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Sample records for bed net ownership

  1. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

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    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  2. Comparing ownership and use of bed nets at two sites with differential malaria transmission in western Kenya.

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    Ernst, Kacey C; Hayden, Mary H; Olsen, Heather; Cavanaugh, Jamie L; Ruberto, Irene; Agawo, Maurice; Munga, Stephen

    2016-04-14

    Challenges persist in ensuring access to and optimal use of long-lasting, insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Factors associated with ownership and use may differ depending on the history of malaria and prevention control efforts in a specific region. Understanding how the cultural and social-environmental context of bed net use may differ between high- and low-risk regions is important when identifying solutions to improve uptake and appropriate use. Community forums and a household, cross-sectional survey were used to collect information on factors related to bed net ownership and use in western Kenya. Sites with disparate levels of transmission were selected, including an endemic lowland area, Miwani, and a highland epidemic-prone area, Kapkangani. Analysis of ownership was stratified by site. A combined site analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with use of all available bed nets. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with ownership and use of owned bed nets. Access to bed nets as the leading barrier to their use was identified in community forums and cross-sectional surveys. While disuse of available bed nets was discussed in the forums, it was a relatively rare occurrence in both sites. Factors associated with ownership varied by site. Education, perceived risk of malaria and knowledge of individuals who had died of malaria were associated with higher bed net ownership in the highlands, while in the lowlands individuals reporting it was easy to get a bed net were more likely to own one. A combined site analysis indicated that not using an available bed net was associated with the attitudes that taking malaria drugs is easier than using a bed net and that use of a bed net will not prevent malaria. In addition, individuals with an unused bed net in the household were more likely to indicate that bed nets are difficult to use, that purchased bed nets are better than freely distributed ones, and that bed nets should only

  3. Household bed net ownership and use among under-5 children in Nigeria

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    Osuorah DC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Chidiebere Osuorah,1,2 Chijioke Elias Ezeudu,2 Stanley Kenechi Onah,2 Obinna Tochukwu Anyabolu31Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Banjul, The Gambia; 2Department of Pediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra, Nigeria; 3School of Health and Social Care, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UKBackground: Malaria remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with children under 5 years accounting for 86% of all malaria deaths. For effective control of malaria, WHO recommends rapid diagnosis and effective treatment, insecticide-treated bed nets, and indoor residual spraying. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets has been shown to be the most cost-effective strategy in preventing this infection. However, despite the Roll Back Malaria subsidized and free bed net distribution initiatives in some Africa countries, bed net uptake and usage still remains low in many households.Aim: This study aimed to investigate household characteristics and child factors that determine bed net ownership and use amongst under-5 children and the effect of its usage on malaria parasitemia in under-5 children in Nigeria.Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 5895 households was obtained from the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in the 2010 Nigeria demographic and health survey, with a minimum of 67 households enrolled per state. Appropriate statistical tools were used to identify the characteristics of households that owned a bed net and to examine the association between the households and child-level factors that predict the use of bed net and malaria prevalence among under-5 children within these households.Results: The rate of households bed net ownership in Nigeria is about 45.5%. About 48.5% of under-5 children in 33.9% of households surveyed, use a bed net during sleep. There was a strong correlation between households ownership and child

  4. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  5. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

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    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  6. Long lasting insecticidal bed nets ownership, access and use in a high malaria transmission setting before and after a mass distribution campaign in Uganda.

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    Wanzira, Humphrey; Eganyu, Thomas; Mulebeke, Ronald; Bukenya, Fred; Echodu, Dorothy; Adoke, Yeka

    2018-01-01

    Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign. Data on three main LLIN indicators including; household LLIN ownership, population with access to an LLIN and use were collected using a household and a women's questionnaire identical to the Malaria Indicator Survey. A total of 601 and 607 households were randomly selected in survey one and two respectively. At baseline, 60.57% (56.53-64.50) of households owned at least one net for every two persons who stayed in the household the night before the survey which significantly increased to 70.35% (66.54-73.96) after the campaign (p = 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of the household population with access to an LLIN significantly increased from 84.76% (82.99-86.52) to 91.57% (90.33-92.81), p = 0.001 and the percentage of household population that slept under an LLIN the night before the survey also significantly increased from 56.85% (55.06-58.82) to 81.72% (76.75-83.21), p = 0.001. The LLIN mass campaign successfully achieved the national target of over eighty-five percent of the population with access to an LLIN in this setting, however, universal household coverage and use were fourteen and three percent points less than the national target respectively. This is useful for malaria programs to consider during the planning of future campaigns by tailoring efforts around deficient areas like mechanisms to increase universal coverage and behavior change communication.

  7. Decline in frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) in Western Kenya: correlation with increase in ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets.

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    Matoke-Muhia, Damaris; Gimnig, John E; Kamau, Luna; Shililu, Josephat; Bayoh, M Nabie; Walker, Edward D

    2016-06-10

    The 2La chromosomal inversion, a genetic polymorphism in An. gambiae (sensu stricto) (s.s.), is associated with adaptation to microclimatic differences in humidity and desiccation resistance and mosquito behaviors. Ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) for malaria control has increased markedly in western Kenya in the last 20 years. An increase in the frequency of ITNs indoors could select against house entering or indoor resting of Anopheles mosquitoes. Thus, the frequency of the 2La inversion is postulated to change in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the increase of ITN ownership over time. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were sampled between 1994 and 2011 using pyrethrum knockdown, bednet traps and human landing catches (HLC) from Asembo and Seme, western Kenya. The 2La inversion was detected by a PCR assay with primers designed for proximal breakpoints of the 2La/a and 2L+(a)/+(a) chromosomal conformation. Mosquitoes were tested for malaria parasite infection by sporozoite ELISA. The frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion declined from 100 % of all chromosomes in 1994 to 17 % in 2005 and remained low through 2011 (21 %). ITN ownership increased from 0 to > 90 % of houses in the study area during this interval. The decline in the frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion was significantly, negatively correlated with year (r = -0.93) and with increase in ITN ownership (r = -0.96). The frequency of the homo- and heterokaryotypes departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that 2La/a karyotype was under selection, earlier in its favor and later, against it. Precipitation and maximum monthly temperature did not vary over time, therefore there was no trend in climate that could account for the decline. There was no significant difference in frequency of the 2La inversion in An. gambiae (s.s.) females sampled indoors or outdoors in HCL in 2011, nor was there an association between the 2La inversion and infection with Plasmodium

  8. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

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    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  9. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

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    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  10. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

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    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  11. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

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    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  12. Ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though ITNs are the most prominent measure for large-scale deployment in highly endemic areas their compliance in terms of ownership and usage needs attention. The aim of this study was therefore to ... included from malarious areas. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires and observational checklist.

  13. Determinants of insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization among pregnant women in Nigeria

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    Ankomah Augustine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria

  14. Assessment on the ownership and use of mosquito nets in Mozambique.

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    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison; Chirrute, Francisco; Mendis, Chandana; Chande, Marta Honesta; Kollhoff, Veronique

    2016-12-22

    To assess the ownership and use of mosquito nets in 2014, in Mozambique. This observational and cross-sectional study assessed, in February and March 2015, 69 districts (nine of 11 provinces of Mozambique) that have benefited from the mass distribution of mosquito nets. The Lot Quality Assurance Sampling methodology was used. Each locality was denominated supervision area. The Lot Quality Assurance Sampling opts for a minimum of 19 households (in this case, we decided for a minimum of 100 households per district) from each supervision area to assess an indicator (in this case, two indicators were assessed: ownership and use of mosquito nets). Two questions guided the research: a) received a mosquito net; b) used a mosquito net the night before. A total of 6,725 households were assessed. Eighty three percent of them had received mosquito nets in the campaign. Of the 6,232 respondents, 82.0% said they used mosquito nets the night before. The districts of the provinces with low coverage of ownership and use were Tete (69.5% and 60.0%, respectively), Zambezia (79.0% and 60.0%, respectively), and Gaza (81.6% and 70.7%, respectively). The largest coverage of ownership and use were observed in the districts of Nampula (96.7% and 93.8%, respectively) and Niassa (86.0% and 85.4% respectively). In the districts assessed, the progression of ownership and use of mosquito nets is satisfactory. Nampula and Niassa are the only provinces where ownership and use are at desired levels. Avaliar a posse e o uso das redes mosquiteiras no ano de 2014 em Moçambique. Este estudo observacional transversal avaliou, em fevereiro e março de 2015, 68 distritos (nove das 11 províncias de Moçambique) que se beneficiaram da distribuição de redes em massa. Usou-se a metodologia Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. Cada localidade foi designada de área de supervisão. O Lot Quality Assurance Sampling opta por um mínimo de 19 agregados familiares (neste caso decidiu-se um mínimo de 100 agregados

  15. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

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    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  16. Insecticide-treated nets ownership and utilization among under-five children following the 2010 mass distribution in Burkina Faso.

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    Diabaté, Souleymane; Druetz, Thomas; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry; Haddad, Slim

    2014-09-04

    Periodic mass distributions contribute significantly to universal access to insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). However, due to the limited number of nets distributed, needs remain unsatisfied, particularly in large households. This study was conducted in Kaya health district following the 2010 mass distribution of ITNs in Burkina Faso. Data were collected on the socio-economic and geo-spatial characteristics and ITN possession and utilization levels of 2,004 households. The study explored: 1) ITN access, in terms of intra-household saturation with ITNs (households with at least one ITN for every two members) correctly installed and in very good physical condition; and 2) factors influencing the decision to place under-five children under a net. Particular attention was given to vector control activities undertaken by mothers. Of the 2,004 households, 90% possessed at least one ITN. However, intra-household saturation with ITNs was below 60% in small households and below 20% in large ones (>6 members). Crude proportion ratios comparing possession and levels of intra-household saturation with ITNs varied between 1.5 (small households) and 7.8 (large households). The proportions of households with ITNs for every two members that were correctly hung or in very good physical condition ranged from 0% to 6.5% in large households and 27.8% to 40.7% in small ones. ITN use to protect under-five children was lower in large households; it was significantly higher when there was at least one ITN for every two members. In large households, it was significantly higher when a child had experienced an episode of any illness in the previous two weeks and when the mother had taken actions to control vector proliferation. In small households, ITN use was significantly higher in families with agricultural land and children aged 12-23 months. Ownership rates were high, but real access to bed nets remained limited. The allocation process disadvantages large families. Real access to bed

  17. Ownership and usage of mosquito nets after four years of large-scale free distribution in Papua New Guinea

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    Hetzel Manuel W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papua New Guinea (PNG is a highly malaria endemic country in the South-West Pacific with a population of approximately 6.6 million (2009. In 2004, the country intensified its malaria control activities with support from the Global Fund. With the aim of achieving 80% ownership and usage, a country-wide campaign distributed two million free long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. Methods In order to evaluate outcomes of the campaign against programme targets, a country-wide household survey based on stratified multi-stage random sampling was carried out in 17 of the 20 provinces after the campaign in 2008/09. In addition, a before-after assessment was carried out in six purposively selected sentinel sites. A structured questionnaire was administered to the heads of sampled households to elicit net ownership and usage information. Results After the campaign, 64.6% of households owned a LLIN, 80.1% any type of mosquito net. Overall usage by household members amounted to 32.5% for LLINs and 44.3% for nets in general. Amongst children under five years, 39.5% used a LLIN and 51.8% any type of net, whereas 41.3% of pregnant women used a LLIN and 56.1% any net. Accessibility of villages was the key determinant of net ownership, while usage was mainly determined by ownership. Most (99.5% of the household members who did not sleep under a net did not have access to a (unused net in their household. In the sentinel sites, LLIN ownership increased from 9.4% to 88.7%, ownership of any net from 52.7% to 94.1%. Usage of LLINs increased from 5.5% to 55.1%, usage of any net from 37.3% to 66.7%. Among children under five years, usage of LLINs and of nets in general increased from 8.2% to 67.0% and from 44.6% to 76.1%, respectively (all p ≤ 0.001. Conclusions While a single round of free distribution of LLINs significantly increased net ownership, an insufficient number of nets coupled with a heterogeneous distribution led to overall

  18. The impact of a hybrid social marketing intervention on inequities in access, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets

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    Stallworthy Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ITN intervention was initiated in three predominantly rural districts of Eastern Province, Zambia, that lacked commercial distribution and communication infrastructures. Social marketing techniques were used for product and message development. Public sector clinics and village-based volunteers promoted and distributed subsidized ITNs priced at $2.5 per net. A study was conducted to assess the effects of the intervention on inequities in knowledge, access, ownership and use of ITNs. Methods A post-test only quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and comparison districts. A total of 2,986 respondents were interviewed. Survey respondents were grouped into four socio-economic (SES categories: low, medium-low, medium and high. Knowledge, access, ownership and use indicators are compared. Concentration index scores are calculated. Interactions between intervention status and SES help determine how different SES groups benefited from the intervention. Results Although overall use of nets remained relatively low, post-test data show that knowledge, access, ownership and use of mosquito nets was higher in intervention districts. A decline in SES inequity in access to nets occurred in intervention districts, resulting from a disproportionately greater increase in access among the low SES group. Declines in SES inequities in net ownership and use of nets were associated with the intervention. The largest increases in net ownership and use occurred among medium and high SES categories. Conclusion Increasing access to nets among the poorest respondents in rural areas may not lead to increases in net use unless the price of nets is no longer a barrier to their purchase.

  19. The impact of a hybrid social marketing intervention on inequities in access, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets.

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    Agha, Sohail; Van Rossem, Ronan; Stallworthy, Guy; Kusanthan, Thankian

    2007-01-29

    An ITN intervention was initiated in three predominantly rural districts of Eastern Province, Zambia, that lacked commercial distribution and communication infrastructures. Social marketing techniques were used for product and message development. Public sector clinics and village-based volunteers promoted and distributed subsidized ITNs priced at 2.5 dollars per net. A study was conducted to assess the effects of the intervention on inequities in knowledge, access, ownership and use of ITNs. A post-test only quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and comparison districts. A total of 2,986 respondents were interviewed. Survey respondents were grouped into four socio-economic (SES) categories: low, medium-low, medium and high. Knowledge, access, ownership and use indicators are compared. Concentration index scores are calculated. Interactions between intervention status and SES help determine how different SES groups benefited from the intervention. Although overall use of nets remained relatively low, post-test data show that knowledge, access, ownership and use of mosquito nets was higher in intervention districts. A decline in SES inequity in access to nets occurred in intervention districts, resulting from a disproportionately greater increase in access among the low SES group. Declines in SES inequities in net ownership and use of nets were associated with the intervention. The largest increases in net ownership and use occurred among medium and high SES categories. Increasing access to nets among the poorest respondents in rural areas may not lead to increases in net use unless the price of nets is no longer a barrier to their purchase.

  20. The effect of insecticide-treated bed net on malarial parasitaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... nets sold by a social marketing project were used as the intervention group. ... Keywords: Insecticide-treated bed net, Effectiveness, Malaria control, South-South Nigeria.

  1. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

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    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  2. Bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, G.; ter Kuile, F. O.; Jacoutot, V.; White, N. J.; Luxemburger, C.; Malankirii, L.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; Nosten, F.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective comparison of the antimalarial efficacy of bed nets was conducted with 341 pregnant women living in a mesoendemic malarious area of the Thai-Burmese border. Women in 3 adjacent study sites were allocated at random to receive either a single size permethrin-impregnated bed net (PIB), a

  3. The underlying reasons for very high levels of bed net use, and higher malaria infection prevalence among bed net users than non-users in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellemu, Daniel; Shemdoe, Aloysia; Makungu, Christina; Mlacha, Yeromini; Kannady, Khadija; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry F; Dillip, Angel

    2017-10-23

    Bed nets reduce malaria-related illness and deaths, by forming a protective barrier around people sleeping under them. When impregnated with long-lasting insecticide formulations they also repel or kill mosquitoes attempting to feed upon sleeping humans, and can even suppress entire populations of malaria vectors that feed predominantly upon humans. Nevertheless, an epidemiological study in 2012 demonstrated higher malaria prevalence among bed net users than non-users in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Focus group discussions were conducted with women from four selected wards of Dar es Salaam city, focusing on four major themes relating to bed net use behaviours: (1) reasons for bed net use, (2) reasons for not using bed nets, (3) stimuli or reminders for people to use a bed net (4) perceived reasons for catching malaria while using a bed net. An analytical method by framework grouping of relevant themes was used address key issues of relevance to the study objectives. Codes were reviewed and grouped into categories and themes. All groups said the main reason for bed net use was protection against malaria. Houses with well-screened windows, with doors that shut properly, and that use insecticidal sprays against mosquitoes, were said not to use bed nets, while frequent attacks from malaria was the main stimulus for people to use bed nets. Various reasons were mentioned as potential reasons that compromise bed net efficacy, the most common of which were: (1) bed net sharing by two or more people, especially if one occupant tends to come to bed late at night, and does not tuck in the net 71%; (2) one person shares the bed but does not use the net, moving it away from the side on which s/he sleeps 68%; (3) ineffective usage habits, called ulalavi, in which a sprawling sleeper either touches the net while sleeping up against it or leaves a limb hanging outside of it 68%. Less common reasons mentioned included: (1) Small bed nets which become un-tucked at night (31%); (2

  4. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Bruun, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two...... discomfort is a factor limiting bed net use and open a range of architectural possibilities to overcome this limitation. Keywords: Malaria; Bed nets; Africa; Tanzania; The Gambia; Asia; Thailand; Philippines; Airflow; Temperature; Humidity; Climate...... investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals...

  5. Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets among People Living in Malaria Endemic Areas of Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Khin, Hnin Su Su

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar has the highest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong. However, there is limited information on ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in areas of Myanmar most severely affected by malaria. We describe ownership and use of ITNs among people in the malaria-endemic eastern parts of Myanmar and factors associated with ITN use. A cross-sectional household survey using a multi-stage cluster design was conducted in malaria-endemic townships in eastern Myanmar during the high malaria season of August to September, 2014. An effective ITN was defined as 1) a long-lasting insecticide-treated net obtained within the past three years, or 2) any net treated with insecticide within the past year. In 4,679 households, the average number of ITNs per household was higher in rural compared to urban areas (0.6 vs. 0.4, p Myanmar in comparison to the goal of one for every two household members. Use of ITNs was low even when present. Findings are of concern given the study areas were part of enhanced efforts to reduce artemisinin-resistant malaria. Nonetheless, groups vulnerable to malaria such as individuals in rural settings, lower socio-economic households, and workers in high mosquito exposure jobs, had higher rates of ITN ownership. Malaria knowledge was linked to effective ITN use suggesting that distribution campaigns should be complemented by behavior change communications.

  6. Social marketing of insecticide-treated bed net for malaria control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effectiveness of the insecticide-treated bed net in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria has been proved at all levels of malaria transmission. Several models on how to achieve massive coverage have been suggested, but social marketing of the nets is highly favoured for its ...

  7. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  8. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watiro AH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aklilu Habte Watiro,1 Worku Awoke,2 1Médecins Sans Frontières OCA (MSF Holland Ethiopia Mission, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH level. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results: Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690 had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361 had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. Keywords: consistent

  9. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W

    2013-03-18

    Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.

  10. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  11. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  12. Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuage Lucy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs continues to offer potential strategy for malaria prevention in endemic areas. However their effectiveness, sustainability and massive scale up remain a factor of socio-economic and cultural variables of the local community which are indispensable during design and implementation stages. Methods An ethnographic household survey was conducted in four study villages which were purposefully selected to represent socio-economic and geographical diversity. In total, 400 households were randomly selected from the four study villages. Quantitative and qualitative information of the respondents were collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Malaria was reported the most frequently occurring disease in the area (93% and its aetiology was attributed to other non-biomedical causes like stagnant water (16%, and long rains (13%. Factors which significantly caused variation in bed net use were occupant relationship to household head (χ2 = 105.705; df 14; P = 0.000, Age (χ2 = 74.483; df 14; P = 0.000, village (χ2 = 150.325; df 6; P = 0.000, occupation (χ2 = 7.955; df 3; P = 0.047, gender (χ2 = 4.254; df 1; P = 0.039 and education levels of the household head or spouse (χ2 = 33.622; df 6; P = 0.000. The same variables determined access and conditions of bed nets at household level. Protection against mosquito bite (95% was the main reason cited for using bed nets in most households while protection against malaria came second (54%. Colour, shape and affordability were some of the key potential factors which determined choice, use and acceptance of bed nets in the study area. Conclusion The study highlights potential social and economic variables important for effective and sustainable implementation of bed nets-related programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smithuis, Frank M.; Kyaw, Moe Kyaw; Phe, U. Ohn; van der Broek, Ingrid; Katterman, Nina; Rogers, Colin; Almeida, Patrick; Kager, Piet A.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lubell, Yoel; Simpson, Julie A.; White, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector

  14. The phenomenon of diminishing –returns in the use of bed nets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... treated bed nets and prompt malaria therapy in Tororo. Uganda, concluded the .... namely vaccination, cure and quarantine and yet cure for malaria actually ..... It is therefore the anti-malarial medicines given to their children that are .... his great assistance in the preparation of the electronic version of this ...

  15. Ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megha; Brown, Graham; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    Over the past decade, significant gains have been made in the implementation of malaria prevention measures in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, including the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These have been shown to cause a reduction in the incidence of malaria and its consequences such as maternal anaemia, stillbirths and intrauterine growth restriction. Currently most nations in Africa have policies for distributing ITNs to pregnant women through various mechanisms, however coverage remains well below the targets. This review summarizes recent evidence regarding the correlation between ownership and use of ITNs and the determinants of both, in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, and reviews interventions directed at improving coverage. A review of the literature using Pubmed, CINAHL and scanning of reference lists was conducted in October 2012 and 59 articles were selected for final review. The research obtained was a mixture of national and district level surveys, and a narrative synthesis of the data was undertaken. Ownership of ITNs varied from as low as 3% to greater than 80%, and the main determinants were found to be education level, knowledge of malaria, community involvement, socio-economic status and parity, although the significance of each varied between the different settings and studies reviewed. In more than half the settings where data were available, the combination of lack of availability and lack of use of an available net meant that less than half of all pregnancies received the recommended intervention. Supply and cost remain major barriers to achieving optimal coverage, but the additional important contributor to reduced efficiency of intervention was the clear discrepancy between ownership and use, with available ITN use below 60% in several settings. Cited reasons for not using an ITN, where one was available, included discomfort, problems with hanging up nets and lack of space, low awareness of need, and seasonal variations in

  16. "People will say that I am proud": a qualitative study of barriers to bed net use away from home in four Ugandan districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, April; Harvey, Steven A; Lam, Yukyan; Muhangi, Denis; Loll, Dana; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Weber, Rachel

    2014-03-06

    Despite increased access and ownership, barriers to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use persist. While barriers within the home have been well documented, the challenges to net use when sleeping away from home remain relatively unexplored. This study examines common situations in which people sleep away from home and the barriers to ITN use in those situations. To explore these issues, a group of researchers conducted 28 in-depth interviews and four focus groups amongst adults from net-owning households in four Ugandan districts. In addition to sleeping outside during hot season, participants identified social events, livelihood activities, and times of difficulty as circumstances in which large numbers of people sleep away from home. Associated challenges to ITN use included social barriers such as fear of appearing proud, logistical barriers such as not having a place to hang a net, and resource limitations such as not having an extra net with which to travel. Social disapproval emerged as an important barrier to ITN use in public settings. Unique barriers to ITN use exist when people spend the night away from home. It is essential to identify and address these barriers in order to reduce malaria exposure in such situations. For events like funerals or religious "crusades" where large numbers of people sleep away from home, alternative approaches, such as spatial repellents may be more appropriate than ITNs. Additional research is required to identify the acceptability and feasibility of alternative prevention strategies in situations where ITNs are unlikely to be effective.

  17. Long-Lasting Insecticide Net Ownership, Access and Use in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Brandt, Patrick; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2017-10-27

    Introduction : A large proportion of the Ethiopian population (approximately 68%) lives in malaria risk areas. Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the malaria prevention and control strategy in the country. This study assessed the ownership, access and use of LLNs in the malaria endemic southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southwest Ethiopia during October-November 2015, including 836 households from sixteen villages around Gilgel-Gibe dam area. Indicators of ownership, access and use of LLINs were derived following the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) guidelines. Factors associated with failure for both LLIN access and use were analysed at household level using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.0, 85.1). However, only 68.9% (95% CI: 65.6, 71.9) had enough LLINs to cover all family members (with ≥one LLIN for every two persons). While 75.3% (95% CI: 68.4, 83.0) of the population was estimated to have accessed to LLINs, only 63.8% (95% CI: 62.3, 65.2) reported to have used a LLIN the previous night. The intra-household gap (i.e., households owning at least one LLIN, but unable to cover all family members) and the behavioral gap (i.e., household members who did not sleep under a LLIN despite having access to one) were 16.8% and 10.5%, respectively. Age, marital status and education of household heads, as well as household size and cooking using firewood were associated with the access to enough LLINs within households. Decreased access to LLINs at households was the main determinant for not achieving ≥80% household members sleeping under a LLIN the previous night. Other associated factors were household size and education level of household head. Conclusions: LLIN coverage levels in study villages remain below national targets of 100% for ownership and 80% for use. The access to

  18. Perceptions on the effect of small electric fans on comfort inside bed nets in southern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mulako S; Briët, Olivier J T; Keating, Joseph; Ahorlu, Collins K; Yukich, Joshua O; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-12-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain insight into perceptions of participants about the net fan system in relation to LLIN use. While all study participants reported using LLINs, with mosquito nuisance prevention as the prime motivation, heat was also mentioned as a key barrier to net use. Respondents appreciated the net fans because they improved comfort inside bed nets. The LED light on the fan stand became the main source of light at night and positively influenced the perception of the intervention as a whole. The general acceptance of the net fan system by the study participants highlights the potential of the intervention to improve comfort inside mosquito nets. This, therefore, has a potential to increase bed net use in areas with low access to electricity.

  19. The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndjinga Julie K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most prominent disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2006 to combat the disease. However, the success of this bed net campaign depends on sufficient bed net use in all age groups. This study was designed to examine the factors affecting bed net use in villages outside of Kinshasa. Methods Two villages along the Congo River, totalling 142 households with 640 residents, were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. The interview determined the number, ages, and sexes of family members; the education level of the family head; the number, colour, and type of nets owned; and the number of nets used in the previous night. The size of house was also measured, and numbers of rooms and beds were recorded. These variables were examined to reveal important factors that affect bed net use. Results A total of 469 nets were counted, and nearly all nets were white LLINs. Of these nets, 229 (48.8% nets were used by 284 (44.4% residents. Bed nets were used by over 90% of children 5 to 15 years of age, whereas less than 50% of the residents in other age groups used bed nets. The important variables affecting bed net use were numbers of beds and rooms in the house and the education level of the family head of household. Conclusion Education was the most important factor affecting bed net use in the villages outside Kinshasa. Development of an educational programme, particularly one directed toward parents, is necessary to reduce misconceptions and increase prevalence of bed net use among all age groups.

  20. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  1. Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, T.L.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Maliti, D.; Chipwaza, B.; Kihonda, J.; Charlwood, J.D.; Smith, T.A.; Lengeler, C.; Mwanyangala, M.A.; Nathan, R.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The communities of Namawala and Idete villages in southern Tanzania experienced extremely high malaria transmission in the 1990s. By 2001-03, following high usage rates (75% of all age groups) of untreated bed nets, a 4.2-fold reduction in malaria transmission intensity was achieved.

  2. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  3. Determination of the predictive factors of long-lasting insecticide-treated net ownership and utilisation in the Bamenda Health District of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health concern in Africa. In Cameroon, an endemic country where malaria remains a major public health problem, several control measures have been put in place among which the use of insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs/ITNs is considered one of the core vector control strategies. However, the greatest challenges include ownership and utilisation by individuals and households. Factors such as age, marital status, gender, education and occupation of the household head, household size, knowledge of bednets, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors have been suggested to have an impact on bednet ownership and utilisation in different settings. The present study sought to determine bednet ownership and utilisation rates and to assess the impact of predictive factors on bednet ownership and use in the Bamenda Health District (BHD of Cameroon. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 384 households was conducted in six health areas in the BHD. A structured and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic and household characteristics as well as information on their bednet ownership and utilisation. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Frequency of bednet ownership was relatively high (63.5% with LLINs being most abundant (91.9%; the majority of households (87.7% obtained their bednets during the 2011 free distribution campaign. Utilisation was relatively high (69.3%, with negligence (29.3% and heat discomfort (26.7% accounting most for non-usage of bednets. Children less than 5 years (63% and pregnant women (60% most often used these nets. Households headed by a married couple, those with older household heads, household with smaller size (5–12 persons, and knowledge of bednets (good knowledge had positive impacts on bednet ownership (p < 0.05. The gender of the household head (males, their educational level

  4. Video studies of passage by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes through holes in a simulated bed net: effects of hole size, hole orientation and net environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, James; Colborn, Kathryn L

    2015-05-13

    Holes in netting provide potential routes for mosquitoes to enter ITNs. Despite this, there is little information on how mosquitoes respond to holes in bed nets and how their responses are affected by hole size, shape and orientation or by ambient conditions around the net. Female Anopheles gambiae (G3) were recorded in a simulated bed net consisting of two sizes of untreated netting-covered behavioural arenas placed above and beside (to simulate the bed net roof and sides respectively) the experimenter who was a source of host cues from 'inside' the net. A round hole of 9 mm or 13 mm diameter was cut into the centre of the netting of each arena. Videos of unfed female mosquitoes in arenas were analysed for time spent flying, walking and standing still and for exit through the hole. The effects of the experimenter on temperature and relative humidity around the simulated net were also measured. Mosquitoes were significantly more active in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side. Hole passage was significantly more likely in smaller arenas than larger ones and for larger holes than smaller ones. In arenas to the side, hole passage rate through small holes was about 50% less likely than what could be explained by area alone. Passage rate through holes in overhead arenas was consistent with hole area. Temperature in arenas did not strongly reflect the experimenter's presence in the simulated net. Relative humidity and absolute humidity in overhead arenas, but not in arenas to the side, were immediately affected by experimenter presence. Higher levels of activity in overhead arenas than in arenas to the side were likely due to the rising heat and humidity plume from the experimenter. Lower than expected passage rates through smaller vertically oriented holes may have been be due to an edge effect that does not apply to horizontally oriented holes. Results suggest that current methods of assessing the importance of physical damage to ITNs may not accurately reflect

  5. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert J

    2009-11-16

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) and malaria incidence. There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of mosquitoes and treated nets at the individual level

  6. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

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    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  7. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Vulule, John M.; Lo, Terrence Q.; Kamau, Luna; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Mathenge, Evan M.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hightower, Allen W.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) on malaria vectors was studied as part of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya. Indoor resting densities of fed Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in intervention houses were 58.5% (P = 0.010) and 94.5% (P = 0.001) lower,

  8. Factors affecting use of permethrin-treated bed nets during a randomized controlled trial in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaii, Jane A.; Hawley, William A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Gimnig, John E.; Vulule, John M.; Odhacha, Amos; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    Adherence with permethrin-treated bed net (ITN) use and their proper deployment was directly observed in 2,178 individuals (784 households) participating in a large-scale trial of ITNs on child mortality in western Kenya. The ITNs were distributed free of charge to ensure high coverage, resulting in

  9. Implications of the western Kenya permethrin-treated bed net study for policy, program implementation, and future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Richard S.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Gimnig, John E.; Shi, Ya Ping; Vulule, John M.; Alaii, Jane A.; Hightower, Allen W.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2003-01-01

    The fifth, and probably last, large-scale, group-randomized, controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) showed that ITNs are efficacious in reducing all-cause post-neonatal mortality in an area of intense, perennial malaria transmission. The trial helped to define pregnant

  10. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  11. Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, William A.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Vulule, John M.; Ombok, Maurice; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Gimnig, John E.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial analyses of the effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on nearby households both with and without ITNs was performed in the context of a large-scale, group-randomized, controlled mortality trial in Asembo, western Kenya. Results illustrate a protective effect of ITNs on

  12. A good night's sleep and the habit of net use: perceptions of risk and reasons for bed net use in Bukoba and Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenker, Hannah M; Loll, Dana; Rweyemamu, Datius; Ali, Abdullah S

    2013-06-13

    Intensive malaria control interventions in the United Republic of Tanzania have contributed to reductions in malaria prevalence. Given that malaria control remains reliant upon continued use of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) even when the threat of malaria has been reduced, this qualitative study sought to understand how changes in perceived risk influence LLIN usage, and to explore in more detail the benefits of net use that are unrelated to malaria. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in Bukoba Rural district and in Zanzibar Urban West district in late 2011. Participants were males aged 18 and over, females between the ages of 18 and 49, and females at least 50 years old. The perceived risk of malaria had decreased among the respondents, and malaria control interventions were credited for the decline. Participants cited reductions in both the severity of malaria and in their perceived susceptibility to malaria. However, malaria was still considered a significant threat. Participants' conceptualization of risk appeared to be an important consideration for net use. At the same time, comfort and aspects of comfort (getting a good night's sleep, avoiding biting pests) appeared to play a large role in personal decisions to use nets consistently or not. Barriers to comfort (feeling uncomfortable or trapped; perceived difficulty breathing, or itching/rashes) were frequently cited as reasons not to use a net consistently. While it was apparent that participants acknowledged the malaria-prevention benefits of net use, the exploration of the risk and comfort determinants of net use provides a richer understanding of net use behaviours, particularly in a setting where transmission has fallen and yet consistent net use is still crucial to maintaining those gains. Future behaviour change communication campaigns should capitalize on the non-malaria benefits of net use that provide a long-term rationale for consistent use even when the immediate threat of

  13. Individual and household factors associated with ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets and malaria infection in south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-10-06

    A recent considerable decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is likely to be followed by changes in the practice of effective preventive measures and malaria risk factors. This study aimed to identify determinants of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) ownership and risk of malaria infection. A matched case-control study of 191 case and 377 control households was conducted between October 2014 and November 2015 in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Cases were microscopy or rapid diagnostic test confirmed malaria patients identified at three health centers and nine health posts, and matched on age with two neighbourhood controls. Information was collected on socio-demographic factors, house structure, knowledge on malaria and ownership of LLINs. The logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of LLINs ownership and malaria infection. All cases were infections due to either Plasmodium falciparum (71.2%) or Plasmodium vivax (28.8%). About 31% of the study households had at least one LLINs. Significant determinants of LLINs ownership were household's head malaria knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.22], educational status [read and write (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI 2.30-20.55), primary education or higher (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI 1.57-18.55)], farmer respondent (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), having ≥ 3 sleeping areas (AOR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.40-18.77) and corrugated roof type (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58). This study was unable to identify important risk factors of malaria infection with regard to sex, household wealth index, house structure, ownership of LLINs, keeping livestock inside house, staying overnight outdoor or having malaria during the last 6 months. Household socio-economic status, educational status and knowledge on malaria were important predictors of LLINs ownership. Households with farmer respondents were less likely to own LLINs. Addressing these factors

  14. Host-seeking activity of a Tanzanian population of Anopheles arabiensis at an insecticide treated bed net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josephine E A; Angarita Jaimes, Natalia C; Gleave, Katherine; Mashauri, Fabian; Abe, Mayumi; Martine, Jackline; Towers, Catherine E; Towers, David; McCall, Philip J

    2017-07-04

    Understanding how mosquitoes respond to long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) is fundamental to sustaining the effectiveness of this essential control tool. We report on studies with a tracking system to investigate behaviour of wild anophelines at an LLIN, in an experimental hut at a rural site in Mwanza, Tanzania. Groups of adult female mosquitoes (n = 10 per replicate) reared from larvae of a local population, identified as predominantly (95%) Anopheles arabiensis, were released in the hut. An infrared video tracking system recorded flight and net contact activity over 1 h as the mosquitoes attempted to reach a supine human volunteer within a bed net (either a deltamethrin-treated LLIN or an untreated control net). A range of activities, including flight path, position in relation to the bed net and duration of net contact, were quantified and compared between treatments. The total time that female An. arabiensis spent in flight around LLINs was significantly lower than at untreated nets [F(1,10) = 9.26, p = 0.012], primarily due to a substantial reduction in the time mosquitoes spent in persistent 'bouncing' flight [F(1,10) = 18.48, p = 0.002]. Most activity occurred at the net roof but significantly less so with LLINs (56.8% of total) than untreated nets [85.0%; Χ 2 (15) = 234.69, p Activity levels at the bed net directly above the host torso were significantly higher with untreated nets (74.2%) than LLINs [38.4%; Χ 2 (15) = 33.54, p = 0.004]. 'Visiting' and 'bouncing' rates were highest above the volunteer's chest in untreated nets (39.9 and 50.4%, respectively) and LLINs [29.9 and 42.4%; Χ 2 (13) = 89.91, p activity over 60 min was significantly more rapid for LLINs [F(1,10) = 6.81, p = 0.026], reiterating an 'attract and kill' rather than a repellent mode of action. The study has demonstrated the potential for detailed investigations of behaviour of wild mosquito populations under field conditions. The results validate

  15. Malaria in pregnant women in an area with sustained high coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, the World Health Organization has recommended a package of interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy and its sequelae that includes the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, and effective case management of malarial illness. It is recommended that pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas receive at least two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This study assessed the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery in women during 1st or 2nd pregnancy, who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp in a malaria-endemic area with high bed net coverage. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in Ifakara, Tanzania, where bed net coverage is high. Primi- and secundigravid women, who presented to the labour ward and who reported not using IPTp were included in the study. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire; whereas neonatal birth weight and placenta parasitaemia were measured directly at the time of delivery. Results Overall, 413 pregnant women were enrolled of which 91% reported to have slept under a bed net at home the previous night, 43% reported history of fever and 62% were primigravid. Malaria parasites were detected in 8% of the placenta samples; the geometric mean (95%CI placental parasite density was 3,457 (1,060–11,271 parasites/μl in primigravid women and 2,178 (881–5,383 parasites/μl in secundigravid women. Fifteen percent of newborns weighed Conclusion The observed incidence of LBW and prevalence of placental parasitaemia at delivery suggests that malaria remains a problem in pregnancy in this area with high bed net coverage when eligible women do not receive IPTp. Delivery of IPTp should be emphasized at all levels of implementation to achieve maximum community coverage.

  16. How many holes is too many? A prototype tool for estimating mosquito entry risk into damaged bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, James; Ji, Xin; Yin, Shaoman

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have played an integral role in malaria reduction but how insecticide depletion and accumulating physical damage affect ITN performance is poorly understood. More accurate methods are needed to assess damage to bed nets so that they can be designed, deployed and replaced optimally. Video recordings of female Anopheles gambiae in near approach (1-½ cm) to occupied untreated rectangular bed nets in a laboratory study were used to quantify the amount of mosquito activity (appearances over time) around different parts of the net, the per-appearance probability of a mosquito coming close to holes of different sizes (hole encounter) and the per-encounter probability of mosquitoes passing through holes of different sizes (hole passage). Appearance frequency on different parts of the net reflected previously reported patterns: the area of the net under greatest mosquito pressure was the roof, followed by the bottom 30 cm of the sides, followed by the 30 cm area immediately above this, followed by the upper two-thirds of the sides. The ratio of activity in these areas was (respectively) 250:33:5:1. Per-appearance probability of hole encounter on all parts of the net was strongly predicted by a factor combining hole perimeter and area. Per-encounter probability of hole passage, in turn, was strongly predicted by hole width. For a given width, there was a 20% greater risk of passage through holes on the roof than holes on the sides. Appearance, encounter and passage predictors correspond to various mosquito behaviours that have previously been described and are combined into a prototype mosquito entry risk tool that predicts mosquito entry rates for nets with various amounts of damage. Scenarios that use the entry risk tool to test the recommendations of the WHOPES proportionate hole index (pHI) suggest that the pHI hole size categories and failure to account for hole location likely sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions about net

  17. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimnig, John E; Vulule, John M; Lo, Terrence Q; Kamau, Luna; Kolczak, Margarette S; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Mathenge, Evan M; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Nahlen, Bernard L; Hightower, Allen W; Hawley, William A

    2003-04-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) on malaria vectors was studied as part of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya. Indoor resting densities of fed Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in intervention houses were 58.5% (P = 0.010) and 94.5% (P = 0.001) lower, respectively, compared with control houses. The sporozoite infection rate in An. gambiae s.l. was 0.8% in intervention areas compared with 3.4% (P = 0.026) in control areas, while the sporozoite infection rates in An. funestus were not significantly different between the two areas. We estimated the overall transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in intervention areas to be 90% lower than in control areas. Permethrin resistance was not detected during the study period. As measured by densities of An. gambiae s.l., the efficacy of bed nets decreased if one or more residents did not sleep under a net or if bed nets had not been re-treated within six months. These results indicate that ITNs are optimally effective if used every night and if permethrin is reapplied at least biannually.

  18. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  19. Assessing bed net damage: comparisons of three measurement methods for estimating the size, shape, and distribution of holes on bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L; Mathanga, Don P; Landman, Keren; Mwandama, Dyson; Minta, Anna A; Shah, Monica; Sutcliffe, James; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Steinhardt, Laura

    2017-10-10

    Measuring the physical condition of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) under field conditions is of great importance for malaria control programmes to guide decisions on how frequently to replace LLINs. Current guidelines by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) propose a proportionate hole index (pHI) for assessing LLIN condition by counting the number of holes the size of a thumb, fist, head, and larger than a head. However, this method does not account for irregular hole shapes or exact hole sizes which could result in inaccurate decisions about when to replace LLINs. LLINs were collected during a 2013 health facility-based malaria case control study in Machinga District, Malawi. To evaluate the accuracy of the pHI, the physical condition of 277 LLINs was estimated by the WHOPES method and then compared with two more thorough measurement methods: image analysis of digital photographs of each LLIN side; and for 10 nets, ruler measurements of the length, width, and location of each hole. Total hole counts and areas per net were estimated by each method, and detailed results of hole shapes and composite pictures of hole locations were generated using image analysis. The WHOPES method and image analysis resulted in similar estimates of total hole counts, each with a median of 10 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-24 and 4-23, respectively; p = 0.004); however, estimated hole areas were significantly larger using the WHOPES method (median 162 cm 2 , IQR 28-793) than image analysis (median 13 cm 2 , IQR 3-101; p holes than image analysis did (p = 0.002) in 10 LLINs; however, total hole area was not significantly different (p = 0.16). Most holes were not circular but roughly 2-5 times longer in one direction. The lower quarter of LLIN sides was found to have the most holes. The WHOPES method overestimated total hole area, likely because holes are elongated rather than circular, suggesting further adjustments to the pHI formula may be

  20. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  1. Modelling the impact of the long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets on Anopheles mosquito biting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Claudia P; Lyra, Silas P; Azevedo, Franciane; Greenhalgh, David; Massad, Eduardo

    2017-09-15

    Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs. An agent-based stochastic model simulates the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on mosquito fitness by reducing the biting rates, as well as increasing mortality rates. The model also incorporates a heritability function that provides the necessary genetic plasticity upon which natural selection would act to maximize the fitness under the pressure of the control strategy. The asymptotic equilibrium distribution of mosquito population versus biting time is shown for several daily uses of ITNs, and the expected disruptive selection on this mosquito trait is observed in the simulations. The relative fitness of strains that bite at much earlier time with respect to the wild strains, when a threshold of about 50% of ITNs coverage highlights the hypothesis of a behaviour selection. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the top three parameters that play a dominant role on the mosquito fitness are the proportion of individuals using bed nets and its effectiveness, the impact of bed nets on mosquito oviposition, and the mosquito genetic plasticity related to changing in biting time. By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects. From the evolutionary point of view of the parasite virulence, it

  2. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-09-14

    Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets. Secondary data from community-based surveys on 2484 migrant workers (2013 and 2014, Bago Region) were analyzed of which 37% were seasonal migrants. Bed net access and utilization were assessed using a) availability of at least one bed net per household, and b) one bed net per two persons, and c) proportion of household members who slept under abed net during the previous night (Indicator targets = 100%). Over 70% of all migrants were from unstable work settings with short transitory stays. Average household size was five (range 1-25) and almost half of all households had children under-five years. Roughly 10 % of migrants were night-time workers. Less than 40% of households had contact with health workers and less than 30% had exposure to information education and communication (IEC) materials, the latter being significantly lower among seasonal migrants. About 70% of households were aware of the importance of insecticide-treated bed-nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets (ITNs/LLINs), but knowledge on insecticide impregnation and retreatment of ITNs was poor (Myanmar. Possible ways forward include frequent distribution campaigns to compensate for short transitory stays, matching household distributions to household size, enhanced information campaigns and introducing legislation to make mosquito repellents available for night-time workers at plantations and farms

  3. "Tazomoka Is Not a Problem". Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Chiarella; Pourette, Dolorès; Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka ("mosquito fever"), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo ("fever") and tazomahery ("strong fever") were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to protection against malaria in the eyes

  4. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  5. Comparing insecticide-treated bed net use to Plasmodium falciparum infection among schoolchildren living near Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoyo, Collins; Mwandawiro, Charles; Kihara, Jimmy; Simiyu, Elses; Gitonga, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Njenga, Sammy M; Snow, Robert W

    2015-12-22

    Under trial conditions insecticide-treated nets have been shown to provide significant clinical and mortality protection under a range of malaria transmission intensity conditions. There are, however, few operational impact data, notably in very intense transmission conditions. This study, reports on malaria infection among Kenyan schoolchildren living in areas of intense malaria transmission and their reported use of insecticide-treated bed nets. 5188 children in 54 schools were randomly sampled from seven counties surrounding Lake Victoria between May and June 2014. A questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren in classes 2-6 on the use of a long-lasting, insecticide-treated net (LLIN) the night before the survey and provided a single blood sample for a rapid diagnostic test for malaria infection. Analysis of the impact of insecticide-treated net use on malaria prevalence was undertaken using a multivariable, mixed effects, logistic regression at 95% confidence interval (CI), taking into account hierarchical nature of the data and results adjusted for school clusters. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 48.7%, two-thirds (67.9%) of the children reported using LLIN, 91.3% of the children reported that their households own at least one LLIN and the household LLIN coverage was 2.5 persons per one LLIN. The prevalence of infection showed variation across the counties, with prevalence being highest in Busia (66.9%) and Homabay (51.8%) counties, and lowest in Migori County (29.6%). Generally, malaria parasite prevalence differed between age groups and gender with the highest prevalence occurring in children below 7 years (50.6%) and males (52.2%). Adjusting for county and school, there was a significant reduction in odds of malaria infection among the schoolchildren who reported LLIN use the previous night by 14 % (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, P provide protection against infection among school-aged children.

  6. Universal coverage with insecticide-treated nets - applying the revised indicators for ownership and use to the Nigeria 2010 malaria indicator survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Albert; Koenker, Hannah; Baba, Ebenezer; Onyefunafoa, Emmanuel O; Selby, Richmond A; Lokko, Kojo; Lynch, Matthew

    2013-09-10

    Until recently only two indicators were used to evaluate malaria prevention with insecticide-treated nets (ITN): "proportion of households with any ITN" and "proportion of the population using an ITN last night". This study explores the potential of the expanded set of indicators recommended by the Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG) for comprehensive analysis of universal coverage with ITN by applying them to the Nigeria 2010 Malaria Indicator Survey data. The two additional indicators of "proportion of households with at least one ITN for every two people" and "proportion of population with access to an ITN within the household" were calculated as recommended by MERG. Based on the estimates for each of the four ITN indicators three gaps were calculated: i) households with no ITN, ii) households with any but not enough ITN, iii) population with access to ITN not using it. In addition, coverage with at least one ITN at community level was explored by applying Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) decision rules to the cluster level of the data. All outcomes were analysed by household background characteristics and whether an ITN campaign had recently been done. While the proportion of households with any ITN was only 42% overall, it was 75% in areas with a recent mass campaign and in these areas 66% of communities had coverage of 80% or better. However, the campaigns left a considerable intra-household ownership gap with 66% of households with any ITN not having enough for every family member. In contrast, the analysis comparing actual against potential use showed that ITN utilization was good overall with only 19% of people with access not using the ITN, but with a significant difference between the North, where use was excellent (use gap 11%), and the South (use gap 36%) indicating the need for enhanced behaviour change communication. The expanded ITN indicators to assess universal coverage provide strong tools for a comprehensive

  7. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An exploratory qualitative study on perceptions about mosquito bed nets in the Niger Delta: what are the barriers to sustained use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvin KT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen T Galvin1, Nick Petford2, Frances Ajose3, Dai Davies41Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, UK; 2University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Lagos State University and The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Niger Delta Development Initiative, Poole, Dorset, UKBackground: The effectiveness of malaria control programs is determined by an array of complex factors, including the acceptability and sustained use of preventative measures such as the bed net. A small-scale exploratory study was conducted in several locations in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria, to discover barriers against the use of bed nets, in the context of a current drive to scale up net use in Nigeria.Methods: A qualitative approach with a convenience sample was used. One to one interviews with mostly male adult volunteers were undertaken which explored typical living and sleeping arrangements, and perceptions about and barriers against the use of the mosquito prevention bed net.Results: Several key issues emerged from the qualitative data. Bed nets were not reported as widely used in this small sample. The reasons reported for lack of use included issues of convenience, especially net set up and dismantling; potential hazard and safety concerns; issues related to typical family composition and nature of accommodation; humid weather conditions; and perceptions of cost and effectiveness. Most barriers to net use concerned issues about everyday practical living and sleeping arrangements and perceptions about comfort. Interviewees identified were aware of malaria infection risks, but several also indicated certain beliefs that were barriers to net use.Conclusions: Successful control of malaria and scale up of insecticide-treated net coverage relies on community perceptions and practice. This small study has illuminated a number of important everyday life issues, which remain barriers to

  9. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya II. Study design and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Shi, Ya Ping; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the study design and methods used in a large community-based, group-randomized, controlled trial of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) in an area with intense, perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya conducted between 1996 and 1999. A multi-disciplinary framework was

  10. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Shi, Ya Ping; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Lal, Altaf A.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a community-based, group-randomized, controlled trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) in an area with intense malaria transmission in western Kenya, a birth cohort (n = 833) was followed monthly until the age of 24 months to determine the potential beneficial and adverse effects of

  11. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Arudo, John; Vulule, John M.; Odhacha, Amos; Kachur, S. Patrick; Schoute, Erik; Rosen, Daniel H.; Sexton, John D.; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A group-randomized controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) was conducted in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya to test the effect of ITNs on all-cause mortality in children 1-59 months of age. Child deaths were monitored over a two-year

  12. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Gimnig, John E.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Lal, Altaf A.; Schoute, Erik; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that permethrin-treated bed nets and curtains reduce all-cause child mortality by 15-33% in areas with low or high but seasonal malaria transmission. This report describes the study site for a community-based, group-randomized, controlled

  13. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  14. Gender and willingness to pay for insecticides treated bed nets in a poor rural area in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujinja, P G M; Makwaya, C K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-12-01

    To examine socio-economic and malaria related differences between males and females that may cause gender differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for insecticide treated bed nets in a poor rural area. A two-week-interval (test re-test) cross-sectional study. Kisarawe District in coastal Tanzania. Two hundred and fifty one males and two hundred dollars females were interviewed. Females had about 50% of the males' income. The monthly average income was about US dollars 10.50 for females and US dollars 20.20 for males. The proportion of respondents willing to pay for an ITN, for both males and females, declined as the ITN prices increased (Pdifference between men and women, between both rounds were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Male respondents reported a higher mean number of own underfives living in the household compared to women, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.8). Willingness to pay for ITN was found to be independent of having an under five child with recent history of malaria. Among both males and females, there was an association between a recent experience with malaria episode and WTP, p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively. Among females, the proportion of those willing to pay for another person, at the lowest ITN price, was significantly higher in those with under five children in their households than in those with no underfives. This was not the case among the male respondents as the association was not statistically significant. Contrary to expectations were was no statistically significant difference in WTP for an ITN between females and males. Further studies that link willingness and ability to pay are required in rural poor population, such studies may be valuable inputs to government policy on and planning of ITN interventions in the public and private sector.

  15. Knowledge, access and utilization of bed-nets among stable and seasonal migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment area of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Background Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characterist...

  16. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  17. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  18. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops was both reported and observed, and may

  19. Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce plasma antibody levels and limit the repertoire of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askjaer, N; Maxwell, C; Chambo, W

    2001-01-01

    The use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) has been documented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in areas with endemic malaria, but concerns have been raised that ITN usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. Several lines of evidence have indicated that antibodies against...... variant surface antigens (VSA) are important in the development of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may thus be good indicators of immune status. We have compared the levels of VSA antibodies in plasma from children who have used ITN for 4 years to levels in plasma from...

  20. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Manu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints.

  1. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Manu; Ellen Abrafi Boamah-Kaali; Lawrence Gyabaa Febir; Emmanuel Ayipah; Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante

    2017-01-01

    Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to th...

  2. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  3. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch...... methods. In each village, ten paired houses were selected for mosquitoes sampling. Sampling was done in fortnight case and study was undertaken for six months in both Kilimanjaro (Northern Tanzania) and Dodoma (Central Tanzania) regions. RESULTS: A total of 6,883 mosquitoes were collected including: 5......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1...

  4. OWNERSHIP POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Branovitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ownership policy in Ukraine. It makes a survey of the following: the current situation at state-run enterprises and their efficiency; the key criteria of the classification of state-run enterprises for the privatization for the period of 2017-2020. The article evaluates the institutional changes coming from a new law on the privatization of state-owned property in Ukraine. It reveals the stages of making the ownership policy as a state strategy. It describes the measures meant to raise efficiency in the area of the public property management. The article assesses the state of play of the stock market in Ukraine as a mechanism to attract money to the real economy. It recommends attracting foreign investment to the public sector of economy following the restructuring process via IPO or sale to a strategic investor (Private equity. It considers the positive aspects in the completion of active privatization and the scope of the main privatization risks.

  5. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  6. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  7. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  8. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use.

  9. Sleeping arrangements and mosquito net use among under-fives: results from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaitwe Jacqueline

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Roll Back Malaria Initiative has identified the under-fives as one of the high risk groups for malaria, and one of the strategies to fight malaria in this group is increasing mosquito net use. This implies that there must be selective targeting at the household level such that the children are protected. However, the Roll Back Malaria preferences must be reconciled with those at the household level to take into account household level preferences. Methods This paper is based on the 2000–2001 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data in which information on mosquito net ownership and use was collected. The patterns of household mosquito net ownership and use for children under five years of age were examined using both bi-variate and multivariate analysis. Results The preferences at the household level seem to be different; children use mosquito nets primarily because they happen to share a bed with their parents. A child who shares a bed with the mother is 21 times more likely to use a mosquito net than his/her counterpart. Conclusion Increasing mosquito net coverage such that 60% (the target for the RBM of households have at least one mosquito net will not necessarily protect the under-fives. Either the coverage will have to be expanded or appropriate targeting strategies designed.

  10. The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets against African anopheline mosquitoes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strode

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes.We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization-recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut, deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs using the risk difference (RD. Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01; moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95. For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87; moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60; high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54. For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68; moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; high resistance, RD 0

  11. Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine-Based Intermittent Preventive Treatment, Bed Net Use, and Antenatal Care during Pregnancy: Demographic Trends and Impact on the Health of Newborns in the Kassena Nankana District, Northeastern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    all children less than five years of age and for pregnant and nursing women. Design. This study was a prospective cohort study in which pregnant...during 2003.7 Similarly, bed net use during pregnancy, which was reported by 29% of 102 nursing and pregnant women sur- veyed in 2000, increased...malarious area of Malawi. Ann Trap Paediatr 24: 311-321. 27. Uneke CJ, I yare FE, Sunday-Adeoye H. Ajayi JA, 2008. Evalua- tion of maternal malaria at

  12. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  13. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  14. "Asset Ownership Across Generations"

    OpenAIRE

    Ngina S. Chiteji; Frank P. Stafford

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines cross-generational connections in asset ownership. It begins by presenting a theoretical framework that develops the distinction between the intergenerational transfer of knowledge about financial assets and the direct transfer of dollars from parents to children. Its analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) reveals intergenerational correlations in asset ownership, and we find evidence to suggest that parental asset ownership or family-based exposur...

  15. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Murari; Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Suman, Rijal; Dinesh, Diwakar; Coosemans, Marc; Sundar, Shyam; Shreekant, Kesari; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before and after intervention' design in 58 households in six clusters. The use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% CI 76.5-91.1%) and the HBI by 42.2% (95% CI 11.1-62.5%). These results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.

  16. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  17. Baixa aderência e alto custo como fatores de insucesso do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com inseticida no controle da malária na Amazônia Brasileira Low adherence and high cost as failure factors of impregnated bed nets with insecticide for malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barberino Santos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992, durante um ensaio com mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, conduzido em Porto Murtinho, município de Costa Marques, Rondônia, na Amazônia Brasileira, analisou-se a aderência e os fatores econômicos capazes de reduzir o impacto do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados sobre a morbidade da malária. Os mosquiteiros impregnados tiveram excelente receptividade pela população local. No entanto, a aderência foi muito baixa, principalmente pelos adultos maiores de 15 anos de idade e, durante a estiagem. O preço do mosquiteiro impregnado foi calculado em US$18,83 para casal e, em US$13,82, para solteiro. Apesar das vantagens econômicas do emprego dos mosquiteiros impregnados em larga escala, desde que subsidiados pelas agências governamentais, a baixa aderência verificada, aliada aos fatores epidemiológicos locais, não permitem indicar o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados como medida de proteção em massa na Amazônia.In 1992 during a trial with deltamethrin-impregnated bed nets conducted in Porto Murtinho, municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia, in the Brazilian Amazon, we investigated community compliance and the economic aspects capable of reducing the impact of this intervention on malaria morbidity. Impregnated bed nets were well accepted by the local population. However, compliance was found to be very low among adults over 15 years of age and mainly during the dry season. The cost of impregnated bed nets was US$18.83 for double-bed nets and US$13.82 for single bed nets. Despite the economic advantages of using impregnated bed nets subsidized by the government, the low compliance and local epidemiological factors do not allow to indicate the use of impregnated bed nets for mass malaria control in the Amazon region.

  18. Which family members use the best nets? An analysis of the condition of mosquito nets and their distribution within households in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lines Jo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs is increasing, and coverage targets have been revised to address universal coverage with ITNs. However, many households do not have enough nets to cover everyone, and the nets available vary in physical condition and insecticide treatment status. Since 2004, the Government of Tanzania has been implementing the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, which distributes vouchers for ITNs through antenatal clinics to target pregnant women and their infants. This analysis aimed to determine the following: (1 coverage patterns of bed nets within households according to physical condition and treatment status; (2 who might be at risk if mosquitoes were diverted from occupants of untreated nets to those not using nets? (3 the degree to which those at highest risk of malaria use the most protective nets. Methods Data from the 2006 TNVS household survey were analysed to assess within-household distribution of net use. The associations between net characteristics and net user were also evaluated. Multivariate analysis was applied to the relationship between the number of holes per net and user characteristics while adjusting for confounders. Results In households with a net:person ratio better than 1:4 (one net for every four household members, more than 80% of the people in such households reported using a net the previous night. ITNs were most likely to be used by infants, young children (1-4 y, and women of childbearing age; they were least likely to be used by older women (≥50 y, older children (5-14 y, and adult men. The nets used by infants and women of childbearing age were in better-than-average physical condition; the nets used by older women and older children were in worse-than-average condition; while young children and adult men used nets in intermediate (average condition. When adjusted for confounders, the nets used by young and older children had more holes

  19. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    This thesis examines ownership of the firm by its employees, of varying stakes. It begins by identifying the existence of employee ownership in a Chinese context, presented in the form of a general analytical discussion which is informed by a review of the available evidence on the subject...... of this phenomenon. Employee ownership is found to have played a role in Chinese economic transition as a transitory phase before non-state enterprises were afforded official recognition in a context of publicly-owned enterprise privatisation. Senior managers became the key beneficiaries in firm sales and most...

  20. The Ownership Barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This case describes one of the Ownership Barometer’s (Korsager, 2016) three owner-types, namely the formal owner. The Ownership Barometer is an analytic tool to analyze an owner-manager’s feeling of ownership. The case exemplifies the formal owner-type by describing the character of KALK’s founder......, Mr Michael Jorgensen. His son, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, explains how his father managed their family business, how he collaborated with the father when he joined the company, and how he eventually managed to take over the company after his father. The case draws on the author’s interviews of Mr Rasmus...

  1. Willingness to pay for small solar powered bed net fans: results of a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Briët, Olivier J T; Ahorlu, Collins K; Nardini, Peter; Keating, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are one of the main interventions recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria vector control. LLINs are ineffective if they are not being used. Subsequent to the completion of a cluster randomized cross over trial conducted in rural Greater Accra where participants were provided with the 'Bɔkɔɔ System'-a set of solar powered net fan and light consoles with a solar panel and battery-or alternative household water filters, all trial participants were invited to participate in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction to determine the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the fan and light consoles and to estimate the demand curve for the units. Results demonstraed a mean WTP of approximately 55 Cedis (~13 USD). Demand results suggested that at a price which would support full manufacturing cost recovery, a majority of households in the area would be willing to purchase at least one such unit.

  2. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  3. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg......Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership...

  4. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  5. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  6. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  7. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  8. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  9. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  10. Strategic Audit and Ownership Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Franz Wahl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new global economy, ownership has become a central issue for organizational performance. Ownership strategy is where corporate governance meets strategic management. Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of corporate governance, the author is asking the central research question: “how to develop an ownership strategy?” The main purpose of this paper is to answer this original question and develop a better understanding about ownership strategies. Theoretically there is evidence to indicate that there is a link between strategic audit and ownership strategy. Analyzing firm cases from Estonia allows concluding that the strategic audit is useful for developing systemically ownership strategies, which in turn could be a realistic alternative for complete contracts. The use of strategic audits gives the business owner an opportunity to analyze his own actions and behavior, learning, managing knowledge, and finally clearly expressing his will in the form of an ownership strategy.

  11. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson

    2015-01-01

    the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...... approach more effective. Originality/value – The paper provides an insight into the debate on redefining improved sanitation in the post-2015 era of the Millennium Development Goals and offers policy alternatives to policy makers in low-income countries seeking to accelerate the uptake of improved latrines...

  12. Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Candrinho, Baltazar; Chambe, Geraldo; Muchanga, João; Muguande, Olinda; Matsinhe, Graça; Mathe, Guidion; Rogier, Eric; Doyle, Timothy; Zulliger, Rose; Colborn, James; Saifodine, Abu; Lammie, Patrick; Priest, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-01

    Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases. Two cross-sectional household surveys at baseline and one year after a LLIN distribution campaign were implemented in Mecubúri and Nacala-a-Velha Districts in Nampula Province, Mozambique. Both districts were known to be endemic for LF; both received mass drug administration (MDA) with antifilarial drugs during the evaluation period. Access to and use of LLINs was recorded, and household members were tested with P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed for presence of antibodies to three P. falciparum antigens, P. vivax MSP-119, P. ovale MSP-119, P. malariae MSP-119, and three LF antigens. Seroconversion rates were calculated and the association between LLIN use and post-campaign seropositivity was estimated using multivariate regression. The campaign covered 68% (95% CI: 58-77) of the population in Nacala-a-Velha and 46% (37-56) in Mecubúri. There was no statistically significant change in P. falciparum RDT positivity between the two surveys. Population seropositivity at baseline ranged from 31-81% for the P. falciparum antigens, 3-4% for P. vivax MSP-119, 41-43% for P. ovale MSP-119, 46-56% for P. malariae MSP-119, and 37-76% for the LF antigens. The seroconversion rate to the LF Bm33 antigen decreased significantly in both districts. The seroconversion rate to P. malariae MSP-119 and the LF Wb123 and Bm14 antigens each decreased significantly in one of the two districts. Community LLIN use was associated with a decreased risk

  13. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  14. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  15. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  16. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  17. Forest ownership in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstüner Birben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and sustainable use of forest resources depend on various factors. However, one of the most emphasized and discussed topics among these factors is forest ownership. Comparative law is an important way of analyzing and understanding legal systems of different countries, and identifying different aspects of the current legal systems. This study tries to analyze forest ownership with regard to comparative law. France for the Continental-European legal system, Great Britain for the Anglo-Saxon legal system, and Russia Federation for the Socialist legal system are taken respectively as a base. Thus, how right to ownership is evaluated in different legal systems and what are the main features of that are indicated. As a result, private forest ownership is common in the Continental-European legal system and Anglo-Saxon legal system while state ownership is common in the Socialist legal system. Prevalence of private forest ownership in the Continental-European and the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is also closely related to the previous use rights transferred into right to ownership. In addition, it is concluded regarding the historical process that many changes occurred on forest ownership types without considering differences in legal systems.

  18. Teaching Small Business Ownership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Topics discussed include integrating small business ownership with existing programs; establishing awareness, exploration, and orientation activities; and preparation for small business ownership. A curriculum guide developed for teaching small business ownership and management is also described. (TA)

  19. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...... to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments....

  20. Foreign investment, corporate ownership, and development: are firms in emerging markets catching up to the world standard?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabirianova, K. Z.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-63 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * corporate ownership * economic development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/21610

  1. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debashis; Priyanka, Jyoti; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Upfill-Brown, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent. Methods This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention. Findings Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching. Interpretation DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub

  2. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  3. Effect of malaria transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) and circumsporozoite (CSP) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Simon K; Njunge, James; Muia, Ann; Muluvi, Geofrey; Gatei, Wangeci; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Terlouw, Dianne J; Hawley, William A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nahlen, Bernard L; Lindblade, Kim A; Hamel, Mary J; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping

    2013-08-27

    Although several studies have investigated the impact of reduced malaria transmission due to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the patterns of morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on their effect on parasite diversity. Sequencing was used to investigate the effect of ITNs on polymorphisms in two genes encoding leading Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens, the 19 kilodalton blood stage merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1(19kDa)) and the Th2R and Th3R T-cell epitopes of the pre-erythrocytic stage circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in a large community-based ITN trial site in western Kenya. The number and frequency of haplotypes as well as nucleotide and haplotype diversity were compared among parasites obtained from children diversity of > 0.7. No MSP-1(19kDa) 3D7 sequence-types were detected in 1996 and the frequency was less than 4% in 2001. The CSP Th2R and Th3R domains were highly polymorphic with a total of 26 and 14 haplotypes, respectively detected in 1996 and 34 and 13 haplotypes in 2001, with an overall haplotype diversity of > 0.9 and 0.75 respectively. The frequency of the most predominant Th2R and Th3R haplotypes was 14 and 36%, respectively. The frequency of Th2R and Th3R haplotypes corresponding to the 3D7 parasite strain was less than 4% at both time points. There was no significant difference in nucleotide and haplotype diversity in parasite isolates collected at both time points. High diversity in these two genes has been maintained overtime despite marked reductions in malaria transmission due to ITNs use. The frequency of 3D7 sequence-types was very low in this area. These findings provide information that could be useful in the design of future malaria vaccines for deployment in endemic areas with high ITN coverage and in interpretation of efficacy data for malaria vaccines based on 3D7 parasite strains.

  4. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  5. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  7. The new math of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, B

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, when the software maker Knowledge Adventure decided to spin out a new venture--Worlds, Incorporated--founder Bill Gross expected the worst. He had argued with the board that it was in KA's best interests to maintain a controlling ownership stake in Worlds, whose powerful new software technology had enormous revenue potential. But the board prevailed, and KA took only a 20% ownership in the new company, giving the rest to Worlds' employees. Within a year, the company's performance had surpassed all expectations, and instead of owning 80% of a $5 million business, KA owned 20% of a $77 million business. The arithmetic may have been counterintuitive, but the lesson was clear. When KA let go of Worlds and gave its employees near total ownership, the company unleashed a new level of employee performance. That, in turn, led to the creation of economic value that more than made up for the equity KA had surrendered. So compelling was this "new math of ownership" that Gross founded a new company, Idealab, on this principle. The company, which develops ideas for Internet-based businesses and seeds the most promising ones, takes no more than a 49% equity stake in the new ventures and gives at least 1% of ownership to each employee. For Gross, this radical approach to ownership is the key to inspiring stellar performances. In part, employee-owners are motivated by their potential to earn great financial reward. But the drama of ownership, he argues, is even more important. In that drama, employees become personally involved in the struggle to outdo the competition and emerge victorious.

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    , Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project...

  10. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  11. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  12. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  13. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  14. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  15. Relationship between bank ownership concentration on capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between bank ownership concentration on capital adequacy, liquidity, ... In this study we explore the effects of ownership concentration on the ... are material factors in explaining banks' behavior and their market performance.

  16. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  17. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  18. State ownership and efficiency characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of state participation in the ownership structure of companies on their financial efficiency using a sample of 114 largest companies in Russia. As an indirect indicator of efficiency, we used a variety of financial indicators: revenue per employee (gross margin, return on equity, profit margin and debt burden. The effects of direct and indirect state ownership are considered separately. Using econometric analysis, we conclude that the dominance of the block of shares owned by the state has a negative effect on the performance characteristics, and its increase is associated with an increase in the debt burden of the companies. According to our criteria, state-owned enterprises (SOEs perform worse on average than private companies. The mechanism of how changes in the “real sector” affect profitability is examined particularly closely. The study shows that a change in the profitability of private companies is characterized by a significant dependence on the movement of labor productivity characteristics. At the same time, for SOEs, a similar correlation was not revealed. These companies demonstrated no visible relationship between their profitability and performance characteristics. The study shows that increases in the size of direct government ownership lead to lower labor productivity and profitability; the impact of indirect ownership is, seemingly, more complicated.

  19. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  20. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  1. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  2. Corporate ownership structure and risk-taking: evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    SunEae Chun; MinHwan Lee

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between ownership structure and corporate risk-taking in Japan over the sample periods of 2000 2010. Reflecting the ongoing changes in the ownership structure in Japan, we incorporate the various kinds of insider and outsider ownership in the analysis. Ownership such as concentrated ownership, ownership by closely related parties, financial institutions comprising banks and insurance companies and managers are categorized into inside ownership, while ownership by f...

  3. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  4. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.A.; Wilder, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  5. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  6. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  7. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  8. Management Ownership and Risk-Shifting Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Teshima

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between management ownership and its risk-shifting incentive. We first present a simple model showing that the risk-shifting incentive of management of financially distressed firms increases as the management ownership of the firm increases. Empirically, we test the hypothesis that under the former Japanese Corporate Reorganization Law, firms with higher management ownership are more likely to use legal rather than private reorganization. Since the reorgan...

  9. Foundation Ownership, Reputation, and Labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Thomsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    of profitability and growth, despite lacking governance mechanisms such as profit incentives or takeover threats. Given their non-profit ownership, they might be expected to behave more responsibly towards stakeholders, such as employees or customers (Hansmann, 1980), but so far there has been little empirical...... ratings. Secondary evidence on labour market behaviour is consistent with these findings. Using matched employer–employee data we show that foundation-owned companies are more stable employers, pay their employees better, and keep them for longer. Altogether, the evidence indicates that foundation...

  10. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Graves, Patricia M; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Shargie, Estifanos B; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O

    2011-04-17

    There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R). Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007). Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM). A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006); indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007); and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m). This study identified modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent

  11. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R. Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007. Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM. Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006; indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007; and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m. Conclusion This study identified

  12. Alcohol-Branded Merchandise Ownership and Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) has a longer shelf-life than other forms of alcohol marketing and the potential to become integrated into children's self-identities. This review sought to explore the current literature on children's exposure to, and the impact of, ABM. PsycInfo, Proquest, Science Direct, and ABI-Inform databases were searched from the earliest available date to May 2015. Additional studies were identified by a manual review of the reference lists of retrieved articles and contacting the corresponding author of each included study. Articles that reported on child or adolescent ownership of ABM and/or the relationship between ABM ownership and drinking were included. Data on key measures were tabulated; where data of interest were not reported, requests for further information were sent to the articles' authors. Nine cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies were identified. ABM ownership ranged from 11% to 59% and was higher among older children and males. Seven cross-sectional studies reported associations between ABM ownership and drinking-related behaviors. All 4 longitudinal studies reported a significant relationship between ownership at baseline and drinking initiation at follow-up. The small number of available studies, with different measures of ABM ownership and of associations/effects. The few studies exploring ABM ownership are consistent in showing high rates of ownership and associations between ownership and current and future drinking. There is a need for further research into specific aspects of ABM ownership. However, there is also a need for policy interventions to reduce children's access to and ownership of ABM. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. 76 FR 65634 - Redetermination of the Consolidated Net Unrealized Built-In Gain and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Redetermination of the Consolidated Net Unrealized Built-In Gain and Loss AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... consolidated net unrealized built-in gain and loss in certain circumstances. This document also invites... gain (NUBIG) at the time of its ownership change, recognized built-in gains will increase the section...

  14. Psychological ownership: Development of an instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Olckers

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure psychological ownership in a South African context. Motivation for the study: It was found that previous instruments for the measurement of psychological ownership lacked the ability to grasp the extensive reach of psychological ownership. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of 713 skilled, highly-skilled and professional employees from various organisations in both the private and public sectors in South Africa. Main findings: Although a 69-item measurement instrument was developed in order to capture the proposed seven-dimensional psychological ownership construct, it became evident when analysing the data that a four-factor model comprising 35 items was suitable. Practical/managerial implications: If a sense of psychological ownership toward an organisation could be established amongst its employees by addressing the factors as measured by the South African Psychological Ownership Questionnaire, organisations could become enhanced workplaces and, as a result, sustainable performance could be promoted and staff could be retained. Contribution/value-add: The instrument for measuring psychological ownership in a South African context could serve as a diagnostic tool that would allow human resource professionals and managers to determine employees’ sense of psychological ownership regarding their organisation and to focus specifically on weak dimensional areas that could be improved.

  15. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the

  16. Learner Ownership of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the different ways in which learners may have ownership over technology-enhanced learning by reflecting on technical, legal and psychological ownership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a variety of examples of technology-enhanced learning ranging from open-source software to cloud storage to discuss…

  17. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  18. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  19. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  20. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  1. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  2. The Development of Employee Ownership in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Faigen, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Little systematic work has been completed on the incidence of employee ownership in a Chinese context. Similar to the situation in Eastern Europe, this type of ownership was quite widespread in China, particularly during the 1990s. Based on the existing literature and available statistical...... data, the purpose of this paper is to identify drivers of, and barriers to, the development of employee ownership in China. Design/methodology/approach: The scattered evidence from the literature and official statistical sources are collected and structured in a systematic analysis where the drivers...... of the privatisation of small- and medium-sized state-owned enterprises as well as collectively owned enterprises. However, in most cases the dynamics of ownership resulted in dominant ownership by managers. This trend became more noticeable at later stages of the privatisation process. Research limitations...

  3. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  4. Does Employee Stock Ownership Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Miyajima, Hideaki; Owan, Hideo

    studies, we focus on the effects of changes in varying attributes of existing ESO—the effects on the intensive margin. Our fixed effect estimates show that an increase in the strength of the existing ESO plans measured by stake per employee results in statistically significant productivity gains....... Furthermore, such productivity gains are found to lead to profitability gains since wage gains from ESO plans are statistically significant yet rather modest. Our analysis of Tobin's Q suggests that the market tends to view such gains from ESO plans as permanent. We further find that increasing the stake......This paper provides novel evidence on the effects of employee stock ownership (ESO), using new panel data on Japanese ESO plans for a highly representative sample of publicly-traded firms in Japan (covering more than 75% of all firms listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange) over 1989-2013. Unlike most prior...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership - Volusia County Parcels (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcel Ownership Polygon Layer: Polygons showing property ownership created from the "master" subdivision base map for Volusia County. Multiple lots and parcels...

  6. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  7. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corporate ownership and control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  9. Competent ownership in real estate business

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Sneck

    2001-01-01

    The real estate businessñproject Competent Ownership (Oskito)î focuses on the role of ownership within the real estate industry. Ownership acts as the core upon which , the competitive advantages of real estate industry are for the most based. The project studies specific real estate business issues, especially îentities of possessionî that are large enough to allow the development of specialised businesses. The project is of current interest as the next phase of growth of the Finnish informa...

  10. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  11. Interdependensi Antara Insider Ownership, Keputusan Investasi, Dan Risiko Bisnis

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina, Indri Erkaningrum

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric information and agency issues made stockholders need to control business activities throughoptimalization insider ownership and investment decision. Optimalization of insider ownership and investmentdecision were expected to make business risk controlled. This research aimed at verifying empirically theinfluencing factors of insider ownership, investment decision, business risk, and finding the interdependencyamong insider ownership, investment decision, and business risk. The samp...

  12. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  13. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  15. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  16. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Choice of ownership structure and firm performance: Evidence from Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Derek C.; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analyse diverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes after privatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economic efficiency. While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms to switch ownership categories, often “employee owned” firms remain “insider-owned” as ownership passes from current empl...

  18. Psychological ownership and financial firm performance: The interplay of employee stock ownership and participative leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Simon; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey among 295 of the top 500 Danish companies, we develop and test an integrated model of the simultaneous effects of employee stock ownership (ESO) and a participative leadership style (PLS) on the creation of psychological ownership (PO) and link this to financial firm performance...

  19. Employee Ownership and Perceptions of Work: The Effect of an Employee Stock Ownership Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A small company was studied before and after introduction of an employee stock ownership plan. Employees' commitment to the organization and job satisfaction were higher after plan implementation, while perceived worker influence levels did not change. Findings suggest that ownership changes employees' attitudes without changing employees'…

  20. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  1. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2017-10-25

    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  2. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  3. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  4. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available.

  5. Providing insecticide treated bed nets in antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-replication.5-13 Mathematical models show that repeated ... antiretroviral treatment clinics in Malawi: a pilot ... related disease or AIDS.3 In addition, there are between 300 - ... and growing evidence of interactive pathology.1,2. HIV ..... by the HIV Unit and its partners. ... procurement and supply chain systems developed.

  6. Assessment of the Efficacy of Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of deltamethrin treated bednets and walls were assessed on school children aged 12-18 years, in a community secondary school in Ono, Nigeria. Children with body weights of 45-60kg were given 2 tablets of fansidar to clear parasites in their system while those with body weights of 60kg and above were given ...

  7. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  8. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  9. Establishing Tenant Ownership on the Basis of Proportional Co-ownership Share of the Real Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Pichler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey of the Osijek District and County Courts procedures related to the motion to determine the usable values of flats and into procedures of establishing separate parts of real property by the means of apportioning plans as well as the tenant ownership study procedures resulted in different and inconsistent approaches in the process of creation of the study and establishing the usable surface area. The paper deals with the analysis of judicial decisions on determining usable surface and indicates the problems emerging in practice while establishing the tenant ownership based on proportional co-ownership share of the real property. It also gives suggestions to passing a by-law on the procedure of tenant ownership study creation i.e. calculation of usable values of particular real property shares and usable values of all flats and other independent premises of the entire real property. Its goals are equal interpretation and application of tenant ownership by all parties to the procedure as well as legal security, uniform application of law and harmonisation of judicial practice. As a possible approach to the solutions in Croatian legal system the paper also analyses the regulation of tenant ownership in the Republic of Slovenia. In conclusion, it establishes the need for professional training of judges, court counsellors, court appointed expert witnesses, civil servants through application of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of tenant ownership procedure based on other scientific disciplines e.g. civil engineering and economics.

  10. Joint Ownership of family land in Uganda: Examining the responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It serves as an organizational unit in which members raise young ones ... Cultural and legal perspectives are very divergent on family land, joint ownership and on what ..... only ownership was more prominent among title deeds (84% vs 62%).

  11. 47 CFR 1.2112 - Ownership disclosure requirements for applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership disclosure requirements for... PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2112 Ownership disclosure requirements for... agreements, management agreements, franchise agreements, spectrum leasing arrangements, spectrum resale...

  12. Efficiency and Ranking of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Does Type of Ownership Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun MAHAJAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the technical efficiency, super-efficiency, slacks, and input/output targets for large Indian pharmaceutical firms according to ownership by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach. The paper uses raw material, salaries & wages, advertisement & marketing and capital usage cost as input variables and net sales revenue as output variable. The super-efficiency model is applied to rank firms on the basis of efficiency scores. The paper finds that mean overall technical efficiency scores of Private Indian and Private Foreign are higher than Group-owned firms, suggesting that type of ownership affects the performance of a given firm. Further, foreign firms were found to have minimum slacks in inputs, evidently owing to their superior technology, better engineering skills and managerial practices. The study suggests that the inputs, such as, advertisement & marketing expenditure, and also the usage of labour and capital are required to be utilized far more productively in order to improve efficiency.

  13. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in

  14. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the

  15. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  16. 47 CFR 1.919 - Ownership information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... channel block in a cellular geographic service area (CGSA) must report current ownership information if... in a cellular licensee, or a party that actually controls a cellular licensee, for the other channel... marketing arrangements with a cellular licensee, or its affiliate, shall be considered to have an...

  17. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-01-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity (“we”), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership (“ours”) for intergroup relations. We make a case for

  18. Measuring psychological ownership : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of psychology and management, psychological ownership has been identified as an important positive psychological predictor of workplace motives, attitudes and behaviours. Given its importance, the highly respected authors Avey, Avolio, Crossley, and Luthans (J Organ Behav 30:173-191,

  19. Employee Ownership and Democracy in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, David J.

    1981-01-01

    Explains three American forms of employee-owned companies. The Mock Conventional firm models its legal structure after conventional enterprises, with shares held primarily by employees. The Employee Stock Ownership Plan regulates the shareholding patterns of ESOP firms. The Producer Cooperative guarantees each member an equal voice in corporate…

  20. Correlates of credit card ownership in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2005-06-01

    In a sample of 352 students, correlates of credit card ownership differed by sex. For both men and women, credit card ownership was predicted by their affective attitude toward credit cards. However, whereas for men concern with money as a tactic for gaining power predicted credit card ownership, for women feelings of insecurity about having sufficient money and having a conservative approach to money predicted credit card ownership.

  1. Foreign Banking in Ukraine: Development Trends and Ownership Structure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhij Reverchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to research the theoretical and practical aspects of foreign participation ownership structure of banks in Ukraine; to analyze the tendencies and challenges of structure regulation of bank ownership; to provide recommendations related to the role of enhancing the transparency of banking business. This research was conducted by way of review of the data on bank ownership and the regulation of the ownership structure of the banking sector in Ukraine.

  2. Social Validation Influences Individuals’ Judgments about Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro; Faigenbaum, Gustavo; Chehtman, Alejandro; Sigman, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults (N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims. To achieve this aim, we designed variations of conflictive situations over property in which we manipulated details regarding the knowledge of the second agent of other third-parties about the first agent’s actions. In essence, our questions were: if an agent claims ownership of something which has a previous property claim on (1) does it matter whether said agent knew of the first’s agent actions or not? And (2) does it matter whether third parties were aware or notified of the first one’s claim? The results confirm that adults resolve the settling of property rights based not only on the nature of ownership claims but also on the social acknowledgment of such claims, in accordance with what is stipulated in legal systems worldwide. Participants considered the second character in the stories to hold a lesser right over the object under dispute when she knew of the first character’s claim. Participants also considered that the first character’s claim was reinforced when there were witnesses for her actions, but not when third parties were merely communicated of such actions. This is the first study to our knowledge that studies how social validation of ownership claims drives adults’ judgments on property claims. PMID:29440998

  3. 29 CFR 1904.34 - Change in business ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change in business ownership. 1904.34 Section 1904.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Requirements § 1904.34 Change in business ownership. If your business changes ownership, you are responsible...

  4. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  5. Corporate ownership structure and risk-taking: evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunEae Chun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between ownership structure and corporate risk-taking in Japan over the sample periods of 2000 2010. Reflecting the ongoing changes in the ownership structure in Japan, we incorporate the various kinds of insider and outsider ownership in the analysis. Ownership such as concentrated ownership, ownership by closely related parties, financial institutions comprising banks and insurance companies and managers are categorized into inside ownership, while ownership by foreigners or financial institution such as investment trusts or pension funds are categorized into outside ownership. The ownership structure is found to have a different impact on the firm’s risk-taking behavior. The study shows that concentrated ownership or ownership by closely related parties affect the firm risks in a convex manner and encourages the firm management to take more risk when the firms have growth opportunities. On the other hand, ownership by financial institutions such as bank and insurance companies, does not seem to affect the firm risk level. This implies that the financial institutions fail to play their role of a shareholder monitor. When managerial ownership is allowed, it is found that Japanese managers’ incentives are aligned with those of shareholders. Contrary to the conventional entrenchment hypothesis, however, managers seem to take more risk as the share of managerial ownership increases. Foreign investors are found to enhance corporate risk-taking in a monotonic manner and do not bias corporate investment in a conservative direction in pursuit of their short-term gains. Domestic institutions such as investment trusts or pension funds are found to neither affect the firm risk level nor enhance the firm value.

  6. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  7. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  8. Antecedents of hospital ownership conversions, mergers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.

  9. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  10. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  11. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  12. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction....... We examine these results and consider them in relation to clinical evidence from patients with altered body perception and work on a variety of multisensory, body-related illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, the full body illusion, the body swap illusion and the enfacement illusion. We...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  14. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  15. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  16. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P <.0001) of firearm-related deaths, whereas mental illness was of borderline significance (P = .05) only. The number of guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact cause and effect, however, the current study debunks the widely quoted hypothesis that guns make a nation safer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Legal vs Ownership Unbundling in Network Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Crémer, Jacques; De Donder, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal unbundling vs ownership unbundling on the incentives of a network operator to invest and maintain its assets. We consider an industry where the upstream firm first chooses the size of a network, while several downstream firms then compete in selling goods and services that use this network as a necessary input. We contrast the (socially) optimal allocation with several equilibrium situations, depending on whether the upstream firm owns zero, one or two d...

  18. Franchise ownership redirection: real options perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Lukito Adi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For over 40 years, the franchise ownership redirection hypothesis has attracted the attention of many scholars. This study, differing from previous ones, proposes an alternative approach for this hypothesis using a real options framework with the extension of agency theory. Method: The real options model is built using the least square Monte Carlo method, where the franchisor's decision to franchise is perceived as a deferred investment while maintaining the right of future acquis...

  19. Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Karhulahti Veli-Matti

    2017-01-01

    This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accord...

  20. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  1. Ownership conversions and nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.

  2. Global Cities, Ownership Structures, and Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Goerzen, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we develop a more nuanced view of subnational location choice with a particular focus on global cities. We argue that multinational firms may use global cities to establish bridgeheads—subsidiaries at intermediate levels of the ownership chain that enable further internati......Purpose: In this paper, we develop a more nuanced view of subnational location choice with a particular focus on global cities. We argue that multinational firms may use global cities to establish bridgeheads—subsidiaries at intermediate levels of the ownership chain that enable further...... of these investments are associated with micro-location choices in a host country. Findings: We find that there are substantial differences between the types, roles, activities, and geographic origins of the firms locating in different areas, and in the ownership structures spanning them. We propose that this has...... managerial and theoretical implications which may be understood based on an organizing framework describing a tradeoff between the pursuit of global connectivity and local density on the one hand, and cost control on the other. Research limitations/implications: Empirical work on foreign location choices...

  3. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  4. Study on the ownership balance and the efficiency of mixed ownership enterprises from the perspective of heterogeneous shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhujia; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Haidong; Wen, Fengming

    2018-01-01

    Based on the database data of Chinese industrial enterprises from 2000 to 2007 and the LP method, this paper measures the total factor productivity of enterprises and investigates the effect of different mixed ownership forms on enterprises' efficiency and the effect of heterogeneous ownership balance on the mixed ownership enterprises' efficiency. The state-owned enterprise and mixed ownership enterprise are identified by the enterprise's paid-up capital. The results show that, on the whole, for the mixed ownership enterprise, the higher the diversification degree of the shareholders is, the higher the efficiency becomes, and in different types of industries, the mixed forms of shareholders have different effects on the efficiency of enterprises. The heterogeneous ownership balance and the enterprise efficiency show nonlinear U-type relationships. Both the higher and lower heterogeneous ownership balance degrees will promote the enterprise's efficiency. However, when the ownership balance degree is in the range of [0.2 0.5], the increase in ownership balance will lead to the decline of enterprise efficiency. Therefore, when introducing non-state-owned capital, state-owned enterprises should take full account of their own characteristics by rationally controlling the shareholding ratio of non-state-owned capital and play the positive role of a mixed ownership structure in corporate governance with appropriate ownership balances.

  5. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  6. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  7. The effects of ownership and ownership change on nursing home industry costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J S

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the effects of ownership type and ownership change on nursing home cost structures, differentiating patient care costs from plant costs. Administrative data from the Michigan Department of Social Services, Medical Services Administration (Medicaid), and the Michigan Department of Public Health are used. Cost data are based on audited cost reports for 393 nursing care facilities in Michigan in 1989. Other facility characteristics are based on data from the 1989 annual licensing and certification survey conducted by the Michigan Department of Public Health. A series of ordinary least squares regressions is estimated, in which the dependent variable is either per diem patient costs or per diem plant costs. Ownership types are defined as chain, proprietary non-chain, freestanding non-profit, government-owned, and hospital-based facilities. Pooled estimation techniques, as well as separate regressions by ownership type, are presented to test for interaction effects. Key variables include whether a facility changed ownership in the preceding five years and whether chain facilities are in-state- or out-of-state-owned, in addition to size, payer mix, and case mix. Behavioral differences among nursing home ownership types in respect to patient care costs tended to distinguish government-owned and hospital-based facilities from the freestanding homes rather than the usual distinction between for-profit and not-for-profit classes. Variables traditionally included in nursing home cost studies, such as size, occupancy, payer mix and case mix, were found to have similar effects on per diem patient care costs for freestanding non-profit homes as well as for chain proprietary facilities. With regard to the effects of ownership change on per diem plant and per diem patient costs, however, there are few differences among ownership types. Chain and non-chain for-profit facilities, non-profit homes, and hospital long-term care units that had changed ownership

  8. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  9. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  10. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  11. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  12. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  13. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  14. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  15. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers : a sorting evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Parker, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Existing sediment continuity models for nonuniform sediment suffer from a number of shortcomings, as they fail to describe vertical sorting fluxes other than through net aggradation or degradation of the bed and are based on a discrete representation of the bed material interacting with the flow. We

  16. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  17. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  18. Does ownership structure improve credit ratings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws AlHares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the impact of Block Ownership structure on Credit Ratings in OECD countries. This research seeks to contribute to the extant literature by exploring the effects of Corporate Governance (CG mechanisms on corporate credit ratings. The study uses a panel data of 200 companies from Anglo American and European countries between 2010 and 2014. The ordinary least square regression is used to examine the relationships. Additionally, to alleviate the concern of potential endogeneity, we use fixed effect regression, two-stage least squares using instrumental variables. The results show there is a negative and significant relationship between block ownership and credit ratings, with a greater significance among Anglo American countries than among European countries. The rationale for this is that Anglo-American system gives preferential treatment to individual shareholders and its accounting tradition leads to a decline in risk and increase in credit ratings. The result is consistent with the multi-theoretical framework predictions derived from the agency and stewardship theories. Future research could investigate credit ratings using other credit rating agencies, selecting a larger sample that includes small, mid-size and large companies. This paper extends, as well as contributes to extant CG literature by offering new evidence on the effect of block ownership on credit ratings between two different traditions. This will be explored by employing firm-level CG mechanisms by accounting for control variables. The findings will help regulators and policymakers in OECD countries in evaluating the adequacy of current CG reforms to prevent management misconduct and scandals.

  19. The social disutility of software ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David M

    2011-09-01

    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software's source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of software ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership.

  20. Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Celerýn, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    I chose for my diploma thesis the theme which is called "Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms". The aim of the work is to give complex and complete description of basic legal forms of acquiring ownership right to land. The presented work is divided into ten chapters. The first part (second chapter) of the diploma thesis determines the concepts of "ownership", "real estate", "land", "plot" etc. According to Czech law concept of "real estate" means mainly under groun...

  1. INSTITUTIONAL OWNERSHIP LEVEL AND RISK-ADJUSTED RETURN

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah, Chioma; Li, Meng (Emma)

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the level of institutional ownership andrisk-adjusted return on stocks. We find a significant positive relationship between the level ofinstitutional ownership on a stock and its risk-adjusted return. This result holds both in the longrun and in shorter time periods. Our findings suggest that all things being equal, it is possible toobtain risk-adjusted return by going short on the stocks with low institutional ownership andgoing long on those with...

  2. Explaining foreign ownership by comparative and competitive advantage. Empirical evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellak, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the determinants of foreign ownership in manufacturing industries. Foreign ownership, according to the theory of international production, is the result of the combination of comparative and competitive advantage. An adequate examination of the ownership structure of an industry requires the ability to establish empirically the extent to which international competitiveness of firms rests on comparative and competitive advantage. Analysis is based on a...

  3. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We......, further, show that for a given level of ownership concentration, appointing one of the big-four auditors lead to superior firm performance....

  4. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  5. Lease of agricultural land in public ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the legal norms which regulate leasing of agricultural land in public ownership. The basic hypothesis is that the main goal of land leasing should be to achieve an efficient allocation and maximization of public rental income. It was concluded that we should eliminate all restrictions that serve as barriers to market allocation. These include provisions that restrict some groups from participating in the land lease auctions, then the preemptive right of lease, as well as the ban on subleasing. It also criticizes the application of the principles of affectation, or restriction of freedom of local governments in the use of funds received from land leasing.

  6. Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhulahti Veli-Matti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accordance with the above, the article concludes with a reframed look at the history of esport and suggests commercial analog gaming (especially Magic: The Gathering as its point of origin.

  7. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  8. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  9. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  10. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb eLiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one’s body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part? Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI and the body swap illusion. The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter’s head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other’s left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter’s first-person perspective (1PP as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter’s hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject’s own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP in the opposite direction (180°, or the subject’s full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face. The synchronous full-body conditions generate a self-touching illusion: many participants felt that I was brushing my own hand! We found that (1 the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2 our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM. We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject’s sense of experiential ownership (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience. We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies.

  11. Revisited. Euratom's ownership of special fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Among all Treaties on the Foundation of the European Community, seemingly, the Euratom Treaty ist the most unobtrusive one having even nearly been declared dead occasionally. For the opponents of nuclear energy the treaty is a thorn in their side because it aims for the peaceful exploitation of nuclear energy. Actually, the treaty likewise aims for the protection of dangers of nuclear energy and encloses a bundle of collective control instruments. The protective purpose provides the community with a strong position in numerous fields towards nuclear energy users including the right to intervene in the operations of nuclear facilities. The communitie's position is further strengthened by the communitie's ownership on special fissile materials. The EAEC Treaty determines: 'Special fissile materials are owned by the community'. The material content of Euratom's ownership is limited by Article 87 of the EAEC Treaty: Unlimited right of use and consumption is granted to the properly possessors unless obligations of the Euratom Treaty oppose. Inherently, the community does not have these rights. It was asked what would be left to the owner Euratom if the properly possessor is entitled to unlimited right of use and even right of consumption.

  12. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  13. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  14. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  15. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  16. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  17. Ownership of Stocks and Mutual Funds : A Panel Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    In many industrial countries, ownership rates of risky assets have risen substantially over the past decade.This trend has potentially wide-ranging implications for the intertemporal and cross-sectional allocation of risk, and for the macro economy, establishing the need for understanding ownership

  18. 75 FR 54801 - Account Ownership and Control Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Report AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Extension of comment period... Report'' must be in the subject field of responses submitted via e-mail, and clearly indicated on written... certain ownership and control information via an account ``Ownership and Control Report'' submitted weekly...

  19. Ownership Structure Reform and Bank Performance in Nigeria | Ani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria undertook a major bank structure reform between 2004 and 2006. A pivotal plank of that reform was the pegging of government ownership in deposit money banks to 10%. This was informed by the general economic theory that state ownership in commercial undertakings hurts operating performance. This paper ...

  20. On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project: Phenomenology as Praxis in the Transfer of Project Ownership from Third-Party Facilitators to a Community after Conflict Resolution. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  1. 47 CFR 76.501 - Cross-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... franchise area served by that cable operator's cable system, either directly or indirectly through an... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Ownership of Cable Systems § 76.501 Cross-ownership. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) No... control with the cable operator, offer SMATV service within its franchise area if the cable operator's...

  2. Ownership dynamics in local multi-stakeholder initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); A.F. Fowler (Alan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe nature and dynamics of ownership are often neglected features of multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs). Seventeen cases in four countries illustrate characteristics of narrow government or broad societal ownership and forces for change over time. Refinements to the application of

  3. Effects of Ownership Rights on Conflicts between Toddler Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20-and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership ("mine") and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers' instigations more often…

  4. 26 CFR 1.552-3 - Stock ownership requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-3 Stock ownership requirement... more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding stock of the foreign corporation be owned, directly or... section 544 (relating to rules for determining stock ownership in the case of personal holding companies...

  5. Ownership dynamics with large shareholders : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donelli, M.; Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the empirical determinants of corporate ownership dynamics in a market where large shareholders are prevalent. We use a unique, hand-collected 20-year dataset on the ownership structure of Chilean companies. Controllers’ blockholdings are on average high -as in continental Europe, for

  6. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  7. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  8. The Causal Pattern of Mobile Phone Ownership and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined a number of predictors of mobile phone ownership amongst fish and vegetable sellers in Yola Metropolis, Nigeria. Using regression path analysis, it identified the causal pattern of mobile phone ownership for Male and Female in the study area. Although there were few significant differences between ...

  9. 12 CFR 701.36 - FCU ownership of fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FCU ownership of fixed assets. 701.36 Section... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.36 FCU ownership of fixed assets. (a) Investment in Fixed Assets. (1) No Federal credit union with $1,000,000 or more in assets may invest in any fixed...

  10. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... business hours in the FCC Reference Center, 445 12th Street SW., Washington, DC 20554, and may also be.... The recently released Ownership Report confirms that minority and female ownership numbers remain low... latest step in the Commission's ongoing efforts to collect and publicly release minority and female...

  11. Understanding the gender dimensions of livestock ownership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...

  12. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  13. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average...... concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations...... a negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...

  14. Pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohnert, G.; Mueller-Frank, U.; Heil, J.

    1976-01-01

    A pebble-bed nuclear reactor of large power rating comprises a container having a funnel-shaped bottom forming a pebble run-out having a centrally positioned outlet. A bed of downwardly-flowing substantially spherical nuclear fuel pebbles is positioned in the container and forms a reactive nuclear core maintained by feeding unused pebbles to the bed's top surface while used or burned-out pebbles run out and discharge through the outlet. A substantially conical body with its apex pointing upwardly and its periphery spaced from the periphery of the container spreads the bottom of the bed outwardly to provide an annular flow down the funnel-shaped bottom forming the runout, to the discharge outlet. This provides a largely constant downward velocity of the spheres throughout the diameter of the bed throughout a substantial portion of the down travel, so that all spheres reach about the same burned-out condition when they leave the core, after a single pass through the core area

  15. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  17. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  18. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  19. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  1. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  2. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  3. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  4. Strategies to increase the ownership and use of insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustincic Polec, Lana; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Ueffing, Erin; Tanjong Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Grabowsky, Mark; Attaran, Amir; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-03-30

    market price. Effect of ITN Cost on appropriate use of ITNs:Three studies including 9968 households and another study comprising 259 individuals found that there is probably little or no difference in the use of ITNs when they are provided free, compared to providing subsidized ITNs or ITNs offered at full market price. Education:Five studies, including 12,637 households, assessed educational interventions regarding ITN use and concluded that education may increase the number of adults and children using ITNs (sleeping under ITNs) compared to no education.One study, including 519 households, assessed the effects of providing an incentive (an undisclosed prize) to promote ITN ownership and use, and found that incentives probably lead to little or no difference in ownership or use of ITNs, compared to not receiving an incentive.None of the included studies reported on adverse effects. Five studies examined the effect of price on ITN ownership and found moderate-certainty evidence that ownership was highest among the groups who received the ITN free versus those who purchased the ITN at any cost. In economic terms, this means that demand for ITNs is elastic with regard to price. However, once the ITN is supplied, the price paid for the ITN probably has little to no effect on its use; the four studies addressing this outcome failed to confirm the hypothesis that people who purchase nets will use them more than those who receive them at no cost. Educational interventions for promoting ITN use have an additional positive effect. However, the impact of different types or intensities of education is unknown.

  5. The Relationship between Ownership Structure and Risk Management: Evidence from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyda Lotfi; Ataollah Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the relationship between the Ownership Structure and Risk Management in time period between 2007 to 2013 based on a sample including 642 Year_Firm among campanies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In following for each of the variables related to the Ownership Structure such as Institutional Ownership, Management ownership, Family Ownership, and Ownership Concentration, a hypothesis is formulated and its impact upon the Risk Management is investigated. The simple li...

  6. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  7. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    : German banks divested their equity stakes mainly as a consequence of increased international competition. The paper extends the model of market-led change by two important observations: first, market pressure is not the only driver of legal change, but the law itself in this case contributed...... to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  8. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  9. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  10. Body ownership: When feeling and knowing diverge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Daniele; Sedda, Anna; Brugger, Peter; Bottini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with the peculiar disturbance of 'overcompleteness' experience an intense desire to amputate one of their healthy limbs, describing a sense of disownership for it (Body Integrity Identity Disorder - BIID). This condition is similar to somatoparaphrenia, the acquired delusion that one's own limb belongs to someone else. In ten individuals with BIID, we measured skin conductance response to noxious stimuli, delivered to the accepted and non-accepted limb, touching the body part or simulating the contact (stimuli approach the body without contacting it), hypothesizing that these individuals have responses like somatoparaphrenic patients, who previously showed reduced pain anticipation, when the threat was directed to the disowned limb. We found reduced anticipatory response to stimuli approaching, but not contacting, the unwanted limb. Conversely, stimuli contacting the non-accepted body-part, induced stronger SCR than those contacting the healthy parts, suggesting that feeling of ownership is critically related to a proper processing of incoming threats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cask ownership: Options and strategic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the potential number of casks available through utility modular storage programs, it is imperative that the planning for the provision and operation of casks under the NWPA program include consideration of the utility owned casks. As to the remainder of the cask requirements for implementation of the NWPA, the author believes that the cost factor is an artificial one for determining the benefits to the taxpayers and ratepayers for cask ownership and that the decision should be made on the basis of capability of the industry to perform on a competitive bid basis and assurance that the shipments will be made on a timely, safe and cost effective basis. If the procurement process is structured to rally permit competitive bidding on spent fuel shipping services, the competition in the market place will assure that DOE and the ratepayers, receive safe, high quality, and cost effective transportation proposals from very capable companies

  12. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  13. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  14. Heredity, pet ownership, and confounding control in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Catarina; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; van Hage-Hamsten, Marianne; Berglind, Niklas; Pershagen, Göran; Nordvall, S Lennart; Svartengren, Magnus; Hedlin, Gunilla; Wickman, Magnus

    2003-04-01

    The association between pet ownership in childhood and subsequent allergic disease is controversial. Bias related to selection of pet exposure has been suggested as a reason for contradictory study results. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate how pet exposure depends on family history of allergic disease, smoking, and socioeconomic factors in a prospective birth cohort. Parents of 4089 two-month-old children answered a questionnaire that included detailed questions about family history of asthma (maternal, paternal, and sibling), rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome, pollen and pet allergy, smoking habits, parental occupation, and family pet ownership (cat and dog). Dust samples collected from the mothers' beds were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in a subgroup of the cohort. Cats were less frequently kept in families with parental asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, or pet or pollen allergy (3.5% to 5.8%) than in families without parental allergic disease (10.8% to 11.8%). Dogs were less common in families with (3.3%) than in families without (5.9%) parental atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Families with smoking mothers and those with low socioeconomic index kept cats and dogs more frequently. Cat allergen levels were lower in homes with than in homes without maternal pet allergy, and this tended to hold true even for homes without a cat. Cat ownership decreased from birth to 2 years of age, especially in families with parental history of allergic diseases. There seems to be a selection of pet exposure based on parental history of allergy, maternal smoking, and socioeconomic factors. This has to be taken into consideration in evaluations of risk associations between pet exposure and allergic disease in childhood.

  15. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  16. Efficiency disparities among community hospitals in Tennessee: do size, location, ownership, and network matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Jung, Kwangho

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the impact of ownership, size, location, and network on the relative technical efficiency of community hospitals in Tennessee for the 2002-2006 period, by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure technical efficiency (decomposed into scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency). Data envelopment analysis results indicate that medium-size hospitals (126-250 beds) are more efficient than their counterparts. Interestingly, public hospitals are significantly more efficient than private and nonprofit hospitals in Tennessee, and rural hospitals are more efficient than urban hospitals. This is the first study to investigate whether hospital networks with other health care providers affect hospital efficiency. Results indicate that community hospitals with networks are more efficient than non-network hospitals. From a management and policy perspective, this study suggests that public policies should induce hospitals to downsize or upsize into optional size, and private hospitals and nonprofit hospitals should change their organizational objectives from profit-driven to quality-driven.

  17. Ownership Structure and Publicness of Firms: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Untoro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been an extensive body of literature studying the link between ownership structure and firm performance. Some of them focus on the performance difference across ownership types (i.e. state vs foreign vs private domestic. On the other hand, some studies stress ownership structure on the fraction of ownership based on agency theory (i.e. majority versus minority and its derivatives (e.g. ultimate ownership, cross listing. However, an important element has not been explored while discussing ownership structure of firms which is the concept of publicness of firms. Publicness is important to explain to which extent an organization is related with governmental institutions. In fact, there are many engagements of firms with governmental bodies (e.g. deposit and lending from and to public organization. In this present paper, I provide a comprehensive literature review on the intersection between publicness level of firms and ownership structure. Going deeper, I also provide a literature review on the measurement of publicness and postulate a model to link between these two and firm performance as a venue for future studies.

  18. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  19. "Men Are in Front at Eating Time, but Not When It Comes to Rearing the Chicken": Unpacking the Gendered Benefits and Costs of Livestock Ownership in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Maranga, Abena; Mbullo, Patrick; Collins, Shalean; Wekesa, Pauline; Onono, Maricianah; Young, Sera L

    2018-03-01

    Livestock can promote resilience in low-income communities through a number of pathways. Livestock development programs seek to amplify these benefits but often fail to consider the costs to intended beneficiaries or the effect of prevailing gender norms. To explore perceptions of livestock ownership among female smallholder livestock keepers in Nyanza Region, Kenya, and unpack how the distribution of livestock benefits and investments varies by gender within households. We used multiple ethnographic techniques, including Photovoice, a photo-elicitation interview method, focus group discussions, and pile sorts, with female smallholder livestock owners (n = 18) participating in an ongoing cohort study. Transcripts were coded using a combination of a priori constructs and grounded theory. We found that livestock benefited households by providing financial security, food security, social benefits, and human time and labor savings. However, these benefits largely promoted long-term household resilience rather than immediate gains. Livestock ownership also had major costs to household time and labor, which were overwhelmingly borne by women and children. Despite this investment, women had limited livestock ownership rights, decision-making power, control over income, or access to meat. Our findings suggest that livestock ownership requires significant investments of household time and labor, which disproportionately burden women. Prevailing gender inequalities may therefore constrain the net benefit of livestock ownership for many women and their households in some contexts. Livestock development programs must assess both program benefits and costs at multiple levels to ensure that women's participation in livestock production leads to improved individual and household outcomes.

  20. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  1. Fluidized bed calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    A unique way to convert radioactive scrap into useful nuclear fuel products was developed for the Department of Energy at Hanford. An advanced, fluidized bed calciner is used to convert metallic nitrate scrap or waste solutions into benign, solid and gaseous products. There are broad potential applications of this concept beyond those in the nuclear industry

  2. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  3. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  4. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  5. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...... hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages...

  6. A Literature Review of Foreign Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the results of research papers conducted in the area of foreign ownership impact on company’s performance and to highlight the specifics of this linkage in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  7. Proof of cipher text ownership based on convergence encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage systems save disk space and bandwidth through deduplication technology, but with the use of this technology has been targeted security attacks: the attacker can get the original file just use hash value to deceive the server to obtain the file ownership. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of cloud storage system files, an efficient information theory security proof of ownership scheme is proposed. This scheme protects the data through the convergence encryption method, and uses the improved block-level proof of ownership scheme, and can carry out block-level client deduplication to achieve efficient and secure cloud storage deduplication scheme.

  8. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that... minimum biobased content is 12 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in..., and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of...

  9. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  10. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  11. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  12. Nursing home ownership trends and their impacts on quality of care: a study using detailed ownership data from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Bramson, Jeffrey S; Grabowski, David C

    2013-01-01

    The role of ownership in the provision of nursing home care has long been a challenging issue for policy makers and researchers. Although much of the focus historically has been on differences between for-profit and not-for-profit facilities, this simple distinction has become less useful in recent years as companies have employed more complicated ownership and management structures. Using detailed ownership data from the state of Texas, we describe the evolution of nursing home corporate structures from 2000 to 2007, analyze the effect of these structures on quality of care and staffing in nursing homes, and discuss the policy implications of these changes.

  13. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  14. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  15. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  16. Mapping strategy, structure, ownership and performance in European corporations : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colli, A.; Iversen, M.J.; de Jong, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the

  17. Ownership Strategy and Subsidiary Survival in Foreign Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yi; Larimo, Jorma

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the general effect of acquirers’ ownership strategy on the survival in foreign acquisitions. Furthermore, we attempt to address five potential moderating effects: international, regional, target country experience, cultural distance, as well as host country development...

  18. 42 CFR 423.892 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... partners expressly agree otherwise as permitted by applicable State law. (2) Asset sale. Transfer of all or... corporations, resulting in a new corporate body. (b) Change of ownership, exception. Transfer of corporate...

  19. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  20. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... The book further analyzes the role of livestock ownership, especially by women, ... access to resources, information, and financial services to enable women to more effectively participate in livestock production and marketing.

  1. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  2. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... ... women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making decisions about how to ... Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food security ... Improving women's participation in livestock markets.

  3. Director ownership, outside directors and commitment to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of director ownership and the proportion of outside directors on firms’ commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR. Using a sample of 453 Hong Kong listed companies for 2005, we find that there is a non-linear relationship between the level of director ownership and firms’ engagement in CSR behavior. Commitment to CSR first increases as the proportion of director ownership increases up to 50% and then decreases as that proportion of ownership grows higher. Further, the proportion of outside directors on the board exhibits a positive relationship with the level of CSR commitment. These results provide explanations for firms’ commitment to CSR from the corporate governance perspective.

  4. Cost-saving production technologies and partial ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barcena-Ruiz; Norma Olaizola

    2007-01-01

    This work analyzes the incentives to acquire cost-saving production technologies when cross-participation exists at ownership level. We show that cross-participation reduces the incentives to adopt the cost-saving production technology.

  5. 42 CFR 405.2444 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the consolidation of two or more corporations, one of which is the center corporation, resulting in... applicable health and safety standards. (2) Compliance with the ownership and financial interest disclosure...

  6. Ownership and firm performance after large-scale privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 4143 (2003), s. 1-36 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : industrial organization * ownership * performance and privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4143.asp

  7. How Afghanistan Can Assume Ownership for the Ongoing Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Sr, John M

    2008-01-01

    In view of United States global commitments and larger Global War on Terror (GWOT) strategy, the ultimate security goal in Afghanistan must be for the Afghans to assume ownership of the counterinsurgency struggle...

  8. Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in Nigeria. ... It requires high initial capital investment. ... making management plans and decisions especially in comparing different tractor types and models thereby assisting ...

  9. Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of productive assets in the savannas of west Africa. ... African Crop Science Journal ... inception of the project improved with participation in the innovations of the project, in terms of ...

  10. International financial reporting standards and foreign ownership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using foreign ownership levels in South African listed companies during the period 2003 to ... transparency in financial information for investors. This could .... SA-GAAP. Taking all the literature into account and applying it to the South African.

  11. Who Owns America: Strategic Ownership Positions in Industrial Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1981, families and individuals held the largest dollar share of strategic ownership positions in the Fortune 500, surpassing banks, financial firms, employee stock plans, insurance companies, pension funds, and foreign owners. (RM)

  12. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2017-01-01

    direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However...

  13. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  14. Corporate boards and ownership structure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munisi, Gibson; Hermes, Niels; Randoy, Trond

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure and ownership structure for firms listed on the stock exchanges of twelve Sub-Saharan African countries, using data for the period 2006–2009. We find that ownership concentration, foreign ownership and managerial ownership are negatively

  15. Foreign ownership in Vietnam stock markets - an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Xuan Vinh

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates foreign ownership in the Vietnam stock market from 2007 to 2009 employing a rich and detailed dataset. From the perspective of informational asymmetry, the paper examines the relationship between the foreign ownership level and attributes of Vietnamese listed firm in Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange. The findings of the paper indicate that foreign investors have preference for large firms, firms with high book-to-market ratio and firms with low leverage. Foreign investo...

  16. Ownership dynamics in local multi-stakeholder initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Biekart, Kees; Fowler, Alan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe nature and dynamics of ownership are often neglected features of multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs). Seventeen cases in four countries illustrate characteristics of narrow government or broad societal ownership and forces for change over time. Refinements to the application of Gaventa’s Power Cube are used to analyse such shifts from the perspective of invited and closed spaces for participation. Observations about ways in which stakeholder groups can create a more enabling ...

  17. Managerial share ownership, firm performance and dividends : Australian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Arifur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between managerial share ownership and firm performance as well as the relationship between managerial share ownership and dividends in Australia. Agency theory, more specifically two alternative theories – incentive alignment and managerial entrenchment theory – provides the theoretical framework that underpins this thesis. The three empirical studies in this thesis examine the top 300 Australian listed companies for the period 2000 to 2006 and the metho...

  18. Firewall Mechanism in a User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model

    OpenAIRE

    Akram , Raja Naeem; Markantonakis , Konstantinos; Mayes , Keith

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Multi-application smart card technology facilitates applications to securely share their data and functionality. The security enforcement and assurance in application sharing is provided by the smart card firewall. The firewall mechanism is well defined and studied in the Issuer Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (ICOM), in which a smart card is under total control of its issuer. However, it is not analysed in the User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (UCOM) that del...

  19. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial compani...

  20. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  1. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  2. Pet Ownership and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Lander, Eric M; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Volpe, Stella L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lessin, Lawrence S; Kuller, Lewis H; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    Pet ownership and cancer are both highly prevalent in the United States. Evidence suggests that associations may exist between this potentially modifiable factor and cancer prevention, though studies are sparse. The present report examined whether pet ownership (dog, cat, or bird) is associated with lower risk for total cancer and site-specific obesity-related cancers. This was a prospective analysis of 123,560 participants (20,981 dog owners; 19,288 cat owners; 1,338 bird owners; and 81,953 non-pet owners) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% confidence intervals for the association between pet ownership and cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant relationships between ownership of a dog, cat, or bird and incidence of cancer overall. When site-specific cancers were examined, no associations were observed after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Pet ownership had no association with overall cancer incidence. This is the first large epidemiologic study to date to explore relationships between pet ownership and cancer risk, as well as associated risks for individual cancer types. This study requires replication in other sizable, diverse cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1311-6. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Body ownership and embodiment: vestibular and multisensory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, C; Halje, P; Blanke, O

    2008-06-01

    Body ownership and embodiment are two fundamental mechanisms of self-consciousness. The present article reviews neurological data about paroxysmal illusions during which body ownership and embodiment are affected differentially: autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experience, heautoscopy, autoscopic hallucination, feeling-of-a-presence) and the room tilt illusion. We suggest that autoscopic phenomena and room tilt illusion are related to different types of failures to integrate body-related information (vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile cues) in addition to a mismatch between vestibular and visual references. In these patients, altered body ownership and embodiment has been shown to occur due to pathological activity at the temporoparietal junction and other vestibular-related areas arguing for a key importance of vestibular processing. We also review the possibilities of manipulating body ownership and embodiment in healthy subjects through exposition to weightlessness as well as caloric and galvanic stimulation of the peripheral vestibular apparatus. In healthy subjects, disturbed self-processing might be related to interference of vestibular stimulation with vestibular cortex leading to disintegration of bodily information and altered body ownership and embodiment. We finally propose a differential contribution of the vestibular cortical areas to the different forms of altered body ownership and embodiment.

  4. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  5. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  6. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ownership unbundling in the energy economy - for and against; Pro und Contra Ownership Unbundling in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, U. [Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaftsrecht und Arbeitsrecht der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany); Rosin, P. [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The European Commission intends to boost competition in the energy economy through the concept of ownership unbundling. Aside from the fact that even after a dissolution of ownership the electricity network would remain a monopolistic domain requiring governmental regulation it is also questionable whether now is the right time for such a move. In discussing the main arguments brought forward by the Commission the present contribution shows that there is no necessity in Germany to introduce ownership unbundling. Not only are network operators already under an obligation to expand their networks; the present concept is also more likely to hamper than promote market integration and transnational trade. As for improving transparency, this can be achieved more easily through additional disclosure obligations. Price formation mechanisms on the wholesale markets have only recently come under the control of new regulations and agreements. And not least, the European Union has no legal mandate to unbundle network ownership.

  8. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  9. A comparative study to identify a suitable model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amirnejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the government ownership of the professional football clubs is absolutely illogical view point. Most of sports clubs are conducted by private sector using different models of ownership all over the world. In Iran, government credits benefit was main reason that the professional sport was firstly developed by government firms and organizations. Therefore, the sports team ownership is without the professionalization standards. The present comparative study was to examine the different football club ownership structures of the top leagues and the current condition of Iran football pro league ownership and then present a suitable ownership structure of Iran football clubs to leave behind the government club ownership. Among the initial 120 scientific texts, the thirty two cases including papers, books and reports were found relevant to this study. We studied the ownership prominence and several football club models of ownership focused on stock listing model of ownership, private investor model of ownership, supporter trust model of ownership and Japan partnership model of ownership; theoretical concepts, empirical studies, main findings, strengths and weaknesses were covered in analysis procedure. According to various models of ownership in leagues and the models’ productivity in football clubs, each model of ownership considering national environmental, economic, social conditions has strengths and weaknesses. So, we cannot present a definite model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs due to different micro-environments of Iran clubs. We need a big planning to provide a supporter-investor mixed model of ownership to Iranian clubs. Considering strengths and weaknesses in the models of ownership as well as the micro and macro environment of Iran football clubs, German model and Japan partnership model are offered as suitable ones to probable new model of ownership in Iran pro league clubs. Consequently, more studies are required

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  11. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  12. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  13. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  14. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  15. Infant's bed climate and bedding in the Japanese home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura Ikeda, Rie; Fukai, Kiyoko; Okamoto Mizuno, Kazue

    2012-06-01

    to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0°C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  17. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  18. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  19. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  20. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  1. "We are supposed to take care of it": a qualitative examination of care and repair behaviour of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C; Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Weber, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    The longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) under field conditions has important implications for malaria vector control. The behaviour of bed net users, including net care and repair, may protect or damage bed nets and impact the physical integrity of nets. However, this behaviour, and the motivating and inhibiting factors, is not well understood. Qualitative research methods were used to examine behaviour, attitudes and norms around damage, care and repair of LLINs. Eighteen in-depth interviews (IDI) and six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with LLIN users in two local government areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A brief background questionnaire with the 73 participants prior to IDIs or FGDs collected additional data on demographics, net use, and care and repair behaviour. Respondents cited that the major causes of damage to bed nets are primarily children, followed by rodents, everyday handling that is not gentle, and characteristics of sleeping spaces. Caring for nets was perceived as both preventing damage by careful handling and keeping the net clean, which may lead to over-washing of LLINs. Repairing a damaged net was considered something that net users should do and the responsibility of adults in the household. Despite this, reported frequency of net repair was low (18%). Motivations for taking care of and repairing nets centred around caring for one's family, avoiding mosquito bites, saving money, and maintaining the positive opinion of others by keeping a clean and intact net. Barriers to net care and repair related to time availability and low perceived value of bed nets or of one's health. This study provides novel and valuable insights on the perceptions and attitudes of LLIN users in Nasarawa, Nigeria on the durability of bed nets, how to care for and repair nets, and for what reasons. Communication around net care should stress proper daily storage of nets, regular net inspections, prompt repairs, and clarify misconceptions

  2. Factors associated with furry pet ownership among patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Roy, Angkana; McGinn, Thomas G; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an established risk factor for poor asthma control. Current guidelines recommend removing pets from the home of patients with asthma. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of furry pet ownership in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics and to identify factors associated with furry pet ownership among those with asthma. Secondary analysis assessed characteristics among asthmatics that might be associated with allowing a furry pet into the bedroom. Using data from The National Asthma Survey collected from 2003 to 2004, we carried out univariate and multiple regression analyses, in 2009, to identify independent predictors of furry pet ownership in asthma sufferers after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, asthmatics were more likely to own a furry pet than nonasthmatic individuals in the general population (49.9% versus 44.8%, p ownership among asthmatics. Additionally, 68.7% of patients with asthma who own a furry pet allowed them into their bedroom. Higher income and carrying out ownership is equally or more common among asthmatics compared to those without asthma. The majority of asthmatics with furry pets allow them into the bedroom. Recognizing and addressing these problems may help decrease asthma morbidity.

  3. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered. PMID:572978

  4. Patient Attitudes Toward Orthopedic Surgeon Ownership of Related Ancillary Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Johnson, Staci R; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Nunley, Ryan M; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-08-01

    Physician ownership of businesses related to orthopedic surgery, such as surgery centers, has been criticized as potentially leading to misuse of health care resources. The purpose of this study was to determine patients' attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses. We surveyed 280 consecutive patients at 2 centers regarding their attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses using an anonymous questionnaire. Three surgeon ownership scenarios were presented: (1) owning a surgery center, (2) physical therapy (PT), and (3) imaging facilities (eg, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner). Two hundred fourteen patients (76%) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that it is ethical for a surgeon to own a surgery center (73%), PT practice (77%), or imaging facility (77%). Most (>67%) indicated that their surgeon owning such a business would have no effect on the trust they have in their surgeon. Although >70% agreed that a surgeon in all 3 scenarios would make the same treatment decisions, many agreed that such surgeons might perform more surgery (47%), refer more patients to PT (61%), or order more imaging (58%). Patients favored surgeon autonomy, however, believing that surgeons should be allowed to own such businesses (78%). Eighty-five percent agreed that patients should be informed if their surgeon owns an orthopedic-related business. Although patients express concern over and desire disclosure of surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses, the majority believes that it is an ethical practice and feel comfortable receiving care at such a facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pengaruh Dimensi Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility Terhadap Future Institutional Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Eriandani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility practice becomes important subject in company`s activity, because it will affect the company's reputation. Besides, institutional investors likely prefer to invest in companies that have a social responsibility as it is considered to increase the legitimacy and future performance. This study aims to investigate the effect of CSR disclosure on institutional ownership. We use percentages ownership to measure institutional ownership. CSR measurement instrument used in this study adopted a previous research. The instrument comes from research Hackston and Milne, which was adjusted with Bapepam regulation in Indonesia. We also divided CSR disclosures in four sub-dimensions. The samples used in this research were 115 listed agriculture, mining, and manufacturing companies in indonesian Stock Exchange which studied during the years of 2010. Using SPSS 20, The analysis methods of this research used multiple regression analysis. Studies shows that not all dimensions of CSR disclosure effect on institutional ownership. Only product dimensions of CSR disclosures has a significant positive impact on institutional ownership. However, this paper fail to find any significant impact of another CSR dimensions. Thus, our study suggests that the dimensions of the product can affect investment decisions. In contrast, institutional investors have not focused on environment, employee relation, and community activities in investment decisions.

  6. Ownership characteristics and crop selection in California cropland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Macaulay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land ownership is one of the primary determinants of how agricultural land is used, and property size has been shown to drive many land use decisions. Land ownership information is also key to understanding food production systems and land fragmentation, and in targeting outreach materials to improve agricultural production and conservation practices. Using a parcel dataset containing all 58 California counties, we describe the characteristics of cropland ownership across California. The largest 5% of properties — with “property” defined as all parcels owned by a given landowner — account for 50.6% of California cropland, while the smallest 84% of properties account for 25% of cropland. Cropland ownership inequality (few large properties, many small properties was greatest in Kings, Kern and Contra Costa counties and lowest in Mendocino, Napa and Santa Clara counties. Of crop types, rice properties had the largest median size, while properties with orchard trees had the smallest median sizes. Cluster analysis of crop mixes revealed that properties with grapes, rice, almonds and alfalfa/hay tended to be planted to individual crops, while crops such as grains, tomatoes and vegetables were more likely to be mixed within a single property. Analyses of cropland ownership patterns can help researchers prioritize outreach efforts and tailor research to stakeholders' needs.

  7. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  8. The relationship between virtual body ownership and temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, tactile stimulation seen on a rubber hand, that is synchronous with tactile stimulation felt on the hidden real hand, can lead to an illusion of ownership over the rubber hand. This illusion has been shown to produce a temperature decrease in the hidden hand, suggesting that such illusory ownership produces disownership of the real hand. Here, we apply immersive virtual reality (VR) to experimentally investigate this with respect to sensitivity to temperature change. Forty participants experienced immersion in a VR with a virtual body (VB) seen from a first-person perspective. For half the participants, the VB was consistent in posture and movement with their own body, and in the other half, there was inconsistency. Temperature sensitivity on the palm of the hand was measured before and during the virtual experience. The results show that temperature sensitivity decreased in the consistent compared with the inconsistent condition. Moreover, the change in sensitivity was significantly correlated with the subjective illusion of virtual arm ownership but modulated by the illusion of ownership over the full VB. This suggests that a full body ownership illusion results in a unification of the virtual and real bodies into one overall entity—with proprioception and tactile sensations on the real body integrated with the visual presence of the VB. The results are interpreted in the framework of a ‘body matrix’ recently introduced into the literature. PMID:23720537

  9. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  10. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  11. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  12. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  13. The long-term benefits of director stock ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bolton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, the United States Treasury Department and Congress considered new regulations requiring executives and directors to receive much of their compensation in the form of long-term stock. One concern with this is that it may have negative consequences by entrenching managers and directors over the long term. This study compares the potential benefits of long-term director ownership with the potential costs of entrenchment. Using the dollar amount of stock owned by independent directors, the results suggest that the incentive effect dominates any costs related to entrenchment: firms with greater stock ownership outperform other firms, regardless of the degree of managerial entrenchment that may be present. The implication for policy-makers is that providing directors with incentives through stock ownership can be a very effective corporate governance mechanism.

  14. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Levitt, Pam; Deikman, Doug; Vlahos, Bob

    1999-01-01

    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 26,800 square miles in northwestern Colorado. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three Colorado State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) former district offices at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Project in the Uinta-Piceance Basin Province and the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment Project in the Colorado Plateau.

  15. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence...... of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial companies a statistically significant, negative relationship is found between personal ownership and the likelihood...... that the aim of risk management is to satisfy shareholders in particular. No significant relationship is found for foundation-owned companies. Furthermore, a positive relationship is found between the size of the company and the tendency to satisfy shareholders in particular. The finding in relation...

  16. Efficient proof of ownership for cloud storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage system through the deduplication technology to save disk space and bandwidth, but the use of this technology has appeared targeted security attacks: the attacker can deceive the server to obtain ownership of the file by get the hash value of original file. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of the files in the cloud storage system, an efficient and information-theoretical secure proof of ownership sceme is proposed to support the file rating. Through the K-means algorithm to implement file rating, and use random seed technology and pre-calculation method to achieve safe and efficient proof of ownership scheme. Finally, the scheme is information-theoretical secure, and achieve better performance in the most sensitive areas of client-side I/O and computation.

  17. Partially Overlapping Ownership and Contagion in Financial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Pollak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using historical banking data for the United States from the years 2000 to 2015 we characterize the probability and extent of a financial contagion using a calibrated network model of heterogeneous interbank exposures. Both the probability and the average extent of a contagion begin to rise in 2007 prior to the US financial crisis. Including a common asset in the model increases both the probability and extent of contagion, especially during the years of the financial crisis. Based on rising institutional ownership in the banking industry, we introduce a partially overlapping ownership asset that devalues endogenously. The addition of this asset increases the extent of a financial contagion. Our results show that trends in capital buffers and the distribution and type of assets have a significant effect on the predictions of financial network contagion models and that the rising trend in ownership of banks by banks amplifies shocks to the financial system.

  18. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos; Sequeira Antunes, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research highlights: → Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. → Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. → Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  19. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ROLE OF DIVIDENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Setia Atmaja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationshipbetween ownership structure and dividends. Agency theory suggested that dividend was servedto reduce agency problems between owners (or large controlling shareholders and managers(or minority shareholders by reducing the amount of free cash flow and increasing monitoringby external parties. It also proposed that ownership concentration and composition mightmitigate or exacerbate agency problems. We might expect substitutability or complementaryrelationship existed between dividend and ownership concentration/composition. Empiricalevidence showed that the relationship between dividend and managerial or large shareholdingscould be negative (i.e., consistent with substitute argument, positive (i.e., consistent withcomplementary argument or non-linear (i.e., consistent with entrenchment hypothesis. Inaddition, the literature suggested that family controlled firms might expropriate minorityshareholders by paying lower dividends or mitigate moral hazard conflicts by distributingmore cash. Empirical research on this issue, however, provided mixed findings.

  20. Management bedding : vrijloopstal met composterende bedding van houtsnippers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Wiersma, M.; Galama, P.J.; Szanto, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In de vrijloopstal liggen de koeien meestal op een organische bedding en scheiden daar mest (feces en urine) uit. Om de bedding voldoende droog en schoon te houden wordt er regelmatig nieuw strooisel aangevoerd en wordt de toplaag bewerkt. Op basis van onderzoek- en praktijkervaringen tot nu toe

  1. Hospital ownership: a risk factor for nosocomial infection rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C; Behnke, M; Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P

    2018-03-26

    In some countries, a relationship between hospital ownership and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) rates has been described. To investigate the association between hospital ownership and occurrence of HCAI in Germany. Five different components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were analysed with regard to the influence of hospital ownership in the period 2014-2016. Endpoints included ventilator-associated pneumonia, central-venous-catheter-associated bloodstream infections, urinary-catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections (SSI) following hip prosthesis and colon surgery, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and hand rub consumption per 1000 patient-days. Three hospital ownership types (public, non-profit and private) were analysed using univariate and multi-variate methods. The distribution of hospitals according to the three ownership types was similar in all components. In total, 661 intensive care units (ICUs), 149 departments performing colon procedures, and 349 departments performing hip prosthesis were included. In addition, 568 hospitals provided their MRSA rates and 236 provided their CDI rates, and 1833 ICUs and 12,934 non-ICUs provided their hand rub consumption data. In general, the differences between the hospital types were rather small and not significant for the ICUs. In the multi-variate analysis, public hospitals had a lower SSI rate following hip prosthesis (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.99). Hospital ownership was not found to have a major influence on the incidence of HCAI in Germany. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Managerial Ownership in Nursing Homes: Staffing, Quality, and Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean Shenghsiu; Bowblis, John R

    2017-06-20

    Ownership of nursing homes (NHs) has primarily focused broadly on differences between for-profit (FP), nonprofit (NFP), and government-operated facilities. Yet, among FPs, the understanding of detailed ownership structures at individual NHs is rather limited. Particularly, NH administrators may hold significant equity interests in their facilities, leading to heterogeneous financial incentives and NH outcomes. Through the principal-agent theory, this article studies how managerial ownership of individual facilities affects NH outcomes. We use a unique panel dataset of Ohio NHs (2005-2010) to empirically examine the relationship between managerial equity ownership and NH staffing, quality, and financial performance. We identify facility administrators as owner-managers if they have more than 5% of the equity stakes or are relatives of the owners. The statistical analysis is based on the pooled ordinary least squares and NH-fixed effect models. We find that owner-managed NHs are associated with higher nursing staff levels compared to other FP NHs. Surprisingly, despite higher staffing levels, owner-managed NHs are not associated with better quality and we find no statistically significant difference in financial performance between owner-managed and nonowner-managed FP NHs. Our results do not support the principal-agent model and we offer alternative explanations for future research. Our findings provide empirical evidence that NH ownership structures are more nuanced than simply broadly categorizing facilities as FP or NFP, and our results do not fully align with the standard principal-agent model. The role of managerial ownership should be considered in future NH research and policy discussions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A neural model of border-ownership from kinetic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Camouflaged animals that have very similar textures to their surroundings are difficult to detect when stationary. However, when an animal moves, humans readily see a figure at a different depth than the background. How do humans perceive a figure breaking camouflage, even though the texture of the figure and its background may be statistically identical in luminance? We present a model that demonstrates how the primate visual system performs figure-ground segregation in extreme cases of breaking camouflage based on motion alone. Border-ownership signals develop as an emergent property in model V2 units whose receptive fields are nearby kinetically defined borders that separate the figure and background. Model simulations support border-ownership as a general mechanism by which the visual system performs figure-ground segregation, despite whether figure-ground boundaries are defined by luminance or motion contrast. The gradient of motion- and luminance-related border-ownership signals explains the perceived depth ordering of the foreground and background surfaces. Our model predicts that V2 neurons, which are sensitive to kinetic edges, are selective to border-ownership (magnocellular B cells). A distinct population of model V2 neurons is selective to border-ownership in figures defined by luminance contrast (parvocellular B cells). B cells in model V2 receive feedback from neurons in V4 and MT with larger receptive fields to bias border-ownership signals toward the figure. We predict that neurons in V4 and MT sensitive to kinetically defined figures play a crucial role in determining whether the foreground surface accretes, deletes, or produces a shearing motion with respect to the background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassett, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  6. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  7. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    . This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  8. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  9. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  10. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  12. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  14. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  15. Trends in bednet ownership and usage, and the effect of bednets on malaria hospitalization in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS): 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Alice; Nyaga, Victoria; Bauni, Evasius; Tsofa, Benjamin; Noor, Abdisalan M; Bejon, Philip; Scott, J Anthony G; Hammitt, Laura L

    2017-11-15

    Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children malaria hospitalization in children Malaria admissions (i.e. admissions to hospital with P. falciparum > 2500 parasitemia per μl) among children malaria among children that reported using a bednet compared to those who did not. We observed 63% and 62% mean bednet ownership and usage, respectively, over the eight-survey period. Among children malaria hospitalization per 1000 child-years was 2.91 compared to 4.37 among those who did not (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.85 [p = 0.001]). On longitudinal surveillance, increasing bednet ownership and usage corresponded to mass distribution campaigns; however, this method of delivering bednets did not result in sustained improvements in coverage. Among children malaria hospitalization.

  16. Heterogeneous mobile phone ownership and usage patterns in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Eagle, Nathan; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Buckee, Caroline O

    2012-01-01

    The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioral data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioral dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires an understanding of the penetration of mobile phones and phone usage patterns across the continent, but very little is known about the social and geographical heterogeneities in mobile phone ownership among African populations. Here, we analyze a survey of mobile phone ownership and usage across Kenya in 2009 and show that distinct regional, gender-related, and socioeconomic variations exist, with particularly low ownership among rural communities and poor people. We also examine patterns of phone sharing and highlight the contrasting relationships between ownership and sharing in different parts of the country. This heterogeneous penetration of mobile phones has important implications for the use of mobile technologies as a source of population data and as a public health tool in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Security Sector Reform, Local Ownership and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

  18. 42 CFR 495.360 - Software and ownership rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software and ownership rights. 495.360 Section 495.360 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE...

  19. Gift exchange and the separation of ownership and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maximiano, S.; Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous gift exchange experiments have found a positive relationship between employers' wage offers and workers' effort levels. In (almost) all these experiments the employer both owns and controls the firm. Yet in reality many firms are characterized by the separation of ownership and control. In

  20. 7 CFR 3560.406 - MFH ownership transfers or sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exceed the remaining economic life of the housing or 50 years, whichever is less. (3) The Agency may... ownership transfer or sale over a period not to exceed the remaining economic life of the housing or 50... years or the remaining economic life of the housing, whichever is less. (3) When loans assumed through...

  1. Do institutions, ownership, exporting and competition explain firm performance?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Commander, S.; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 65 (2008), s. 1-73 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : firm performance * ownership * competition * export Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/60636/4/IPC-working%20paper-065-CommanderSvejnar.pdf

  2. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  3. 45 CFR 149.700 - Change of ownership requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable state law. (2) Asset sale. Transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the sponsor to... consolidation of the sponsor's organization with one or more other corporations, resulting in a new corporate body. (b) Change of ownership; exception. Transfer of corporate stock or the merger of another...

  4. Teachers' Views on Organizational Deviance, Psychological Ownership and Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify Bolu central district secondary school teachers' views on organizational deviance, psychological ownership and social innovation and to determine whether these views were related. The universe of the study conducted with relational screening model was composed of 360 teachers employed in Bolu central district secondary…

  5. Municipal Decision-Making Factors Relative to Cable Television Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Richard E., Ed.

    A study was made to identify and provide information and factors which should be taken into consideration by a municipality in its development of policy regarding the ownership, franchising, and ordinance issues involved in cable television. Since the report discusses Southern California activities, specifically those of the San Gabriel Valley, it…

  6. Regulation and the Ownership Structure of European Listed Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Trinchera, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore an extensive panel data set covering more than 4,000 listed firms in 16 European countries to study the effects of shareholder protection on ownership structure and firm performance. We document a negative firm-level correlation between shareholder protection and ownersh...

  7. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  8. THE NATURE OF LAND OWNERSHIP AND THE PROTECTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    i.e. the principal or dominant right and ownership of third party rights which are ... English land law.6 In 1974, John Henry Merryman explained the difference .... 11 The doctrine of estate has its origin in the medieval theory of English land ...

  9. Tunneling and propping : A justification for pyramidal ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanto, Y.E.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper links existence of the pyramidal ownership structure to tunneling and propping. Tunneling refers to a transfer of resources from a lower-level firm to a higher-level firm in the pyramidal chain, whereas propping concerns a transfer in the opposite direction intended to bail out the

  10. Tunneling and propping : a justification for pyramidal ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanto, Y.E.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a formal model of tunneling and propping in a pyramidal ownership structure. Tunneling refers to controlling shareholders shifting resources from one firm to another in the same pyramid. Propping is tunneling that is done to save the receiving firm from bankruptcy. We compare the

  11. Statutory Law, Patriarchy and Inheritance: Home ownership among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the ways in which urban widows in Uganda are deprived of home ownership upon the death of their husbands. It is based on a qualitative research conducted in the middle-income areas of Kampala between 2004 and 2007. The results show that the institutional legal framework and the patriarchal ...

  12. Risk and cooperation: managing hazardous fuel in mixed ownership landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions...

  13. Company ownership and performance during the Czech transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2008), s. 285-310 ISSN 1225-0279 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : company ownership * transformation * corporate performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://econ.snu.ac.kr/~ecores/publication.html

  14. Pet Ownership by Elderly People: Two New Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined two issues of pet ownership in mail questionnaire and interview survey of 1,595 older adults over age 60, 377 of whom had a pet. Found evidence that pets were important determinant of housing choice. Many elderly pet owners had made no arrangements for pet if they predecease it or become unable to care for it. (Author/NB)

  15. Bank Efficiency and Foreign Ownership: Do good Institutions Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Meester, A.; Naaborg, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on foreign ownership and bank efficiency by examining whether the efficiency of foreign banks depends on the institutional quality of the host country and on institutional differences between the home and host country. Using stochastic frontier analysis for a

  16. International financial reporting standards and foreign ownership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous literature suggests that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) can facilitate cross-border capital flows, as it results in an increase in market liquidity and comparability benefits. Using foreign ownership levels in South African listed companies during the period 2003 to 2007, we test ...

  17. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, D.; Self, M.W.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether

  18. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code

  19. Ownership Concentration and CSR Policy of European Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms,

  20. Effects of ownership and financial status on corporate environmental performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4-5 (2002), s. 67-68 ISSN 1020-5470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ownership structures * privatization * financial performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://go.worldbank.org/JL12RVXEW0

  1. Effects of ownership and financial structure on corporate environmental performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 203 (2002), s. 1-48 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * environmental protection * pollution -ownership Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp203.pdf

  2. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  3. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  4. Theoretical orientations and practical applications of psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    This book shares the theoretical advancements that have been made regarding psychological ownership since the development of the construct and specifically the practical applications within multi-cultural and cross-cultural environments. Enriched by empirical data and case studies by subject

  5. Total Cost of Ownership and Cost-to-Serve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen reviewer den eksisterende litteratur vedrørende økonomistyringsværktøjerne Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) og Cost-to-Serve (CtS). Herefter kortlægges det, hvordan TCO og CtS bidrager til en identificering af direkte omkostninger såvel som indirekte omkostninger henholdsvis up-stream og down...

  6. Customary Land Ownership and Gender Disparity - Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rapid urbanization as well as the high illiteracy rate among women. A number of recommendations have been made for enhancing women's access and ownership of customary land in the Wa Municipality and for promoting gender inclusiveness. KEYWORDS: Gender Equality, Access and Control, Systems of Inheritance, ...

  7. That's not quite me: limb ownership encoding in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-07-01

    With congruent stimulation of one's limb together with a fake counterpart, an illusory self-attribution of the fake limb can be induced. Such illusions have brought profound insights into the cognitive and neuronal mechanisms underlying temporary changes in body representation, but to put them in perspective, they need to be compared with ownership as experienced for one's real body. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neuronal correlates of touch under different degrees of body ownership. Participants' left and right arms were stimulated either alone or together with a fake counterpart while this stimulation was synchronous, ambiguous or asynchronous. Synchronous stimulation induced illusory fake arm ownership, but the brain still differentiated between touch to one's real arm and to an illusory 'owned' arm: the degree of arm ownership was encoded positively by activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lateral occipitotemporal cortex and negatively in the temporoparietal cortex. Conversely, the ventral premotor cortex responded more strongly to synchronous stimulation compared with asynchronous stimulation and with real arm only stimulation. These results offer new insights into the differential representation of the real body vs a body that is temporarily self-attributed following the resolution of multisensory conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Government bond yields and foreign ownership of debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Menno; de Haan, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the government bond yield spread vis-a-vis Germany for 10 countries in the euro area for the period 1991 to 2009. Our results suggest a positive relationship between the marginal impact of government debt on the spread and foreign ownership of the government debt of the country concerned

  9. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  10. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  11. THE EFFECTS OF DIVIDEND POLICY AND OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE TOWARDS DEBT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Fransisca Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research used multiple regression methods to examine the relationshipbetween the dividend policy, institutional ownership, and insider ownership withthe debt policy. Hypotheses tests of this researchused 64 manufacturingcompanies which were listed in the Indonesian StockExchange (IDX from theyear of 2007 until 2010 as the samples. The resultsof this research show that thedividend policies and the insider ownership had noeffects towards the debtpolicy, while the institutional ownership had a significant negative effect towardsthe debt policy.

  12. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  13. Divertor plate concept with carbon based armour for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Howard, R.; Kneringer, G.; Stickler, R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of tests has been performed on simulated divertor elements for NET at the JET neutral beam injector test bed. The test section consisted of a water cooled main structure, the surface of which was protected with a carbon based armour in the form of tiles. The scope of these was to study the thermal behaviour of mechanically attached tiles with the use of an intermediate soft carbon layer to improve the thermal contact under divertor relevant conditions. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  15. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- Net Ecosystem Calcification and Net Ecosystem Productivity, Flower Garden Banks, FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  16. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- Net Ecosystem Calcification and Net Ecosystem Productivity, Cheeca Rocks, Florida Reef Tract FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  17. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  18. 48 CFR 904.7003 - Disclosure of foreign ownership, control, or influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ownership, control, or influence. 904.7003 Section 904.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ownership, control, or influence. (a) If a contract requires a contractor to have a Facility Clearance, DOE must determine whether the contractor is or may be subject to foreign ownership, control or influence...

  19. The Nonobvious Basis of Ownership: Preschool Children Trace the History and Value of Owned Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2012-01-01

    For adults, ownership is nonobvious: (a) determining ownership depends more on an object's history than on perceptual cues, and (b) ownership confers special value on an object ("endowment effect"). This study examined these concepts in preschoolers (2.0-4.4) and adults (n = 112). Participants saw toy sets in which 1 toy was designated as the…

  20. 29 CFR 779.223 - Control where ownership vested in individual or single organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... single business organization. Ownership sufficient to exercise “control” exist also where there is more... in individual or single organization. Ownership, sufficient to exercise “control,” of course, exists... “control” may exist with much more limited ownership, and, in certain cases exists in the absence of any...

  1. 27 CFR 1.27 - Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Basic Permits Applications for Permits § 1.27 Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant. In the event of any change in the ownership, management, or control of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in ownership...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership program... through 91.1443. Any program manager who elects to maintain the program aircraft using a continuous...

  3. 24 CFR 904.115 - Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the LHA's debt, if there are any subsequent homebuyers who have not acquired ownership of their... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Achievement of ownership by... Description § 904.115 Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers. (a) Definition. In the event the...

  4. Chaotic hydrodynamics of fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Stappen, M.L.M. [Unit Process and Systems Engineering, Advanced Manufacturing Technology Group, Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The major goals of this thesis are: (1) to develop and evaluate an analysis method based on techniques from non-linear chaos theory to characterize the nonlinear hydrodynamics of gas-solids fluidized beds quantitatively; and (2) to determine the dependence of the chaotic invariants on the operating conditions and investigate how the chaos analysis method can be profitably applied to improve scale-up and design of gas-solids fluidized bed reactors. Chaos theory is introduced in chapter 2 with emphasis on analysis techniques for (experimental) time series, known from literature at the start of this work (1990-1991). In chapter 3, the testing of existing and newly developed techniques on both model and fluidized bed data is described. This leads to the development of the chaos analysis method to analyze measured pressure fluctuations time series of a fluidized bed. Following, in chapter 4, this method is tested and all choices for the parameters are evaluated. The influence of the experimental parameters and external disturbances on the measurements and analysis results is discussed and quantified. The result is a chaos measurement and analysis protocol, which is further used in this work. In chapter 5, the applications to fluidized beds are discussed. It is shown that the entropy is a good measure for the characterization of the dynamical behavior of gas-solids bubbling/slugging fluidized beds. Entropy is applied to characterize the influence of the operating conditions, to assess regime transitions and to analyze dimensionless similar beds of different scale. Quantitative design correlations that relate entropy to the operating parameters (including the bed diameter) are described. Finally, it is discussed how the results of this work might be used in scaling up the chaotic dynamics of fluidized beds. The overall conclusions and outlook from this work are presented in chapter 6. 182 refs.

  5. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  6. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  7. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  8. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  9. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  10. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  11. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  12. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  13. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  14. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  15. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    economics  Strategies must evolve as technology, markets, incentives, and economics change (e.g. PV prices dropping~50% over the last few years... Food and Beverage -------------------------------> Mattresses/beds/furniture----------------------> Building Supplies/repair parts...352 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19

  16. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  17. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... you hire an expert, be sure it’s a company with a good reputation and request that it ...

  18. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  19. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  20. Estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Frank G; Robotham, Julie V; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, W John; Jit, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Opportunity costs of bed-days are fundamental to understanding the value of healthcare systems. They greatly influence burden of disease estimations and economic evaluations involving stays in healthcare facilities. However, different estimation techniques employ assumptions that differ crucially in whether to consider the value of the second-best alternative use forgone, of any available alternative use, or the value of the actually chosen alternative. Informed by economic theory, this paper provides a taxonomic framework of methodologies for estimating the opportunity costs of resources. This taxonomy is then applied to bed-days by classifying existing approaches accordingly. We highlight differences in valuation between approaches and the perspective adopted, and we use our framework to appraise the assumptions and biases underlying the standard approaches that have been widely adopted mostly unquestioned in the past, such as the conventional use of reference costs and administrative accounting data. Drawing on these findings, we present a novel approach for estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days in terms of health forgone for the second-best patient, but expressed monetarily. This alternative approach effectively re-connects to the concept of choice and explicitly considers net benefits. It is broadly applicable across settings and for other resources besides bed-days. © 2017 The Authors Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Nonproliferation and safeguard considerations: Pebble Bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, conpare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  2. Fluid-bed methane proposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The first full scale plant for the production of methane from organic waste could be built in the next few years believes M.J. Nyns of the University of Louvain, Belgium, utilizing either expanded bed or fluidised bed systems, with more than one stage, in a continuous flow arrangement. Up to 8.0 m cubed gas/m cubed digester/day could be produced with residence times reduced to 34 hours.

  3. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  4. Firearm Ownership and Violent Crime in the U.S.: An Ecologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Lee, Lois K; Hemenway, David; Mannix, Rebekah; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-08-01

    Although some view the ownership of firearms as a deterrent to crime, the relationship between population-level firearm ownership rates and violent criminal perpetration is unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the association between state-level firearm ownership and violent crime. State-level rates of household firearm ownership and annual rates of criminal acts from 2001, 2002, and 2004 were analyzed in 2014. Firearm ownership rates were taken from a national survey and crime data were taken from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports. Rates of criminal behavior were estimated as a function of household gun ownership using negative binomial regression models, controlling for several demographic factors. Higher levels of firearm ownership were associated with higher levels of firearm assault and firearm robbery. There was also a significant association between firearm ownership and firearm homicide, as well as overall homicide. The findings do not support the hypothesis that higher population firearm ownership rates reduce firearm-associated criminal perpetration. On the contrary, evidence shows that states with higher levels of firearm ownership have an increased risk for violent crimes perpetrated with a firearm. Public health stakeholders should consider the outcomes associated with private firearm ownership. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of ownership capital structure of Refinery's operation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1999-01-01

    Refineries are part of the energetic infrastructure of one country. Their significance is dependent on the geographic country position (whether it has sea exit or not), and on structure of primary energy spends in the country. According these facts, country's attitude to the refineries on its territory could be different. The possibility of ownership structure transformation in refineries and necessary legislation in the energetic sector of the state, needed for transformation realization are analyzed in this paper. Essential conditions for transformation fulfilling are protection 'mechanisms for domestic production in crude oil economy, manners of crude oil products price defining, and manners of excise determination and payment. As a function of these conditions, the conditions under which transformation of ownership structure in refineries is possible, as well as their influence on the operation and development of this part of energetic structure in transition country are defined in this paper. (Original)

  6. Non-Financial Dimensions of Family Firm Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluhan, Anne

    to an overarching research question about how non-financial dimensions of family firm ownership—exemplified by socioemotional wealth (SEW) and familiness—influence family firm internationalization. The dissertation contributes to varying literatures including family business, corporate governance, strategic...... of an acquisition is lower when family ownership is relatively balanced vis à vis non-family ownership. The final empirical chapter studies family firm behavior differently by exploring the notion of familiness within the context of an international acquisition. This study applies an action research methodology...... to an understanding of familiness in general, and specifically familiness in a context of internationalization. From a methodological perspective, the paper contributes rich data showing how action research can be used in a business setting, presenting a process that facilitates integration between two distinct...

  7. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  8. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect in incomplete figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Sakai, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A recent physiological finding of neural coding for border ownership (BO) that defines the direction of a figure with respect to the border has provided a possible basis for figure-ground segregation. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms of BO, we investigated stimulus configurations that activate BO circuitry through psychophysical investigation of the BO-dependent tilt aftereffect (BO-TAE). Specifically, we examined robustness of the border ownership signal by determining whether the BO-TAE is observed when gestalt factors are broken. The results showed significant BO-TAEs even when a global shape was not explicitly given due to the ambiguity of the contour, suggesting a contour-independent mechanism for BO coding.

  9. Interpreting cost of ownership for mix-and-match lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alan L.; Bergendahl, Albert S.

    1994-05-01

    Cost of ownership modeling is a critical and emerging tool that provides significant insight into the ways to optimize device manufacturing costs. The development of a model to deal with a particular application, mix-and-match lithography, was performed in order to determine the level of cost savings and the optimum ways to create these savings. The use of sensitivity analysis with cost of ownership allows the user to make accurate trade-offs between technology and cost. The use and interpretation of the model results are described in this paper. Parameters analyzed include several manufacturing considerations -- depreciation, maintenance, engineering and operator labor, floorspace, resist, consumables and reticles. Inherent in this study is the ability to customize this analysis for a particular operating environment. Results demonstrate the clear advantages of a mix-and-match approach for three different operating environments. These case studies also demonstrate various methods to efficiently optimize cost savings strategies.

  10. Women's land ownership and risk of HIV infection in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Agosta, Laura Maria

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that land ownership empowers women to avoid HIV acquisition by reducing their reliance on risky survival sex and enhancing their ability to negotiate safer sex. However, this prediction has not been tested empirically. Using a sample of 5511 women working in the agricultural sector from the 1998, 2003 and 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, we examined the relationship between women's land ownership and participation in transactional sex, multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex, and HIV infection status. We controlled for demographic characteristics and household wealth, using negative binomial and logistic regression models. Women's land ownership was associated with fewer sexual partners in the past year (incidence rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.00) and lower likelihood of engaging in transactional sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99), indicators of reduced survival sex, but was not associated with unprotected sex with casual partners (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.35-1.18) or with unprotected sex with any partner among women with high self-perceived HIV risk (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.57-1.84), indicating no difference in safer sex negotiation. Land ownership was also associated with reduced HIV infection among women most likely to engage in survival sex, i.e., women not under the household headship of a husband (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89), but not among women living in husband-headed households, for whom increased negotiation for safer sex would be more relevant (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.92-3.29). These findings suggest that reinforcing women's land rights may reduce reliance on survival sex and serve as a viable structural approach to HIV prevention, particularly for women not in a husband's household, including unmarried women and female household heads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Land use and ownership and the Czech farm development

    OpenAIRE

    Doucha, Tomas; Divila, Emil; Fischer, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of the present land usage, land ownership and the land market in the Czech Republic — the distribution of the Czech Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) among owners and users, driving barriers on the Czech Land market. A regional view on the Czech UAA from the points of view of natural conditions, agro-environmental and rural sensitivity. Definition of policy scenarios for the 2013 horizon with the respect of coupled/decoupled direct payments, LFA payments, legislation related ...

  12. Redefining family ownership and how it affects firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fosse, Truls; Dokken, Marina England

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Finance - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 Through this thesis, we want to challenge the established family firm definition of 50% family ownership. We do this by incorporating additional criteria such as active management from the controlling family and a requirement that the company has two or more owners from the same family. By implementing these criteria, we aim to capture more of the features one expect to see when a company ...

  13. State Ownership of the praeda bellica during the Roman Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Piquer-Marí

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Public Law perspective, and with particular regards to the subject of public property, this paper examines the praeda bellica as an asset belonging to the Roman people during the times of the Republic. Through an analysis of the ownership of the praeda bellica, the research intends to provide an in depth understanding of legal and proprietary relationships shaping the Public branch of the Law.

  14. Relationships between dog ownership and physical activity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Volpe, Stella L; Howard, Barbara V; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5years), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9years) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150min/wk (Odds Ratio, 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.10-1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8h/day (Odds Ratio, 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.83-0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5MET-h/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (Odds Ratio, 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.00-1.07). Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Franchise value, ownership structure, and risk at savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer, III; Marc R. Saidenberg

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between asset risk and franchise values and between asset risk and ownership structure. Stock price data from publicly traded S&L is used to measure portfolio risk and franchise or charter values. The empirical results provide support for the moral hazard hypothesis. The standard deviation of equity returns is negatively related to S&L franchise values, as measured by the market-to-book asset ratio. This research also finds empirical support for models of ...

  16. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  17. Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley E; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ryan E; Evenson, Kelly R; Mayer, Joni A; Thorpe, Roland J, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to non-dog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was ...

  18. Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2015-09-01

    When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Antonella; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality (IVR) focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the illusion of ownership can be generated when the virtual body has a realistic skin tone and spatially substitutes the real body seen from a first person perspective. In this case there is no need for an additional contribution of congruent visuotactile or sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body is not high enough and/or when there is no spatial overlap between the two bodies, then the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported in the literature. PMID:23519597

  20. Impact of HMO ownership on management processes and utilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, M; Molinari, C

    2001-05-01

    To examine the effects of health maintenance organization (HMO) ownership characteristics on selected utilization outcomes and management processes affecting utilization. We used 1995 HMO data from the American Association of Health Plans. Using regression analysis, we examined the relation between HMO utilization (hospital discharges, days, and average length of stay; cardiac catheterization procedures; and average cost of outpatient prescriptions) and the structural characteristics of HMOs: ownership type (insurance company, hospital, physician, independent, and national managed care company), HMO size, for-profit status, model type, geographic region, and payer mix. HMO ownership type is significantly associated with medical management processes, including risk sharing by providers, risk sharing by consumers, and other management strategies. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs have fewer hospital discharges, fewer hospital days, and longer lengths of stay. National managed care organization-owned HMOs have fewer cardiac catheterizations and lower average outpatient prescription costs. Independently owned HMOs have more cardiac catheterizations. For-profit HMOs have lower prescription costs. Relative to hospital-owned HMOs, insurance company-owned HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and provider capitation and less likely to use out-of-pocket payments for hospital use and a closed formulary. National managed care organization-owned HMOs are less likely to use provider capitation, out-of-pocket payments for hospital use, catastrophic case management, and hospital risk sharing. Physician-hospital-owned HMOs are less likely to use catastrophic case management. For-profit HMOs are more likely to use hospital risk sharing and catastrophic case management. HMO ownership type affects utilization outcomes and management strategies.

  1. En differentieret tilgang til total cost of ownership (TCO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Økonomistyring er en nødvendig brik i forsøget på at kunne styre dele af eller hele forsyningskæden, og til dette bruges diverse økonomistyringsværktøjer. Denne artikel omhandler økonomistyringsværktøjet 'total cost of ownership', og hvordan dette kan bruges til at forbedre samarbejdet med...

  2. Determinants of employees’ psychological ownership on budgetary slack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisah Ismail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of budgetary slack permeates every level of private sector organisations. Employees (i.e., budget makers usually request excessive budgetary resources in the budgeting process. Due to its dysfunctional nature, existing researchers had extensively examined the relationship between budgetary slack and employees’ performance. This study adopted a survey questionnaire approach to examine the relationship between determinants of psychological ownership and employees’ intention to create slack in budgeting. There were 475 budget makers from private sector organisations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia who participated in this study through a questionnaire survey. Preliminary data analysis was performed using normality, multi-collinearity, variance inflation index (VIF, common method variance, and reliability analysis. Multiple regression analysis was also applied to investigate the relationships of each dimension of employees’ psychological ownership on budgetary slack. This paper is considered a pioneer empirical study that investigates the determinants of psychological ownership on budgetary slack among budget makers from the psychological perspective in the context of private sector organisations in Malaysia, where slack activities in budgeting existed.

  3. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  4. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Ownership unbundling of gas transmission networks. Empirical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Stronzik, Marcus [Scientific Institute for Infrastructure and Communication Services (WIK), Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The European Commission has intensively discussed the mandatory separation of natural gas transmission from production and services. However, economic theory is ambiguous on the price effects of vertical separation. In this paper, we empirically analyse the effect of ownership unbundling of gas transmission networks as the strongest form of vertical separation on the level of end-user prices. Therefore, we apply different dynamic estimators as system GMM and the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable or LSDVC estimator on an unbalanced panel out of 18 EU countries over 19 years, allowing us to avoid the endogeneity problem and to estimate the long-run effects of regulation. We introduce a set of regulatory indicators as market entry regulation, ownership structure, vertical separation and market structure and account for structural and economic country specifics. Among these different estimators, we consistently find that ownership unbundling has no impact on natural gas end-user prices, while the more modest legal unbundling reduces them significantly. Furthermore, third-party access, market structure and privatisation show significant influence with the latter leading to higher price levels.

  6. Hospital ownership, decisions on supervisory board characteristics, and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Pulm, Jannis; Wittland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic and complex transformations in the hospital market increase the relevance of good corporate governance. However, hospital performance and the characteristics of supervisory boards differ depending on ownership. The question therefore arises whether hospital owners can influence performance by addressing supervisory board characteristics. The objective of this study is to explain differences in the financial performance of hospitals with regard to ownership by studying the size and composition of supervisory boards. The AMADEUS database was used to collect information on hospital financial performance in 2009 and 2010. Business and quality reports, hospital websites, and data from health insurer were used to obtain information on hospital and board characteristics. The resulting sample consisted of 175 German hospital corporations. We utilized ANOVA and regression analysis to test a mediation hypothesis that investigated whether decisions regarding board size and composition were associated with financial performance and could explain performance differences. Financial performance and board size and composition depend on ownership. An increase in board size and greater politician participation were negatively associated with all five tested measures of financial performance. Furthermore, an increase in physician participation was positively associated with one dimension of financial performance, whereas one negative relationship was identified for nurse and economist participation. For clerics, no associations were found. Decisions concerning board size and composition are important as they relate to hospital financial performance. We contribute to existing research by showing that, in addition to board size and physician participation, the participation of other professionals can also influence financial performance.

  7. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  8. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel

    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...

  9. Ownership transformation of the banking sector in SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of financial markets used to be the trend on the global market in the previous three decades up to the recent economic crisis. Global phenomena, technological innovation, liberalization and deregulation used to be the factors which made the process of mergers and acquisitions in the financial sector much easier. In the banking sector of Southeastern Europe, in a turbulent environment, changes are occurring on a daily basis, forcing the banks to adjust to the new situation. The restructuring process is related to the various activities whose main result is the changed ownership structure and business strategy with a view to maximizing profitability and improving efficiency. The aim of our research is to present the banks' restructuring processes in the region of Southeastern Europe before and during the crisis, as well as to stress the fact that the ownership transformation, followed by an increased share of foreign ownership, affected the changes in the market structure and its share in total equity (in the banking balance sheet size.

  10. THE STATUS OF MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY OWNERSHIP IN MIXED MARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Dewi Judiasih

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Indonesians have committed themselves into a mixed marriage, both in Indonesia and outside the country. Mixed marriage would mean that there are differing nationalities who abide under two different state laws and as consequence of this, issues of private international law in joint property would emerge. On the status of ownership on immovable assets such as land, the nationality principle must be paid attention to, because according to Indonesian law, only Indonesian citizens may have access to Land Ownership Rights. Thus, in mixed marriages, foreign spouses (husband or wife may not have land ownership rights.   Masyarakat Indonesia banyak yang melakukan perkawinan campuran, baik yang dilakukan di Indonesia maupun di luar negeri. Pelaksanaan perkawinan campuran menyebabkan adanya perbedaan kewarganegaraan dimana mereka tunduk pada sistem hukum yang berlainan sehingga melahirkan masalah hukum perdata internasional dalam pengaturan harta bersama. Mengenai status kepemilikan atas benda tidak bergerak seperti tanah, terdapat asas nasionalitas yang harus diperhatikan, yaitu hanya WNI saja yang boleh mempunyai Hak Milik Atas Tanah. Oleh karena itu, dalam perkawinan campuran, suami atau istri yang berkewarganegaraan asing tidak boleh mempunyai hak milik atas tanah.

  11. Ownership patterns and control of top 100 Malaysian listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ahmad Ayoib B

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incentive of this study stems from the significance of protecting minority shareholders’ rights. It analyses the most dominant ownership structure practices within listed firms in Bursa Malaysia (BM, in which controlling shareholders (CSs hold control on many firms despite relatively small portion of investment. Malaysian firms are characterised by high levels of concentrated ownership with families owning more than 70% of the listed firms in BM [9]. This study finds that the separation between cash flow rights (real investment and control rights (voting rights for Top 100 Malaysian listed firms is accomplished through pyramidal ownership and golden share arrangements. Hence, the divergence between cash flow rights (CFRs and voting rights (VRs exacerbates Type II Agency problem. This study calls for future studies in the area of accounting and finance to introduce and operationalise new measurement of Type II Agency Cost in order to better understand the agency conflicts within this unique market. It also better explains the state of the minority shareholders in the BM.

  12. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  13. Body ownership and the four-hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung; Liang, Caleb

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) have shown that the sense of body ownership is constrained by several factors and yet is still very flexible. However, exactly how flexible is our sense of body ownership? In this study, we address this issue by investigating the following question: is it possible that one may have the illusory experience of owning four hands? Under visual manipulation, the participant adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own. Sitting face to face, the participant saw four hands-the experimenter's two hands from the adopted 1PP together with the subject's own two hands from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP). We found that: (1) the four-hand illusion did not occur in the passive four-hand condition. (2) In the active four-hand condition, the participants tapped their index fingers, imitated by the experimenter. When tactile stimulations were not provided, the key illusion was not induced, either. (3) Strikingly, once all four hands began to act with the same pattern and received synchronous tactile stimulations at the same time, many participants felt as if they had two more hands. These results show that the sense of body ownership is much more flexible than most researchers have suggested.

  14. Market risks and oilfield ownership - Refining oil and gas disclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)

  15. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  16. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  17. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  18. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  19. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Diaz, K. E.; Limas-Ballesteros, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  20. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....