to examine the factors affecting bed net use in villages outside of Kinshasa. Methods Two villages along the Congo River, totalling 142 households with 640 residents, were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. The interview determined the number, ages, and sexes of family members; the education level of the family head; the number, colour, and type of nets owned; and the number of nets used in the previous night. The size of house was also measured, and numbers of rooms and beds were recorded. These variables were examined to reveal important factors that affect bed net use. Results A total of 469 nets were counted, and nearly all nets were white LLINs. Of these nets, 229 (48.8% nets were used by 284 (44.4% residents. Bed nets were used by over 90% of children 5 to 15 years of age, whereas less than 50% of the residents in other age groups used bed nets. The important variables affecting bed net use were numbers of beds and rooms in the house and the education level of the family head of household. Conclusion Education was the most important factor affecting bed net use in the villages outside Kinshasa. Development of an educational programme, particularly one directed toward parents, is necessary to reduce misconceptions and increase prevalence of bed net use among all age groups.

  15. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

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    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  16. Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, T.L.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Maliti, D.; Chipwaza, B.; Kihonda, J.; Charlwood, J.D.; Smith, T.A.; Lengeler, C.; Mwanyangala, M.A.; Nathan, R.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The communities of Namawala and Idete villages in southern Tanzania experienced extremely high malaria transmission in the 1990s. By 2001-03, following high usage rates (75% of all age groups) of untreated bed nets, a 4.2-fold reduction in malaria transmission intensity was achieved.

  17. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet--an international collaborative clinical trials network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyler, Jay S; Greenbaum, Carla J; Lachin, John M; Leschek, Ellen; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Savage, Peter; Spain, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet is an international consortium of clinical research centers aimed at the prevention or delay of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The fundamental goal of TrialNet is to counter the T1D disease process by immune modulation and/or enhancement of beta cell proliferation and regeneration. To achieve this goal, TrialNet researchers are working to better understand the natural history of the disease, to identify persons at risk, and to clinically evaluate novel therapies that balance potential risks and benefits. The particular focus is on studies of preventive measures. In addition, TrialNet evaluates therapies in individuals with newly diagnosed T1D with preserved beta cell function to help determine the risk/benefit profile and gain an initial assessment of potential efficacy in preservation of beta cell function, so that promising agents can be studied in prevention trials. In addition, TrialNet evaluates methodologies that enhance the conduct of its clinical trials, which includes tests of outcome assessment methodology, the evaluation of surrogate markers, and mechanistic studies laying the foundation for future clinical trials.

  18. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

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    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  19. Video studies of passage by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes through holes in a simulated bed net: effects of hole size, hole orientation and net environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, James; Colborn, Kathryn L

    2015-05-13

    Holes in netting provide potential routes for mosquitoes to enter ITNs. Despite this, there is little information on how mosquitoes respond to holes in bed nets and how their responses are affected by hole size, shape and orientation or by ambient conditions around the net. Female Anopheles gambiae (G3) were recorded in a simulated bed net consisting of two sizes of untreated netting-covered behavioural arenas placed above and beside (to simulate the bed net roof and sides respectively) the experimenter who was a source of host cues from 'inside' the net. A round hole of 9 mm or 13 mm diameter was cut into the centre of the netting of each arena. Videos of unfed female mosquitoes in arenas were analysed for time spent flying, walking and standing still and for exit through the hole. The effects of the experimenter on temperature and relative humidity around the simulated net were also measured. Mosquitoes were significantly more active in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side. Hole passage was significantly more likely in smaller arenas than larger ones and for larger holes than smaller ones. In arenas to the side, hole passage rate through small holes was about 50% less likely than what could be explained by area alone. Passage rate through holes in overhead arenas was consistent with hole area. Temperature in arenas did not strongly reflect the experimenter's presence in the simulated net. Relative humidity and absolute humidity in overhead arenas, but not in arenas to the side, were immediately affected by experimenter presence. Higher levels of activity in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side were likely due to the rising heat and humidity plume from the experimenter. Lower than expected passage rates through smaller vertically oriented holes may have been be due to an edge effect that does not apply to horizontally oriented holes. Results suggest that current methods of assessing the importance of physical damage to ITNs may not accurately reflect

  20. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert J

    2009-11-16

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) and malaria incidence. There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of mosquitoes and treated nets at the individual level

  1. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  2. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

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    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  3. A good night's sleep and the habit of net use: perceptions of risk and reasons for bed net use in Bukoba and Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenker, Hannah M; Loll, Dana; Rweyemamu, Datius; Ali, Abdullah S

    2013-06-13

    Intensive malaria control interventions in the United Republic of Tanzania have contributed to reductions in malaria prevalence. Given that malaria control remains reliant upon continued use of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) even when the threat of malaria has been reduced, this qualitative study sought to understand how changes in perceived risk influence LLIN usage, and to explore in more detail the benefits of net use that are unrelated to malaria. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in Bukoba Rural district and in Zanzibar Urban West district in late 2011. Participants were males aged 18 and over, females between the ages of 18 and 49, and females at least 50 years old. The perceived risk of malaria had decreased among the respondents, and malaria control interventions were credited for the decline. Participants cited reductions in both the severity of malaria and in their perceived susceptibility to malaria. However, malaria was still considered a significant threat. Participants' conceptualization of risk appeared to be an important consideration for net use. At the same time, comfort and aspects of comfort (getting a good night's sleep, avoiding biting pests) appeared to play a large role in personal decisions to use nets consistently or not. Barriers to comfort (feeling uncomfortable or trapped; perceived difficulty breathing, or itching/rashes) were frequently cited as reasons not to use a net consistently. While it was apparent that participants acknowledged the malaria-prevention benefits of net use, the exploration of the risk and comfort determinants of net use provides a richer understanding of net use behaviours, particularly in a setting where transmission has fallen and yet consistent net use is still crucial to maintaining those gains. Future behaviour change communication campaigns should capitalize on the non-malaria benefits of net use that provide a long-term rationale for consistent use even when the immediate threat of

  4. Host-seeking activity of a Tanzanian population of Anopheles arabiensis at an insecticide treated bed net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josephine E A; Angarita Jaimes, Natalia C; Gleave, Katherine; Mashauri, Fabian; Abe, Mayumi; Martine, Jackline; Towers, Catherine E; Towers, David; McCall, Philip J

    2017-07-04

    Understanding how mosquitoes respond to long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) is fundamental to sustaining the effectiveness of this essential control tool. We report on studies with a tracking system to investigate behaviour of wild anophelines at an LLIN, in an experimental hut at a rural site in Mwanza, Tanzania. Groups of adult female mosquitoes (n = 10 per replicate) reared from larvae of a local population, identified as predominantly (95%) Anopheles arabiensis, were released in the hut. An infrared video tracking system recorded flight and net contact activity over 1 h as the mosquitoes attempted to reach a supine human volunteer within a bed net (either a deltamethrin-treated LLIN or an untreated control net). A range of activities, including flight path, position in relation to the bed net and duration of net contact, were quantified and compared between treatments. The total time that female An. arabiensis spent in flight around LLINs was significantly lower than at untreated nets [F(1,10) = 9.26, p = 0.012], primarily due to a substantial reduction in the time mosquitoes spent in persistent 'bouncing' flight [F(1,10) = 18.48, p = 0.002]. Most activity occurred at the net roof but significantly less so with LLINs (56.8% of total) than untreated nets [85.0%; Χ 2 (15) = 234.69, p Activity levels at the bed net directly above the host torso were significantly higher with untreated nets (74.2%) than LLINs [38.4%; Χ 2 (15) = 33.54, p = 0.004]. 'Visiting' and 'bouncing' rates were highest above the volunteer's chest in untreated nets (39.9 and 50.4%, respectively) and LLINs [29.9 and 42.4%; Χ 2 (13) = 89.91, p activity over 60 min was significantly more rapid for LLINs [F(1,10) = 6.81, p = 0.026], reiterating an 'attract and kill' rather than a repellent mode of action. The study has demonstrated the potential for detailed investigations of behaviour of wild mosquito populations under field conditions. The results validate

  5. Malaria in pregnant women in an area with sustained high coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets

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    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, the World Health Organization has recommended a package of interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy and its sequelae that includes the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, and effective case management of malarial illness. It is recommended that pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas receive at least two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This study assessed the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery in women during 1st or 2nd pregnancy, who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp in a malaria-endemic area with high bed net coverage. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in Ifakara, Tanzania, where bed net coverage is high. Primi- and secundigravid women, who presented to the labour ward and who reported not using IPTp were included in the study. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire; whereas neonatal birth weight and placenta parasitaemia were measured directly at the time of delivery. Results Overall, 413 pregnant women were enrolled of which 91% reported to have slept under a bed net at home the previous night, 43% reported history of fever and 62% were primigravid. Malaria parasites were detected in 8% of the placenta samples; the geometric mean (95%CI placental parasite density was 3,457 (1,060–11,271 parasites/μl in primigravid women and 2,178 (881–5,383 parasites/μl in secundigravid women. Fifteen percent of newborns weighed Conclusion The observed incidence of LBW and prevalence of placental parasitaemia at delivery suggests that malaria remains a problem in pregnancy in this area with high bed net coverage when eligible women do not receive IPTp. Delivery of IPTp should be emphasized at all levels of implementation to achieve maximum community coverage.

  6. How many holes is too many? A prototype tool for estimating mosquito entry risk into damaged bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, James; Ji, Xin; Yin, Shaoman

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have played an integral role in malaria reduction but how insecticide depletion and accumulating physical damage affect ITN performance is poorly understood. More accurate methods are needed to assess damage to bed nets so that they can be designed, deployed and replaced optimally. Video recordings of female Anopheles gambiae in near approach (1-½ cm) to occupied untreated rectangular bed nets in a laboratory study were used to quantify the amount of mosquito activity (appearances over time) around different parts of the net, the per-appearance probability of a mosquito coming close to holes of different sizes (hole encounter) and the per-encounter probability of mosquitoes passing through holes of different sizes (hole passage). Appearance frequency on different parts of the net reflected previously reported patterns: the area of the net under greatest mosquito pressure was the roof, followed by the bottom 30 cm of the sides, followed by the 30 cm area immediately above this, followed by the upper two-thirds of the sides. The ratio of activity in these areas was (respectively) 250:33:5:1. Per-appearance probability of hole encounter on all parts of the net was strongly predicted by a factor combining hole perimeter and area. Per-encounter probability of hole passage, in turn, was strongly predicted by hole width. For a given width, there was a 20% greater risk of passage through holes on the roof than holes on the sides. Appearance, encounter and passage predictors correspond to various mosquito behaviours that have previously been described and are combined into a prototype mosquito entry risk tool that predicts mosquito entry rates for nets with various amounts of damage. Scenarios that use the entry risk tool to test the recommendations of the WHOPES proportionate hole index (pHI) suggest that the pHI hole size categories and failure to account for hole location likely sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions about net

  7. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

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    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  8. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  9. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

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    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  10. Assessing bed net damage: comparisons of three measurement methods for estimating the size, shape, and distribution of holes on bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L; Mathanga, Don P; Landman, Keren; Mwandama, Dyson; Minta, Anna A; Shah, Monica; Sutcliffe, James; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Steinhardt, Laura

    2017-10-10

    Measuring the physical condition of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) under field conditions is of great importance for malaria control programmes to guide decisions on how frequently to replace LLINs. Current guidelines by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) propose a proportionate hole index (pHI) for assessing LLIN condition by counting the number of holes the size of a thumb, fist, head, and larger than a head. However, this method does not account for irregular hole shapes or exact hole sizes which could result in inaccurate decisions about when to replace LLINs. LLINs were collected during a 2013 health facility-based malaria case control study in Machinga District, Malawi. To evaluate the accuracy of the pHI, the physical condition of 277 LLINs was estimated by the WHOPES method and then compared with two more thorough measurement methods: image analysis of digital photographs of each LLIN side; and for 10 nets, ruler measurements of the length, width, and location of each hole. Total hole counts and areas per net were estimated by each method, and detailed results of hole shapes and composite pictures of hole locations were generated using image analysis. The WHOPES method and image analysis resulted in similar estimates of total hole counts, each with a median of 10 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-24 and 4-23, respectively; p = 0.004); however, estimated hole areas were significantly larger using the WHOPES method (median 162 cm 2 , IQR 28-793) than image analysis (median 13 cm 2 , IQR 3-101; p holes than image analysis did (p = 0.002) in 10 LLINs; however, total hole area was not significantly different (p = 0.16). Most holes were not circular but roughly 2-5 times longer in one direction. The lower quarter of LLIN sides was found to have the most holes. The WHOPES method overestimated total hole area, likely because holes are elongated rather than circular, suggesting further adjustments to the pHI formula may be

  11. Modelling the impact of the long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets on Anopheles mosquito biting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Claudia P; Lyra, Silas P; Azevedo, Franciane; Greenhalgh, David; Massad, Eduardo

    2017-09-15

    Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs. An agent-based stochastic model simulates the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on mosquito fitness by reducing the biting rates, as well as increasing mortality rates. The model also incorporates a heritability function that provides the necessary genetic plasticity upon which natural selection would act to maximize the fitness under the pressure of the control strategy. The asymptotic equilibrium distribution of mosquito population versus biting time is shown for several daily uses of ITNs, and the expected disruptive selection on this mosquito trait is observed in the simulations. The relative fitness of strains that bite at much earlier time with respect to the wild strains, when a threshold of about 50% of ITNs coverage highlights the hypothesis of a behaviour selection. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the top three parameters that play a dominant role on the mosquito fitness are the proportion of individuals using bed nets and its effectiveness, the impact of bed nets on mosquito oviposition, and the mosquito genetic plasticity related to changing in biting time. By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects. From the evolutionary point of view of the parasite virulence, it

  12. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    Introduction Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. Objective To

  13. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-09-14

    Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets. Secondary data from community-based surveys on 2484 migrant workers (2013 and 2014, Bago Region) were analyzed of which 37% were seasonal migrants. Bed net access and utilization were assessed using a) availability of at least one bed net per household, and b) one bed net per two persons, and c) proportion of household members who slept under abed net during the previous night (Indicator targets = 100%). Over 70% of all migrants were from unstable work settings with short transitory stays. Average household size was five (range 1-25) and almost half of all households had children under-five years. Roughly 10 % of migrants were night-time workers. Less than 40% of households had contact with health workers and less than 30% had exposure to information education and communication (IEC) materials, the latter being significantly lower among seasonal migrants. About 70% of households were aware of the importance of insecticide-treated bed-nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets (ITNs/LLINs), but knowledge on insecticide impregnation and retreatment of ITNs was poor (Myanmar. Possible ways forward include frequent distribution campaigns to compensate for short transitory stays, matching household distributions to household size, enhanced information campaigns and introducing legislation to make mosquito repellents available for night-time workers at plantations and farms

  14. "Tazomoka Is Not a Problem". Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Chiarella; Pourette, Dolorès; Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka ("mosquito fever"), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo ("fever") and tazomahery ("strong fever") were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to protection against malaria in the eyes

  15. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  16. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  17. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Baixa aderência e alto custo como fatores de insucesso do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com inseticida no controle da malária na Amazônia Brasileira Low adherence and high cost as failure factors of impregnated bed nets with insecticide for malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

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    João Barberino Santos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992, durante um ensaio com mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, conduzido em Porto Murtinho, município de Costa Marques, Rondônia, na Amazônia Brasileira, analisou-se a aderência e os fatores econômicos capazes de reduzir o impacto do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados sobre a morbidade da malária. Os mosquiteiros impregnados tiveram excelente receptividade pela população local. No entanto, a aderência foi muito baixa, principalmente pelos adultos maiores de 15 anos de idade e, durante a estiagem. O preço do mosquiteiro impregnado foi calculado em US$18,83 para casal e, em US$13,82, para solteiro. Apesar das vantagens econômicas do emprego dos mosquiteiros impregnados em larga escala, desde que subsidiados pelas agências governamentais, a baixa aderência verificada, aliada aos fatores epidemiológicos locais, não permitem indicar o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados como medida de proteção em massa na Amazônia.In 1992 during a trial with deltamethrin-impregnated bed nets conducted in Porto Murtinho, municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia, in the Brazilian Amazon, we investigated community compliance and the economic aspects capable of reducing the impact of this intervention on malaria morbidity. Impregnated bed nets were well accepted by the local population. However, compliance was found to be very low among adults over 15 years of age and mainly during the dry season. The cost of impregnated bed nets was US$18.83 for double-bed nets and US$13.82 for single bed nets. Despite the economic advantages of using impregnated bed nets subsidized by the government, the low compliance and local epidemiological factors do not allow to indicate the use of impregnated bed nets for mass malaria control in the Amazon region.

  19. An exploratory qualitative study on perceptions about mosquito bed nets in the Niger Delta: what are the barriers to sustained use?

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    Galvin KT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen T Galvin1, Nick Petford2, Frances Ajose3, Dai Davies41Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, UK; 2University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Lagos State University and The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Niger Delta Development Initiative, Poole, Dorset, UKBackground: The effectiveness of malaria control programs is determined by an array of complex factors, including the acceptability and sustained use of preventative measures such as the bed net. A small-scale exploratory study was conducted in several locations in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria, to discover barriers against the use of bed nets, in the context of a current drive to scale up net use in Nigeria.Methods: A qualitative approach with a convenience sample was used. One to one interviews with mostly male adult volunteers were undertaken which explored typical living and sleeping arrangements, and perceptions about and barriers against the use of the mosquito prevention bed net.Results: Several key issues emerged from the qualitative data. Bed nets were not reported as widely used in this small sample. The reasons reported for lack of use included issues of convenience, especially net set up and dismantling; potential hazard and safety concerns; issues related to typical family composition and nature of accommodation; humid weather conditions; and perceptions of cost and effectiveness. Most barriers to net use concerned issues about everyday practical living and sleeping arrangements and perceptions about comfort. Interviewees identified were aware of malaria infection risks, but several also indicated certain beliefs that were barriers to net use.Conclusions: Successful control of malaria and scale up of insecticide-treated net coverage relies on community perceptions and practice. This small study has illuminated a number of important everyday life issues, which remain barriers to

  20. The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets against African anopheline mosquitoes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Clare Strode

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes.We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization-recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut, deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs using the risk difference (RD. Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01; moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95. For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87; moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60; high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54. For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68; moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; high resistance, RD 0

  1. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

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    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  2. Gender and willingness to pay for insecticides treated bed nets in a poor rural area in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujinja, P G M; Makwaya, C K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-12-01

    To examine socio-economic and malaria related differences between males and females that may cause gender differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for insecticide treated bed nets in a poor rural area. A two-week-interval (test re-test) cross-sectional study. Kisarawe District in coastal Tanzania. Two hundred and fifty one males and two hundred dollars females were interviewed. Females had about 50% of the males' income. The monthly average income was about US dollars 10.50 for females and US dollars 20.20 for males. The proportion of respondents willing to pay for an ITN, for both males and females, declined as the ITN prices increased (Pdifference between men and women, between both rounds were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Male respondents reported a higher mean number of own underfives living in the household compared to women, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.8). Willingness to pay for ITN was found to be independent of having an under five child with recent history of malaria. Among both males and females, there was an association between a recent experience with malaria episode and WTP, p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively. Among females, the proportion of those willing to pay for another person, at the lowest ITN price, was significantly higher in those with under five children in their households than in those with no underfives. This was not the case among the male respondents as the association was not statistically significant. Contrary to expectations were was no statistically significant difference in WTP for an ITN between females and males. Further studies that link willingness and ability to pay are required in rural poor population, such studies may be valuable inputs to government policy on and planning of ITN interventions in the public and private sector.

  3. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Background Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characterist...

  4. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  5. Understanding and preventing type 1 diabetes through the unique working model of TrialNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Manuela; Anderson, Mark S; Buckner, Jane H; Geyer, Susan M; Gottlieb, Peter A; Kay, Thomas W H; Lernmark, Åke; Muller, Sarah; Pugliese, Alberto; Roep, Bart O; Greenbaum, Carla J; Peakman, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease arising from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The disease represents a continuum, progressing sequentially at variable rates through identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms, through diagnosis and into the critical periods that follow, culminating in a variable depth of beta cell depletion. The ability to identify the very earliest of these presymptomatic stages has provided a setting in which prevention strategies can be trialled, as well as furnishing an unprecedented opportunity to study disease evolution, including intrinsic and extrinsic initiators and drivers. This niche opportunity is occupied by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international consortium of clinical trial centres that leads the field in intervention and prevention studies, accompanied by deep longitudinal bio-sampling. In this review, we focus on discoveries arising from this unique bioresource, comprising more than 70,000 samples, and outline the processes and science that have led to new biomarkers and mechanistic insights, as well as identifying new challenges and opportunities. We conclude that via integration of clinical trials and mechanistic studies, drawing in clinicians and scientists and developing partnership with industry, TrialNet embodies an enviable and unique working model for understanding a disease that to date has no cure and for designing new therapeutic approaches.

  6. "People will say that I am proud": a qualitative study of barriers to bed net use away from home in four Ugandan districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, April; Harvey, Steven A; Lam, Yukyan; Muhangi, Denis; Loll, Dana; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Weber, Rachel

    2014-03-06

    Despite increased access and ownership, barriers to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use persist. While barriers within the home have been well documented, the challenges to net use when sleeping away from home remain relatively unexplored. This study examines common situations in which people sleep away from home and the barriers to ITN use in those situations. To explore these issues, a group of researchers conducted 28 in-depth interviews and four focus groups amongst adults from net-owning households in four Ugandan districts. In addition to sleeping outside during hot season, participants identified social events, livelihood activities, and times of difficulty as circumstances in which large numbers of people sleep away from home. Associated challenges to ITN use included social barriers such as fear of appearing proud, logistical barriers such as not having a place to hang a net, and resource limitations such as not having an extra net with which to travel. Social disapproval emerged as an important barrier to ITN use in public settings. Unique barriers to ITN use exist when people spend the night away from home. It is essential to identify and address these barriers in order to reduce malaria exposure in such situations. For events like funerals or religious "crusades" where large numbers of people sleep away from home, alternative approaches, such as spatial repellents may be more appropriate than ITNs. Additional research is required to identify the acceptability and feasibility of alternative prevention strategies in situations where ITNs are unlikely to be effective.

  7. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  8. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops was both reported and observed, and may

  9. Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce plasma antibody levels and limit the repertoire of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askjaer, N; Maxwell, C; Chambo, W

    2001-01-01

    The use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) has been documented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in areas with endemic malaria, but concerns have been raised that ITN usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. Several lines of evidence have indicated that antibodies against...... variant surface antigens (VSA) are important in the development of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may thus be good indicators of immune status. We have compared the levels of VSA antibodies in plasma from children who have used ITN for 4 years to levels in plasma from...

  10. Willingness to pay for small solar powered bed net fans: results of a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Briët, Olivier J T; Ahorlu, Collins K; Nardini, Peter; Keating, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are one of the main interventions recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria vector control. LLINs are ineffective if they are not being used. Subsequent to the completion of a cluster randomized cross over trial conducted in rural Greater Accra where participants were provided with the 'Bɔkɔɔ System'-a set of solar powered net fan and light consoles with a solar panel and battery-or alternative household water filters, all trial participants were invited to participate in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction to determine the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the fan and light consoles and to estimate the demand curve for the units. Results demonstraed a mean WTP of approximately 55 Cedis (~13 USD). Demand results suggested that at a price which would support full manufacturing cost recovery, a majority of households in the area would be willing to purchase at least one such unit.

  11. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. RCT. The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. No differences between groups were found for primary end points--frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate-severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite-occlusive mattress cover and then received either feather upper bedding (pillow and quilt) or standard

  12. Validation of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score in the TrialNet Natural History Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosenko, Jay M; Skyler, Jay S; Mahon, Jeffrey; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C; Greenbaum, Carla J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Cowie, Catherine; Cuthbertson, David; Palmer, Jerry P

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS), developed from the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1), in the TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS). Prediction accuracy of the DPTRS was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve areas. The type 1 diabetes cumulative incidence within the DPTRS intervals was compared between the TNNHS and DPT-1 cohorts. Receiver-operating characteristic curve areas for the DPTRS were substantial in the TNNHS (P < 0.001 at both 2 and 3 years). The type 1 diabetes cumulative incidence did not differ significantly between the TNNHS and DPT-1 cohorts within DPTRS intervals. In the TNNHS, 2-year and 3-year risks were low for DPTRS intervals <6.50 (<0.10 and <0.20, respectively). Thresholds ≥7.50 were indicative of high risk in both cohorts (2-year risks: 0.49 in the TNNHS and 0.51 in DPT-1). The DPTRS is an accurate and robust predictor of type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive populations.

  13. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Manu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints.

  14. Quality of diets with fludized bed combustion residue treatment: II. Swine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsel, T.J.; Reid, R.L.; Stout, W.L.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Growing pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) were fed for an 8-wk period in two trials on diets produced on soils treated with fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) or limestone. Diets contained corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mixtures with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) meal, supplemented with vegetables, fruits, and meat. Pigs were fed ad libitum and effects of diet treatment on rate of gain, N balance, blood composition, and element composition of the carcass and organs were determined. The FBCR diet caused a decrease (P<0.05 in Trial 1, P <0.07 in Trial 2) in body weight gains of pigs, but increased (P<0.05) N retention in one trial. Blood composition was not influenced markedly by diet treatment, with small but significant differences in serum Ca, triglycerides, certain amino acids, and whole blood Pb concentrations; effects were not consistent between trials. Urinary As concentration was slightly higher for pigs on FBCR diets. Analysis of the carcass and organs of pigs slaughtered posttrial showed significant differences in element levels from those of pretrial animals, but differences in tissue mineral concentrations related to diet treatment were few and inconsistent. Element concentrations in the organs of pigs were within normal ranges. No explanation for the depression in weight gain of pigs fed FBCR-treated diets was found. Except for the weight response, results support data from other trials with laboratory animals showing no apparent adverse effects of FBCR application to soils on nutritive quality of foods. 24 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  15. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Manu; Ellen Abrafi Boamah-Kaali; Lawrence Gyabaa Febir; Emmanuel Ayipah; Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante

    2017-01-01

    Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to th...

  16. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,2...

  17. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  18. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch...... methods. In each village, ten paired houses were selected for mosquitoes sampling. Sampling was done in fortnight case and study was undertaken for six months in both Kilimanjaro (Northern Tanzania) and Dodoma (Central Tanzania) regions. RESULTS: A total of 6,883 mosquitoes were collected including: 5......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1...

  19. Quality of diets with fluidized bed combustion residue treatment: I. Rat trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, N.J.; Reid, R.L.; Head, M.K.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Feeding trials were conducted with rats (Rattus rattus) to examine effects of soil application, or dietary inclusion, of fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) on the composition and quality of foods. Four diets (vegetable protein, egg protein, chicken, chicken + dietary FBCR) prepared with either FBCR or lime (control) treatments, were fed to weanling, female rats in three growth and reproduction trials. Intake, growth rate, and composition of body and organs of rats were measured. Rats in one trial were bred, their litters maintained on dietary treatments, and the offspring rebred. Treatment (FBCR vs. lime) x diet interactions on food composition and animal responses generally were not significant. Treatment had little effect on element composition of diets; mineral concentrations were in normal ranges. Diet treatment with FBCR depressed (P<0.01) food intake and growth of rats in one trial, but not in others, and had no effect (P<0.05) on body water, protein, ether extract, or gross energy composition. Some differences in element concentrations in the carcass and organs of rats and pups resulted from FBCR treatment, but effects were small and inconsistent. Litters from the first reproductive cycle appeared normal, except for animals fed the chicken + dietary FBCR treatment, on which pups showed poor growth and anemia. Offspring from certain diets were rebred and litters showed a high mortality, although this was not associated specifically with FBCR treatment. Results indicated no major detrimental effects on food composition, or growth, tissue element accumulation, and reproduction in the rat relating to use of FBCR as a soil amendment. 20 refs., 9 tabs.

  20. Pragmatic trial of an intervention to increase human papillomavirus vaccination in safety-net clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics. Methods Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408 and their mothers (N = 305 enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months. Results At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9% but not significantly after adjusting for patient’s age and mother’s education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm. Conclusions Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16

  1. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  2. Development of autoantibodies in the TrialNet Natural History Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehik, Kendra; Beam, Craig A; Mahon, Jeffrey L; Schatz, Desmond A; Haller, Michael J; Sosenko, Jay M; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between age and islet autoantibody (Ab) seroconversion can establish the optimal screening interval(s) to assess risk for type 1 diabetes, identify subjects who can participate in prevention trials, and determine associated costs. This study assessed the rates of seroconversion to glutamic acid decarboxylase positive (GAD65(+)), insulin positive (mIAA(+)), and insulinoma-associated protein 2 positive (ICA512(+)) in a large cohort of relatives of type 1 diabetes probands undergoing Ab rescreening in the TrialNet Natural History Study. Of 32,845 children aged <18 years screened for Abs, 1,287 (3.9%) were GAD65(+), 778 (2.4%) were mIAA(+), 677 (2.1%) were ICA512(+), and 31,038 were Ab-negative. Ab-negative children were offered annual rescreening up to 18 years of age. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk for GAD65, mIAA, and ICA512 seroconversion. RESULTS There were 205 children who seroconverted to GAD65(+), 155 who seroconverted to mIAA(+), and 53 who seroconverted to ICA512(+) over 5.8 years of follow-up. The risk of mIAA (hazard ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.85-0.92]) and GAD65 (0.96 [0.93-0.99]) seroconversion significantly decreased with increasing age (i.e., for each 1-year increase in age, the risk of seroconversion decreased by 11% [P < 0.0001] for mIAA and 4% [P = 0.04] for GAD65) across all ages. The cumulative Ab seroconversion was 2% for those <10 years of age versus 0.7% for those ≥10 years of age. The risk of development of islet Abs declines with increasing age in type 1 diabetes relatives. These data support annual screening for children <10 years of age and one additional screening in adolescence.

  3. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  4. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  5. Study protocol for "Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET)": a pragmatic trial comparing implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rachel; Hollombe, Celine; Bunce, Arwen; Nelson, Christine; Davis, James V; Cowburn, Stuart; Perrin, Nancy; DeVoe, Jennifer; Mossman, Ned; Boles, Bruce; Horberg, Michael; Dearing, James W; Jaworski, Victoria; Cohen, Deborah; Smith, David

    2015-10-16

    Little research has directly compared the effectiveness of implementation strategies in any setting, and we know of no prior trials directly comparing how effectively different combinations of strategies support implementation in community health centers. This paper outlines the protocol of the Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET), a trial designed to compare the effectiveness of several common strategies for supporting implementation of an intervention and explore contextual factors that impact the strategies' effectiveness in the community health center setting. This cluster-randomized trial compares how three increasingly hands-on implementation strategies support adoption of an evidence-based diabetes quality improvement intervention in 29 community health centers, managed by 12 healthcare organizations. The strategies are as follows: (arm 1) a toolkit, presented in paper and electronic form, which includes a training webinar; (arm 2) toolkit plus in-person training with a focus on practice change and change management strategies; and (arm 3) toolkit, in-person training, plus practice facilitation with on-site visits. We use a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis: (i) baseline surveys on study clinic characteristics, to explore how these characteristics impact the clinics' ability to implement the tools and the effectiveness of each implementation strategy; (ii) quantitative data on change in rates of guideline-concordant prescribing; and (iii) qualitative data on the "how" and "why" underlying the quantitative results. The outcomes of interest are clinic-level results, categorized using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, within an interrupted time-series design with segmented regression models. This pragmatic trial will compare how well each implementation strategy works in "real-world" practices. Having a better understanding of how different

  6. Co-bedding between preterm twins attenuates stress response after heel lance: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Yeo, Marsha L; Johnston, C Celeste; Joseph, K S; Feeley, Nancy; Chambers, Christine T; Barrington, Keith J; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effect of co-bedding between preterm twins on stress response after heel lance. Using a multisite randomized controlled trial design, stable preterm twins (67 sets, N=134 infants) between 28 and 36 completed weeks' gestational age, stratified by gestational age (≤ and >32 weeks) and site, were randomly assigned to a co-bedding group, cared for continuously in the same incubator or crib or a standard care group, cared for in a separate incubator or crib, and underwent a medically indicated heel lance after at least 24 hours and no greater than 10 days of group allocation. The reported outcome was cortisol from saliva samples from 89 twins (n=49 co-bedding, n=40 standard care) collected immediately before the heel lance (baseline levels) and 113 twins (n=58 co-bedding, n=55 standard care) collected 20 minutes after heel lance (stress levels) as an index of stress response. No group differences were noted in baseline salivary cortisol levels: 0.36 μg/dL (SD 0.25) in the co-bedding group and 0.43 μg/dL (SD 0.50) in the standard care group. Twenty minutes after lance, levels were significantly lower in the co-bedding group, 0.28 μg/dL (SD 0.25) versus 0.50 μg/dL (SD 0.73) in the standard group (P=0.04). Similarly, the mean of paired changes in salivary cortisol from baseline was lower in the co-bedding group (-0.06 μg/dL) compared with the standard care group (0.14 μg/dL, Plance. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT009176.

  7. The effectiveness of a simulated scenario to teach nursing students how to perform a bed bath: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Renata Pinto Ribeiro; de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Érika; Silva Lima, Rogério; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni; Simões, Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-10-01

    Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. Nursing students (n=58). The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use.

  9. Insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Gamble

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection from malaria with insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of benefit has been inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review of randomised trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three cluster-randomised and two individually randomised trials met the inclusion criteria; four from Africa (n = 6,418 and one from Thailand (n = 223. In Africa, ITNs compared to no nets increased mean birth weight by 55 g (95% confidence interval [CI] 21-88, reduced low birth weight by 23% (relative risk [RR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98, and reduced miscarriages/stillbirths by 33% (RR 0.67, 0.47-0.97 in the first few pregnancies. Placental parasitaemia was reduced by 23% in all gravidae (RR 0.77, 0.66-0.90. The effects were apparent in the cluster-randomised trials and the one individually randomised trial in Africa. The trial in Thailand, which randomised individuals to ITNs or untreated nets, showed reductions in anaemia and fetal loss in all gravidae, but not reductions in clinical malaria or low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: ITNs used throughout pregnancy or from mid-pregnancy onwards have a beneficial impact on pregnancy outcome in malaria-endemic Africa in the first few pregnancies. The potential impact of ITNs in pregnant women and their newborns in malaria regions outside Africa requires further research.

  10. Changes of attachment characteristics during psychotherapy of patients with social anxiety disorder: Results from the SOPHO-Net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard; Altmann, Uwe; Manes, Susanne; Tholl, Anne; Koranyi, Susan; Nolte, Tobias; Beutel, Manfred E; Wiltink, Jörg; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Jürgen; Joraschky, Peter; Nolting, Björn; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich; Willutzki, Ulrike; Salzer, Simone; Leibing, Eric; Leichsenring, Falk; Kirchmann, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Within a randomized controlled trial contrasting the outcome of manualized cognitive-behavioral (CBT) and short term psychodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to a waiting list condition (the SOPHO-Net trial), we set out to test whether self-reported attachment characteristics change during the treatments and if these changes differ between treatments. 495 patients from the SOPHO-Net trial (54.5% female, mean age 35.2 years) who were randomized to either CBT, PDT or waiting list (WL) completed the partner-related revised Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (ECR-R) before and after treatment and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6-month and 1-year follow-up. ECR-R scores were first compared to a representative healthy sample (n = 2508) in order to demonstrate that the clinical sample differed significantly from the non-clinical sample with respect to attachment anxiety and avoidance. LSAS scores correlated significantly with both ECR-R subscales. Post-therapy, patients treated with CBT revealed significant changes in attachment anxiety and avoidance whereas patients treated with PDT showed no significant changes. Changes between post-treatment and the two follow-ups were significant in both conditions, with minimal (insignificant) differences between treatments at the 12- month follow-up. The current study supports recent reviews of mostly naturalistic studies indicating changes in attachment as a result of psychotherapy. Although there were differences between conditions at the end of treatment, these largely disappeared during the follow-up period which is line with the other results of the SOPHO-NET trial. Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN53517394.

  11. Co-bedding as a Comfort measure For Twins undergoing painful procedures (CComForT Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feeley Nancy L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-bedding, a developmental care strategy, is the practice of caring for diaper clad twins in one incubator (versus separating and caring for each infant in separate incubators, thus creating the opportunity for skin-to-skin contact and touch between the twins. In studies of mothers and their infants, maternal skin-to-skin contact has been shown to decrease procedural pain response according to both behavioral and physiological indicators in very preterm neonates. It is uncertain if this comfort is derived solely from maternal presence or from stabilization of regulatory processes from direct skin contact. The intent of this study is to compare the comfort effect of co-bedding (between twin infants who are co-bedding and those who are not on infant pain response and physiologic stability during a tissue breaking procedure (heelstick. Methods/Design Medically stable preterm twin infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit will be randomly assigned to a co-bedding group or a standard care group. Pain response will be measured by physiological and videotaped facial reaction using the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale (PIPP. Recovery from the tissue breaking procedure will be determined by the length of time for heart rate and oxygen saturation to return to baseline. Sixty four sets of twins (n = 128 will be recruited into the study. Analysis and inference will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If twin contact while co-bedding is determined to have a comforting effect for painful procedures, then changes in current neonatal care practices to include co-bedding may be an inexpensive, non invasive method to help maintain physiologic stability and decrease the long term psychological impact of procedural pain in this high risk population. Knowledge obtained from this study will also add to existing theoretical models with respect to the exact mechanism of comfort through touch. Trial registration

  12. Rethinking the therapeutic misconception: social justice, patient advocacy, and cancer clinical trial recruitment in the US safety net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J

    2014-09-20

    Approximately 20% of adult cancer patients are eligible to participate in a clinical trial, but only 2.5-9% do so. Accrual is even less for minority and medically underserved populations. As a result, critical life-saving treatments and quality of life services developed from research studies may not address their needs. This study questions the utility of the bioethical concern with therapeutic misconception (TM), a misconception that occurs when research subjects fail to distinguish between clinical research and ordinary treatment, and therefore attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures in the safety net setting. This paper provides ethnographic insight into the ways in which research is discussed and related to standard treatment. In the course of two years of ethnographic fieldwork in a safety net hospital, I conducted clinic observations (n=150 clinic days) and in-depth in-person qualitative interviews with patients (n=37) and providers (n=15). I used standard qualitative methods to organize and code resulting fieldnote and interview data. Findings suggest that TM is limited in relevance for the interdisciplinary context of cancer clinical trial recruitment in the safety net setting. Ethnographic data show the value of the discussions that happen prior to the informed consent, those that introduce the idea of participation in research. These preliminary discussions are elemental especially when recruiting underserved and vulnerable patients for clinical trial participation who are often unfamiliar with medical research and how it relates to medical care. Data also highlight the multiple actors involved in research discussions and the ethics of social justice and patient advocacy they mobilize, suggesting that class, inequality, and dependency influence the forms of ethical engagements in public hospital settings. On the ground ethics of social justice and patient advocacy are more relevant than TM as guiding ethical principles in the context of

  13. Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine-Based Intermittent Preventive Treatment, Bed Net Use, and Antenatal Care during Pregnancy: Demographic Trends and Impact on the Health of Newborns in the Kassena Nankana District, Northeastern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    all children less than five years of age and for pregnant and nursing women. Design. This study was a prospective cohort study in which pregnant...during 2003.7 Similarly, bed net use during pregnancy, which was reported by 29% of 102 nursing and pregnant women sur- veyed in 2000, increased...malarious area of Malawi. Ann Trap Paediatr 24: 311-321. 27. Uneke CJ, I yare FE, Sunday-Adeoye H. Ajayi JA, 2008. Evalua- tion of maternal malaria at

  14. Carotid artery stenting in high surgical risk patients using the FiberNet embolic protection system: the EPIC trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myla, Subbarao; Bacharach, J Michael; Ansel, Gary M; Dippel, Eric J; McCormick, Daniel J; Popma, Jeffrey J

    2010-05-01

    The multicenter EPIC (FiberNet Embolic Protection System in Carotid Artery Stenting Trial) single-arm trial evaluated the 30-day outcomes of a new design concept for embolic protection during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Embolic protection filters available for use during CAS include fixed and over-the-wire systems that rely on embolic material capture within a "basket" structure. The FiberNet Embolic Protection System (EPS), which features a very low crossing profile, consists of a three-dimensional fiber-based filter distally mounted on a 0.014 inch guidewire with integrated aspiration during filter retrieval. The trial enrolled 237 patients from 26 centers. Demographics, clinical and lesion characteristics, as well as adverse events through a 30-day follow-up were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 74 years, 64% were male and 20% had symptomatic carotid artery disease. The combined major adverse event (MAE) rate at 30 days for all death, stroke, and myocardial infarction was 3.0%. There were three major strokes (two ischemic and one hemorrhagic) and two minor strokes (both ischemic) for a 2.1% 30-day stroke rate. The procedural technical success rate was 97.5% and macroscopic evidence of debris was reported in 90.9% of the procedures. The FiberNet EPS, used with commercially available stents, produced low stroke rates following CAS in high surgical risk patients presenting with carotid artery disease. The unique filter design including aspiration during retrieval may have contributed to the low 30-day stroke rate reported during CAS in patients considered at high risk for complications following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  16. Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, J. A.; Richards, J.; Rath, B.; Machaca, V. Q.; Castro, Y. E.; Málaga, E. S.; Levy, K.; Gilman, R. H.; Bern, C.; Verastegui, M.; Levy, M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2011), s. 591-594 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/11/P798 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Triatoma infestans * Impregnated net * Sentinel guinea pig * Saliva * Antibody response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  17. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet: A Multifaceted Approach to Bringing Disease-Modifying Therapy to Clinical Use in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Wherrett, Diane K; Shultz, Ann; Rafkin, Lisa E; Atkinson, Mark A; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2018-04-01

    What will it take to bring disease-modifying therapy to clinical use in type 1 diabetes? Coordinated efforts of investigators involved in discovery, translational, and clinical research operating in partnership with funders and industry and in sync with regulatory agencies are needed. This Perspective describes one such effort, Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, a National Institutes of Health-funded and JDRF-supported international clinical trials network that emerged from the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1). Through longitudinal natural history studies, as well as trials before and after clinical onset of disease combined with mechanistic and ancillary investigations to enhance scientific understanding and translation to clinical use, TrialNet is working to bring disease-modifying therapies to individuals with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, TrialNet uses its expertise and experience in clinical studies to increase efficiencies in the conduct of trials and to reduce the burden of participation on individuals and families. Herein, we highlight key contributions made by TrialNet toward a revised understanding of the natural history of disease and approaches to alter disease course and outline the consortium's plans for the future. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. The TrialNet Natural History Study of the Development of Type 1 Diabetes: objectives, design, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jeffrey L; Sosenko, Jay M; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Lachin, John M; Thompson, Clinton; Bingley, Polly J; Bonifacio, Ezio; Palmer, Jerry P; Eisenbarth, George S; Wolfsdorf, Joseph; Skyler, Jay S

    2009-04-01

    TrialNet's goal to test preventions for type 1 diabetes has created an opportunity to gain new insights into the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes. The TrialNet Natural History Study (NHS) will assess the predictive value of existing and novel risk markers for type 1 diabetes and will find subjects for prevention trials. The NHS is a three-phase, prospective cohort study. In phase 1 (screening), pancreatic autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin, ICA-512, and islet cell antibodies) are measured. Phase 2 (baseline risk assessment) includes oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in antibody-positive subjects and estimation of 5-yr diabetes risks according to the OGTT and number of confirmed positive antibody tests. Phase 3 (follow-up risk assessments) requires OGTTs every 6 months. In phases 2 and 3, samples are collected for future tests of T-lymphocyte function, autoantibody isotypes, RNA gene expression, and proteomics. The primary outcome is diabetes onset. Of 12 636 relatives screened between March 2004 and December 2006, 605 (4.8%) were positive for at least one biochemical antibody. Of these, 322 were confirmed antibody positive and completed phase 2, of whom 296 subjects were given preliminary 5-yr diabetes risks of or =25% (n = 36), and > or =50% (n = 128) where the latter two categories represent different subjects based on number of confirmed positive antibodies (2, > or =25%; 3 or more, > or =50%) and/or an abnormal OGTT (> or =50%). The NHS is identifying potential prevention trial subjects and is assembling a large cohort that will provide new natural history information about pre-type 1 diabetes. Follow-up to diabetes will help establish the biological significance and clinical value of novel type 1 diabetes risk markers.

  19. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,287 subjects developed diabetes. Univariate analyses showed that autoantibodies by radioimmunoassays (RIAs), ECL-IAA, ECL-GADA, age, sex, number of positive autoantibodies, presence of HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements were all significantly associated with progression to diabetes. Subjects who were ECL positive had a risk of progression to diabetes within 6 years of 58% compared with 5% for the ECL-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were compared, with the base model including age, sex, OGTT measurements, and number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs. The model with positivity for ECL-GADA and/or ECL-IAA was the best, and factors that remained significantly associated with time to diabetes were area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide, fasting C-peptide, AUC glucose, number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs, and ECL positivity. Adding ECL to the Diabetes Prevention Trial risk score (DPTRS) improved the receiver operating characteristic curves with AUC of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). ECL assays improved the ability to predict time to diabetes in these autoantibody-positive relatives at risk for developing diabetes. These findings might be helpful in the design and eligibility criteria for prevention trials in the future. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  1. Once-Yearly Zoledronic Acid and Days of Disability, Bed Rest, and Back Pain: Randomized, Controlled HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Jane A.; Black, Dennis; Boonen, Steven; Cummings, Steven R.; Mesenbrink, Peter; Palermo, Lisa; Man, Zulema; Hadji, Peyman; Reid, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of once-yearly zoledronic acid on the number of days of back pain and the number of days of disability (ie, limited activity and bed rest) owing to back pain or fracture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 240 clinical centers in 27 countries. Participants included 7736 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Patients were randomized to receive either a single 15-minute intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) or placebo at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The main outcome measures were self-reported number of days with back pain and the number of days of limited activity and bed rest owing to back pain or a fracture, and this was assessed every 3 months over a 3-year period. Our results show that although the incidence of back pain was high in both randomized groups, women randomized to zoledronic acid experienced, on average, 18 fewer days of back pain compared with placebo over the course of the trial (p = .0092). The back pain among women randomized to zoledronic acid versus placebo resulted in 11 fewer days of limited activity (p = .0017). In Cox proportional-hazards models, women randomized to zoledronic acid were about 6% less likely to experience 7 or more days of back pain [relative risk (RR) = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90–0.99] or limited activity owing to back pain (RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.00). Women randomized to zoledronic acid were significantly less likely to experience 7 or more bed-rest days owing to a fracture (RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.47–0.72) and 7 or more limited-activity days owing to a fracture (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.58–0.78). Reductions in back pain with zoledronic acid were independent of incident fracture. Our conclusion is that in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, a once-yearly infusion with zoledronic acid over a 3-year period significantly reduced the number of days that

  2. Effect of malaria transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) and circumsporozoite (CSP) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Simon K; Njunge, James; Muia, Ann; Muluvi, Geofrey; Gatei, Wangeci; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Terlouw, Dianne J; Hawley, William A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nahlen, Bernard L; Lindblade, Kim A; Hamel, Mary J; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping

    2013-08-27

    Although several studies have investigated the impact of reduced malaria transmission due to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the patterns of morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on their effect on parasite diversity. Sequencing was used to investigate the effect of ITNs on polymorphisms in two genes encoding leading Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens, the 19 kilodalton blood stage merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1(19kDa)) and the Th2R and Th3R T-cell epitopes of the pre-erythrocytic stage circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in a large community-based ITN trial site in western Kenya. The number and frequency of haplotypes as well as nucleotide and haplotype diversity were compared among parasites obtained from children diversity of > 0.7. No MSP-1(19kDa) 3D7 sequence-types were detected in 1996 and the frequency was less than 4% in 2001. The CSP Th2R and Th3R domains were highly polymorphic with a total of 26 and 14 haplotypes, respectively detected in 1996 and 34 and 13 haplotypes in 2001, with an overall haplotype diversity of > 0.9 and 0.75 respectively. The frequency of the most predominant Th2R and Th3R haplotypes was 14 and 36%, respectively. The frequency of Th2R and Th3R haplotypes corresponding to the 3D7 parasite strain was less than 4% at both time points. There was no significant difference in nucleotide and haplotype diversity in parasite isolates collected at both time points. High diversity in these two genes has been maintained overtime despite marked reductions in malaria transmission due to ITNs use. The frequency of 3D7 sequence-types was very low in this area. These findings provide information that could be useful in the design of future malaria vaccines for deployment in endemic areas with high ITN coverage and in interpretation of efficacy data for malaria vaccines based on 3D7 parasite strains.

  3. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Murari; Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Suman, Rijal; Dinesh, Diwakar; Coosemans, Marc; Sundar, Shyam; Shreekant, Kesari; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before and after intervention' design in 58 households in six clusters. The use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% CI 76.5-91.1%) and the HBI by 42.2% (95% CI 11.1-62.5%). These results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.

  4. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  5. Field trial on a novel control method for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti by the systematic use of Olyset® Net and pyriproxyfen in Southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunoda Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jars, tanks, and drums provide favorable rearing/breeding sites for Aedes aegypti in Vietnam. However, the use of insecticides to control mosquitoes at such breeding sites has not been approved in Vietnam since they are also often sources of drinking water, making larval vector control difficult. Mosquito nets pre-treated with long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs form an effective measure for malaria control. We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti to evaluate the efficacy of covering ceramic jars with lids comprising one type of LLITN, Olyset® Net, in inhibiting oviposition by adult females, and to evaluate the effect of treating other breeding containers, such as flower vases, inside and around the outside of houses with a slow-release pyriproxyfen formulation to kill pupae. Methods We selected 313 households for the trial and 363 households for the control in Tan Chanh, Long An province, Vietnam. In the trial area, Olyset® Net lids were used to cover five major types of water container (ceramic jars, cylindrical concrete tanks, other concrete tanks, plastic drums, and plastic buckets, while pyriproxyfen was used to treat flower vases and ant traps. We also monitored dengue virus transmission by measuring anti-dengue IgM and IgG levels in healthy residents in both control and trial areas to estimate the effectiveness of Olyset® Net at controlling the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Results The container-index and house-index for immature Ae. aegypti fell steeply one month after treatment in the trial area. Lids with Olyset® Net that fit container openings clearly seemed to reduce the presence of immature Ae. aegypti as the density of pupae decreased 1 month after treatment in the trial area. Pyriproxyfen was also effective at killing pupae in the water containers in the trial area. Although the dengue seroconversion rate was not influenced by Olyset® Net, it was lower in two-five year old

  6. Field trial on a novel control method for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti by the systematic use of Olyset® Net and pyriproxyfen in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Huynh, Trang T T; Luu, Loan Le; Le, San Hoang; Tran, Huu Ngoc; Vu, Huong Thi Que; Le, Hieu Minh; Hasebe, Futoshi; Tsuzuki, Ataru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2013-01-11

    Jars, tanks, and drums provide favorable rearing/breeding sites for Aedes aegypti in Vietnam. However, the use of insecticides to control mosquitoes at such breeding sites has not been approved in Vietnam since they are also often sources of drinking water, making larval vector control difficult. Mosquito nets pre-treated with long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) form an effective measure for malaria control. We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti to evaluate the efficacy of covering ceramic jars with lids comprising one type of LLITN, Olyset® Net, in inhibiting oviposition by adult females, and to evaluate the effect of treating other breeding containers, such as flower vases, inside and around the outside of houses with a slow-release pyriproxyfen formulation to kill pupae. We selected 313 households for the trial and 363 households for the control in Tan Chanh, Long An province, Vietnam. In the trial area, Olyset® Net lids were used to cover five major types of water container (ceramic jars, cylindrical concrete tanks, other concrete tanks, plastic drums, and plastic buckets), while pyriproxyfen was used to treat flower vases and ant traps. We also monitored dengue virus transmission by measuring anti-dengue IgM and IgG levels in healthy residents in both control and trial areas to estimate the effectiveness of Olyset® Net at controlling the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The container-index and house-index for immature Ae. aegypti fell steeply one month after treatment in the trial area. Lids with Olyset® Net that fit container openings clearly seemed to reduce the presence of immature Ae. aegypti as the density of pupae decreased 1 month after treatment in the trial area. Pyriproxyfen was also effective at killing pupae in the water containers in the trial area. Although the dengue seroconversion rate was not influenced by Olyset® Net, it was lower in two-five year old children when compared to older children and adults in

  7. A comparison of the baseline metabolic profiles between Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 and TrialNet Natural History Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosenko, Jay M; Mahon, Jeffrey; Rafkin, Lisa; Lachin, John M; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Cuthbertson, David; Palmer, Jerry P; Thompson, Clinton; Greenbaum, Carla J; Skyler, Jay S

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether differing autoantibody screening criteria for type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trials result in different baseline metabolic profiles of those who screen positive. Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) participants were screened for islet cell autoantibodies, whereas TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants were screened for biochemical autoantibodies. In both studies, those determined to be autoantibody positive underwent baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in which glucose and C-peptide were measured. The percentage of those with an OGTT in the diabetic range was higher among the DPT-1 participants (10.0% of 956 vs. 6.4% of 645, p < 0.01). In a logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age and gender, the difference persisted (p < 0.01). Among those in the non-diabetic range (n = 860 for DPT-1 and n = 604 for the TNNHS), glucose levels were similar at all time points, except for higher fasting glucose levels in the TNNHS participants (p < 0.001). There was a higher percentage of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the TNNHS participants (10.9 vs. 6.7%, p < 0.01); however, with adjustments for age and gender, there was no longer a significant difference. There was no significant difference in the percentages with impaired glucose tolerance. C-peptide levels were much lower in the DPT-1 cohort at all OGTT time points (p < 0.001 for all). Differing criteria for autoantibody screening can result in marked differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of prospective participants of T1D prevention trials. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Trials for product's data management through RosettaNet using RosettaNet Technical Dictionary (RNTD) and Partner Interface Processes (PIP) 2A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinya, H. [NEC Electronics Corp. (Japan); Katsumi, S. [Sony Corporation Corp. (Japan); Seigo, I. [Toshiba Corp. (Japan); Eita, I. [Fujitsu LTD. (Japan); Hisashi, F.; Mackin, J.W. [RosettaNet (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    We face a major challenge in identifying and tracking the amount of hazardous materials contained in electric and electronic products (EE) in accordance with various changing laws or customers' demands. Hence, the Material Composition Milestone Program (MatComp) was established in RosettaNet (USA) on Jan 2003. Many major electronics companies including NOKIA, Sony, NEC Electronics, Toshiba, Fujitsu, etc. are involved in the MatComp program. In addition, RosettaNet Japan has established an environmental information team to develop dictionaries for chemicals listed in the Joint Industry Guide (draft) which was published September, 2003. The RosettaNet RNTD and PIP 2A10 enable product material composition notification between trading partners. 2A10 allows us to describe the product in a hierarchical structure along with product itself in a method similar to IMDS's requirements. In this paper, we will demonstrate the advantage of using RosettaNet protocol for product data exchange between trading partners. Our goal is to complete a full-automated transaction to a design for environment (DfE). (orig.)

  9. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Heng, S.; Gryseels, C.; Canier, L.; Kim, S.; Van Roey, K.; Kerkhof, K.; Khim, N.; Mao, S.; Menard, D.; Coosemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We

  10. A Patient Navigator Intervention to Reduce Hospital Readmissions among High-Risk Safety-Net Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Richard B; Galbraith, Alison A; Burns, Marguerite E; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Larochelle, Marc R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based interventions to reduce hospital readmissions may not generalize to resource-constrained safety-net hospitals. To determine if an intervention by patient navigators (PNs), hospital-based Community Health Workers, reduces readmissions among high risk, low socioeconomic status patients. Randomized controlled trial. General medicine inpatients having at least one of the following readmission risk factors: (1) age ≥60 years, (2) any in-network inpatient admission within the past 6 months, (3) length of stay ≥3 days, (4) admission diagnosis of heart failure, or (5) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analytic sample included 585 intervention patients and 925 controls. PNs provided coaching and assistance in navigating the transition from hospital to home through hospital visits and weekly telephone outreach, supporting patients for 30 days post-discharge with discharge preparation, medication management, scheduling of follow-up appointments, communication with primary care, and symptom management. The primary outcome was in-network 30-day hospital readmissions. Secondary outcomes included rates of outpatient follow-up. We evaluated outcomes for the entire cohort and stratified by patient age >60 years (425 intervention/584 controls) and ≤60 years (160 intervention/341 controls). Overall, 30-day readmission rates did not differ between intervention and control patients. However, the two age groups demonstrated marked differences. Intervention patients >60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 4.1% decrease [95% CI: -8.0%, -0.2%] in readmission with an increase in 30-day outpatient follow-up. Intervention patients ≤60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 11.8% increase [95% CI: 4.4%, 19.0%] in readmission with no change in 30-day outpatient follow-up. A patient navigator intervention among high risk, safety-net patients decreased readmission among older patients while increasing readmissions

  11. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  12. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  13. Designing clinical trials to address the needs of childhood and adult asthma: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand; Busse, William W

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute announced its intent to support a new asthma network known as AsthmaNet. This clinical trials consortium, now in its fifth year, has been charged with developing and executing clinical trials to address the most important asthma management questions and identify new treatment approaches in pediatric and adult patients. This review will discuss the organization of AsthmaNet and the scientific context in which the network was developed and began its work, report the results of an internal priority-setting exercise designed to guide the network's scientific strategy, and highlight the portfolio of clinical trials, proof-of-concept studies, and mechanistic studies planned for the 7-year period of the network to update the global asthma community regarding the progress and processes of the network. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  15. Validation of the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 Risk Score in the TrialNet Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosenko, Jay M.; Skyler, Jay S.; Mahon, Jeffrey; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Beam, Craig A.; Boulware, David C.; Greenbaum, Carla J.; Rafkin, Lisa E.; Cowie, Catherine; Cuthbertson, David; Palmer, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed the accuracy of the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS), developed from the Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 (DPT-1), in the TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prediction accuracy of the DPTRS was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve areas. The type 1 diabetes cumulative incidence within the DPTRS intervals was compared between the TNNHS and DPT-1 cohorts. RESULTS Receiver-operating characteristic curve areas for the DPTRS were substantial in the TNNHS (P < 0.001 at both 2 and 3 years). The type 1 diabetes cumulative incidence did not differ significantly between the TNNHS and DPT-1 cohorts within DPTRS intervals. In the TNNHS, 2-year and 3-year risks were low for DPTRS intervals <6.50 (<0.10 and <0.20, respectively). Thresholds ≥7.50 were indicative of high risk in both cohorts (2-year risks: 0.49 in the TNNHS and 0.51 in DPT-1). CONCLUSIONS The DPTRS is an accurate and robust predictor of type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive populations. PMID:21680724

  16. Trials and tribulations of a new regulation: coal bed methane water well testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Norwest Labs, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lintott, D.; Swyngedouw, C.; Schneider, E. [Bodycote Testing Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    As of January 2006, coalbed methane (CBM) activity in Alberta was at 3600 producing wells with the potential for 25,000 to 50,000 wells. Coalbed methane risks and regulations were discussed. Regulatory initiatives, politics of coalbed methane, and a regulatory timeline was provided and the trials of a new regulation were presented. Other topics of discussion included: methane sampling and analysis; dissolved methane in water; gas isotopes; routine water potability; microbiology testing; and, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)/iron-related bacteria (IRB) method validation. The results of the microbial testing were presented. Although relatively few positive coliforms in wells were analyzed, most wells demonstrated positive presence for iron and sulfate bacteria. It was recommended that further research be conducted to evaluate the water sulfide concentration/turbidity, along with other parameters with presence and concentration of SRB and IRB bacteria as an indication of poor water quality. refs., tabs.

  17. The effect of small solar powered 'Bͻkͻͻ' net fans on mosquito net use: results from a randomized controlled cross-over trial in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Yukich, Joshua O; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Miller, William; Jaeger, Mulako S; Khanna, Nitin; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Ahorlu, Collins K; Keating, Joseph

    2017-01-03

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are ineffective malaria transmission prevention tools if they are unused. Discomfort due to heat is the most commonly reported reason for not using nets, but this problem is largely unaddressed. With increasing rural electrification and the dropping price of solar power, fans could improve comfort inside nets and be affordable to populations in malaria endemic areas. Here, results are presented from a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study testing the effect of fans on LLIN use. Eighty-three households from two rural communities in Greater Accra, Ghana, randomized into three groups, participated in a 10-month cross-over trial. After a screening survey to identify eligible households, all households received new LLINs. Bͻkͻͻ net fan systems (one fan per member) were given to households in Group 1 and water filters were given to households in Group 2. At mid-point, Group 1 and 2 crossed over interventions. Households in Group 1 and 2 participated in fortnightly surveys on households' practices related to nets, fans and water filters, while households in Group 3 were surveyed only at screening, mid-point and study end. Entomological and weather data were collected throughout the study. Analysis took both 'per protocol' (PP) and 'intention to treat' (ITT) approaches. The mid- and end-point survey data from Group 1 and 2 were analysed using Firth logistic regressions. Fortnightly survey data from all groups were analysed using logistic regressions with random effects. Provision of fans to households appeared to increase net use in this study. Although the increase in net use explained by fans was not significant in the primary analyses (ITT odds ratio 3.24, p > 0.01; PP odds ratio = 1.17, p > 0.01), it was significant in secondary PP analysis (odds ratio = 1.95, p Fan use was 90-100% depending on the fortnightly visit. This pilot study could not provide definitive evidence that fans increase net use. A larger

  18. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  19. Strength in Numbers: Opportunities for Enhancing the Development of Effective Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes-The TrialNet Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Speake, Cate; Krischer, Jeffrey; Buckner, Jane; Gottlieb, Peter A; Schatz, Desmond A; Herold, Kevan C; Atkinson, Mark A

    2018-07-01

    The early to mid-1980s were an inflection point in the history of type 1 diabetes research. Two landmark events occurred: the initiation of immune-based interventions seeking to prevent type 1 diabetes and the presentation of an innovative model describing the disorder's natural history. Both formed the basis for hundreds of subsequent studies designed to achieve a dramatic therapeutic goal-a means to prevent and/or reverse type 1 diabetes. However, the need to screen large numbers of individuals and prospectively monitor them using immunologic and metabolic tests for extended periods of time suggested such efforts would require a large collaborative network. Hence, the National Institutes of Health formed the landmark Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) in the mid-1990s, an effort that led to Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet. TrialNet studies have helped identify novel biomarkers; delineate type 1 diabetes progression, resulting in identification of highly predictable stages defined by the accumulation of autoantibodies (stage 1), dysglycemia (stage 2), and disease meeting clinical criteria for diagnosis (stage 3); and oversee numerous clinical trials aimed at preventing disease progression. Such efforts pave the way for stage-specific intervention trials with improved hope that a means to effectively disrupt the disorder's development will be identified. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picado, Albert; Singh, Shri Prakash; Rijal, Suman

    2010-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.......To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal....

  1. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  2. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  3. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  4. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  5. Long lasting insecticidal bed nets ownership, access and use in a high malaria transmission setting before and after a mass distribution campaign in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzira, Humphrey; Eganyu, Thomas; Mulebeke, Ronald; Bukenya, Fred; Echodu, Dorothy; Adoke, Yeka

    2018-01-01

    Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign. Data on three main LLIN indicators including; household LLIN ownership, population with access to an LLIN and use were collected using a household and a women's questionnaire identical to the Malaria Indicator Survey. A total of 601 and 607 households were randomly selected in survey one and two respectively. At baseline, 60.57% (56.53-64.50) of households owned at least one net for every two persons who stayed in the household the night before the survey which significantly increased to 70.35% (66.54-73.96) after the campaign (p = 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of the household population with access to an LLIN significantly increased from 84.76% (82.99-86.52) to 91.57% (90.33-92.81), p = 0.001 and the percentage of household population that slept under an LLIN the night before the survey also significantly increased from 56.85% (55.06-58.82) to 81.72% (76.75-83.21), p = 0.001. The LLIN mass campaign successfully achieved the national target of over eighty-five percent of the population with access to an LLIN in this setting, however, universal household coverage and use were fourteen and three percent points less than the national target respectively. This is useful for malaria programs to consider during the planning of future campaigns by tailoring efforts around deficient areas like mechanisms to increase universal coverage and behavior change communication.

  6. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  7. Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Candrinho, Baltazar; Chambe, Geraldo; Muchanga, João; Muguande, Olinda; Matsinhe, Graça; Mathe, Guidion; Rogier, Eric; Doyle, Timothy; Zulliger, Rose; Colborn, James; Saifodine, Abu; Lammie, Patrick; Priest, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-01

    Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases. Two cross-sectional household surveys at baseline and one year after a LLIN distribution campaign were implemented in Mecubúri and Nacala-a-Velha Districts in Nampula Province, Mozambique. Both districts were known to be endemic for LF; both received mass drug administration (MDA) with antifilarial drugs during the evaluation period. Access to and use of LLINs was recorded, and household members were tested with P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed for presence of antibodies to three P. falciparum antigens, P. vivax MSP-119, P. ovale MSP-119, P. malariae MSP-119, and three LF antigens. Seroconversion rates were calculated and the association between LLIN use and post-campaign seropositivity was estimated using multivariate regression. The campaign covered 68% (95% CI: 58-77) of the population in Nacala-a-Velha and 46% (37-56) in Mecubúri. There was no statistically significant change in P. falciparum RDT positivity between the two surveys. Population seropositivity at baseline ranged from 31-81% for the P. falciparum antigens, 3-4% for P. vivax MSP-119, 41-43% for P. ovale MSP-119, 46-56% for P. malariae MSP-119, and 37-76% for the LF antigens. The seroconversion rate to the LF Bm33 antigen decreased significantly in both districts. The seroconversion rate to P. malariae MSP-119 and the LF Wb123 and Bm14 antigens each decreased significantly in one of the two districts. Community LLIN use was associated with a decreased risk

  8. Bevacizumab plus capecitabine in patients with progressive advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-intestinal (GI-NETs) tract (BETTER trial)--a phase II non-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Emmanuel; Walter, Thomas; Baudin, Eric; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Dominguez-Tinajero, Sophie; Bengrine-Lefevre, Leïla; Cadiot, Guillaume; Dromain, Clarisse; Farace, Françoise; Rougier, Philippe; Ducreux, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI-NETs) are chemotherapy-resistant tumours. Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has shown promising results in several phase II trials of gastro-entero-pancreatic-NETs. We assessed bevacizumab combined with capecitabine, specifically in GI-NET patients. BEvacizumab in The Treament of neuroEndocrine tumoRs (BETTER) was a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, two-group phase II trial. Here we present the group of patients with progressive, metastatic, well-differentiated GI-NETs. Patients Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS)⩽2, Ki-67 proliferation rate <15% and no prior systemic chemotherapy were treated with bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg/q3w) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily, orally d1-14, resumed on d22) for 6-24 months. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end-points included overall survival (OS), response rate, safety and quality of life. Of the 49 patients included, 53% were men, median age was 60 years (41-82), primary tumour site was ileal in 82% patients and Ki-67 was <15% in 48 patients and not available for one patient. After a maximum of 24 month follow-up per patient, the median PFS by investigator assessment was 23.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.2; not reached] and the overall disease control rate was 88% (18% partial response, 70% stable disease). The 2-year survival rate was 85%. Median OS was not reached. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (31%), diarrhoea (14%) and hand-foot syndrome (10%). The combination of bevacizumab and capecitabine showed clinical activity and a manageable safety profile in the treatment of GI-NETs that warrant confirmation in a randomised phase III trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Community-randomized trial of lambdacyhalothrin-treated hammock nets for malaria control in Yanomami communities in the Amazon region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magris, M; Rubio-Palis, Y; Alexander, N; Ruiz, B; Galván, N; Frias, D; Blanco, M; Lines, J

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial in an area of moderate malaria transmission in the Amazon region, southern Venezuela, home of the Yanomami indigenous ethnic group. The aim was to compare the malaria incidence rate in villages with lambdacyhalothrin-treated hammock nets (ITHN) or with placebo-treated hammock nets (PTHN). In both arms of the study, intensive surveillance for early case detection was maintained and prompt malaria treatment was administered. Baseline data were collected before the intervention and a population of around 924 Yanomami was followed for 2 years. Despite the recent introduction of nets in the Yanomami villages and the adverse natural conditions in the area, the nets were accepted enthusiastically by the study population, used conscientiously and looked after carefully. The malaria incidence rate per thousand person-years at risk was 114.6 in the IHTN group and 186.8 in the PTHN group. The adjusted rate ratios indicated that ITHN prevent 56% [IRR: 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 52-59%] of new malaria cases. ITHN reduced the prevalence of parasitaemia by 83% [relative risks (RR): 0.17, 95% CI: 47-100%], according to a cross-sectional survey carried out during the high transmission season. The prevalence of splenomegaly and anaemia was too low to detect any possible reduction as a result of ITHN. The main conclusion of the present study is that ITHN can reduce malaria incidence in the area and it is the most feasible method for malaria control in a forested area where indigenous villages are scattered over a large territory. This is the first community-level epidemiological trial to show that ITHN are highly effective against malaria transmitted by Anopheles darlingi.

  10. Fall in C-peptide during first 2 years from diagnosis: evidence of at least two distinct phases from composite Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David; Gitelman, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Peter A; Herold, Kevan C; Lachin, John M; McGee, Paula; Palmer, Jerry P; Pescovitz, Mark D; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Skyler, Jay S; Sosenko, Jay M

    2012-08-01

    Interpretation of clinical trials to alter the decline in β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes depends on a robust understanding of the natural history of disease. Combining data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet studies, we describe the natural history of β-cell function from shortly after diagnosis through 2 years post study randomization, assess the degree of variability between patients, and investigate factors that may be related to C-peptide preservation or loss. We found that 93% of individuals have detectable C-peptide 2 years from diagnosis. In 11% of subjects, there was no significant fall from baseline by 2 years. There was a biphasic decline in C-peptide; the C-peptide slope was -0.0245 pmol/mL/month (95% CI -0.0271 to -0.0215) through the first 12 months and -0.0079 (-0.0113 to -0.0050) from 12 to 24 months (P < 0.001). This pattern of fall in C-peptide over time has implications for understanding trial results in which effects of therapy are most pronounced early and raises the possibility that there are time-dependent differences in pathophysiology. The robust data on the C-peptide obtained under clinical trial conditions should be used in planning and interpretation of clinical trials.

  11. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Das, Murari L; Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Das, Pradeep; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive R

    2010-01-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control in the Indian subcontinent is currently based on case detection and treatment, and on vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) has been postulated as an alternative or complement to IRS. Here we tested the impact of comprehensive distribution of LN on the density of Phlebotomus argentipes in VL-endemic villages. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with household P. argentipes density as outcome was designed. Twelve clusters from an ongoing LN clinical trial--three intervention and three control clusters in both India and Nepal--were selected on the basis of accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster selected on the basis of high pre-intervention P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 12 months after distribution of LN using CDC light traps (LT) and mouth aspiration methods. Ten cattle sheds per cluster were also monitored by aspiration. A random effect linear regression model showed that the cluster-wide distribution of LNs significantly reduced the P. argentipes density/house by 24.9% (95% CI 1.80%-42.5%) as measured by means of LTs. The ongoing clinical trial, designed to measure the impact of LNs on VL incidence, will confirm whether LNs should be adopted as a control strategy in the regional VL elimination programs. The entomological evidence described here provides some evidence that LNs could be usefully deployed as part of the VL control program. ClinicalTrials.gov CT-2005-015374.

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  13. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  14. Effectiveness of occlusive bedding in the treatment of atopic dermatitis--a placebo-controlled trial of 12 months' duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, L; Bengtsson, A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Ohman, S; Scheynius, A

    2001-02-01

    Several studies on avoidance of house-dust-mite (HDM) and cat allergens have been carried out, most of them in asthmatic patients and only a few in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). No study so far has focused on which subgroup of AD patients benefits from avoidance measures. Forty adult patients with AD completed the 12-month avoidance study. They were divided into an active treatment (n = 22) and a placebo (n = 18) group. Active treatment comprised use of polyurethane-coated cotton encasings for bedding, and placebo use of cotton covers. Patients came for regular checkups during the 12-month period, when eczema severity was assessed and blood samples were analyzed for total IgE, HDM- and cat-specific IgE and soluble CD30 (sCD30) in serum. Dust samples were collected from mattresses before treatment and after 3, 6, and 12 months, and analyzed for content of HDM and cat allergen. Eczema severity decreased significantly in both groups (P cat allergens was unchanged in the active treatment group but decreased, albeit not significantly (P=0.19), in the placebo group. sCD30 levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P<0.001). Patients not sensitized to HDM allergens benefited from the bedcovers as much as sensitized patients. Occlusive bedding significantly reduced HDM exposure in bed (P<0.001) and eczema severity, and sCD30 levels decreased significantly (P<0.001). Patients not sensitized to HDM and not exposed to HDM allergens benefited equally from use of the bedcovers, a result which could be due to a reduction of other important allergens, superantigens, or irritants in bed. We therefore recommend the use of bedcovers as part of treatment for AD.

  15. Prospective Randomized Trial of Prone Accelerated Intensity Modulated Breast Radiation Therapy With a Daily Versus Weekly Boost to the Tumor Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Benjamin T.; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Li, Xiaochun; Shin, Samuel M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel F.; Hitchen, Christine J.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Dewyngaert, J. Keith; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective randomized trial comparing a daily versus weekly boost to the tumor cavity during the course of accelerated radiation to the breast with patients in the prone position. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2012, 400 patients with stage 0 to II breast cancer who had undergone segmental mastectomy participated in an institutional review board–approved trial testing prone breast radiation therapy to 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions 5 d/wk to the whole breast, after randomization to a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy, or a weekly boost of 2 Gy, on Friday. The present noninferiority trial tested the primary hypothesis that a weekly boost produced no more acute toxicity than did a daily boost. The recurrence-free survival was estimated for both treatment arms using the Kaplan-Meier method; the relative risk of recurrence or death was estimated, and the 2 arms were compared using the log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up period of 45 months, no deaths related to breast cancer had occurred. The weekly boost regimen produced no more grade ≥2 acute toxicity than did the daily boost regimen (8.1% vs 10.4%; noninferiority Z = −2.52; P=.006). No statistically significant difference was found in the cumulative incidence of long-term fibrosis or telangiectasia of grade ≥2 between the 2 arms (log-rank P=.923). Two local and two distant recurrences developed in the daily treatment arm and three local and one distant developed in the weekly arm. The 4-year recurrence-free survival rate was not different between the 2 treatment arms (98% for both arms). Conclusions: A tumor bed boost delivered either daily or weekly was tolerated similarly during accelerated prone breast radiation therapy, with excellent control of disease and comparable cosmetic results.

  16. Prospective Randomized Trial of Prone Accelerated Intensity Modulated Breast Radiation Therapy With a Daily Versus Weekly Boost to the Tumor Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Benjamin T.; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Xiaochun [Division of Biostatistics, Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Shin, Samuel M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel F. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hitchen, Christine J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Rosenstein, Barry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Dewyngaert, J. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostatistics, Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: formenti@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective randomized trial comparing a daily versus weekly boost to the tumor cavity during the course of accelerated radiation to the breast with patients in the prone position. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2012, 400 patients with stage 0 to II breast cancer who had undergone segmental mastectomy participated in an institutional review board–approved trial testing prone breast radiation therapy to 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions 5 d/wk to the whole breast, after randomization to a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy, or a weekly boost of 2 Gy, on Friday. The present noninferiority trial tested the primary hypothesis that a weekly boost produced no more acute toxicity than did a daily boost. The recurrence-free survival was estimated for both treatment arms using the Kaplan-Meier method; the relative risk of recurrence or death was estimated, and the 2 arms were compared using the log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up period of 45 months, no deaths related to breast cancer had occurred. The weekly boost regimen produced no more grade ≥2 acute toxicity than did the daily boost regimen (8.1% vs 10.4%; noninferiority Z = −2.52; P=.006). No statistically significant difference was found in the cumulative incidence of long-term fibrosis or telangiectasia of grade ≥2 between the 2 arms (log-rank P=.923). Two local and two distant recurrences developed in the daily treatment arm and three local and one distant developed in the weekly arm. The 4-year recurrence-free survival rate was not different between the 2 treatment arms (98% for both arms). Conclusions: A tumor bed boost delivered either daily or weekly was tolerated similarly during accelerated prone breast radiation therapy, with excellent control of disease and comparable cosmetic results.

  17. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  18. Reducing bed rest time from five to three hours does not increase complications after cardiac catheterization: the THREE CATH Trial 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Roselene; Hilário, Thamires de Souza; Reich, Rejane; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to compare the incidence of vascular complications in patients undergoing transfemoral cardiac catheterization with a 6F introducer sheath followed by 3-hour versus 5-hour rest. Methods: randomized clinical trial. Subjects in the intervention group (IG) ambulated 3 hours after sheath removal, versus 5 hours in the control group (CG). All patients remained in the catheterization laboratory for 5 hours and were assessed hourly, and were contacted 24, 48, and 72 h after hospital discharge. Results: the sample comprised 367 patients in the IG and 363 in the GC. During cath lab stay, hematoma was the most common complication in both groups, occurring in 12 (3%) IG and 13 (4%) CG subjects (P=0.87). Bleeding occurred in 4 (1%) IG and 6 (2%) CG subjects (P=0.51), and vasovagal reaction in 5 (1.4%) IG and 4 (1.1%) CG subjects (P=0.75). At 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h bruising was the most commonly reported complication in both groups. None of the comparisons revealed any significant between-group differences. Conclusion: the results of this trial show that reducing bed rest time to 3 hours after elective cardiac catheterization is safe and does not increase complications as compared with a 5-hour rest. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT-01740856 PMID:27463113

  19. The relationship between BMI and insulin resistance and progression from single to multiple autoantibody positivity and type 1 diabetes among TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meah, Farah A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Blum, Janice S; Sosenko, Jay M; Pugliese, Alberto; Geyer, Susan; Xu, Ping; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing at a rate of 3-5% per year. Genetics cannot fully account for this trend, suggesting an influence of environmental factors. The accelerator hypothesis proposes an effect of metabolic factors on type 1 diabetes risk. To test this in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort, we analysed the influence of BMI, weight status and insulin resistance on progression from single to multiple islet autoantibodies (Aab) and progression from normoglycaemia to diabetes. HOMA1-IR was used to estimate insulin resistance in Aab-positive PTP participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of BMI, BMI percentile (BMI%), weight status and HOMA1-IR on the progression of autoimmunity or the development of diabetes. Data from 1,310 single and 1,897 multiple Aab-positive PTP participants were included. We found no significant relationships between BMI, BMI%, weight status or HOMA1-IR and the progression from one to multiple Aabs. Similarly, among all Aab-positive participants, no significant relationships were found between BMI, weight status or HOMA1-IR and progression to diabetes. Diabetes risk was modestly increased with increasing BMI% among the entire cohort, in obese participants 13-20 years of age and with increasing HOMA1-IR in adult Aab-positive participants. Analysis of the accelerator hypothesis in the TrialNet PTP cohort does not suggest a broad influence of metabolic variables on diabetes risk. Efforts to identify other potentially modifiable environmental factors should continue.

  20. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: comparative effectiveness trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Katon, Wayne J; Nezu, Art M; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Health disparities in minority populations are well recognized. Hispanics and Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States; a significant proportion receives their care via a safety net. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression is high among this group, but the uptake of evidence-based collaborative depression care management has been suboptimal. The study design and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample in the Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) establishes a quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research clinical trial aimed at accelerating the adoption of collaborative depression care in safety net clinics. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services at eight county-operated clinics. DCAT has enrolled 1406 low-income, predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with diabetes to test a translational model of depression care management. This three-group study compares usual care with a collaborative care team support model and a technology-facilitated depression care model that provides automated telephonic depression screening and monitoring tailored to patient conditions and preferences. Call results are integrated into a diabetes disease management registry that delivers provider notifications, generates tasks, and issues critical alerts. All subjects receive comprehensive assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent English-Spanish bilingual interviewers. Study outcomes include depression outcomes, treatment adherence, satisfaction, acceptance of assessment and monitoring technology, social and economic stress reduction, diabetes self-care management, health care utilization, and care management model cost and cost-effectiveness comparisons. DCAT's goal is to optimize depression screening, treatment, follow-up, outcomes, and cost savings to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Decline in frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) in Western Kenya: correlation with increase in ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoke-Muhia, Damaris; Gimnig, John E; Kamau, Luna; Shililu, Josephat; Bayoh, M Nabie; Walker, Edward D

    2016-06-10

    The 2La chromosomal inversion, a genetic polymorphism in An. gambiae (sensu stricto) (s.s.), is associated with adaptation to microclimatic differences in humidity and desiccation resistance and mosquito behaviors. Ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) for malaria control has increased markedly in western Kenya in the last 20 years. An increase in the frequency of ITNs indoors could select against house entering or indoor resting of Anopheles mosquitoes. Thus, the frequency of the 2La inversion is postulated to change in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the increase of ITN ownership over time. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were sampled between 1994 and 2011 using pyrethrum knockdown, bednet traps and human landing catches (HLC) from Asembo and Seme, western Kenya. The 2La inversion was detected by a PCR assay with primers designed for proximal breakpoints of the 2La/a and 2L+(a)/+(a) chromosomal conformation. Mosquitoes were tested for malaria parasite infection by sporozoite ELISA. The frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion declined from 100 % of all chromosomes in 1994 to 17 % in 2005 and remained low through 2011 (21 %). ITN ownership increased from 0 to > 90 % of houses in the study area during this interval. The decline in the frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion was significantly, negatively correlated with year (r = -0.93) and with increase in ITN ownership (r = -0.96). The frequency of the homo- and heterokaryotypes departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that 2La/a karyotype was under selection, earlier in its favor and later, against it. Precipitation and maximum monthly temperature did not vary over time, therefore there was no trend in climate that could account for the decline. There was no significant difference in frequency of the 2La inversion in An. gambiae (s.s.) females sampled indoors or outdoors in HCL in 2011, nor was there an association between the 2La inversion and infection with Plasmodium

  2. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  3. Peritoneal drainage does not stabilize extremely low birth weight infants with perforated bowel: data from the NET Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare M; Eaton, Simon; Khoo, A Kate; Kiely, Edward M; Pierro, Agostino

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of peritoneal drainage (PD) hypothesize that it allows stabilization before laparotomy. We examined this hypothesis by comparing clinical status before and after either PD or primary laparotomy (LAP). In an ethically approved, international, prospective randomized controlled trial (2002-2006), extremely low birth weight (drainage does not immediately improve clinical status in extremely low birth weight infants with bowel perforation. The use of PD as a stabilizing or temporizing measure is not supported by these results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  5. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  6. Quality of Life in Women Undergoing Breast Irradiation in a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating Different Tumor Bed Boost Fractionations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Morgan A.; Cooper, Benjamin T.; Li, Xiaochun; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify differences in breast cancer patient-reported quality of life (QOL) between 2 radiation tumor bed boost dose regimens. Methods and Materials: Four hundred patients with stage 0, I, or II breast cancer who underwent segmental mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary node dissection were treated with either a daily or weekly boost. Patients were treated prone to 40.5 Gy/15 fractions to the whole breast, 5 days per week. Patients were randomized to a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy, or a weekly boost of 2 Gy on Friday. Patients completed 6 validated QOL survey instruments at baseline, last week of treatment (3 weeks), 45-60 days from the completion of radiation treatment, and at 2-year follow-up. Results: There were no statistically significance differences in responses to the 6 QOL instruments between the daily and weekly radiation boost regimens, even after adjustment for important covariates. However, several changes in responses over time occurred in both arms, including worsening functional status, cosmetic status, and breast-specific pain at the end of treatment as compared with before and 45 to 60 days after the conclusion of treatment. Conclusions: Whole-breast, prone intensity modulated radiation has similar outcomes in QOL measures whether given with a daily or weekly boost. This trial has generated the foundation for a current study of weekly versus daily radiation boost in women with early breast cancer in which 3-dimensional conformal radiation is allowed as a prospective stratification factor.

  7. Quality of Life in Women Undergoing Breast Irradiation in a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating Different Tumor Bed Boost Fractionations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkel, Morgan A.; Cooper, Benjamin T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Li, Xiaochun [Division of Biostatistics, Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostatistics, Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: formenti@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To identify differences in breast cancer patient-reported quality of life (QOL) between 2 radiation tumor bed boost dose regimens. Methods and Materials: Four hundred patients with stage 0, I, or II breast cancer who underwent segmental mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary node dissection were treated with either a daily or weekly boost. Patients were treated prone to 40.5 Gy/15 fractions to the whole breast, 5 days per week. Patients were randomized to a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy, or a weekly boost of 2 Gy on Friday. Patients completed 6 validated QOL survey instruments at baseline, last week of treatment (3 weeks), 45-60 days from the completion of radiation treatment, and at 2-year follow-up. Results: There were no statistically significance differences in responses to the 6 QOL instruments between the daily and weekly radiation boost regimens, even after adjustment for important covariates. However, several changes in responses over time occurred in both arms, including worsening functional status, cosmetic status, and breast-specific pain at the end of treatment as compared with before and 45 to 60 days after the conclusion of treatment. Conclusions: Whole-breast, prone intensity modulated radiation has similar outcomes in QOL measures whether given with a daily or weekly boost. This trial has generated the foundation for a current study of weekly versus daily radiation boost in women with early breast cancer in which 3-dimensional conformal radiation is allowed as a prospective stratification factor.

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Samária Ali; de Souza Vale, Rodrigo Gomes; Zamora, Victor Emmanuel; Costa, Claudia Henrique; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and identify predictors of successful weaning. Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14) that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT(®) device or to a control group (n = 14) that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer. The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H(2)O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4-10), and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/ min/L, 95% CI -26 to 6) in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (χ(2) = 1.47; P = 0.20). However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08-18.06). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area beneath the curve of 0.877 ± 0.06 for the Tobin index and 0.845 ± 0.07 for maximum inspiratory pressure. The IMT intervention significantly increased maximum inspiratory pressure and significantly reduced the Tobin index; both measures are considered to be good extubation indices. IMT was associated with a reduction in noninvasive positive

  10. Can Non-HLA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Help Stratify Risk in TrialNet Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Andrea K; Xu, Ping; Geyer, Susan; Redondo, Maria J; Antinozzi, Peter; Wentworth, John M; Sosenko, Jay; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Rich, Stephen S; Pugliese, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified >50 type 1 diabetes (T1D) associated non-human leukocyte antigens (non-HLA) loci. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to risk of disease progression. The TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study follows relatives of T1D patients for development of autoantibodies (Abs) and T1D. Using the Immunochip, we analyzed 53 diabetes-associated, non-HLA SNPs in 1016 Ab-positive, at-risk non-Hispanic white relatives. Effect of SNPs on the development of multiple Abs and T1D. Cox proportional analyses included all substantial non-HLA SNPs, HLA genotypes, relationship to proband, sex, age at initial screening, initial Ab type, and number. Factors involved in progression from single to multiple Abs included age at screening, relationship to proband, HLA genotypes, and rs3087243 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4). Significant factors for diabetes progression included age at screening, Ab number, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 [GLIS family zinc finger 3 (GLIS3)], and rs3184504 [SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3)]. When glucose area under the curve (AUC) was included, factors involved in disease progression included glucose AUC, age at screening, Ab number, relationship to proband, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 (GLIS3), and rs7221109 (CCR7). In stratified analyses by age, glucose AUC, age at screening, sibling, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 (GLIS3), and rs4900384 (C14orf64) were significantly associated with progression to diabetes in participants <12 years old, whereas glucose AUC, sibling, rs3184504 (SH2B3), and rs4900384 (C14orf64) were significant in those ≥12. In conclusion, we identified five non-HLA SNPs associated with increased risk of progression from Ab positivity to disease that may improve risk stratification for prevention trials. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  11. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women in the context of insecticide treated nets delivered through the antenatal clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Menéndez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Current recommendations to prevent malaria in African pregnant women rely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. However, there is no information on the safety and efficacy of their combined use.1030 pregnant Mozambican women of all gravidities received a long-lasting ITN during antenatal clinic (ANC visits and, irrespective of HIV status, were enrolled in a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, to assess the safety and efficacy of 2-dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. The main outcome was the reduction in low birth weight.Two-dose SP was safe and well tolerated, but was not associated with reductions in anaemia prevalence at delivery (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.79-1.08], low birth weight (RR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.70-1.39], or overall placental infection (p = 0.964. However, the SP group showed a 40% reduction (95% CI, 7.40-61.20]; p = 0.020 in the incidence of clinical malaria during pregnancy, and reductions in the prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia (7.10% vs 15.15% (p<0.001, and of actively infected placentas (7.04% vs 13.60% (p = 0.002. There was a reduction in severe anaemia at delivery of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.055. These effects were not modified by gravidity or HIV status. Reported ITN's use was more than 90% in both groups.Two-dose SP was associated with a reduction in some indicators, but these were not translated to significant improvement in other maternal or birth outcomes. The use of ITNs during pregnancy may reduce the need to administer IPTp. ITNs should be part of the ANC package in sub-Saharan Africa.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00209781.

  12. Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cader SA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Samária Ali Cader,1 Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale,1 Victor Emmanuel Zamora,2 Claudia Henrique Costa,2 Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas11Laboratory of Human Kinetics Bioscience, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, 2Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, School of Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT and identify predictors of successful weaning.Methods: Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14 that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT® device or to a control group (n = 14 that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer.Results: The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H2O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4–10, and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/min/L, 95% CI −26 to 6 in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (Χ2 = 1.47; P = 0.20. However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08–18.06. The receiver

  13. ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA Can Identify High-Risk Single Autoantibody-Positive Relatives in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Andrea K; Fouts, Alexandra; Miao, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Fran; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Rewers, Marian J; Yu, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Relatives with single positive islet autoantibodies have a much lower risk of progression to diabetes than those with multiple autoantibodies. TrialNet subjects positive for single autoantibody to insulin (mIAA) (n = 50) or single autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) (n = 50) were analyzed using new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays (ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA, respectively) at their initial visit and longitudinally over time. Affinity assays were performed on a subset of single autoantibody-positive subjects at initial and most recent visits. After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 20 subjects developed type 1 diabetes. Among either single GADA or single mIAA subjects, those who were positive in the ECL assay showed higher affinity at the initial visit, and affinity results stayed consistent over time. No converting events from low to high or high to low affinity were seen over time. Confirmed positivity for ECL is associated with high affinity and can help staging of risk for type 1 diabetes in single autoantibody-positive subjects.

  14. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  15. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  16. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  17. Monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaleshwar, Varun; Kaman, Lileswar; Iqbal, Javid; Singh, Rajinder

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonic dissection has been suggested as an alternative to monopolar electrocautery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy because it generates less tissue damage and may have a lower incidence of gallbladder perforation. We compared the 2 methods to determine the incidence of gallbladder perforation and its intraoperative consequences. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial between July 2008 and December 2009 involving adult patients with symptomatic gall stone disease who were eligible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly assigned before administration of anesthesia to electrocautery or ultrasonic dissection. Both groups were compared for incidence of gallbladder perforation during dissection, bile leak, stones spillage, lens cleaning, duration of surgery and estimation of risk of gallbladder in the presence of complicating factors. We included 60 adult patients in our study. The groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, previous abdominal surgeries, preoperative ultrasonography findings and intraoperative complications. The overall incidence of gallbladder perforation was 28.3% (40.0% in the electrocautery v. 16.7% in the ultrasonic dissection group, p = 0.045). Bile leak occurred in 40.0% of patients in the electrocautery group and 16.7% of patients in ultrasonic group (p = 0.045). Lens cleaning time (p = 0.015) and duration of surgery (p = 0.001) were longer in the electrocautery than the ultrasonic dissection group. There was no statistical difference in stone spillage between the groups (p = 0.62). Ultrasonic dissection is safe and effective, and it improves the operative course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the incidence of gallbladder perforation.

  18. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  19. Secondary mediation and regression analyses of the PTClinResNet database: determining causal relationships among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels for four physical therapy intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulroy, Sara J; Winstein, Carolee J; Kulig, Kornelia; Beneck, George J; Fowler, Eileen G; DeMuth, Sharon K; Sullivan, Katherine J; Brown, David A; Lane, Christianne J

    2011-12-01

    Each of the 4 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) hosted by the Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network (PTClinResNet) targeted a different disability group (low back disorder in the Muscle-Specific Strength Training Effectiveness After Lumbar Microdiskectomy [MUSSEL] trial, chronic spinal cord injury in the Strengthening and Optimal Movements for Painful Shoulders in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury [STOMPS] trial, adult stroke in the Strength Training Effectiveness Post-Stroke [STEPS] trial, and pediatric cerebral palsy in the Pediatric Endurance and Limb Strengthening [PEDALS] trial for children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy) and tested the effectiveness of a muscle-specific or functional activity-based intervention on primary outcomes that captured pain (STOMPS, MUSSEL) or locomotor function (STEPS, PEDALS). The focus of these secondary analyses was to determine causal relationships among outcomes across levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework for the 4 RCTs. With the database from PTClinResNet, we used 2 separate secondary statistical approaches-mediation analysis for the MUSSEL and STOMPS trials and regression analysis for the STEPS and PEDALS trials-to test relationships among muscle performance, primary outcomes (pain related and locomotor related), activity and participation measures, and overall quality of life. Predictive models were stronger for the 2 studies with pain-related primary outcomes. Change in muscle performance mediated or predicted reductions in pain for the MUSSEL and STOMPS trials and, to some extent, walking speed for the STEPS trial. Changes in primary outcome variables were significantly related to changes in activity and participation variables for all 4 trials. Improvement in activity and participation outcomes mediated or predicted increases in overall quality of life for the 3 trials with adult populations. Variables included in the statistical models were limited to those

  20. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen.The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts.Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets.Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by

  1. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  2. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Virologic Suppression and Retention in Care in an Urban Safety-Net HIV Clinic: The Connect4Care (C4C) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Katerina A; Riley, Elise D; Carrico, Adam W; Tulsky, Jacqueline; Moskowitz, Judith T; Dilworth, Samantha; Coffin, Lara S; Wilson, Leslie; Peretz, Jason Johnson; Hilton, Joan F

    2018-02-21

    Text messaging is a promising strategy to support HIV care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinic populations. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a supportive and motivational text messaging intervention, Connect4Care (C4C), among viremic patients who had a history of poor retention or were new to clinic. Participants were randomized (stratified by new HIV diagnosis status) to receive one of the following for 12 months: 1) thrice-weekly intervention messages, plus texted primary care appointment reminders and a monthly text message requesting confirmation of study participation, or; 2) texted reminders and monthly messages alone. Viral load was assessed at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was virologic suppression (<200 copies/mL) at 12 months, estimated via repeated measures log-binomial regression, adjusted for new diagnosis status. The secondary outcome was retention in clinic care. Between August 2013-November 2015, 230 participants were randomized. Virologic suppression at 12 months was similar between intervention and control participants (48.8% vs. 45.8%), with negligible change from 6-month estimates, yielding RR 1.07 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.39). Suppression was higher in the newly diagnosed (78.3% vs. 45.3%). There were no intervention effects on the secondary outcome. Exploratory analyses suggested that patients with more responses to study text messages had better outcomes, regardless of arm. The C4C text messaging intervention did not significantly increase virologic suppression or retention in care. Response to text messages may be a useful way for providers to gauge risk for poor HIV outcomes. NCT01917994.

  4. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder--study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA--net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Cholemkery, Hannah; Elsuni, Leyla; Kroeger, Anne K; Bender, Stephan; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-01-07

    Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA-FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. The SOSTA - net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. ISRCTN94863788--SOSTA--net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

  6. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomi trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidwani, K; Picado, A; Rijal, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is the world’ second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness...

  7. Lessons learned from IDeAl - 33 recommendations from the IDeAl-net about design and analysis of small population clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Burman, Carl-Fredrik; Dette, Holger; Karlsson, Mats; König, Franz; Male, Christoph; Mentré, France; Molenberghs, Geert; Senn, Stephen

    2018-05-11

    IDeAl (Integrated designs and analysis of small population clinical trials) is an EU funded project developing new statistical design and analysis methodologies for clinical trials in small population groups. Here we provide an overview of IDeAl findings and give recommendations to applied researchers. The description of the findings is broken down by the nine scientific IDeAl work packages and summarizes results from the project's more than 60 publications to date in peer reviewed journals. In addition, we applied text mining to evaluate the publications and the IDeAl work packages' output in relation to the design and analysis terms derived from in the IRDiRC task force report on small population clinical trials. The results are summarized, describing the developments from an applied viewpoint. The main result presented here are 33 practical recommendations drawn from the work, giving researchers a comprehensive guidance to the improved methodology. In particular, the findings will help design and analyse efficient clinical trials in rare diseases with limited number of patients available. We developed a network representation relating the hot topics developed by the IRDiRC task force on small population clinical trials to IDeAl's work as well as relating important methodologies by IDeAl's definition necessary to consider in design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. These network representation establish a new perspective on design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. IDeAl has provided a huge number of options to refine the statistical methodology for small-population clinical trials from various perspectives. A total of 33 recommendations developed and related to the work packages help the researcher to design small population clinical trial. The route to improvements is displayed in IDeAl-network representing important statistical methodological skills necessary to design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. The methods

  8. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  10. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  11. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from...... cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone....../day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis...

  12. Reading from an iPad or from a book in bed: the impact on human sleep. A randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Byrkjedal, Ida Kristiansen; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nødtvedt, Øystein; Hamre, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-05-01

    To objectively and subjectively compare whether reading a story for 30 min from an iPad or from a book in bed prior to sleep will differentially affect sleep. Sixteen students (12 females, mean age 25.1 ± 2.9 years) underwent ambulatory (sleeping in their own beds at home) polysomnographic (PSG) recordings in a counterbalanced crossover design consisting of three PSG nights (one adaptation night, two test nights) and two different reading materials: read from an iPad or from a book. Illumination was measured during reading and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was completed prior to turning the light off. Sleep diaries were kept to assess subjective sleep parameters from day to day. Illumination was higher in the iPad condition compared to the book condition (58.3 ± 6.9 vs 26.7 ± 8.0 lux, p book. No parameters of sleep state timing and sleep onset latency differed between the two reading conditions. Although there was no direct effect on time spent in different sleep states and self-reported sleep onset latency, the use of an iPad which emits blue enriched light impinges acutely on sleepiness and EEG characteristics of sleep pressure. Hence, the use of commercially available tablets may have consequences in terms of alertness, circadian physiology, and sleep. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Conducting a randomized trial in rural and urban safety-net health centers: Added value of community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Muthukrishnan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in the US. Despite evidence that screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality, screening rates are sub-optimal with disparities by race/ethnicity, income, and geography. Rural-urban differences in CRC screening are understudied even though approximately one-fifth of the US population lives in rural areas. This focus on urban populations limits the generalizability and dissemination potential of screening interventions. Methods: Using community-based participatory research (CBPR principles, we designed a cluster-randomized trial, adaptable to a range of settings, including rural and urban health centers. We enrolled 483 participants across 11 health centers representing 2 separate networks. Both networks serve medically-underserved communities; however one is primarily rural and one primarily urban. Results: Our goal in this analysis is to describe baseline characteristics of participants and examine setting-level differences. CBPR was a critical for recruiting networks to the trial. Patient respondents were predominately female (61.3%, African-American (66.5%, and earned <$1200 per month (87.1%. The rural network sample was older; more likely to be female, white, disabled or retired, and have a higher income, but fewer years of education. Conclusions: Variation in the samples partly reflects the CBPR process and partly reflects inherent differences in the communities. This confirmed the importance of using CBPR when planning for eventual dissemination, as it enhanced our ability to work within diverse settings. These baseline findings indicate that using a uniform approach to implementing a trial or intervention across diverse settings might not be effective or efficient. Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening, Community-based participatory research, Health disparities, Medically underserved populations, Dissemination and implementation, Randomized trial

  14. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  15. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  16. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  17. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  18. Providing insecticide treated bed nets in antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-replication.5-13 Mathematical models show that repeated ... antiretroviral treatment clinics in Malawi: a pilot ... related disease or AIDS.3 In addition, there are between 300 - ... and growing evidence of interactive pathology.1,2. HIV ..... by the HIV Unit and its partners. ... procurement and supply chain systems developed.

  19. Assessment of the Efficacy of Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of deltamethrin treated bednets and walls were assessed on school children aged 12-18 years, in a community secondary school in Ono, Nigeria. Children with body weights of 45-60kg were given 2 tablets of fansidar to clear parasites in their system while those with body weights of 60kg and above were given ...

  20. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  1. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  2. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: a randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M; Avery, Elizabeth F; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-11-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 28 group sessions over 12 months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress toward behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12 months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18 months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12 months than participants in the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gypsum as a bedding source for broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials examined the feasibility of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a bedding material for raising broilers. Gypsum was used alone, under or on top of pine shavings and pine bark. Test materials were placed as bedding in pens to simulate commercial broiler production through three growout cy...

  4. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  5. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  6. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of a Technology-Facilitated Depression Care Management Model in Safety-Net Primary Care Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Outcomes of a Large Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Jin, Haomiao; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Belson, David; Nezu, Arthur M; Hay, Joel; Wang, Chien-Ju; Scheib, Geoffrey; Di Capua, Paul; Hawkins, Caitlin; Liu, Pai; Ramirez, Magaly; Wu, Brian W; Richman, Mark; Myers, Caitlin; Agustines, Davin; Dasher, Robert; Kopelowicz, Alex; Allevato, Joseph; Roybal, Mike; Ipp, Eli; Haider, Uzma; Graham, Sharon; Mahabadi, Vahid; Guterman, Jeffrey

    2018-04-23

    Comorbid depression is a significant challenge for safety-net primary care systems. Team-based collaborative depression care is effective, but complex system factors in safety-net organizations impede adoption and result in persistent disparities in outcomes. Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) evaluated whether depression care could be significantly improved by harnessing information and communication technologies to automate routine screening and monitoring of patient symptoms and treatment adherence and allow timely communication with providers. The aim of this study was to compare 6-month outcomes of a technology-facilitated care model with a usual care model and a supported care model that involved team-based collaborative depression care for safety-net primary care adult patients with type 2 diabetes. DCAT is a translational study in collaboration with Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, the second largest safety-net care system in the United States. A comparative effectiveness study with quasi-experimental design was conducted in three groups of adult patients with type 2 diabetes to compare three delivery models: usual care, supported care, and technology-facilitated care. Six-month outcomes included depression and diabetes care measures and patient-reported outcomes. Comparative treatment effects were estimated by linear or logistic regression models that used generalized propensity scores to adjust for sampling bias inherent in the nonrandomized design. DCAT enrolled 1406 patients (484 in usual care, 480 in supported care, and 442 in technology-facilitated care), most of whom were Hispanic or Latino and female. Compared with usual care, both the supported care and technology-facilitated care groups were associated with significant reduction in depressive symptoms measured by scores on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (least squares estimate, LSE: usual care=6.35, supported care=5.05, technology-facilitated care=5

  8. Use of the Concept of Equivalent Biologically Effective Dose (BED) to Quantify the Contribution of Hyperthermia to Local Tumor Control in Radiohyperthermia Cervical Cancer Trials, and Comparison With Radiochemotherapy Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, George A.; Dale, Roger G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To express the magnitude of contribution of hyperthermia to local tumor control in radiohyperthermia (RT/HT) cervical cancer trials, in terms of the radiation-equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) and to explore the potential of the combined modalities in the treatment of this neoplasm. Materials and Methods: Local control rates of both arms of each study (RT vs. RT+HT) reported from randomized controlled trials (RCT) on concurrent RT/HT for cervical cancer were reviewed. By comparing the two tumor control probabilities (TCPs) from each study, we calculated the HT-related log cell-kill and then expressed it in terms of the number of 2 Gy fraction equivalents, for a range of tumor volumes and radiosensitivities. We have compared the contribution of each modality and made some exploratory calculations on the TCPs that might be expected from a combined trimodality treatment (RT+CT+HT). Results: The HT-equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions ranges from 0.6 to 4.8 depending on radiosensitivity. Opportunities for clinically detectable improvement by the addition of HT are only available in tumors with an alpha value in the approximate range of 0.22-0.28 Gy -1 . A combined treatment (RT+CT+HT) is not expected to improve prognosis in radioresistant tumors. Conclusion: The most significant improvements in TCP, which may result from the combination of RT/CT/HT for locally advanced cervical carcinomas, are likely to be limited only to those patients with tumors of relatively low-intermediate radiosensitivity.

  9. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  10. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent; Delaloge, Suzette; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Tomašević, Zorica; Denduluri, Neelima; Šeparović, Robert; Gokmen, Erhan; Bashford, Anna; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Kim, Sung-Bae; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Ciceniene, Audrone; Inoue, Kenichi; Overkamp, Friedrich; Heijns, Joan B; Armstrong, Anne C; Link, John S; Joy, Anil Abraham; Bryce, Richard; Wong, Alvin; Moran, Susan; Yao, Bin; Xu, Feng; Auerbach, Alan; Buyse, Marc; Chan, Arlene

    2017-12-01

    ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive vs hormone receptor-negative), nodal status (0 vs 1-3 vs or ≥4 positive nodes), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (given sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system, to receive 1 year of oral neratinib 240 mg/day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis was invasive disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. ExteNET is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709, and is closed to new participants. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, 2840 eligible women with early HER2-positive breast cancer were recruited from community-based and academic institutions in 40 countries and randomly assigned to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). After a median follow-up of 5·2 years (IQR 2·1-5·3), patients in the neratinib

  11. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  13. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  14. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  15. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  16. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ja Young; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Nam Kwon; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery

  17. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  18. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  19. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), and (7) cost

  3. Design of the Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study: a randomized controlled trial of care management for PTSD among predominantly Latino patients in safety net health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Green, Bonnie L; Kaltman, Stacey; Wong, Eunice C; Han, Bing; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common problem in primary care. Although effective treatments are available, little is known about whether such treatments are effective within the context of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that serve as national "safety nets" for providing primary care for low income and underinsured patients. The Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the impact of a care management intervention for treating PTSD in FQHCs. To develop a PTSD management intervention appropriate for lower resource FQHCs and the predominantly Latino patients they serve, formative work was conducted through a collaborative effort between researchers and an FQHC practice-based research network. This article describes how FQHC stakeholders were convened to review, assess, and prioritize evidence-based strategies for addressing patient, clinician, and system-level barriers to care. This multi-component care management intervention incorporates diagnosis with feedback, patient education and activation; navigation and linkage to community resources; clinician education and medication guidance; and structured cross-disciplinary communication and continuity of care, all facilitated by care managers with FQHC experience. We also describe the evaluation design of this five-year RCT and the characteristics of the 404 English or Spanish speaking patients enrolled in the study and randomized to either the intervention or to usual care. Patients are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months to examine intervention effectiveness on PTSD, other mental health symptoms, health-related quality-of-life, health care service use; and perceived barriers to care and satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  8. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers : a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  9. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  10. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  11. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  12. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  13. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  14. EuroEco (European Health Economic Trial on Home Monitoring in ICD Patients): a provider perspective in five European countries on costs and net financial impact of follow-up with or without remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Hindricks, Gerd; Broadhurst, Paul; Van Erven, Lieselot; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Rivero-Ayerza, Maximo; Malinowski, Klaus; Marek, Andrea; Romero Garrido, Rafael F; Löscher, Steffen; Beeton, Ian; Garcia, Enrique; Cross, Stephen; Vijgen, Johan; Koivisto, Ulla-Maija; Peinado, Rafael; Smala, Antje; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-01-14

    Remote follow-up (FU) of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) allows for fewer in-office visits in combination with earlier detection of relevant findings. Its implementation requires investment and reorganization of care. Providers (physicians or hospitals) are unsure about the financial impact. The primary end-point of this randomized prospective multicentre health economic trial was the total FU-related cost for providers, comparing Home Monitoring facilitated FU (HM ON) to regular in-office FU (HM OFF) during the first 2 years after ICD implantation. Also the net financial impact on providers (taking national reimbursement into account) and costs from a healthcare payer perspective were evaluated. A total of 312 patients with VVI- or DDD-ICD implants from 17 centres in six EU countries were randomised to HM ON or OFF, of which 303 were eligible for data analysis. For all contacts (in-office, calendar- or alert-triggered web-based review, discussions, calls) time-expenditure was tracked. Country-specific cost parameters were used to convert resource use into monetary values. Remote FU equipment itself was not included in the cost calculations. Given only two patients from Finland (one in each group) a monetary valuation analysis was not performed for Finland. Average age was 62.4 ± 13.1 years, 81% were male, 39% received a DDD system, and 51% had a prophylactic ICD. Resource use with HM ON was clearly different: less FU visits (3.79 ± 1.67 vs. 5.53 ± 2.32; P financial impact on providers [profit of €408 (327-489) vs. €400 (345-455); range for difference (€-104 to 88), NS], but there was heterogeneity among countries, with less profit for providers in the absence of specific remote FU reimbursement (Belgium, Spain, and the Netherlands) and maintained or increased profit in cases where such reimbursement exists (Germany and UK). Quality of life (SF-36) was not different. For all the patients as a whole, FU-related costs for providers are not

  15. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  16. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  17. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  18. Pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohnert, G.; Mueller-Frank, U.; Heil, J.

    1976-01-01

    A pebble-bed nuclear reactor of large power rating comprises a container having a funnel-shaped bottom forming a pebble run-out having a centrally positioned outlet. A bed of downwardly-flowing substantially spherical nuclear fuel pebbles is positioned in the container and forms a reactive nuclear core maintained by feeding unused pebbles to the bed's top surface while used or burned-out pebbles run out and discharge through the outlet. A substantially conical body with its apex pointing upwardly and its periphery spaced from the periphery of the container spreads the bottom of the bed outwardly to provide an annular flow down the funnel-shaped bottom forming the runout, to the discharge outlet. This provides a largely constant downward velocity of the spheres throughout the diameter of the bed throughout a substantial portion of the down travel, so that all spheres reach about the same burned-out condition when they leave the core, after a single pass through the core area

  19. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  2. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  3. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  5. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  6. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  9. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  10. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  11. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  12. Fluidized bed calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    A unique way to convert radioactive scrap into useful nuclear fuel products was developed for the Department of Energy at Hanford. An advanced, fluidized bed calciner is used to convert metallic nitrate scrap or waste solutions into benign, solid and gaseous products. There are broad potential applications of this concept beyond those in the nuclear industry

  13. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  14. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  15. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  16. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that... minimum biobased content is 12 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in..., and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of...

  17. Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Rice, Barbara L; Dlouhy, Holly; Shackelford, Linda C; Heer, Martina; Koslovsky, Matthew D; Smith, Scott M

    2018-05-01

    Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake. At the end of each session, blood and urine samples were collected. Calcium, total protein, energy, and sodium were maintained in each crew member's preflight and in-flight controlled diets. Relative to preflight values, N-telopeptide (NTX) and urinary calcium were higher during flight, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was higher toward the end of flight. The High and Low diets did not affect NTX, BSAP, or urinary calcium. Dietary sulfur and age were significantly associated with changes in NTX. Dietary sodium and flight day were significantly associated with urinary calcium during flight. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) estimated from the typical dietary intake at FD30 was associated with loss of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine after the mission. The results were compared with data from a 70-d bed rest study, in which control (but not exercising) subjects' APro:K was associated with higher NTX during bed rest. Long-term lowering of NEAP by increasing vegetable and fruit intake may protect against changes in loss of bone mineral content during spaceflight when adequate calcium is consumed, particularly if resistive exercise is not being performed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01713634.

  18. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  19. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  20. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  1. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  2. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  3. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  4. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  5. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  7. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Which family members use the best nets? An analysis of the condition of mosquito nets and their distribution within households in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lines Jo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs is increasing, and coverage targets have been revised to address universal coverage with ITNs. However, many households do not have enough nets to cover everyone, and the nets available vary in physical condition and insecticide treatment status. Since 2004, the Government of Tanzania has been implementing the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, which distributes vouchers for ITNs through antenatal clinics to target pregnant women and their infants. This analysis aimed to determine the following: (1 coverage patterns of bed nets within households according to physical condition and treatment status; (2 who might be at risk if mosquitoes were diverted from occupants of untreated nets to those not using nets? (3 the degree to which those at highest risk of malaria use the most protective nets. Methods Data from the 2006 TNVS household survey were analysed to assess within-household distribution of net use. The associations between net characteristics and net user were also evaluated. Multivariate analysis was applied to the relationship between the number of holes per net and user characteristics while adjusting for confounders. Results In households with a net:person ratio better than 1:4 (one net for every four household members, more than 80% of the people in such households reported using a net the previous night. ITNs were most likely to be used by infants, young children (1-4 y, and women of childbearing age; they were least likely to be used by older women (≥50 y, older children (5-14 y, and adult men. The nets used by infants and women of childbearing age were in better-than-average physical condition; the nets used by older women and older children were in worse-than-average condition; while young children and adult men used nets in intermediate (average condition. When adjusted for confounders, the nets used by young and older children had more holes

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  11. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  12. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  13. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  14. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  15. Celebrating 40 years anaerobic sludge bed reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Zee, F.P.; Frijters, C.T.M.J.; Ersahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology evolved from localized lab-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations at a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small foot print and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best

  16. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  17. Infant's bed climate and bedding in the Japanese home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura Ikeda, Rie; Fukai, Kiyoko; Okamoto Mizuno, Kazue

    2012-06-01

    to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0°C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  19. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  20. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  1. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  2. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  3. "We are supposed to take care of it": a qualitative examination of care and repair behaviour of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C; Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Weber, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    The longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) under field conditions has important implications for malaria vector control. The behaviour of bed net users, including net care and repair, may protect or damage bed nets and impact the physical integrity of nets. However, this behaviour, and the motivating and inhibiting factors, is not well understood. Qualitative research methods were used to examine behaviour, attitudes and norms around damage, care and repair of LLINs. Eighteen in-depth interviews (IDI) and six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with LLIN users in two local government areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A brief background questionnaire with the 73 participants prior to IDIs or FGDs collected additional data on demographics, net use, and care and repair behaviour. Respondents cited that the major causes of damage to bed nets are primarily children, followed by rodents, everyday handling that is not gentle, and characteristics of sleeping spaces. Caring for nets was perceived as both preventing damage by careful handling and keeping the net clean, which may lead to over-washing of LLINs. Repairing a damaged net was considered something that net users should do and the responsibility of adults in the household. Despite this, reported frequency of net repair was low (18%). Motivations for taking care of and repairing nets centred around caring for one's family, avoiding mosquito bites, saving money, and maintaining the positive opinion of others by keeping a clean and intact net. Barriers to net care and repair related to time availability and low perceived value of bed nets or of one's health. This study provides novel and valuable insights on the perceptions and attitudes of LLIN users in Nasarawa, Nigeria on the durability of bed nets, how to care for and repair nets, and for what reasons. Communication around net care should stress proper daily storage of nets, regular net inspections, prompt repairs, and clarify misconceptions

  4. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  5. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  6. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  7. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  8. Public hospital bed crisis: too few or too misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian A

    2010-08-01

    * Increasing demand on public hospital beds has led to what many see as a hospital bed crisis requiring substantial increases in bed numbers. By 2050, if current bed use trends persist and as the numbers of frail older patients rise exponentially, a 62% increase in hospital beds will be required to meet expected demand, at a cost almost equal to the entire current Australian healthcare budget. * This article provides an overview of the effectiveness of different strategies for reducing hospital demand that may be viewed as primarily (although not exclusively) targeting the hospital sector - increasing capacity and throughput and reducing readmissions - or the non-hospital sector - facilitating early discharge or reducing presentations and admissions to hospital. Evidence of effectiveness was retrieved from a literature search of randomised trials and observational studies using broad search terms. * The principal findings were as follows: (1) within the hospital sector, throughput could be substantially improved by outsourcing public hospital clinical services to the private sector, undertaking whole-of-hospital reform of care processes and patient flow that address both access and exit block, separating acute from elective beds and services, increasing rates of day-only or short stay admissions, and curtailing ineffective or marginally effective clinical interventions; (2) in regards to the non-hospital sector, potentially the biggest gains in reducing hospital demand will come from improved access to residential care, rehabilitation services, and domiciliary support as patients awaiting such services currently account for 70% of acute hospital bed-days. More widespread use of acute care and advance care planning within residential care facilities and population-based chronic disease management programs can also assist. * This overview concludes that, in reducing hospital bed demand, clinical process redesign within hospitals and capacity enhancement of non

  9. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  10. Management bedding : vrijloopstal met composterende bedding van houtsnippers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Wiersma, M.; Galama, P.J.; Szanto, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In de vrijloopstal liggen de koeien meestal op een organische bedding en scheiden daar mest (feces en urine) uit. Om de bedding voldoende droog en schoon te houden wordt er regelmatig nieuw strooisel aangevoerd en wordt de toplaag bewerkt. Op basis van onderzoek- en praktijkervaringen tot nu toe

  11. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  12. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  13. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  14. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  15. Comparison of chest compressions in the standing position beside a bed at knee level and the kneeling position: a non-randomised, single-blind, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2014-07-01

    When rescuers perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from a standing position, the height at which chest compressions are carried out is raised. To determine whether chest compressions delivered on a bed adjusted to rescuer's knee height are as effective as those delivered on the floor. A total of 20 fourth-year medical students participated in the study. The students performed chest compressions for 2 min each on a manikin lying on the floor (test 1) and on a manikin lying on a bed (test 2). The average compression rate (ACR) and the average compression depth (ACD) were compared between the two tests. The ACR was not significantly different between tests 1 and 2 (120.1 to 132.9  vs 115.7 to 131.2 numbers/min, 95% CI, p=0.324). The ACD was also not significantly different between tests 1 and 2 (51.2 to 56.6 vs 49.4 to 55.7 mm, 95% CI, p=0.058). The results suggest that there may be no significant differences in compression rate and depth between CPR performed on manikins placed on the floor and those placed at a rescuer's knee height. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  17. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  19. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  20. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  1. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  2. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  3. The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, W.; Ingen, J. van; Andrejak, C.; Angeby, K.; Bauriaud, R.; Bemer, P.; Beylis, N.; Boeree, M.J.; Cacho, J.; Chihota, V.; Chimara, E.; Churchyard, G.; Cias, R.; Daza, R.; Daley, C.L.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Domingo, D.; Drobniewski, F.; Esteban, J. De; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Folkvardsen, D.B.; Gibbons, N.; Gomez-Mampaso, E.; Gonzalez, R.; Hoffmann, H.; Hsueh, P.R.; Indra, A.; Jagielski, T.; Jamieson, F.; Jankovic, M.; Jong, E. de; Keane, J.; Koh, W.J.; Lange, B. de; Leao, S.; Macedo, R.; Mannsaker, T.; Marras, T.K.; Maugein, J.; Milburn, H.J.; Mlinko, T.; Morcillo, N.; Morimoto, K.; Papaventsis, D.; Palenque, E.; Paez-Pena, M.; Piersimoni, C.; Polanova, M.; Rastogi, N.; Richter, E.; Ruiz-Serrano, M.J.; Silva, A.; Silva, M.P. da; Simsek, H.; Soolingen, D. van; Szabo, N.; Thomson, R.; Fernandez, T. Tortola; Tortoli, E.; Totten, S.E.; Tyrrell, G.; Vasankari, T.; Villar, M.; Walkiewicz, R.; Winthrop, K.L.; Wagner, D.; Trials, G. Nontuberculous

    2013-01-01

    A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the

  4. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  7. Divertor plate concept with carbon based armour for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Howard, R.; Kneringer, G.; Stickler, R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of tests has been performed on simulated divertor elements for NET at the JET neutral beam injector test bed. The test section consisted of a water cooled main structure, the surface of which was protected with a carbon based armour in the form of tiles. The scope of these was to study the thermal behaviour of mechanically attached tiles with the use of an intermediate soft carbon layer to improve the thermal contact under divertor relevant conditions. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Comparisons of housing, bedding, and cooling options for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-04-01

    Housing, bedding, and summer cooling were management options evaluated. Holstein calves (42±2 kg of body weight) initially 2 to 5 d of age were managed in southwest Ohio in poly hutches or wire mesh pens in a curtain-sided nursery with no supplemental heat. Calves were fed milk replacer (27% crude protein, 17% fat fed at 0.657 kg of dry matter per calf daily), starter (20% crude protein dry matter, textured, fed free-choice), and water (free-choice). Measurements were for 56 d. In trial 1, 28 calves per treatment were bedded with straw and housed in either hutches or nursery pens. This trial was conducted from September to March; the average temperature was 8°C and ranged from -17 to 31°C. In trial 2a, 16 calves per treatment were managed in nursery pens bedded with straw, in nursery pens bedded with sand, or in hutches bedded with sand. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 21°C and ranged from 7 to 33°C. In trial 2b, 26 calves per treatment were housed in nursery pens and bedded with straw. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 22°C and ranged from 8 to 34°C. One treatment was cooled with fans between 0800 and 1700 h and the other was not. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in a completely randomized block design by trial, with calf as the experimental unit. In trial 3, air in the nursery and calf hutches used above was sampled 35 d apart for calves aged 5 and 40 d. Air in individual hutches on 2 commercial farms was sampled for 5- and 40-d-old calves for 2 hutch types. Air in the multi-calf hutches was sampled for calves of 75 and 110 d of age. Bacterial concentrations of air samples were analyzed (log10) as odds ratios by Proc Logistic in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); differences were declared at Pbedding were greater and scouring was less than that in calves bedded with sand in the nursery or hutches. The relative humidity was greater in the hutches than in

  9. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- Net Ecosystem Calcification and Net Ecosystem Productivity, Flower Garden Banks, FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  10. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- Net Ecosystem Calcification and Net Ecosystem Productivity, Cheeca Rocks, Florida Reef Tract FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  11. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  12. Chaotic hydrodynamics of fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Stappen, M.L.M. [Unit Process and Systems Engineering, Advanced Manufacturing Technology Group, Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The major goals of this thesis are: (1) to develop and evaluate an analysis method based on techniques from non-linear chaos theory to characterize the nonlinear hydrodynamics of gas-solids fluidized beds quantitatively; and (2) to determine the dependence of the chaotic invariants on the operating conditions and investigate how the chaos analysis method can be profitably applied to improve scale-up and design of gas-solids fluidized bed reactors. Chaos theory is introduced in chapter 2 with emphasis on analysis techniques for (experimental) time series, known from literature at the start of this work (1990-1991). In chapter 3, the testing of existing and newly developed techniques on both model and fluidized bed data is described. This leads to the development of the chaos analysis method to analyze measured pressure fluctuations time series of a fluidized bed. Following, in chapter 4, this method is tested and all choices for the parameters are evaluated. The influence of the experimental parameters and external disturbances on the measurements and analysis results is discussed and quantified. The result is a chaos measurement and analysis protocol, which is further used in this work. In chapter 5, the applications to fluidized beds are discussed. It is shown that the entropy is a good measure for the characterization of the dynamical behavior of gas-solids bubbling/slugging fluidized beds. Entropy is applied to characterize the influence of the operating conditions, to assess regime transitions and to analyze dimensionless similar beds of different scale. Quantitative design correlations that relate entropy to the operating parameters (including the bed diameter) are described. Finally, it is discussed how the results of this work might be used in scaling up the chaotic dynamics of fluidized beds. The overall conclusions and outlook from this work are presented in chapter 6. 182 refs.

  13. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  14. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  15. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  16. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  17. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  18. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  19. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  20. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  1. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  2. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  3. Efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets against laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Lyaruu, Lucile J; Mahande, Aneth M

    2017-01-18

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance against pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides approved for use on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the pyrethroid synergist PermaNet® 3.0 LLIN versus the pyrethroid-only PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN, in an East African hut design in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania. In this setting, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been identified in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Standard World Health Organization bioefficacy evaluations were conducted in both laboratory and experimental huts. Experimental hut evaluations were conducted in an area where there was presence of a population of highly pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis mosquitoes. All nets used were subjected to cone bioassays and then to experimental hut trials. Mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and personal protection rate were compared between untreated nets, unwashed LLINs and LLINs that were washed 20 times. Both washed and unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 LLINs had knockdown and mortality rates of 100% against a susceptible strain of An. gambiae sensu stricto. The adjusted mortality rate of the wild mosquito population after use of the unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets was found to be higher than after use of the washed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 nets. Given the increasing incidence of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae mosquitoes in Tanzania, we recommend that consideration is given to its distribution in areas with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors within the framework of a national insecticide-resistance management plan.

  4. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; Harvey, Vernon J; Robert, Nicholas J; Silovski, Tajana; Gokmen, Erhan; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Ejlertsen, Bent; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Buyse, Marc; Gore, Ira; Smith, John; Harker, Graydon; Masuda, Norikazu; Petrakova, Katarina; Zotano, Angel Guerrero; Iannotti, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Gladys; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Wong, Alvin; Bryce, Richard; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Martin, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    economics  Strategies must evolve as technology, markets, incentives, and economics change (e.g. PV prices dropping~50% over the last few years... Food and Beverage -------------------------------> Mattresses/beds/furniture----------------------> Building Supplies/repair parts...352 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19

  6. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  7. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  8. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... you hire an expert, be sure it’s a company with a good reputation and request that it ...

  9. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  10. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  11. Estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Frank G; Robotham, Julie V; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, W John; Jit, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Opportunity costs of bed-days are fundamental to understanding the value of healthcare systems. They greatly influence burden of disease estimations and economic evaluations involving stays in healthcare facilities. However, different estimation techniques employ assumptions that differ crucially in whether to consider the value of the second-best alternative use forgone, of any available alternative use, or the value of the actually chosen alternative. Informed by economic theory, this paper provides a taxonomic framework of methodologies for estimating the opportunity costs of resources. This taxonomy is then applied to bed-days by classifying existing approaches accordingly. We highlight differences in valuation between approaches and the perspective adopted, and we use our framework to appraise the assumptions and biases underlying the standard approaches that have been widely adopted mostly unquestioned in the past, such as the conventional use of reference costs and administrative accounting data. Drawing on these findings, we present a novel approach for estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days in terms of health forgone for the second-best patient, but expressed monetarily. This alternative approach effectively re-connects to the concept of choice and explicitly considers net benefits. It is broadly applicable across settings and for other resources besides bed-days. © 2017 The Authors Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nonproliferation and safeguard considerations: Pebble Bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, conpare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  13. Fluid-bed methane proposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The first full scale plant for the production of methane from organic waste could be built in the next few years believes M.J. Nyns of the University of Louvain, Belgium, utilizing either expanded bed or fluidised bed systems, with more than one stage, in a continuous flow arrangement. Up to 8.0 m cubed gas/m cubed digester/day could be produced with residence times reduced to 34 hours.

  14. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  15. Do Size and Insecticide Treatment Matter? Evaluation of Different Nets against Phlebotomus argentipes, the Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari Lal Das

    Full Text Available In the Indian subcontinent, Leishmania donovani, the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL is transmitted by the sand fly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LN have been postulated as alternative or complement to Indoor Residual Spraying but there are few field studies evaluating the entomological efficacy of different nets against this vector. We conducted two crossover trials in a VL endemic area in Nepal to compare the barrier effect of (1 LN with different mesh sizes (156 holes/inch2 vs 625 holes/inch2 and (2 alpha-cypermethrin treated LN and untreated nets having the same mesh size (156 holes/inch2. Each crossover trial had two arms consisting of a sequence of two different nets for 8 nights. We used 10 cattle sheds per trial. A cow placed under the net was used as bait. CDC light traps placed inside the nets were used to evaluate the number of P. argentipes crossing the net barrier. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE population-averaged models adjusted by night and sequence were used to estimate the barrier effect of the different nets. The crossover trials conducted in a rural village in Morang district (South-eastern Nepal demonstrated that reducing the size of the holes in treated nets (625 holes/inch2 increased the barrier effect of LN by 77% (95% confidence interval (CI: 56%-88% compared with treated nets with larger holes (156 holes/inch2. Treating nets with alpha-cypermethrin reduced the number of P. argentipes captured inside the nets by 77% (95% CI: 27%-93% compared with untreated nets. The effectiveness and acceptability of finer mesh pyrethroid treated LN should be tested for VL prevention in a randomized controlled trial.

  16. Accounting for between-study variation in incremental net benefit in value of information methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Previous applications of value of information methods for determining optimal sample size in randomized clinical trials have assumed no between-study variation in mean incremental net benefit. By adopting a hierarchical model, we provide a solution for determining optimal sample size with this assumption relaxed. The solution is illustrated with two examples from the literature. Expected net gain increases with increasing between-study variation, reflecting the increased uncertainty in incremental net benefit and reduced extent to which data are borrowed from previous evidence. Hence, a trial can become optimal where current evidence is sufficient assuming no between-study variation. However, despite the expected net gain increasing, the optimal sample size in the illustrated examples is relatively insensitive to the amount of between-study variation. Further percentage losses in expected net gain were small even when choosing sample sizes that reflected widely different between-study variation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  18. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  19. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  20. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  1. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Diaz, K. E.; Limas-Ballesteros, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  2. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  3. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  4. Reducing Respiratory Health Risks to Horses and Workers: A Comparison of Two Stall Bedding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stable air quality and the choice of bedding material are an important health issue both in horses and people working or visiting horse stables. Risks of impaired respiratory health are those that can especially be avoided by improving air quality in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions; where horses are kept most of the day and year indoors throughout their life. This study examined the effect of two bedding materials; wood shavings and peat; on stable air quality and health of horses. Ammonia and dust levels were also measured to assess conditions in the stable. Ammonia was not detected or was at very low levels (<0.25 ppm in the boxes in which peat was used as bedding; but its concentration was clearly higher (1.5–7.0 ppm in stalls with wood shavings as bedding. Personal measurements of workers revealed quite high ammonia exposure (5.9 ppm8h in the boxes in which wood shavings were used; but no exposure was Animals 2015, 5 966 observed in stalls bedded with peat. The respiratory symptoms in horses increased regardless of the bedding material at the beginning of the study. The health status of the horses in the peat bedding group returned to the initial level in the end of the trial but horses bedded with wood shavings continued to be symptomatic. The hooves of the horses with peat bedding had a better moisture content than those of the horses bedded with wood shavings. The results suggest that peat is a better bedding material for horses than wood shavings regarding the health of both horses and stable workers.

  5. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  6. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  7. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  8. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  9. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  10. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  11. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  12. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  13. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  14. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  15. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  16. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... A fully-coupled 1D mobile-bed model (CAR-. ICHAR) was introduced ...... for sediment trap, water level sensor, tail gate operated by lever arm at .... materials were brought back to upstream to feed the same through sediment ...

  17. Tritium recovery from helium purge stream of solid breeder blanket by cryogenic molecular sieve bed. 2. Regeneration operation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Regeneration operation is a very important operation, because it is the most influential factor for deciding the net operation cycle time and the minimum dimension of Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB). However, the experimental data of CMSB regeneration operation was not so sufficient that even the optimum regeneration procedure could not be decided yet. This work was focused on getting the primary information about various regeneration procedures. (author)

  18. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  19. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  20. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  2. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  3. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  5. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  6. Re-Engineering Alzheimer Clinical Trials: Global Alzheimer's Platform Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, J; Aisen, P; Barton, R; Bork, J; Doody, R; Dwyer, J; Egan, J C; Feldman, H; Lappin, D; Truyen, L; Salloway, S; Sperling, R; Vradenburg, G

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development is costly, time-consuming, and inefficient. Trial site functions, trial design, and patient recruitment for trials all require improvement. The Global Alzheimer Platform (GAP) was initiated in response to these challenges. Four GAP work streams evolved in the US to address different trial challenges: 1) registry-to-cohort web-based recruitment; 2) clinical trial site activation and site network construction (GAP-NET); 3) adaptive proof-of-concept clinical trial design; and 4) finance and fund raising. GAP-NET proposes to establish a standardized network of continuously funded trial sites that are highly qualified to perform trials (with established clinical, biomarker, imaging capability; certified raters; sophisticated management system. GAP-NET will conduct trials for academic and biopharma industry partners using standardized instrument versions and administration. Collaboration with the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) European Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (EPAD) program, the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and other similar international initiatives will allow conduct of global trials. GAP-NET aims to increase trial efficiency and quality, decrease trial redundancy, accelerate cohort development and trial recruitment, and decrease trial costs. The value proposition for sites includes stable funding and uniform training and trial execution; the value to trial sponsors is decreased trial costs, reduced time to execute trials, and enhanced data quality. The value for patients and society is the more rapid availability of new treatments for AD.

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  9. Sleeping arrangements and mosquito net use among under-fives: results from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaitwe Jacqueline

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Roll Back Malaria Initiative has identified the under-fives as one of the high risk groups for malaria, and one of the strategies to fight malaria in this group is increasing mosquito net use. This implies that there must be selective targeting at the household level such that the children are protected. However, the Roll Back Malaria preferences must be reconciled with those at the household level to take into account household level preferences. Methods This paper is based on the 2000–2001 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data in which information on mosquito net ownership and use was collected. The patterns of household mosquito net ownership and use for children under five years of age were examined using both bi-variate and multivariate analysis. Results The preferences at the household level seem to be different; children use mosquito nets primarily because they happen to share a bed with their parents. A child who shares a bed with the mother is 21 times more likely to use a mosquito net than his/her counterpart. Conclusion Increasing mosquito net coverage such that 60% (the target for the RBM of households have at least one mosquito net will not necessarily protect the under-fives. Either the coverage will have to be expanded or appropriate targeting strategies designed.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN TARGET NET SEBAGAI ALAT PEMBELAJARAN PUKULAN BULUTANGKIS DI SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Khoirul Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan dan menghasilkan alat target net untuk memudahkan peserta didik SMP memelajari dan meningkatkan kemampuan teknik dasar pukulan net, smash, drive, dan short serve. Dalam penelitian pengembangan ini, langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh meliputi: (1 potensi dan masalah, (2 pengumpulan data, (3 desain produk, (4 validasi desain dan instrument, (5 revisi desain, (6 uji coba produk, (7 revisi, dan (8 produksi/implementasi produk. Uji coba penelitian dilakukan terhadap 168 peserta didik dari SMP se-Kecamatan Piyungan, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Teknik analisis data terdiri dari teknik analisis data deskriptif kuantitatif dan teknik analisis data deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil akhir dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah produk alat pembelajaran target net dan buku manual target net yang memiliki kualitas yang sangat baik. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan diperolehnya rerata persentase skor penilaian kualitas produk alat pembelajaran dan buku manual target net sebesar 98,66%.   DEVELOP TARGET NET AS A TOOL FOR SHOT LEARNING IN BADMINTON AT JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL   Abstract This research aims to produce and develop target net tools in facilitating JHS students to improve the basic techniques of net shots, smashes, drives, dan short serves. This research and development study follows the steps of: (1 the potential and problems identification, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 the design and validation of the instrumen, (5 revision of the design, (6 product trials, (7 revision, and (8 production/implementation of the product. The trials were conducted to 168 students from JSH in Piyungan districts, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The technique of data analysis is descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative descriptive analysis. The result of this research is a learning tool of target net product and manual book of the target product, that have a very good quality.  Which is proved by the average percentage quality assessment

  11. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  12. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  13. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  14. Pebble bed blanket design for deuterium burning tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Dhir, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The UCLA tandem mirror reactor, SATYR, was developed around the capability of tandem mirrors with thermal barriers to burn deuterium at reasonable efficiency levels. The pebble bed concept has been incorporated into our blanket design for the following reasons: 1) Large area-to-volume ratio for purposes of heat removal; 2) Large volume of structure for high thermal capacity thus increasing the safety margin during off-normal incidents; 3) Relatively inexpensive manufacturing costs because of large acceptable tolerances and lack of exotic materials (i.e., lithium). A simplified stress analysis of the blanket module was performed to optimize and simplify the design. The pre-specified stress intensity limitations used were based upon a 30-year predicted lifetime for each module. Along with stress analysis of the vessel a detailed thermal hydraulic analysis of the pebble bed has been completed. Parameters affecting the pebble bed design are fluidization velocity, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, thermally induced stress in the spheres and spatial variation of the power density. Although reasonable gross thermal efficiencies of the 2 designs has been achieved (28% for H 2 O and 39% for He) the high net recirculating power fraction for heating and neutral beams results in relatively low net plant efficiencies (21% and 27%). The results show that a blanket can be designed with good thermal efficiency and a relative-ly simple configuration. However, application of this concept to the high Q deuterium-tritium fuel cycle would have difficulties resulting from the need for continuous removal of the tritium. (orig./HP)

  15. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  16. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  17. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  18. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  19. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  20. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rest or hide in hampers, bed frames, even furniture); Failing to treat adjacent areas where bed bugs ... to work (some pesticides, such as desiccators or growth regulators, may be very effective but take some ...

  1. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  2. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  3. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015, in the number of pregnant women in Kenya receiving recommended malaria prophylaxis in the ... recommended that at least three IPtp doses be provided to pregnant ..... operational research and training Initiative (sort. It), a global ...

  4. Effect of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on birth outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each year in sub-Saharan Africa, where 80 to 90% of the world's malaria cases occur, approximately 19 to 24 million .... in winning the battle against malaria.16 .... tion group and given ITNs prepared in ... two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine.

  5. Parents' perception on use of insecticide-treated bed net in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It involved the distribution of 15-itemed questionnaires to 212 parents (with at least one under five aged child), who brought their children to the Paediatrics outpatient clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Questions asked covered: the awareness of ITN, the number of ITN owned by each participant and the ...

  6. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  7. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  8. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  9. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  10. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  11. Fluidized bed dry dense medium coal beneficiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, Brian C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available medium beneficiation using a fluidized bed was investigated. Bed materials of sand, magnetite and ilmenite were used in a laboratory sized cylindrical fluidized bed. The materials were individually tested, as were mixes of sand and heavy minerals. Coal...

  12. Characteristics of Sawdust and Cocopeat Beddings, and Their Usefulness According to the Fan and Pen Location for Rearing Hanwoo Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Kang Yeon; Kwak, Wan Sup; Oh, Young Kyun; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the characteristics of sawdust and cocopeat bedding materials, including physicochemical properties (Exp. I) and on-farm trial (Exp. II). In Exp. I, the proportion of particle size was in the order of sawdust> cocopeat India>cocopeat Vietnam (pcocopeat Vietnam>sawdust (pfan (blowing 2.00 m/s) and no fan treatments, and feed bunk side (FB) and water supply side (WS) within a pen (4.5 m, width×9.0 m, length). Beddings were replaced with fresh bedding materials when moisture concentrations were over 65%. No interactions among treatments were detected for moisture concentration and increment rates, and ammonia concentrations, but a significant effect was observed (pfan than with fan. Moisture concentrations and increment rate within a pen were also higher (pfan-FB and sawdust-fan-FB were replaced with fresh bedding material between 4 to 5 experimental weeks. The ammonia concentrations and pH of beddings were not significantly different among treatments. Therefore, using cocopeat bedding with a blowing fan can extend twice the bedding utilization period, and WS within a pen showed twice the bedding-life compared to FB. Despite the outstanding characteristics of cocopeat compared with sawdust, using cocopeat as an alternative for sawdust bedding is not recommended for cattle management, considering it has 4.4 times higher bedding cost and a dust production problem.

  13. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  14. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  15. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  16. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  17. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  18. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  19. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  20. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  1. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  2. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  3. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, an overview on common research-oriented software products for SDR development, namely GNU Radio, Iris, and ASGARD, will be provided, including how to practically start the software development of simple applications. Finally, best practices and examples of all the software platforms will be provided, giving...... they are up and running in generating results. With this chapter we would like to provide a tutorial guide, based on direct experience, on how to enter in the world of test bed-based research, providing both insight on the issues encountered in every day development, and practical solutions. Finally...

  4. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Advances in fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) has advanced into industrial cogeneration and utility-scale electric generation. During the 1980's AFBC became the dominant technology in the United States for power generation systems fired with solid fuels. Development of pressurized fluidized bed combustion/gasification (PFB/G) has grown rapidly from small bench-scale rigs to large pilot and demonstration plants. AFBC as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized combustion systems generating 80 MWe have started up two years ago. The major driving forces behind development of fluidized bed technologies are all the time strictening emission control regulations, need for fuel flexibility, repowering of older power plants and need for higher efficiency in electricity generation. Independent power producers (IPP) and cogenerators were the first ones in the United States who accepted AFBC for wide commercial use. Their role will be dominant in the markets of the 1990's also. Developers of AFBC systems are working on designs that reduce investment costs, decrease emissions and offer even higher reliability and availability in utility-scale applications while developers of PFBC/G work on designs that increase plant efficiencies, allow modular construction, decrease emissions further and reduce the cost of generating power. This paper presents technological background, commercial status, boiler performance, emissions and future developments for both AFBC and PFBC/G systems

  6. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  7. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...

  8. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  9. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  10. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  11. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  12. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  13. Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150 mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic tests on net divertor targets using swirl tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Deschamps, P.; Massmann, P.; Falter, H.D.; Deschamps, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic tests have been carried out in collaboration between NET, CEA Cadarache and JET in order to find a cooling method capable of removing the high heat fluxes expected for the NET/ITER divertor. The goal was to evaluate by experiments the critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer in the subcooled boiling regime using twisted tapes as turbulence promoters and testing them under relevant thermal-hydraulic conditions. The CEA 200 kW Electron Beam (EB) facility and the 10 MW JET Neutral Beam (NB) test bed have been used to heat up the NET relevant test sections (TS) consisting of rectangular copper elements with circular internal channels. The TS have been exposed to the electron or ion beams under normal incidence. This paper reports the results of the experiments and of thermal analyses performed in support of the tests. The experimental CHF values have been benchmarked with the Tong-75 correlation

  15. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  17. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  18. Evaluation of impermeable covers for bedding in patients with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, Ingrid; Hak, Eelko; Oosting, Albert J.; Tempels-Pavlica, Zana; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encasing bedding in impermeable covers reduces exposure to house-dust mites, but the clinical benefit of this intervention as part of mite-avoidance measures for patients with allergic rhinitis is not known. We performed a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of one year of

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  20. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  1. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  2. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  3. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  4. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  5. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  6. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  7. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  8. Gas purification by use of hot metal getter beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.

    1992-11-01

    An experimental program is described which was performed in the frame of a tritium technology task for the NET/ITER fusion fuel cycle. The aim was to investigate commercial gas purifiers containing metallic getters for the purification of gas streams such as the plasma exhaust gas. Five purifiers with up to 3000g of getter material were tested in the PEGASUS facility mainly with respect to the removal of methane, which is known to be much more difficult to remove than other impurities like O 2 , N 2 , or CO. A proposal for a fuel cleanup method based on a combination of getter beds and Pd/Ag diffusors is presented as the main conclusion of the test program. The discussion of this method includes the aspects of flow rates, tritium inventory, and consumption of getter material. (orig.) [de

  9. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...

  11. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Grens, J.Z.; Ryerson, F.J.; Hoenig, C.L.; Bazan, F.; Peters, P.E.; Smith, R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  12. On partial fluidization in rotating fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a rotating fluidized bed, unlike in a conventional fluidized bed, the granules are fluidized layer by layer from the (inner) free surface outward at increasing radius as the gas velocity is increased. This is a very significant and interesting phenomenon and is extremely important in the design of these fluidized beds. The phenomenon was first suggested in a theoretical analysis and recently verified experimentally in the authors' laboratory. However, in the first paper, the equations presented are too cumbersome and the influence of bed thickness is not clearly stated. In this note the authors present simplified equations, based on that paper, for the pressure drop and the minimum fluidizing velocities in a rotating fluidized bed. Experimental data are also shown and compared with the theoretical model, and the effect of bed thickness is shown. Furthermore, an explanation for the observation of a maximum in the pressure drop vs. velocity curve instead of the plateau derived by Chen is proposed

  13. MIT pebble bed reactor project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadak, Andrew C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The conceptual design of the MIT modular pebble bed reactor is described. This reactor plant is a 250 Mwth, 120 Mwe indirect cycle plant that is designed to be deployed in the near term using demonstrated helium system components. The primary system is a conventional pebble bed reactor with a dynamic central column with an outlet temperature of 900 C providing helium to an intermediate helium to helium heat exchanger (IHX). The outlet of the IHX is input to a three shaft horizontal Brayton Cycle power conversion system. The design constraint used in sizing the plant is based on a factory modularity principle which allows the plant to be assembled 'Lego' style instead of constructed piece by piece. This principle employs space frames which contain the power conversion system that permits the Lego-like modules to be shipped by truck or train to sites. This paper also describes the research that has been conducted at MIT since 1998 on fuel modeling, silver leakage from coated fuel particles, dynamic simulation, MCNP reactor physics modeling and air ingress analysis.

  14. MIT pebble bed reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual design of the MIT modular pebble bed reactor is described. This reactor plant is a 250 Mwth, 120 Mwe indirect cycle plant that is designed to be deployed in the near term using demonstrated helium system components. The primary system is a conventional pebble bed reactor with a dynamic central column with an outlet temperature of 900 C providing helium to an intermediate helium to helium heat exchanger (IHX). The outlet of the IHX is input to a three shaft horizontal Brayton Cycle power conversion system. The design constraint used in sizing the plant is based on a factory modularity principle which allows the plant to be assembled 'Lego' style instead of constructed piece by piece. This principle employs space frames which contain the power conversion system that permits the Lego-like modules to be shipped by truck or train to sites. This paper also describes the research that has been conducted at MIT since 1998 on fuel modeling, silver leakage from coated fuel particles, dynamic simulation, MCNP reactor physics modeling and air ingress analysis

  15. Considerations of net present value in policy making regarding diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Rasiel, Emma B; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-11-01

    The pharmaceutical and medical device industries function in a business environment in which shareholders expect companies to optimize profit within legal and ethical standards. A fundamental tool used to optimize decision making is the net present value calculation, which estimates the current value of cash flows relating to an investment. We examined 3 prototypical research investment decisions that have been the source of public scrutiny to illustrate how policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by industry are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value. In the case of direct, comparative clinical trials, a simple net present value calculation provides insight into why companies eschew such investments. In the case of pediatric clinical trials, the Pediatric Extension Rule changed the net present value calculation from unattractive to potentially very attractive by allowing patent extensions; thus, the dramatic increase in pediatric clinical trials can be explained by the financial return on investment. In the case of products for small markets, the fixed costs of development make this option financially unattractive. Policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by the pharmaceutical and medical device industries are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value.

  16. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  17. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  18. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  19. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  1. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  4. Fungi solubilisation of low rank coal: performances of stirred tank, fluidised bed and packed bed reactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal biosolubilisation was investigated in stirred tank reactor, fluidised bed and fixed bed bioreactors with a view to highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each of these reactor configurations. The stirred aerated bioreactor and fluidised...

  5. Visualization of bed material movement in a simulated fluidized bed heat exchanger by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    1999-01-01

    The bulk movement of fluidized bed material was visualized by neutron radiography by introducing tracers into the bed materials. The simulated fluidized bed consisted of aluminum plates, and the bed material was sand of 99.7% SiO 2 (mean diameter: 0.218 mm, density: 2555 kg/m 3 ). Both materials were almost transparent to neutrons. Then the sand was colored by the contamination of the sand coated by CdSO 4 . Tracer particles of about 2 mm diameter were made by the B 4 C, bonded by the vinyl resin. The tracer was about ten times as large as the particle of fluidized bed material, but the traceability was enough to observe the bed-material bulk movement owing to the large effective viscosity of the fluidized bed. The visualized images indicated that the bubbles and/or wakes were important mechanism of the behavior of the fluidized bed movement

  6. Are seagrass beds indicators of anthropogenic nutrient stress in the rocky intertidal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Susanna E.; Mahoney, Brenna; Glanz, Jess S.; Hughes, Brent B.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that anthropogenic nutrient inputs harm estuarine seagrasses, but the influence of nutrients in rocky intertidal ecosystems is less clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of anthropogenic nutrient loading on Phyllospadix spp., a rocky intertidal seagrass, at local and regional scales. At sites along California, Washington, and Oregon, we demonstrated a significant, negative correlation of urban development and Phyllospadix bed thickness. These results were echoed locally along an urban gradient on the central California coast, where Phyllospadix shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness, and experimentally, where nutrient additions in mesocosms reduced Phyllospadix shoot formation and increased epiphytic cover on Phyllospadix shoots. These findings provide evidence that coastal development can threaten rocky intertidal seagrasses through increased epiphytism. Considering that seagrasses provide vital ecosystem services, mitigating eutrophication and other factors associated with development in the rocky intertidal coastal zone should be a management priority. - Highlights: • The effect of nutrient loading on rocky intertidal seagrasses is not well studied. • Regionally, development was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Locally, shoot δ 15 N was negatively associated with Phyllospadix bed thickness. • Mesocosms with added nutrients had a net loss in shoots and increased epiphytes. • Nutrient loading may have a negative effect on intertidal seagrass bed health.

  7. Near-Bed Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget Under a Large-Scale Plunging Breaking Wave Over a Fixed Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, Dominic A.; Cáceres, Iván.; Hurther, David; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Hydrodynamics under regular plunging breaking waves over a fixed breaker bar were studied in a large-scale wave flume. A previous paper reported on the outer flow hydrodynamics; the present paper focuses on the turbulence dynamics near the bed (up to 0.10 m from the bed). Velocities were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution using a two component laser Doppler anemometer. The results show that even at close distance from the bed (1 mm), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases by a factor five between the shoaling, and breaking regions because of invasion of wave breaking turbulence. The sign and phase behavior of the time-dependent Reynolds shear stresses at elevations up to approximately 0.02 m from the bed (roughly twice the elevation of the boundary layer overshoot) are mainly controlled by local bed-shear-generated turbulence, but at higher elevations Reynolds stresses are controlled by wave breaking turbulence. The measurements are subsequently analyzed to investigate the TKE budget at wave-averaged and intrawave time scales. Horizontal and vertical turbulence advection, production, and dissipation are the major terms. A two-dimensional wave-averaged circulation drives advection of wave breaking turbulence through the near-bed layer, resulting in a net downward influx in the bar trough region, followed by seaward advection along the bar's shoreward slope, and an upward outflux above the bar crest. The strongly nonuniform flow across the bar combined with the presence of anisotropic turbulence enhances turbulent production rates near the bed.

  8. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  9. Injury scores and locomotor disorders of Holstein cows in a free-stall facility with different beds

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchin, Daiane; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Sousa, Francine Aparecida; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Amaral, Pedro Ivo Sodré; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Yanagi Junior, Tadayuki; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Ferreira, Suane Alves; Médica Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Souza, Myriam Cristiane Morais; Graduanda em Medicina Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Cecchin, Diego; Especialista em Gestão – UPF, Passo Fundo, RS

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders in 36 multiparous Holstein cows confined in a free-stall model system with two types of beds at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in the city of Coronel Pacheco / MG. Rubber composite beds and sand beds were compared and the hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders were assessed for severity scores. There was no difference between the scores or hock lesions observed at the beginning and end of the trial perio...

  10. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  11. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  12. Debridement and wound bed preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Anna F

    2006-01-01

    Debridement can play a vital role in wound bed preparation and the removal of barriers that impair wound healing. In accordance with the TIME principles, debridement can help remove nonviable tissue, control inflammation or infection, decrease excess moisture, and stimulate a nonadvancing wound edge. There are many types of debridement, each with a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be clearly understood by the healthcare team. Failure to use the correct debridement method for a given type of wound may lead to further delays in healing, increase patient suffering, and unnecessarily increase the cost of care. This review article discusses the various methods of debridement, describes currently available debriding agents, evaluates the clinical data regarding their efficacy and safety, and describes strategies for the management of problematic nonhealing wounds.

  13. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  14. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  15. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  16. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods: Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana St...

  17. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  18. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  19. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  20. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  1. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  2. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  3. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  4. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  5. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  6. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  7. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  8. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  9. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  10. Bedømmelsesformer inden for AMU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    Sigtet med denne rapport om bedømmelse i AMU-regi er dels at indsamle dokumentation fra praksiserfaringer baseret på udvalgte TUP-projekter, og dels at beskrive national og international forskning på bedømmelses- og evalueringsområdet. Denne indsamling og beskrivelse vil lægge op til en diskussio...

  11. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  12. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  13. Multiphase flow in spout fluidized bed granulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenen, van M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Spout fluidized beds are frequently used for the production of granules or particles through granulation, which are widely applied, for example, in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, food and fertilizers (M¨orl et al. 2007). Spout fluidized beds have a number of advantageous properties,

  14. 1 The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage Landforms on Soil. Nutrient Distribution and Grain Yield of Maize on the Vertisols ... The Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana are water logged after significant rainfall ... Excess application of 15-15-15 NPK and sulphate of ammonia fertilizers (150% .... beds, before planting and nutrient.

  15. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  16. Uranium bed oxidation vacuum process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeland, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Deuterium and tritium gases are occluded in uranium powder for release into neutron generator tubes. The uranium powder is contained in stainless steel bottles, termed ''beds.'' If these beds become damaged, the gases must be removed and the uranium oxidized in order not to be flammable before shipment to ERDA disposal grounds. This paper describes the system and methods designed for the controlled degassing and oxidation process. The system utilizes sputter-ion, cryo-sorption and bellows pumps for removing the gases from the heated source bed. Removing the tritium gas is complicated by the shielding effect of helium-3, a byproduct of tritium decay. This effect is minimized by incremental pressure changes, or ''batch'' processing. To prevent runaway exothermic reaction, oxidation of the uranium bed is also done incrementally, or by ''batch'' processing, rather than by continuous flow. The paper discusses in detail the helium-3 shielding effect, leak checks that must be made during processing, bed oxidation, degree of gas depletion, purity of gases sorbed from beds, radioactivity of beds, bed disposal and system renovation

  17. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  18. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  19. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  20. Measurement of the bed material of gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the physical properties of a gravel-bed river is important in the calculation of sediment transport and physical habitat values for aquatic animals. These properties are not always easy to measure. One recent report on flushing of fines from the Klamath River did not contain information on one location because the grain size distribution of the armour could not be measured on a dry river bar. The grain size distribution could have been measured using a barrel sampler and converting the measurements to the same as would have been measured if a dry bar existed at the site. In another recent paper the porosity was calculated from an average value relation from the literature. The results of that paper may be sensitive to the actual value of porosity. Using the bulk density sampling technique based on a water displacement process presented in this paper the porosity could have been calculated from the measured bulk density. The principle topics of this paper are the measurement of the size distribution of the armour, and measurement of the porosity of the substrate. The 'standard' method of sampling of the armour is to do a Wolman-type count of the armour on a dry section of the river bed. When a dry bar does not exist the armour in an area of the wet streambed is to sample and the measurements transformed analytically to the same type of results that would have been obtained from the standard Wolman procedure. A comparison of the results for the San Miguel River in Colorado shows significant differences in the median size of the armour. The method use to determine the porosity is not 'high-tech' and there is a need improve knowledge of the porosity because of the importance of porosity in the aquatic ecosystem. The technique is to measure the in-situ volume of a substrate sample by measuring the volume of a frame over the substrate and then repeated the volume measurement after the sample is obtained from within the frame. The difference in the

  1. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  2. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  3. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  4. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  5. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Siebers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  6. Does bedding affect the airway and allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, R W; Crane, J

    2011-04-01

    Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  7. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  8. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  9. Reservoir evaluation of thin-bedded turbidites and hydrocarbon pore thickness estimation for an accurate quantification of resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoniyi, Bayonle; Stow, Dorrik

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the assessment of and production from turbidite reservoirs is to take full account of thin and medium-bedded turbidites (succession, they can go unnoticed by conventional analysis and so negatively impact on reserve estimation, particularly in fields producing from prolific thick-bedded turbidite reservoirs. Field development plans often take little note of such thin beds, which are therefore bypassed by mainstream production. In fact, the trapped and bypassed fluids can be vital where maximising field value and optimising production are key business drivers. We have studied in detail, a succession of thin-bedded turbidites associated with thicker-bedded reservoir facies in the North Brae Field, UKCS, using a combination of conventional logs and cores to assess the significance of thin-bedded turbidites in computing hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT). This quantity, being an indirect measure of thickness, is critical for an accurate estimation of original-oil-in-place (OOIP). By using a combination of conventional and unconventional logging analysis techniques, we obtain three different results for the reservoir intervals studied. These results include estimated net sand thickness, average sand thickness, and their distribution trend within a 3D structural grid. The net sand thickness varies from 205 to 380 ft, and HPT ranges from 21.53 to 39.90 ft. We observe that an integrated approach (neutron-density cross plots conditioned to cores) to HPT quantification reduces the associated uncertainties significantly, resulting in estimation of 96% of actual HPT. Further work will focus on assessing the 3D dynamic connectivity of the low-pay sands with the surrounding thick-bedded turbidite facies.

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions and clinical trials. Optimizing our Clinical Trials Enterprise NHLBI has a strong tradition of supporting clinical ... multi-pronged approach to Optimize our Clinical Trials Enterprise that will make our clinical trials enterprise even ...

  11. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal ... for the clinical trial. The protocol outlines what will be done during the clinical trial and why. ...

  12. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... take part in a clinical trial. When researchers think that a trial's potential risks are greater than ... care costs for clinical trials. If you're thinking about taking part in a clinical trial, find ...

  13. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are ... earlier than they would be in general medical practice. This is because late-phase trials have large ...

  14. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a ... will be done during the clinical trial and why. Each medical center that does the study uses ...

  15. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ...

  16. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal investigator ( ...

  17. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  18. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  19. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  20. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  1. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  2. Experimental investigation on the changes in bed properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental investigation on the changes in bed properties of a downdraft ... pressure measurements, physical observation, sampling of bed particles, bed agitation, etc. The generated producer gas was cleaned and cooled in downstream ...

  3. Human thermoregulatory function during exercise and immersion after 35 days of horizontal bed-rest and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola

    2005-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of 35 days of experimental horizontal bed-rest on exercise and immersion thermoregulatory function. Fifteen healthy male volunteers were assigned to either a Control (n = 5) or Bed-rest (n = 10) group. Thermoregulatory function was evaluated during a 30-min bout of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed immediately by a 100-min immersion in 28 degrees C water. For the Bed-rest group, exercise and immersion thermoregulatory responses observed post-bed-rest were compared with those after a 5 week supervised active recovery period. In both trials, the absolute work load during the exercise portion of the test was identical. During the exercise and immersion, we recorded skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and third digit of the right hand (DeltaT(forearm-fingertip))--an index of skin blood flow, sweating rate from the forehead, oxygen uptake and heart rate at minute intervals. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort at 5-min intervals. Exercise thermoregulatory responses after bed-rest and recovery were similar. Subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort during immersion indicated that subjects perceived similar combinations of Tsk and Tre to be warmer and thermally less uncomfortable after bed-rest. The average (SD) exercise-induced increase in Tre relative to resting values was not significantly different between the Post-bed-rest (0.4 (0.2) degrees C) and Recovery (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) trials. During the post-exercise immersion, the decrease in Tre, relative to resting values, was significantly (P forearm-fingertip) was 5.2 (0.9) degrees C and 5.8 (1.0) degrees C at the end of the post-bed-rest and recovery immersions, respectively. The gain of the shivering response (increase in VO(2) relative to the decrease in Tre; VO(2)/Tre) was 1.19 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Recovery trial, and was significantly

  4. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trial Protocol Each clinical trial has a master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial ... clinical trial; and detailed information about the treatment plan. Eligibility Criteria A clinical trial's protocol describes what ...

  5. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  6. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  7. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  9. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  10. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  11. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  12. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  13. Improvement of Combustion Characteristics in Fluidized Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.S.; El Sourougy, M.R.; Faik, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation is directed towards the experimental study of the effect of a new design of the bed temperature on the overall thermal efficiency and heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in gaseous fuel-fluidized bed combustion system. The experiments are performed on a water-cooled fluidized bed model furnace with cylindrical cross-section of 0.25 m diameter and its height is 0.60 m. the fluidising medium used is sand particles with average diameter 1.5 mm. The bed temperature is varied between 700 degree C and 1100 degree C. Measurements f carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations are carried out by using water-cooled sampling probe, and infrared and paramagnetic analyzers. The results obtained show that the bed temperature, the total heat transfer to the wall and the bed combustion efficiency increase with the decrease of the air-fuel ratio. It is also found that 91% of the total heat transfer is in the fluidising part of the bed and most of this heat is transferred by convection from hot sand particles to the wall. Two empirical formulae for the calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient and the particle convective heat transfer coefficient are proposed. A verification of the proposed empirical formulae is made by comparing the calculated values with the experimental results.

  14. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  15. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  16. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  17. The Petri Net Markup Language : concepts, technology, and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a

  18. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the energy performance, reduce GHG and acid rain precursor emission, and use of biomass for different outputs based on demand. Finally, a sensitivity analysis and a comparative study ar conducted for expected technological improvements and factors that could increase the energy......, methanol and methane. Circulating fluidized bed gasifier and the gas technology institute (GTI) gasifier technologies are used for this quad-generation process. Two different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1...

  19. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  20. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.