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Sample records for bed net acceptability

  1. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI) is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5%) was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p < 0.001) and DuraNet® (69.8%, p < 0.001). The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6). LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3) and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5) were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  2. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

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    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  3. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

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    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable

  4. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Bobogare, Albino; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Boaz, Leonard; Appleyard, Bridget; Toaliu, Hilson; Vallely, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable will be more important for

  5. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard Bridget; Boaz Leonard; Fitzgerald Lisa; Bobogare Albino; Atkinson Jo-An; Toaliu Hilson; Vallely Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally p...

  6. Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: a randomized survey

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Kate A; Byanaku, Aisha; Kubikonse, Augustine; Tshowe, Vincent; Katensi, Said; Lehman, Amy G

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is among the most common causes of death along Lake Tanganyika, a problem which many aid organizations have attempted to combat through the distribution of free mosquito bed nets to high-risk communities. The Lake Tanganyika Floating Health Clinic (LTFHC), a health-based non-governmental organization (NGO), has observed residents of the Lake Tanganyika basin using bed nets to fish small fry near the shoreline, despite a series of laws that prohibit bed net use and other fin...

  7. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

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    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  8. Sleeping arrangement and house structure affect bed net use in villages along Lake Victoria

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    Maekawa Yoshihide

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although insecticide-treated bed nets are effective tools, use often does not follow ownership. House structure and space arrangements may make the attempt to use bed nets difficult, especially for school age children. The objectives of this study were to explore whether an individual's sleeping arrangements and house structure affect bed net use in villages along Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Methods Sleeping arrangements of residents were directly observed for use of a bed net, use of a bed, and location. House size, number and types of rooms, bed availability, and residents' ages were estimated. The family heads and mothers were asked about the reason for not using bed nets. Individual bed net use was examined against age and sleeping arrangement. Net use at the household level was examined against four variables: bed availability, bed net availability, house size, and number of rooms. Results Bed net use by children between five and 15 years of age was lower than that among the other age classes. However, age was dropped from the final model, and sleeping arrangement was significantly associated with net use. Net use was significantly associated with bed availability, number of rooms and their interaction. Conclusion Net use was affected by sleeping arrangement and availability of suitable locations for hanging nets, in addition to net availability. Most residents had likely not realized that sleeping arrangement was a factor in net use. The ease of hanging a net is particularly important for children.

  9. Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya

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    Kabuage Lucy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs continues to offer potential strategy for malaria prevention in endemic areas. However their effectiveness, sustainability and massive scale up remain a factor of socio-economic and cultural variables of the local community which are indispensable during design and implementation stages. Methods An ethnographic household survey was conducted in four study villages which were purposefully selected to represent socio-economic and geographical diversity. In total, 400 households were randomly selected from the four study villages. Quantitative and qualitative information of the respondents were collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Malaria was reported the most frequently occurring disease in the area (93% and its aetiology was attributed to other non-biomedical causes like stagnant water (16%, and long rains (13%. Factors which significantly caused variation in bed net use were occupant relationship to household head (χ2 = 105.705; df 14; P = 0.000, Age (χ2 = 74.483; df 14; P = 0.000, village (χ2 = 150.325; df 6; P = 0.000, occupation (χ2 = 7.955; df 3; P = 0.047, gender (χ2 = 4.254; df 1; P = 0.039 and education levels of the household head or spouse (χ2 = 33.622; df 6; P = 0.000. The same variables determined access and conditions of bed nets at household level. Protection against mosquito bite (95% was the main reason cited for using bed nets in most households while protection against malaria came second (54%. Colour, shape and affordability were some of the key potential factors which determined choice, use and acceptance of bed nets in the study area. Conclusion The study highlights potential social and economic variables important for effective and sustainable implementation of bed nets-related programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Sleeping arrangements and mass distribution of bed nets in six districts in central and northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Plucinski, M. M.; Chicuecue, S.; Macete, E.; Chambe, G. A.; Muguande, O.; Matsinhe, G.; Colborn, J.; Yoon, S. S.; Doyle, T J; Kachur, S. P.; Aide, P; Alonso, P. L.; Guinovart, C.; Morgan, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Universal coverage with insecticide-treated bed nets is a cornerstone of modern malaria control. Mozambique has developed a novel bed net allocation strategy, where the number of bed nets allocated per household is calculated on the basis of household composition and assumptions about who sleeps with whom. We set out to evaluate the performance of the novel allocation s...

  11. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Bruun, Rasmus;

    2012-01-01

    influence on temperature and humidity. The discomfort associated with bed nets is likely to be most intolerable during the hottest and most humid period of the year, which frequently coincides with the peak of malaria vector densities and the force of pathogen transmission. Conclusions These observations......Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two...... for one night from 21.00 to 6.00 hrs inside and outside of bed nets using sensors and omni-directional thermo-anemometers. An investigator set up a bed net with a mesh size of 220 holes per inch2 in each study household and slept under the bed net to simulate a realistic environment. The attenuation...

  12. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

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    von Seidlein Lorenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals for one night from 21.00 to 6.00 hrs inside and outside of bed nets using sensors and omni-directional thermo-anemometers. An investigator set up a bed net with a mesh size of 220 holes per inch2 in each study household and slept under the bed net to simulate a realistic environment. The attenuation of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm was between 33.1 C (The Gambia and 26.2 C (Thailand. The bed net attenuated the airflow from a minimum of 27% (Philippines to a maximum of 71% (The Gambia. Overall the bed nets reduced airflow compared to un-attenuated airflow from 9 to 4 cm sec-1 or 52% (p -2 reduced airflow by 55% (mean; range 51 - 73%. A denser net (200 holes inch-2 attenuated airflow by 59% (mean; range 56 - 74%. Discussion Despite concerted efforts to increase the uptake of this intervention in many areas uptake remains poor. Bed nets reduce airflow, but have no influence on temperature and humidity. The discomfort associated with bed nets is likely to be most intolerable during the hottest and most humid period of the year, which frequently coincides with the peak of malaria vector densities and the force

  13. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya

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    Mutuku Francis M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the extensive ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs over the last decade, the effective lifespan of these nets, especially their physical integrity, under true operational conditions is not well-understood. Usefulness of nets declines primarily due to physical damage or loss of insecticidal activity. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was used to determine the physical condition and to identify predictors of poor physical condition for bed nets owned by individuals from communities in Kwale County, coastal Kenya. A proportionate hole index (pHI was used as a standard measure, and the cut-offs for an ‘effective net’ (offer substantial protection against mosquito bites and ‘ineffective nets’ (offer little or no protection against mosquito bites were determined (pHI ≤88 (about ≤500 cm2 of holes surface area and pHI of >88 (≥500 cm2 of holes surface area, respectively. Results The vast majority (78% of the surveyed nets had some holes. The median pHI was 92 (range: 1–2,980. Overall, half of the nets were categorized as ‘effective nets’ or ‘serviceable nets’. Physical deterioration of nets was associated with higher use and washing frequency. Young children and older children were found to use ineffective bed nets significantly more often than infants, while the physical integrity of nets owned by pregnant women was similar to those owned by infants. Estuarine environment inhabitants owned nets with the worst physical condition, while nets owned by the coastal slope inhabitants were in fairly good physical condition. The results suggest that bed nets are optimally utilized when they are new and physically intact. Thereafter, bed net utilization decreases gradually with increasing physical deterioration, with most net owners withdrawing physically damaged nets from routine use. This withdrawal commonly happens following 1.5 years of use, making bed net use the most

  14. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

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    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  15. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that tension strength with one grab and one hook better represent how holes are generated in bed nets in real life. Methods Measurements of bursting strength and tension strengths in the two directions are analysed for eight model nets created for the study. The nets were made in the most commonly used denier (75 and 100 D) and mesh (156 holes/inch2) for multifilament polyester yarns, texturized or not, and with 4 or 6 sided holes. All were made from one polyester quality. Data was arranged in a randomized, complete block design and analysed for significant variables and their interactions. Data was then subjected to regression analyses using net square metre weight as a weighting factor with stepwise removal of variables. This revealed how the four textile variables interacted and allowed for making predictions for the strength of commercial nets in polyester or polyethylene. Results For the model nets, higher denier provided higher bursting strength and tension strengths, texturizing weakened nets and four-sided holes were stronger than six-sided holes. Even when compensating for square metre weight, 100 D nets are stronger than 75 D nets. Results for the commercial polyester net nets are less clear, probably because of different qualities of polyester. Tensile strength: a 75 denier net knitted tightly to provide the same square metre weight as a standard 100 denier net therefore does not obtain the same strength. Polyethylene nets are made of mono-fibre yarns and, therefore, have higher tension strength in both directions than multifilament polyester nets. For bursting strength results overlap for 100 denier yarns of both yarn types. As a class, commercial polyethylene nets are stronger than commercial polyester net whatever method is used for evaluation. Conclusion Tension strength measured in the length and width directions of the net using one hook

  16. A qualitative study on caretakers' perceived need of bed-nets after reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

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    Beer Netta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elimination of malaria in Zanzibar is highly dependent on sustained effective coverage of bed-nets to avoid malaria resurgence. The Health Belief Model (HBM framework was used to explore the perceptions of malaria and bed-net use after a noticeable reduction in malaria incidence. Methods Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with female and male caretakers of children under five in North A district, Zanzibar. Deductive content analysis was used to identify meaning units that were condensed, coded and assigned to pre-determined elements of the HBM. Results Awareness of malaria among caretakers was high but the illness was now seen as easily curable and uncommon. In addition to the perceived advantage of providing protection against malaria, bed-nets were also thought to be useful for avoiding mosquito nuisance, especially during the rainy season when the malaria and mosquito burden is high. The discomfort of sleeping under a net during the hot season was the main barrier that interrupted consistent bed-net usage. The main cue to using a bed-net was high mosquito density, and children were prioritized when it came to bed-net usage. Caretakers had high perceived self-efficacy and did not find it difficult to use bed-nets. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, which was recognized as an additional means of mosquito prevention, was not identified as an alternative for bed-nets. A barrier to net ownership was the increasingly high cost of bed-nets. Conclusions Despite the reduction in malaria incidence and the resulting low malaria risk perceptions among caretakers, the benefit of bed-nets as the most proficient protection against mosquito bites upholds their use. This, in combination with the perceived high self-efficacy of caretakers, supports bed-net usage, while seasonality interrupts consistent use. High effective coverage of bed-nets could be further improved by reinforcing the benefits of bed-nets, addressing the seasonal

  17. An exploratory qualitative study on perceptions about mosquito bed nets in the Niger Delta: what are the barriers to sustained use?

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    Galvin KT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen T Galvin1, Nick Petford2, Frances Ajose3, Dai Davies41Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, UK; 2University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Lagos State University and The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Niger Delta Development Initiative, Poole, Dorset, UKBackground: The effectiveness of malaria control programs is determined by an array of complex factors, including the acceptability and sustained use of preventative measures such as the bed net. A small-scale exploratory study was conducted in several locations in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria, to discover barriers against the use of bed nets, in the context of a current drive to scale up net use in Nigeria.Methods: A qualitative approach with a convenience sample was used. One to one interviews with mostly male adult volunteers were undertaken which explored typical living and sleeping arrangements, and perceptions about and barriers against the use of the mosquito prevention bed net.Results: Several key issues emerged from the qualitative data. Bed nets were not reported as widely used in this small sample. The reasons reported for lack of use included issues of convenience, especially net set up and dismantling; potential hazard and safety concerns; issues related to typical family composition and nature of accommodation; humid weather conditions; and perceptions of cost and effectiveness. Most barriers to net use concerned issues about everyday practical living and sleeping arrangements and perceptions about comfort. Interviewees identified were aware of malaria infection risks, but several also indicated certain beliefs that were barriers to net use.Conclusions: Successful control of malaria and scale up of insecticide-treated net coverage relies on community perceptions and practice. This small study has illuminated a number of important everyday life issues, which remain barriers to

  18. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

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    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of

  19. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

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    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  20. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

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    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  1. Malaria in pregnant women in an area with sustained high coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets

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    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, the World Health Organization has recommended a package of interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy and its sequelae that includes the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, and effective case management of malarial illness. It is recommended that pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas receive at least two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This study assessed the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery in women during 1st or 2nd pregnancy, who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp in a malaria-endemic area with high bed net coverage. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in Ifakara, Tanzania, where bed net coverage is high. Primi- and secundigravid women, who presented to the labour ward and who reported not using IPTp were included in the study. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire; whereas neonatal birth weight and placenta parasitaemia were measured directly at the time of delivery. Results Overall, 413 pregnant women were enrolled of which 91% reported to have slept under a bed net at home the previous night, 43% reported history of fever and 62% were primigravid. Malaria parasites were detected in 8% of the placenta samples; the geometric mean (95%CI placental parasite density was 3,457 (1,060–11,271 parasites/μl in primigravid women and 2,178 (881–5,383 parasites/μl in secundigravid women. Fifteen percent of newborns weighed Conclusion The observed incidence of LBW and prevalence of placental parasitaemia at delivery suggests that malaria remains a problem in pregnancy in this area with high bed net coverage when eligible women do not receive IPTp. Delivery of IPTp should be emphasized at all levels of implementation to achieve maximum community coverage.

  2. Freely distributed bed-net use among Chano Mille residents, south Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loha Eskindir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A huge discrepancy was reported between ownership versus utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. To acquire the benefits of ITNs, households need to use and not merely own them. The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of, and assess factors related to ITN use in one village in south Ethiopia. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 8,121 residents (in 1,388 households was carried out from April 2009 to April 2011 (101 weeks. Every week, individuals were asked whether they slept under an ITN the night before the interview. Descriptive statistics was used to report the availability and use of ITN. A negative, binomial, probability, distribution model was fitted to find out significant predictors of ITN use. Reasons for not using ITN were summarized. Results The total number of ITNs available at the beginning of the study was 1,631 (1.68 ITNs per household. On week 48, 3,099 new ITNs (PermaNet2.0 were distributed freely (2.3 ITNs per household. The number of households who received at least one new ITN was 1,309 (98.4%. The percentage of children Conclusions The ITN use fraction reached to a maximum of 69% despite near universal coverage (98.4% was achieved. Gender, age differences and distance from vector breeding site were associated with ITN use. Strategies may need to be designed addressing disproportions in ITN use, lack of convenient space to hang more than one ITN (for those receiving more than one, and measures to prolong usable life of ITNs.

  3. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Russell

    Full Text Available Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45-65.79 or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001. Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020, increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022, and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.78. The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions.

  4. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  5. Synergy between repellents and organophosphates on bed nets: efficacy and behavioural response of natural free-flying An. gambiae mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Pennetier, Cédric; Costantini, Carlo; Corbel, Vincent; Licciardi, Séverine; Dabiré, Roch K.; Lapied, Bruno; Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemicals are used on bed nets in order to prevent infected bites and to kill aggressive malaria vectors. Because pyrethroid resistance has become widespread in the main malaria vectors, research for alternative active ingredients becomes urgent. Mixing a repellent and a non-pyrethroid insecticide seemed to be a promising tool as mixtures in the laboratory showed the same features as pyrethroids. Methodology/Principal Findings: We present here the results of two trials run against...

  6. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    significantly decrease availability of nighttime sleeping space for all family members if distributed nets do not remain within the household. Conclusions Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.

  7. Geographical Factors Affecting Bed Net Ownership, a Tool for the Elimination of Anopheles-Transmitted Lymphatic Filariasis in Hard-to-Reach Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Michelle C.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Louise A Kelly-Hope

    2013-01-01

    Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus ac...

  8. Socio-cultural factors influencing insecticide treated bed net utilization in a malaria endemic city in north-central Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akosu JT; Mbaawuaga EM; Gyuse AN; Enenebeaku MNO; Okwori EE; Peters EJ; Akpan S; Odey F; Etukumana EA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the socio-cultural factors influencing the rate of utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in a malaria endemic city of Makurdi, north central Nigeria. Methods:The study was cross-sectional in nature using systematic sampling method to identify households. Both quantitative and qualitative data was generated from adult women using structured and semi structured questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on rate and patterns of utilization of ITNs. Information such as age, educational level, marital status, awareness or otherwise of the existence of malaria, and factors influencing rate of ownership and utilization of ITNs were obtained. FGDs were used to obtain qualitative information on rate of utilization of ITNs not captured in the questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. Results: Among the respondents interviewed, 97.0%(2 013/2 075) were aware of existence of malaria and 87.0%of these (1 751/2 013) would associate it with mosquitoes. The rate of ownership of any bed net, ITNs and untreated bed nets (UTNs) was 25.1%, 17.0%and 8.3%, respectively. Utilization of ITNs among children was 30.0%(112/373) and UTNs 12.9%(48/373). Positive contributors to ITNs utilization were literacy, enhanced economy, experience of marriage, and being gainfully employed (P<0.05);while negative contributors were ignorance, poverty and some cultural beliefs and values. Conclusions: A more synchronized advocacy should be carried out on the potential benefits of ITNs utilization and sustained. Also ITNs should be made available to the people of the community at minimal or no cost.

  9. DEET microencapsulation: a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, Raphael; Knols, Bart G J; Pennetier, Cedric; Rowland, Mark

    2008-03-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellent is gradually released from a capsule that binds the repellent. An experiment carried out on DEET-treated mosquito netting showed that the formulation repels, inhibits blood-feeding and kills mosquitoes for a period of at least 6 months under laboratory conditions. Such formulations may have the potential for use on nets against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes or on clothing or bedding materials distributed in disasters, emergencies or refugee camp situations. PMID:18082862

  10. Are pregnant women prioritized for bed nets? An assessment using survey data from 10 African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily; Koenker, Hannah; Kilian, Albert; Lynch, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health concern, contributing to roughly 11% of neonatal deaths and to 25% of all maternal deaths in some parts of the world. The World Health Organization has recommended priority interventions for malaria during pregnancy, including use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), but net distribution has shifted recently to a universal coverage paradigm rather than one targeting vulnerable populations. Methods: To determine whether and to what extent pregnant women are prioritized within the household for ITN use, we assessed national survey data from 2009–2013 in 10 African countries. Proportion of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between countries. Within-country logistic regression examined whether pregnancy was significantly associated with ITN use the previous night compared with other risk groups, and the predicted probability of net use for each risk group was calculated holding other covariates constant. Results: A median 58% of households reported owning at least 1 ITN. On average, across all 10 countries, 35% of pregnant women in households with at least 1 ITN used a net. Households with universal coverage (at least 1 ITN per 2 people) had higher levels of net use among all family members; for example, 79% of pregnant women, on average, used a net in such households. In all countries, the predicted probability of ITN use by pregnant women was significantly higher than the probability of net use by most other household members except non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are being prioritized within the household for net use. However, behavior change communication strategies are needed to achieve ITN use goals for pregnant women. PMID:25276574

  11. A mechanistic model linking insect (Hydropsychidae) silk nets to incipient sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Pontau, Patricia; Dow, Michelle; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2014-09-01

    Plants and animals affect stream morphodynamics across a range of scales, yet including biological traits of organisms in geomorphic process models remains a fundamental challenge. For example, laboratory experiments have shown that silk nets built by caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate bed motion by more than a factor of 2. The contributions of specific biological traits are not well understood, however. Here we develop a theoretical model for the effects of insect nets on the threshold of sediment motion, τ*crit, that accounts for the mechanical properties, geometry, and vertical distribution of insect silk, as well as interactions between insect species. To parameterize the model, we measure the tensile strength, diameter, and number of silk threads in nets built by two common species of caddisfly, Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari. We compare model predictions with new measurements of τ*crit in experiments where we varied grain size and caddisfly species composition. The model is consistent with experimental results for single species, which show that the increase in τ*crit above the abiotic control peaks at 40-70% for 10-22 mm sediments and declines with increasing grain size. For the polyculture experiments, however, the model underpredicts the measured increase in τ*crit when two caddisfly species are present in sediments of larger grain sizes. Overall, the model helps explain why the presence of caddisfly silk can substantially increase the forces needed to initiate sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams and also illustrates the challenge of parameterizing the behavior of multiple interacting species in a physical model.

  12. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  13. Geographical factors affecting bed net ownership, a tool for the elimination of Anopheles-transmitted lymphatic filariasis in hard-to-reach communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Stanton

    Full Text Available Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN, and ITN density (ITNs per person for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30% and ITN (9% coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01, and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p<0.0001. Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures, distance to main rivers (any bed net only and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only. Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67-7.70. This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF

  14. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M;

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1.......3:1. Mosquito densities per room were 96.5 and 75.5 for light trap and pyrethrum spray catch respectively. Mosquito infectivity rates between villages that have high proportion of bed net owners and those without bed nets was significant (P

  15. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, N.; Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening.

  16. Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce plasma antibody levels and limit the repertoire of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askjaer, N; Maxwell, C; Chambo, W; Staalsoe, T; Nielsen, Morten Agertoug; Hviid, L; Curtis, C; Theander, T G

    2001-01-01

    The use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) has been documented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in areas with endemic malaria, but concerns have been raised that ITN usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. Several lines of evidence have indicated that antibodies agains...

  17. Incremental net benefit and acceptability of alternative health policies: a case study of mass screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Pauline; Josselin, Jean-Michel; Heresbach, Denis

    2012-06-01

    The incremental net benefit (INB) and the related acceptability curves for public health programs provide valuable tools for decision making. We proposed to apply them to the assessment of mass screening of colorectal cancer. The now standard guaiac fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is already implemented in several countries. We considered the innovative immunological FOBT and computed tomography colonography (CTC) as competing screening technologies. Using biennial guaiac FOBT as the reference strategy, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of the following alternatives: biennial immunological FOBT, CTC every 5 years (strategy CTC5), and CTC every 10 years (strategy CTC10). Over a 30-year horizon and from the perspective of a third-party payer, we developed a Markov model on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 subjects at average risk of colorectal cancer. Close expected net benefits between immunological FOBT and CTC5 induced uncertainty in the choice of the optimal strategy. Probabilistic sensibility analysis then suggested that below a willingness to pay (WTP) per life-years gained (LYG) of 8,587 €/LYG, CTC10 was optimal, while CTC5 would be preferred beyond a WTP of 8,587 €/LYG. PMID:21305335

  18. Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Zhao, Ruijun; Prosper, Olivia

    2016-05-21

    Although malaria prevalence has witnessed a significant reduction within the past decade, malaria still constitutes a major health and economic problem, especially to low-income countries. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remain one of the primary measures for preventing the malignant disease. Unfortunately, the success of ITN campaigns is hampered by improper use and natural decay in ITN-efficacy over time. Many models aimed at studying malaria transmission and control fail to account for this decay, as well as mosquito demography and feeding preferences exhibited by mosquitoes towards humans. Omitting these factors can misrepresent disease risk, while understanding their effects on malaria dynamics can inform control policy. We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify disease risks and corresponding ITN coverage, as well as feeding preference levels for which the disease can be controlled or eradicated. Our study leads to important insights that could assist in the design and implementation of better malaria control strategies. We conclude that ITNs that can retain their effectiveness for longer periods will be more appropriate in the fight against malaria and that making more ITNs available to highly endemic regions is

  19. Adaptive introgression in an African malaria mosquito coincident with the increased usage of insecticide-treated bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Laura C; Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Collier, Travis C; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Cornel, Anthony J; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-20

    Animal species adapt to changes in their environment, including man-made changes such as the introduction of insecticides, through selection for advantageous genes already present in populations or newly arisen through mutation. A possible alternative mechanism is the acquisition of adaptive genes from related species via a process known as adaptive introgression. Differing levels of insecticide resistance between two African malaria vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae, have been attributed to assortative mating between the two species. In a previous study, we reported two bouts of hybridization observed in the town of Selinkenyi, Mali in 2002 and 2006. These hybridization events did not appear to be directly associated with insecticide-resistance genes. We demonstrate that during a brief breakdown in assortative mating in 2006, A. coluzzii inherited the entire A. gambiae-associated 2L divergence island, which includes a suite of insecticide-resistance alleles. In this case, introgression was coincident with the start of a major insecticide-treated bed net distribution campaign in Mali. This suggests that insecticide exposure altered the fitness landscape, favoring the survival of A. coluzzii/A. gambiae hybrids, and provided selection pressure that swept the 2L divergence island through A. coluzzii populations in Mali. We propose that the work described herein presents a unique description of the temporal dynamics of adaptive introgression in an animal species and represents a mechanism for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in this important vector of human malaria in Africa. PMID:25561525

  20. How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of

  1. Is staying overnight in a farming hut a risk factor for malaria infection in a setting with insecticide-treated bed nets in rural Laos?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanisaveth Viengxay; Kano Shigeyuki; Chindavonsa Keobouphaphone; Kobayashi Jun; Laimanivong Sakhone; Nonaka Daisuke; Yasuoka Junko; Phompida Samlane; Jimba Masamine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Overnight stays in farming huts are known to pose a risk of malaria infection. However, studies reporting the risk were conducted in the settings of poor net coverage. This study sought to assess whether an overnight stay in a farming hut is associated with an increased risk of malaria infection if insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are properly used. Methods A pair of cross-sectional surveys was carried out in the Lamarm district of Sekong province, Laos, in March (dry s...

  2. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting

    OpenAIRE

    Doe, John E.; Lander, Deborah R.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N.; Lowit, Anna B.; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H.; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, “pseudomethrin,” in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first...

  3. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Stone Chris M; Jackson Bryan T; Foster Woodbridge A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and ...

  4. www.HistoNet2000.de – didaktisches Konzept und Nutzerakzeptanz eines e-learning-Programms / www.HistoNet2000.de – didactic concept and user-acceptance of an e-learning program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele, Harald

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available HistoNet2000 is an Internet learning and training program for Microscopic Anatomy. This online-platform was programmed as a prototype also to be used for other medical topics where visual learning plays an important role. The 2006 remodelled second version of HistoNet2000 is databased and has a tool for editors. In times of high student numbers but tight resources such as staff, classrooms and learning material HistoNet2000 supports the quality of and has a lasting effect on traditional teachings like lectures, classes etc. Furthermore it meets the growing wish of the students of information society for using multi-media systems by offering a blended-learning supply. The modular based program enables a linked and interactive as well as self-scrutinizing learning of Histology. The crucial visual training is supported by providing a wide range of pictures that cannot be offered in a book due to the high costs. As a tutor function is included the student has the possibility to communicate with the lecturer any time via e-mail, an offer widely used. Development and user-acceptance were scientifically analysed. A survey in 1998 and 1999 about e-learning asked 505 students in their preliminary clinical studies about hardware equipment, their attitude and desires in using the New Media. Though the hardware equipment was rather moderate at these times compared to nowadays, a majority showed quite an interest in the use of e-learning programs as a supplement to the traditional teaching methods and support for private study. The evaluation of the user-acceptance by logfiles 2006 and 2007 showed that HistoNet2000 is a very widely used learning program: the average of the more than 20,000 visitors every six months looked at about 100 pages and called up a data of more than 1 MB. In 2007 the user-acceptance even climbed over 40% in some months.

  5. NetPower DemoLab A Test Bed Infrastructure for Security and Reliability Investigations of SCADA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jostock, Markus; Sachau, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new NetPower DemoLab of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Reliability and Trust at the University of Luxembourg, operated by the Systems and Control group, and to stimulate potential public or private collaborations in the area of SCADA security and reliability investigations.

  6. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, J.; Ponzio, C.A.M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Pates Jamet, H.V.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization (

  7. DEET microencapsulation : a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, R; Knols, B.G.J.; Pennetier, Cédric; Rowland, M

    2008-01-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellent is gradually released from a capsule that binds the repellent. An experiment carried out on DEET-treated mosquito netting showed that the formulation repels, inhibits blood-feeding and kilts mosq...

  8. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G < 2.83 cm/s. In the second step of the present work, the kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented. PMID:24338109

  9. Is staying overnight in a farming hut a risk factor for malaria infection in a setting with insecticide-treated bed nets in rural Laos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisaveth Viengxay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overnight stays in farming huts are known to pose a risk of malaria infection. However, studies reporting the risk were conducted in the settings of poor net coverage. This study sought to assess whether an overnight stay in a farming hut is associated with an increased risk of malaria infection if insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs are properly used. Methods A pair of cross-sectional surveys was carried out in the Lamarm district of Sekong province, Laos, in March (dry season and August (rainy season in 2008. Questionnaire-based interviews and blood examinations were conducted with farmers and their household members from three randomly selected villages in March (127 households, 891 people and August (128 households, 919 people. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounding factors, was used to assess the association between malaria infection status and frequency of overnight stays for the two weeks prior to the study in both the seasons. Results In March, 13.7% of participants reported staying overnight in a farming hut at least once in the previous two weeks. The percentage increased to 74.6% in August. Not only adults but also young children stayed overnight as often as adults. The use of an ITN the preceding night was common both in farming huts (66.3% in March, 95.2% in August, and in main residences (85.8% in March, 92.5% in August. Logistic regression analysis showed no statistical association between malaria infection status and frequency of overnight stays in farming huts in either study period. However, people sharing one family type net with five people or more were significantly more likely to have malaria than those sharing a net with up to two people in the dry season. Conclusions This study showed that staying overnight in farming huts was not associated with an increased risk of malaria infection in the setting where ITNs were widely used in farming huts. It suggests that malaria infection

  10. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high AD/AR ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values εG, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies (∼95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound (∼80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  11. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  12. Using the net benefit regression framework to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring for ambulatory monitoring of "community acquired" syncope

    OpenAIRE

    Rockx Marie; Hoch Jeffrey S; Krahn Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) describe the probability that a new treatment or intervention is cost-effective. The net benefit regression framework (NBRF) allows cost-effectiveness analysis to be done in a simple regression framework. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how net benefit regression can be used to construct a CEAC. Methods One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a one-mont...

  13. www.HistoNet2000.de – didaktisches Konzept und Nutzerakzeptanz eines e-learning-Programms / www.HistoNet2000.de – didactic concept and user-acceptance of an e-learning program

    OpenAIRE

    Abele, Harald; Zabke, Jens; Vollmar-Hesse, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    HistoNet2000 is an Internet learning and training program for Microscopic Anatomy. This online-platform was programmed as a prototype also to be used for other medical topics where visual learning plays an important role. The 2006 remodelled second version of HistoNet2000 is databased and has a tool for editors. In times of high student numbers but tight resources such as staff, classrooms and learning material HistoNet2000 supports the quality of and has a lasting effect on traditional teach...

  14. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batisso Esey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS, and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8 of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4 of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0. Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7% were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8% of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6% reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7. Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1. Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little

  15. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  16. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  17. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of

  18. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzi, Kevin T. J.; Ngimuh, Leonard; Enyong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p < 0.001) and Nyasoso (p < 0.015) health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  19. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  20. Using the net benefit regression framework to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring for ambulatory monitoring of "community acquired" syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockx Marie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs describe the probability that a new treatment or intervention is cost-effective. The net benefit regression framework (NBRF allows cost-effectiveness analysis to be done in a simple regression framework. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how net benefit regression can be used to construct a CEAC. Methods One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a one-month external loop recorder (n = 49 or 48-hour Holter monitor (n = 51. The primary endpoint was symptom-rhythm correlation during monitoring. Direct costs were calculated based on the 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP fee schedule combined with hospital case costing of labour, materials, service and overhead costs for diagnostic testing and related equipment. Results In the loop recorder group, 63.27% of patients (31/49 had symptom recurrence and successful activation, compared to 23.53% in the Holter group (12/51. The cost in US dollars for loop recording was $648.50 and $212.92 for Holter monitoring. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the loop recorder was $1,096 per extra successful diagnosis. The probability that the loop recorder was cost-effective compared to the Holter monitor was estimated using net benefit regression and plotted on a CEAC. In a sensitivity analysis, bootstrapping was used to examine the effect of distributional assumptions. Conclusion The NBRF is straightforward to use and interpret. The resulting uncertainty surrounding the regression coefficient relates to the CEAC. When the link from the regression's p-value to the probability of cost-effectiveness is tentative, bootstrapping may be used.

  1. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  2. SeagrassNet-based Ecological Monitoring for Seagrass Beds along the Coast of Guangxi Beihai Gulf%基于SeagrassNet的广西北部湾海草床生态监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱广龙; 范航清; 周浩郎; 李森; 曾聪; 李蕾鲜

    2013-01-01

    Ecological monitoring for seagrass beds plays an important role not only in revealing the status quo, development trend, and ecological problems of seagrass resources, but also in assessing the ecological environment quality of seagrass habitats. As for seagrass monitoring and conservation, the Guangxi Beibu Gulf region and even the whole China, lag far behind Australia, USA and some regions in Europe. A niche targeting, practical and scientific ecological monitoring protocol for seagrass beds is emergently needed in this region. In this paper, according to the specific characteristics of seagrass ecosystems in Guangxi, we proposed an ecological monitoring protocol, which is based on SeagrassNet and our experiences in seagrass monitoring in past few years. It is believed that this modified SeagrassNet-based protocol is more suitable and practical when being used in this region.%海草床生态监测的作用不仅在于探讨海草资源本身的现状与发展趋势,更可通过海草监测,来评估所在海区的近海生态环境质量,或提示其它一些生态问题.在海草监测与保护方面,广西乃至中国仍远远落后于澳大利亚、美国以及欧洲一些国家和地区.对广西北部湾而言,仍缺乏具有较强针对性、可操作性和科学性的海草床生态监测方案.基于SeagrassNet监测方法,作者结合了近年来在广西开展的海草生态监测的经验,并针对广西北部湾海草生态系统的特殊性与典型性进行了部分改进,提出了适合于广西北部湾海草床的生态监测方案,是SeagrassNet在广西北部湾本土化的表现,具有较强的科学性和可操作性,以期为我国海草床的生态监测提供借鉴.

  3. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  4. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  5. Effect of training on the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets on the burden of malaria among vulnerable groups, south-west Ethiopia: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Tariku

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN is hampered by behavioural factors such as low awareness and negative attitude of the community. The aim of this study was to present the design and baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN. Methods This baseline survey was undertaken from February to March, 2009 as part of a randomized cluster trial. A total of 11 intervention and 11 control Gots (villages were included in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Centre, south-west Ethiopia. House to house visit was done in 4135 households to collect information about the use of LLITN and socio-demographic variables. For the diagnosis of malaria and anaemia, blood samples were collected from 2410 under-five children and 242 pregnant women. Results One fourth of the households in the intervention and control Gots had functional LLITN. Only 30% of the observed LLITN in the intervention and 28% in the control Gots were hanged properly. Adults were more likely to utilize LLITN than under-five children in the control and intervention Gots. The prevalence of malaria in under-five children in the intervention and control Gots was 10.5% and 8.3% respectively. The intervention and control Gots had no significant difference concerning the prevalence of malaria in under-five children, [OR = 1.28, (95%CI: 0.97, 1.69]. Eight (6.1% pregnant women in the intervention and eight (7.2% in the control Gots were positive for malaria (P = 0.9. Children in the intervention Gots were less likely to have anaemia than children in the control Gots, [OR = 0.75, (95%CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Conclusion The availability and utilization of LLITN was low in the study area. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia was high. Intervention strategies of malaria should focus on high risk population and vulnerable groups.

  6. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  7. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  8. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Muela Ribera, Joan; Soto, Veronica; Tenorio, Alex; Hoibak, Sarah; Aguirre, Angel Rosas; Toomer, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos Cuentas, Alejandro; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Background While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. Methods The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). Results A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001). Conclusion Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent

  9. Ação de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina sobre a morbidade da malária em uma área da Amazônia Brasileira The effect of bed nets impregnated with deltamethrin on malaria morbidity in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazonian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barberino Santos

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992 foi feita uma investigação sobre o efeito protetor do uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, em uma população do município de Costa Marques, Rondônia, sujeita à transmissão malárica. Os mosquiteiros impregnados se comportaram de modo semelhante aos não impregnados, sem modificar os índices de infecção na época de baixa transmissão. A análise multivariada, por idade e títulos de anticorpos, mostrou uma proteção significante para o grupo com mosquiteiros impregnados contra o risco de infecção, apenas na estação de alta transmissão, quando os mosquiteiros foram usados mais regularmente. Não houve diferença no efeito de ambos os tipos de mosquiteiros na prevenção de elevadas parasitemias. Ao fim do estudo, ocorreu diminuição da prevalência de esplenomegalia em ambos os grupos, porém houve uma aparente recuperação da taxa normal de hematócrito em menores de 15 anos de idade em uso de mosquiteiros impregnados.In 1992 an investigation regarding the value of insecticide impregnated mosquito nets was conducted in the municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia. Impregnated mosquito nets gave similar protection to those not impregnated, without modifying the incidence of infection during the season of low transmission. The multivariate analysis for age and antibody titre showed a significant protection of impregnated nets against the risk of infection only in the season of high transmission, when bed nets were used more correctly. There was no difference in the effect of both kinds of bed nets in the prevention of high parasitaemia. At the end of the study, there was a reduction of the prevalence of splenomegaly in both groups but hematocrit values rose to normal in the below 15 year olds using impregnated nets.

  10. Acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards of nuclear power, radioactive wastes and radiation are analysed in a general book describing and defining acceptable-risk problems, the difficulties in resolving them and considering such issues as uncertainty about their definition, lack of relevant facts, conflicting and conflicted social values and disagreements between technical experts and the lay public. The many methods that have been proposed for resolving acceptable-risk problems are identified and criticised. (author)

  11. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M;

    2003-01-01

    In Magoda and Mpapayu villages in Tanzania, we have previously found comparable high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in vivo and of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes of P. falciparum respon...... than in Mpapayu in 2000. The impact of ITNs on the transmission intensity seems not only to affect the overall malaria morbidity, but may even facilitate restoration of susceptibility to antimalarial drugs.......In Magoda and Mpapayu villages in Tanzania, we have previously found comparable high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in vivo and of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes of P. falciparum...... responsible for resistance to S/P. In December 1998, Magoda received insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), whereas ITNs were introduced in Mpapayu in March 2001. We have studied the effect of ITNs on P. falciparum resistance genes by monitoring the prevalence of dhfr and dhps genotypes in children less than five...

  12. Dynamic behavior of tobacco waste in the coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Jian; Chen, Honggang; Yang, Yongping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). National Eng Lab for Biomass Power Generation Equipment; Yu, Bangting [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2013-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is an advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the processing procedure in the nicotiana tabacum plants, lots of tobacco stem wastes are produced, which are normally being dumped to the landfill field. If this kind of waste can be used as a part of the fuel to be added into the coal in a CFB combustor, it will reduce the use of coal and then cut the net carbon emissions. To understand the complicated fluid dynamics of nicotiana tabacum wastes in the coal-fired CFB boiler, the mixing and segregation behavior of tobacco stalk are preliminary measured in a cylindrical fluidized bed. Obvious segregation behavior is found due to distinct differences in density and shape between tobacco stem and coal, which results in poor fluidization quality and bad combustion efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a jet with high gas velocity is introduced through the air distributor and a detailed experimental study is conducted in a fluidized bed made up of stem-sand mixture with different solid components at various jet velocities, which greatly improve the mixing performance of stem in the fluidized bed. The above findings are helpful for the technological upgrading of small- or middle-sized CFB boiler with adding tobacco stem into coal.

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability of their...

  14. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  15. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  16. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different...... uses of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper...

  17. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  18. A Community-Wide Study of Malaria Reduction: Evaluating Efficacy and User-Acceptance of a Low-Cost Repellent in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dadzie, Samuel; Boakye, Daniel; Asoala, Victor; Koram, Kwadwo; Kiszewski, Anthony; Appawu, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    NO MAS (NM) mosquito repellent was evaluated in two farming villages (4 km apart) in the Kassena Nankana district of northern Ghana. We determined its efficacy against local malaria vectors, degree of user acceptance, and its effect on malaria prevalence in households using insecticide-treated bed nets. The average protective efficacy of NM against Anopheles mosquitoes over 9 hours was 89.6%. Controls averaged 86 bites/person/night versus 9 bites/person/night with the use of NM. Use of repell...

  19. Scoping studies for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping studies for NET using the SUPERCOIL system code are described. Capital cost optimized devices satisfying constraints imposed on stresses/strains, fields, access, etc. are compared. The main objectives are to determine what impact the main design characteristics, performance objectives and underlying plasma physics assumptions have on the parameters and cost of NET. A complete picture for choosing the main parameters of NET is developed and illustrated by the main NET study points used during the conceptual design phase. (orig.)

  20. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  1. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor will give you specific information about the duration of your bed rest. continue How Does Bed ... reading about high-risk pregnancy issues, learn about breastfeeding or how to encourage your child's development instead. ...

  2. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP)

  3. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike;

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The...... different parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables...

  4. Priced Timed Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Mayr, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We consider priced timed Petri nets, i.e., unbounded Petri nets where each token carries a real-valued clock. Transition arcs are labeled with time intervals, which specify constraints on the ages of tokens. Furthermore, our cost model assigns token storage costs per time unit to places, and firing costs to transitions. This general model strictly subsumes both priced timed automata and unbounded priced Petri nets. We study the cost of computations that reach a given control-state. In general...

  5. Isopachs of net coal thickness, Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, NM and CO (sjbthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This as a shapefile and coverage showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than 1.2' thick for the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, Colorado and...

  6. Isopachs of total net coal, lower Blackhawk Formation, southern Wasatch Plateau, UT (wsthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick in the lower Blackhawk Formation, southern...

  7. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  8. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment, and not...

  9. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...

  10. Net4Care:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...... ecosystem for telemedicine, and a summary of initial design decisions for the Net4Care framework....

  11. Control system for electron gun modulator with FL-net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a control system for an electron gun modulator of SPring-8 linac. The control system is a PLC system connected with an FL-net and is implemented in the MADOCA framework. An FL-net is one of Ethernet-based open standard protocols for factory floor networks and enables interconnection of different manufactures' devices. The control system including an FL-net was designed to realize high speed communication, high reliability, and interoperability. The FL-net is connected with a higher level via a newly developed VME board. Measured cyclic data transfer times are sufficiently acceptable for accelerator control. (author)

  12. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes by seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrón, Cristina; Apostolaki, Eugenia T.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds) based on in situ benthic chambers from published and unpublished are compiled in this study. The effect of temperature and light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined. Almost 85% of the seagrass communities and all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. Net DOC fluxes in seagrass communities increase positively with w...

  13. WiBed, a platform for commodity wireless testbeds

    OpenAIRE

    Escrich Garcia, Pau

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents WiBed, a FOSS platform for WiFi testbeds based on OpenWRT Linux made to run on commodity IEEE802.11 WiFi routers part of the Community-lab.net project, a global testbed for Community networks. WiBed has been designed to support realistic low layer network experiments (according to the OSI model). This work recolects the details of the architecture, design and implementation of WiBed consolidated during its operation as a testbed.

  14. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  15. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  16. Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.

  17. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  18. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  19. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  20. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess...... usefulness in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the...... Norm Activation Model. We tested this proposition by means of an online survey of Danish (N=323), Norwegian (N=303) and Swiss (N=324) private consumers. The study confirms that adding personal norms to the independent variables of the Technology Acceptance Model leads to a significant increase in the...

  1. Bed In Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In winter I get up at night And dress by yellow candle-light. In summer, quite the other way, I have to go to bed by day. I have to go to bed and see The birds still hopping on the tree, Or hear the grown-up people' s feet Still going past me in the stree

  2. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  3. Search Frictions, Credit Market Liquidity, and Net Interest Margin Cyclicality

    OpenAIRE

    Beaubrun-Diant, Kevin; Tripier, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The present paper contributes to the body of knowledge on search frictions in credit markets by demonstrating their ability to explain why the net interest margins of banks behave countercyclically. During periods of expansion, a fall in the net interest margin proceeds from two mechanisms: (i) lenders accept that they must finance entrepreneurs that have lower productivity and (ii) the liquidity of the credit market rises, which simplifies access to loans for entrepreneurs and thereby reinfo...

  4. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  5. Lagrangian-Eulerian simulation of slugging fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guorong Wu; Jie Ouyang; Binxin Yang; Qiang Li; Fang Wang

    2012-01-01

    This work studies gas-solid slugging fluidized beds with Type-D particles,using two-dimensional simulations based on discrete element model (DEM).DEM performance is quantitatively validated by two commonly accepted correlations for determining slugging behavior.The voidage profiles simulated with bed height corresponding to Baeyens and Geldart (1974) correlation for onset of slugging demonstrate a transitional flow pattern from free bubbling to slugging.The present calculated values for the maximum slugging bed height are in good agreement with the correlation from Matsen et al.(1969).Simulations show that fluidized beds with Type-D particles can operate in the round-nosed slugging regime and also shows that wall slugs and square-nosed slugs tend to be formed with increase in superficial gas velocity and in bed height,respectively.

  6. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get out of bed to go to the bathroom. When do most children achieve bladder control? Children ... ask questions about your child's daytime and nighttime bathroom habits. Then your doctor will do a physical ...

  7. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  8. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  13. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  14. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  15. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  16. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...

  17. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference......-accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat for...... industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  18. Netted LPI radars

    OpenAIRE

    Menychtas, Charalampos.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A significant number of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars are used in various military applications, from guided weapons (such anti-ship missile), to large platforms (aircrafts, ships), to large systems (Integrated Air Defense Systems - IADS). The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of netted LPI radar systems. To do so, it commences with establishing the theoretical background for the LPI radar techniques an...

  19. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    interactions. There is a need to develop new platform technologies that can be applied to the investigation of whole-genome datasets in an efficient and cost-effective manner. One such approach is the transfer of existing knowledge from well-studied organisms to closely-related organisms. In this paper, we...... associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  20. NET vertical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elongated cross-section of the plasma in NET leads to vertical positional instability so that a passive and active stabilizing system is required. The passive action is performed essentially by the segmented first wall, while the active action is performed by two feedback driven toroidal bars. The performance of such a system is presented for a reference case, as well as a sensitivity analysis with respect to some parameters. (author)

  1. NET vertical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elongated cross-section of the plasma in NET leads to vertical positional instability so that a passive and active stabilizing system is required. The passive action is performed essentially by the segmented first wall, while the active action is performed by two feedback driven toroidal bars. The performance of such a system is presented here for a reference case, as well as a sensitivity analysis with respect to some parameters

  2. The NET project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of NET is to demonstrate fusion energy production in an apparatus which meets the basic design and operating requirements of a reactor, i.e.: self-sustained DT thermonuclear reactions; extended burn, possibly up to steady state; qualification and testing of components in reactor-like conditions; safe operation of a reactor-like device at significant availability; and energy extraction of high temperature heat and tritium breeding. Since NET is conceived to be the only step between JET and DEMO, it must be capable of conducting a research programme in physics as well as in reactor technology. This requirement has led to an apparatus designed to operate, in the first phase (Physics Phase), with great flexibility with respect to the accessible plasma parameters. NET adopts, as far as possible, reactor relevant technologies (e.g. superconductivity), and it includes provisions and features (e.g. remote handling, access, shielding) which would enable it, in the second phase of operation (Technology Phase), to carry out a programme of qualification and testing of components. NET will be the machine in which the physics and the technology of extended plasma burn pulses will be established. The flexibility of the apparatus therefore allows the incorporation of improvements between the two phases, in particular of the plasma facing components. As for the parameters, two sets have been defined: a reference set to carry out the predesign and to define in sufficient detail the R and D tasks to be performed by the European fusion laboratories, and an alternative set with increased plasma current capability based, however, on the same design solutions and technologies as the reference case. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  4. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  5. Arbre de Notes.Net

    OpenAIRE

    Diéguez Ruiz, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Els objectius del projecte és que l¿estudiant utilitzi moltes de les tecnologies possibles recollides dintre d¿aquesta nova plataforma de desenvolupament, entre altres existeixen: ASP.NET, ADO.NET, Serveix Web, ...

  6. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses. PMID:11066669

  7. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  8. Burkina Faso social safety nets

    OpenAIRE

    Cherrier, Cecile; del Ninno, Carlo; Razmara, Setareh

    2011-01-01

    This report provides an inventory of safety net programs in Burkina Faso and suggests policy measures that could increase their coverage, efficiency, and sustainability. It shows that the scope and coverage of the existing safety nets is too limited. Most interventions are small and temporary. On average, excluding subsidies, annual spending on safety nets constituted only 0.6 percent of GDP ...

  9. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  10. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  11. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  12. Analysis of Scrum acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Vončina, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyse the acceptance of Scrum methodology, which has become one of the leading agile methodologies, and to find out which were the key factors that influenced the acceptance. The analysis was conducted in Comtrade, which is one of the largest Slovenian software development companies. The First part (theoretical part) contains an introduction chapter, a detailed presentation of Scrum methodology and the presentation of theoretical models, on which practical ...

  13. Acceptability of human risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates abo...

  14. Operations Acceptance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the process of Operations Acceptance Management, whose main task is to control Operations Acceptance Tests (OAT). In the first part the author focuses on the theoretical ground for the problem in the context of ITSM best practices framework ITIL. Benefits, process pitfalls and possibilities for automation are discussed in this part. The second part contains a case study of DHL IT Services (Prague), where a solution optimizing the overall workflow was implemented using simp...

  15. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  16. Accepting grammars and systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bordihn, Henning; Fernau, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We investigate several kinds of regulated rewriting (programmed, matrix, with regular control, ordered, and variants thereof) and of parallel rewriting mechanisms (Lindenmayer systems, uniformly limited Lindenmayer systems, limited Lindenmayer systems and scattered context grammars) as accepting devices, in contrast with the usual generating mode. In some cases, accepting mode turns out to be just as powerful as generating mode, e.g. within the grammars of the Chomsky ...

  17. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  18. NewsNet

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    NewsNet wants to highlight the opening of a “unified law portal” as part of the plan for the E-government (http://www.governo.it/sez_dossier/neweconomy/e-government/sintesi.html) signed by the Ministers Council. The outlined overview shows from one side the creation of service portals that allow people and industries to obtain easily information on laws, and from the other the creation of helpdesks where asking the Administrations on the basis of the electronic identity card and the digital s...

  19. NetFlow-verkonvalvonta

    OpenAIRE

    Liukkonen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Verkonvalvonnalla on tärkeä rooli varsinkin suurten verkkojen ylläpidossa. Verkossa voi liikkua paljon erilaista dataa, joten verkonvalvojan on hyödyllistä ymmärtää, millainen verkkoliikenne kuormittaa verkkoa eniten. Perinteinen SNMP:llä toteutettu verkonvalvontajärjestelmä ei tarjoa yksityiskohtaista tietoa verkkoliikenteen sisällöstä. Cisco Systemsin kehittämällä NetFlowlla on mahdollista päästä tarkemmin käsiksi verkossa liikkuvien pakettien tietoihin ja näin ollen saada selville erilaisi...

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as......The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...

  1. Bed expansion crucible tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Am/Cm program will vitrify the americium and curium currently stored in F-canyon. A batch flowsheet has been developed (with non-radioactive surrogate feed in place of the F-canyon solution) and tested full-scale in the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) facility at TNX. During a normal process run, a small bed expansion occurs when oxygen released from reduction of cerium (IV) oxide to cerium (III) oxide is trapped in highly viscous glass. The bed expansion is characterized by a foamy layer of glass that slowly expands as the oxygen is trapped and then dissipates when the viscosity of the foam becomes low enough to allow the oxygen to escape. Severe bed expansions were noted in the 5-inch CIM when re-heating after an interlock during the calcination phase of the heat cycle, escaping the confines of the melter vessel. In order to better understand the cause of the larger than normal bed expansion and to develop mitigating techniques, a series of three crucible tests were conducted

  2. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  3. Maximum spoutable bed height of spout-fluid bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqi Zhong; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory on Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2006-11-15

    Experimental study on the maximum spoutable bed height of a spout-fluid bed (cross-section of 0.3 m x 0.03 m and height of 2 m) packed with Geldart group D particles has been carried out. The effects of particle size, spout nozzle size and fluidizing gas flow rate on the maximum spoutable bed height were studied. Experimental data were compared to some published experiments and predictions. The results show that the maximum spoutable bed height of spout-fluid bed decreases with increasing particle size and spout nozzle size, which appears the same trend to that of spouted beds. The increasing of fluidizing gas flow rate leads to a sharply decrease in the maximum spoutable bed height. The existent correlations of the maximum spoutable bed height in the literature were observed to involve large discrepancies. Additionally, the flow characteristics when bed materials deeper than the maximum spoutable height were summarized. Under this condition, the spout-fluid bed operated without a stable and coherent spout or fountain assembles the characteristics of jetting fluidized bed. Besides, the mechanisms of spout termination were investigated. It was found that slugging in the spout and growth of instabilities would cause the spout termination in spout-fluid bed.

  4. First wall for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with ANSALDO and within the frame of the European Fusion Tecnology Task N1 (Plasma Facing Components Design Studies), ENEA has performed a design an manufacturing feasibility study for the first wall of the Next European Torus (NET) during its ''physics'' operation phase. The main design specifications are average neutron wall load=1 MW/m2, peak surface heat flux=0.4 MW/m2, total number of burn pulses=1*104, average burn pulse duration=100 s, average neutron fluence=0.03 MWy/m2, structure material=AISI 316L SA, coolant=H2O at 50/100 centigrates (in/out). The reference ENEA-ANSALDO design is based on the use of flat plates coupled by microbrazing to poloidal cooling tubes. The technological development work has led to the design and manufacturing of a representative NET first wall box segment (0.65x 0.25x0.15 m) mockup which will be tested in the 190 kW Thermal Fatique Test Facility at JRC-Ispra. In this paper, we report on the various aspects of the basic experimental and theoretical investigations on the plasma-wall interactions for adequate protection of the first wall against erosion, global stress analysis of the first wall box, thecnological tests on brazed joints, and disign and manufacturing of the first wall mockup

  5. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of approximately 0.7-0.8 W of electric power during the daylight time. As the provided power output is insufficient to operate all instruments simultaneously they are activated sequentially according to a specially designed cyclogram table which adapts itself to the different environmental constraints. 3. Mission Status Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. Even if the MetNet mission is focused on the atmospheric science, the mission payload will also include additional kinds of geophysical instrumentation. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission to demonstrate the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined. References [1] http://metnet.fmi.fi

  6. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ways that all levels of government, community, academia and private industry can work together to reduce bed bugs across ...

  7. Air passivation of metal hydride beds for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One waste acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the bed be non-pyrophoric. Batch-wise air ingress tests were performed which determined the amount of air consumed by a metal hydride bed. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 deg.C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 deg.C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 sec air was consumed by the bed (0.08 sec per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi4.25Al0.75 prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12. cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water. (authors)

  8. ContainerProbe-Net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ContainerProbe-Net is a global system concept for high throughput Risk Screening of inter-modal containers while they are in motion. It will have the following detection capabilities: 1. Mis-declared hazardous materials: - illegal waste exports or imports; - hazardous materials causing many annual maritime insurance claims; - accumulated pest poisons. 2. Contraband materials: - smuggled and counterfeit goods to avoid import duties and restrictions; - narcotic drugs; - weapons for criminals; - illegal immigrants. 3. Terrorism materials: - explosives and precursors - Weapons of Mass Destruction - fissile materials. The demand for this type of detection capability with high throughput has been declared by the EU, USA and other nations as a consequence of the rising policy of Civil Security. Efforts to advocate ContainerProbe-Net to both U.S.A. and EU security research administrators are progressing as the private investment base grows. ContainerProbe-Net directly addresses the 100% Risk Screening of containers requirement. Neutron interrogation of each container on a train or on an automated vehicle passing through the ContainerProbe portal will provide information about the bulk elemental composition of the contents. A burst of pulsed neutrons for a combination of prompt γ and secondary neutron emissions can provide a measured 'fingerprint' which will remain constant from the start to the end of the container's journey. A period of two seconds is available per container in order to capture data for each container on a moving train. Contents of containers are already, to some extent, registered in the export logistics databases. However these disparate systems have evolved with computer science and the needs of ports and customs authorities. Today such systems are far from complete. The global access to such registered container data and the fusion of this information with actual physical measurement data is the Network part of the concept. Risk screening implies

  9. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  10. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... the book as useful as possible, the selected papers represent the current "state of the art" of high-level nets. This means that we have been forced to leave out a number of older papers which have had a profound influence on the development of high-level Petri nets - but by now have been superseded...

  11. Test bed concentrator mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1980-05-01

    The test bed concentrator (TBC) was des point focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. The reflective surface of the concentrator was fabricated using mirror facet designs and techniques. The facets are made by bonding mirrored glass to spherically-conducted substrates. Several aspects of earlier work were reevaluated for application to the TBC: optimum glass block size, material selection, environmental test, optical characteristics, and reliability. A detailed explanation of tooling, substrate preparation, testing techniques, and mirror assembly is presented.

  12. Spain accepts safeguards controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain became the 26th country to accept safeguards controls by the Agency in December. An agreement was signed in Vienna, transferring to IAEA the administration of safeguards against diversion of materials and installations to military purposes provided for under a nuclear co-operation agreement concluded between Spain and USA in 1957

  13. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in...

  14. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  15. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  16. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  17. Den betingede accept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    1999-01-01

    difficulties in underscoring this normality. This conditioned accept tends to leave the ex-prisoner in an vacuum of signification; he is neither fully normal nor fully deviant. In regard to identity, this vacuum, and the practices that follows, leaves the ex-prisoner badly equipped in his attempt to live up to...

  18. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  19. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.)

  20. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  1. Acceptance of Tinnitus : Validation of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acce...

  2. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  3. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  4. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction (Calaca Batangas Thermal Power Station); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Calaca Batangas karyoku hatsudensho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results of the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of circulating fluidized bed boilers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. Some guidance and advice about operation processes, data processing, operation regulation, maintenance, and boiler maintenance works were provided to the Ministry of Energy and Electric Power Corporation of the Philippines. Semirara, Malangas, and Samar coals in the Philippines were used for the tests. The boiler facilities could be operated by Philippine operators themselves. Based on the guidance and advice about operation processes, combustion tests using various Philippine coals were also planned and conducted by themselves. The maintenance techniques were transferred to Philippine operators through the inspection, repair and advice. The Philippine side understood the technologies well, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler technology was independently educated in the Philippines. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. kitchingroup-57: Accepted

    OpenAIRE

    John Kitchin

    2016-01-01

    This is the accepted version of this manuscript. @article{kitchin-2015-examp, author = {Kitchin, John R.}, title = {Examples of Effective Data Sharing in Scientific Publishing}, journal = {ACS Catalysis}, volume = {5}, number = {6}, pages = {3894-3899}, year = 2015, doi = {10.1021/acscatal.5b00538}, url = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.5b00538 }, keywords = {DESC0004031, early-career, orgmode, Data sharing }, eprint = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.5b00538 }, }

  6. Environment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems involved in the siting of nuclear power stations at a local level are of a political economic, social or ecological order. The acceptance of a nuclear station mostly depends on its interest for the local population. In order to avoid negative reactions, the men who are responsible must make the harmonious integration of the station within the existing economic and social context their first priority

  7. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...

  8. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  9. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  10. Dependence of saltation parameters on bed roughness and bed porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    Prague : ITAM AS CR, v. v. i., 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 625-629 ISBN 978-80-86246-40-6. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : saltation parameters * saltation length * saltation height * bed structure * normal distribution of bed particles * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  12. MICROSOFT ADO.NET OHJELMISTOTUOTANNOSSA

    OpenAIRE

    Kyllönen, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua Microsoft .NET -ohjelmointiympäristöön sisälty-vään ADO.NET -tietokantarajapintaan käytännön tasolla. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuus käsittelee ADO.NET:in perustan muodostavien luokkakirjastojen toimintaa. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat ylei-simpien luokkien tärkeimmät ominaisuudet ja metodit. Opinnäytetyön käytännön osassa tavoitteena oli ohjelmoida liiketoimintalogiikka Microsoft SQL -tietokantaa käyttävää ASP.NET -sovellusta varten. ADO.NET on uusin ...

  13. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  14. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, W.M.; Ribberink, J.S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under pr

  15. Net coal thickness in the southern Piceance Basin, Colorado (ps*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1 ft thick for the Cameo/Fairfield coal...

  16. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  17. Mathematical simulation of radial heat transfer in packed beds by pseudohomogeneous modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Béttega; Marcos Flávio Pinto Moreira; Ronaldo Guimar(a)es Corrêa; José Teixeira Freire

    2011-01-01

    Uniform flow regime and constant effective thermal conductivity inside packed beds are commonly accepted in the evaluation of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer in such systems. However, several authors have confirmed the presence of an oscillatory velocity profile caused by the effective contribution of porosity profile in the fluid dynamic behavior of packed beds, which directly influences the heat transfer inside the beds. This paper describes the application of a pseudo-homogeneous mathematical model for describing heat transfer in packed beds with oscillatory profiles of velocity and porosity, using a radius-dependent model for effective thermal conductivity kr. Several temperature profiles were obtained in a packed bed system with thermal source located on the wall. The simulated temperature and effective thermal conductivity obtained from simulations were compared with experimental data and calculation from a model based on uniform kr fitting. The results indicate that the proposed mathematical modeling was capable of better representing the heat transfer in the packed bed.

  18. Capacitively-Heated Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchale, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidized-bed chamber in which particles in bed are capacitively heated produces high yields of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor devices. Deposition of unrecoverable silicon on chamber wall is reduced, and amount of recoverable silicon depositing on seed particles in bed is increased. Particles also have a size and density suitable for direct handling without consolidation, unlike silicon dust produced in heated-wall chambers.

  19. Acceptance, Tolerance, Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive waste management from an ethical and societal viewpoint was treated in this seminar, which had participants from universities (social, theological, philosophical and science institutes), waste management industry, and regulatory and controlling authorities. After initial reviews on repository technology, policies and schedules, knowledge gaps, and ethical aspects on decision making under uncertainty, four subjects were treated in lectures and discussions: Democratic collective responsibility, Handling threats in democratic decision making, Waste management - a technological operation with a social dimension, Acceptance and legitimity. Lectures with comments and discussions are collected in this report

  20. Marketing for Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008. The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for acceptance that provides the reader with insight into ways that classic grounded theorists have published their works. This is followed by a discussion of ideas for normalizing classic grounded theory research methods in our substantive fields.

  1. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np→n'p' or pp→p'p' scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994

  2. Continuous cleaning of heat exchanger with recirculating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed heat exchangers for liquids have been studied in the United States, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Between 1965 and 1970, fluidized bed heat exchangers were developed in the United States as brine heaters in seawater desalination. Furthermore, their potential in the utilization of geothermal energy was tested between 1975 and 1980. In the Netherlands, fluidized bed heat exchangers have been developed since 1973 for brine heating and heat recovery in multistage flash evaporators for seawater desalination and, since about 1980, for applications in the process industry. The authors became interested in fluidized bed heat exchangers first in 1978 in connection with wastewater evaporation. The authors emphasize that the results of all these groups were in basic agreement. They can be summarized as follows: 1. The fluidized bed will in many cases maintain totally clean surfaces and neither scaling nor fouling will occur. In cases where even a fluidized bed cannot completely prevent scaling or fouling, the thickness of the layer is controlled. In these cases stable operation maintaining acceptable overall heat transfer coefficients is possible without cleaning. 2. There are always excellent heat transfer coefficients as low superficial velocities of less than ν < 0.5 m/s. 3. The pressure losses are comparable with those in normal heat exchangers since fluidized bed heat exchangers are mostly operated at low superficial velocities. 4. Feed flow may be varied between 50 and 150% or more of the design feed flow. 5. Erosion is negligible. 6. Fluidized bed particles can be manufactured from all sorts of chemically and mechanically resistant materials, such as sand, glass, ceramics, and metals

  3. On the structure of turbulent gravel bed flow: Implications for sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Seyed Hossein; Righetti, Maurizio; Wharton, Geraldene; Romano, Giovanni Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the turbulent flow field over gravel particles as a first step towards understanding sediment transport in a gravel bed river. Specifically, the vertical momentum flux in gravel bed turbulent flow was investigated with particular attention to the near-bed region. Spatial organization of vertical momentum flux was studied with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a horizontal layer 1mm above the gravel crests. The vertical momentum flux through the water column was described with digital PIV measurements in three vertical planes. The data showed that near the gravel bed, net turbulent momentum flux spatially varies with respect to bed topography. Analysis of the vertical velocity data revealed that near the gravel particle crests, there is a significant net vertical form-induced momentum flux approximately with the same order of magnitude as the net vertical turbulent momentum flux. Above the crests, total net vertical momentum flux is positive. However, below the crests, despite noticeable positive form-induced momentum flux, total net vertical momentum flux is negative. Results of quadrant analysis show that variation of turbulent net vertical momentum flux through water column is in agreement with prevalence of upward movement of low velocity flow (known as ejection) above gravel crests and downward movement of high velocity flow (known as sweep) below gravel crests. Below gravel crests (- 0.1 < z / H < 0.0), there is a region where the contribution of second quadrant to Reynolds shear stress is lower than fourth quadrant, while the contribution of second quadrant to vertical momentum flux is higher than fourth quadrant. This can be interpreted that ejection events in this region are strong enough to lift up fine particles but their contribution is not sufficient to move fine particles in the longitudinal direction.

  4. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Wave Interaction with Moving Net Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    Fluid structure interaction is an important issue in designof many engineering systems including offshore fish cages. As a first step to develop a coupled CFD/FEM model, in the present study a moving porous media model has been developed in the open source library Open FOAM. The net structure was...... described as a sheet of porous media with prescribed rigid body motion and mesh motion was incorporated to conform the motion of the net. Free surface wave generation and absorption framework was also introduced to simulate wave interaction with moving net structures. The results showed that mesh motion...... solver was coupled with free surface wave generation and absorption framework and porous media model flawlessly, and the deformed mesh remained acceptable. It was concluded that Laplace mesh motionsolver with inversed quadratic diffusivity model was an appropriate option for simulating wave interaction...

  8. On the Decidability of Non Interference over Unbounded Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Eike; Gorrieri, Roberto; 10.4204/EPTCS.51.2

    2011-01-01

    Non-interference, in transitive or intransitive form, is defined here over unbounded (Place/Transition) Petri nets. The definitions are adaptations of similar, well-accepted definitions introduced earlier in the framework of labelled transition systems. The interpretation of intransitive non-interference which we propose for Petri nets is as follows. A Petri net represents the composition of a controlled and a controller systems, possibly sharing places and transitions. Low transitions represent local actions of the controlled system, high transitions represent local decisions of the controller, and downgrading transitions represent synchronized actions of both components. Intransitive non-interference means the impossibility for the controlled system to follow any local strategy that would force or dodge synchronized actions depending upon the decisions taken by the controller after the last synchronized action. The fact that both language equivalence and bisimulation equivalence are undecidable for unbounde...

  9. Morsleben waste acceptance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Morsleben waste acceptance requirements take into account the valid stipulations in the permanent operational license of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (Eram) dated April 22, 1986, and in the documents underlying it. In line with the guaranteed continued validity until June 30, 2000 of this permanent operational license, also the classification of radioactive waste by waste types (A) and radiation protection groups (S) was retained. The revised requirements to be met by radioactive waste to be disposed of in Eram as issued by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) effective August 1996 constitute the safety framework which must be adhered to by this waste. They also take into account other stipulations by the BfS, especially voluntary restrictions and conditions imposed by the self-surveillance. Eram accepts the 'solid waste' and 'spent sealed radiation sources' categories. The waste generators must observe the requirements to be met by waste to be stored permanently. In the case of solid waste, these conditions include criteria to be met by waste forms, activity limitations for radionuclides and groups of radionuclides, and packaging criteria. (orig.)

  10. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  11. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  12. Ferromagnetic inserts for the ripple correction in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of generating large plasmas in NET might be limited by the high values of the toroidal field ripple. A possible means of ripple reduction is to include pieces of ferromagnetic material in the shielding structure. This paper presents the results of 3-D calculations that show how inserts of reasonable size can reduce the ripple to acceptable levels. The influence of the different dimensions of the ferromagnetic sectors is also shown. (author). 2 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José;

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures and by...... incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation...

  14. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  15. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs. PMID:18767752

  16. The Importance of Safety Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2014-01-01

    Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group discusses the importance of safety nets and social protection that countries provide to their citizens. He announces supporting for Mexico’s second-generation safety net program PROSPERA, which provides a financial cushion to poor people, allowing them to achieve a higher level of health and security and giving them the chance to learn skills and to find go...

  17. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  18. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  19. Practical .NET for financial markets

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    This book provides fascinating insight into the nature and operation of Financial (Equity) markets and the singular demands and challenges placed on technology solutions in this environment. It then takes an in-depth look at how these challenges can be addressed using Microsoft .NET technology. Each chapter starts with a detailed explanation of a specific and ubiquitous business requirement in Equity market applications, and then the particular features of the.NET framework that can be used to meet that requirement

  20. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  1. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  2. Production of paulista gherkin using trellis net support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo Valéria Aparecida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulista gherkin is a new gherkin type obtained by crossing Cucumis anguria var. anguria x C. anguria var. longaculeatus. It differs from common gherkin in its fruits and leaves. Elite lines of Paulista gherkin present similar performance for total yield and fruit weight but some have distinctive characteristics, including fruit and leaf attributes. The combination of these characteristics through production of Paulista gherkin hybrids could be an alternative for fruit quality and/or yield improvement. The purpose of the present work was to compare the yield of Paulista gherkin lines and their hybrids grown on a trellis net under field conditions. Four lines and their six single-cross hybrids were evaluated for yield and fruit production using the trellised net production system. Seedlings were produced in polystyrene trays with 128 cells, and transplanted to the middle of 1.20 m wide beds. Plants were trained without pruning on netting having 0.1 x 0.1 m openings. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates and seven plants per plot. Yield was expressed as number of fruits and total weight of fruits per plot. Length, width and fruit flesh thickness were also evaluated, with five samples per plot in two harvesting times. Hybrids and their parental lines were similar in fruit yield and quality. The trellised net was suitable for Paulista gherkin production and provided adequate support to the plants. The trellis technique is suitable to make harvesting easier and to improve fruit quality.

  3. Petri Nets And Algebraic Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report covers part of the work carried out in connection to the co-operative project between ENEA and the OECD Halden Reactor Project on graphical and formal methods for software specification. One of the project assignments has been to investigate how graphical descriptions can be supported by the algebraic specification language and associated tool (the HRP Prover) developed at the Halden Project. Since many graphical description languages can be translated to Petri nets, the focus of the investigations has been put on the translation of these nets into algebraic specification. The report introduces two related classes of algebraic specifications, and defines a notion of equivalence between them. It is demonstrated how these two classes provide a suitable framework for the translation of many different types of Petri nets into algebraic specification. It is also demonstrated how this translation makes it possible to analyse the nets with techniques established for algebraic specification, illustrated through the use of the HRP Prover. The exposition in the report contributes to a clarification about the relationship between Petri nets and algebraic specifications. Furthermore, it indicates the extent to which graphical descriptions can be used to explain the meaning of algebraic specifications to non experts. The report also reviews applications of Petri nets related to nuclear power. These include fault diagnosis and fault detection in nuclear reactors, fault tolerance in nuclear reactor protection systems, and modelling of work flow in nuclear waste management. (author)

  4. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  5. Is nuclear power acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy shortage forecast for the early 21st century is considered. Possible energy sources other than fossil fuel are stated as geothermal, fusion, solar and fission, of which only fission has been demonstrated technically and economically. The environmental impacts of fission are examined. The hazards are discussed under the following headings: nuclear accident, fatality risk, safe reactor, property damage, acts of God, low-level release of radioactivity, diversion of fissile material and sabotage, radioactive waste disposal, toxicity of plutonium. The public reaction to nuclear power is analyzed, and proposals are made for a programme of safety and security which the author hopes will make it acceptable as the ultimate energy source. (U.K.)

  6. Water desalination by a fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great need for potable water in the world motivated the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to study the feasibility of nuclear seawater desalination. The consensus reached is that nuclear desalination is technically feasible, though cost and social acceptability are recognized as major problems to overcome. Here an inherently safe reactor with reduced cost is proposed to overcome these barriers. The reactor is a simple small modular nuclear reactor based on fluidized bed concept with passive cooling characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  8. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed Bug Control Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Can you treat and eliminate the bed bugs ... all of the residents to participate. Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the ...

  9. Primerjava razvojnih modelov .NET MVC in .NET Web Forms

    OpenAIRE

    ROŽMAN, ANŽE

    2016-01-01

    Telekomunikacijska industrija se hitro razvija, zato pogosto pride do problema, ko obstoječa spletna aplikacija OMS ne nudi več zadostne podpore samim poslovnim zahtevam. OMS je spletna aplikacija, ki upravlja z naročili. Omogoča zajem, obdelavo in izvedbo naročil za uporabnike operaterskih storitev. Pri izgradnji nove spletne aplikacije OMS smo imeli v podjetju, ki za enega od slovenskih operaterjev deluje kot podizvajalec, dva možna razvojna modela ASP .NET Spletni obrazci in ASP .NET MVC,...

  10. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  11. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  12. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  13. LabraNet-verkon monitorointi

    OpenAIRE

    Sunnari, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli etsiä ja ottaa käyttöön Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun Teknologia-yksikön Labra- Net-verkkoon uusi valvontaohjelmisto. LabraNet-verkko oli alunperin vain yksikön omassa tuotantokäytössä, mutta nykyään se kasvaa ja monipuolistuu nopeasti tarjoten palveluitaan muille yksiköille. Tästä johtuen vanha valvontaoh- jelmisto koettiin rajoittuneeksi, eikä se vastannut nykyajan vaatimuksia. Verkonvalvonnan tarkoitus on parantaa verkon luotettavuutta, ...

  14. Neural nets and chaotic carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ""Neural Nets and Chaotic Carriers"" develops rational principles for the design of associative memories, with a view to applying these principles to models with irregularly oscillatory operation so evident in biological neural systems, and necessitated by the meaninglessness of absolute signal levels. Design is based on the criterion that an associative memory must be able to cope with 'fading data', i.e., to form an inference from the data even as its memory of that data degrades. The resultant net shows striking biological parallels. When these principles are combined with the Freeman speci

  15. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  16. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  17. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  18. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can be...... carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed...

  19. The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects

  20. Durability associated efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets after five years of household use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been strongly advocated for use to prevent malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and have significantly reduced human-vector contact. PermaNet® 2.0 is among the five LLINs brands which have been given full approval by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES. The LLINs are expected to protect the malaria endemic communities, but a number of factors within the community can affect their durability and efficacy. This study evaluated the durability, efficacy and retention of PermaNet® 2.0 after five years of use in a Tanzanian community. Method Two to three day- old non blood-fed female mosquitoes from an insectary susceptible colony (An. gambiae s.s, this colony was established at TPRI from Kisumu, Kenya in 1992 and wild mosquito populations (An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus were used in cone bioassay tests to assess the efficacy of mosquito nets. Findings The knockdown effect was recorded after three minutes of exposure, and mortality was recorded after 24 hours post-exposure. Mortality of An. gambiae s.s from insectary colony was 100% while An. arabiensis and Cx.quinquefasciatus wild populations had reduced mortality. Insecticide content of the new (the bed net of the same brand but never used before and used PermaNet® 2.0 was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that, in order to achieve maximum protection against malaria, public health education focusing on bed net use and maintenance should be incorporated into the mass distribution of nets in communities.

  1. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  2. American acceptance of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, W.

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature. (DCK)

  3. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed on the......, Ronold K. Societal indicators and risk acceptance. In: 17th International Conference on Offshote Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, number OMAE98-1488. ASME; 1998; Rackwitz R. Optimization and risk acceptability based on the Life Quality Index. Structural Safety 2002;24;297-331.). Keywords: Acceptance...

  4. Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste

  5. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  6. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  7. Banking Safety Nets: Information Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ponce

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes recent literature on the optimal design of banking safety nets. We focalize on information issues. In particular, we propose a mechanism to improve the incentives the Central Bank has to provide information to the Deposit Insurance Corporation. Such mechanism makes possible the implementation of the second-best allocation of the lender of last resort activity proposed by Repullo (2000).

  8. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  9. Burkina Faso - Social safety nets

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Burkina Faso is a poor landlocked country with a narrow natural resource base and a rapidly expanding population of 15.8 million. This report, with the technical support of United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), provides a detailed, updated inventory of the existing social safety net programs and suggests policy measures that could improve their coverage, efficiency, relevance, and finan...

  10. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  11. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  12. Sediment concentration profiles in bed-near-bed layers under unsteady flow and sediment conditions : a CT-Scanned flume investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Suzanne; Long, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a case study from a CT-scan flume experiment on the variation in sediment transport (concentration) under transitional, initially high-regime (but decreasing), sub-critical flow with bed erosion or no net aggradation. The objective is to better understand sediment transport during unsteady flows such as during a wining flood. In particular, the effect of mud-aggregate transport on sediment concentration in the bed-near-bed continuum was addressed. CT-scans were taken during sediment transport, with plane beds or dunes being the bed state. The density material (water and/or sediment) in over 105 volumes (voxels, each approximately equivalent to a grain of 0.8 mm) were analysed. Computed Tomography technology provides high-resolution results, both in time and space, and allows recognition of subtle changes in the shape of relative sediment concentration profile with bed states. The migration and attrition of mud aggregates in this experiment increased the mean volume fraction sediment concentration in the bed-near-bed layer (lower 5% of the flow) by a factor of about 2, from an inital value of 0.12 up to 0.25, and back to 0.13 when the supply ended. Also, the presence of mud-aggregates in the preserved deposits (transported as bedload) increases bed porosity. This case study demonstrates the great potential of Computed Tomography in process-oriented, experimental sedimentology. The community would benefit from more collaborative research using this technology, including data sharing as suggested by initiatives such as the Sediment Experimentalists Network (http://workspace.earthcube.org/sen)

  13. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  14. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  15. Isopachs of total net coal in A-D coal zones, Yampa Coal Field (yam*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick for the A, B, C, and D coal...

  16. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  17. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  18. Tritium recovery from helium purge stream of solid breeder blanket by cryogenic molecular sieve bed. 2. Regeneration operation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Regeneration operation is a very important operation, because it is the most influential factor for deciding the net operation cycle time and the minimum dimension of Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB). However, the experimental data of CMSB regeneration operation was not so sufficient that even the optimum regeneration procedure could not be decided yet. This work was focused on getting the primary information about various regeneration procedures. (author)

  19. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  20. Net neutrality and investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil; Kim, Byung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of net neutrality regulation on investment incentives for Internet service providers (ISPs) and content providers (CPs), and their implications for social welfare. We show that the ISP's decision on the introduction of discrimination across content depends on a potential trade-off between network access fee and the revenue from the trade of the first-priority. Concerning the ISP's investment incentives, we find that capacity expansion affects the sale price of ...

  1. County Amenities and Net Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Rupasingha, Anil; Goetz, Stephan J.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. county-level net migration data and a general spatial model are used to examine the effects of various amenities on migration decisions. Results suggest that higher county cancer risks and the presence of superfund sites in a county, or a higher ranking on the Environmental Protection Agency's hazard ranking system, reduce the relative attractiveness of a county to prospective migrants, while natural amenities on balance attract migrants, ceteris paribus. The results also reveal spatial ...

  2. Kompas Scandinavia on the Net

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, Yuliya; Alameddine, Liudmila; Znotiņa, Signe; Rimm, Kristi; Katanic Pedersen, Petja

    2006-01-01

    The project is about improving the website in terms of communication for the travel agency "Kompas Scandinavia ApS". The methods used for empirical resarch are semi-structured interviews and think aloud method beyond usability testing. During the project we used our created website which we created in workshop Net Media. We find out the role of website in company's every day life too.

  3. Factors associated with the non-use of insecticide-treated nets in Rwandan children

    OpenAIRE

    Ruyange, Monique Murindahabi; Condo, Jeanine; Karema, Corine; Binagwaho, Agnes; Rukundo, Alphonse; Muyirukazi, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are highly effective in reducing malaria burden when used properly. However, factors related to individuals, households and community may influence how ITNs are used for malaria control. The study examined influences exerted at these levels to determine if they are associated with ITN non-use among children under 5 years of age in Rwanda. Methods Using data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey, the investigation was done on the factors ...

  4. Factors likely to affect community acceptance of a malaria vaccine in two districts of Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Meñaca

    Full Text Available Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Ghana. As part of the effort to inform local and national decision-making in preparation for possible malaria vaccine introduction, this qualitative study explored community-level factors that could affect vaccine acceptance in Ghana and provides recommendations for a health communications strategy. The study was conducted in two purposively selected districts: the Ashanti and Upper East Regions. A total of 25 focus group discussions, 107 in-depth interviews, and 21 semi-structured observations at Child Welfare Clinics were conducted. Malaria was acknowledged to be one of the most common health problems among children. While mosquitoes were linked to the cause and bed nets were considered to be the main preventive method, participants acknowledged that no single measure prevented malaria. The communities highly valued vaccines and cited vaccination as the main motivation for taking children to Child Welfare Clinics. Nevertheless, knowledge of specific vaccines and what they do was limited. While communities accepted the idea of minor vaccine side effects, other side effects perceived to be more serious could deter families from taking children for vaccination, especially during vaccination campaigns. Attendance at Child Welfare Clinics after age nine months was limited. Observations at clinics revealed that while two different opportunities for counseling were offered, little attention was given to addressing mothers' specific concerns and to answering questions related to child immunization. Positive community attitudes toward vaccines and the understanding that malaria prevention requires a comprehensive approach would support the introduction of a malaria vaccine. These attitudes are bolstered by a well-established child welfare program and the availability in Ghana of active, flexible structures for conveying health information to communities. At the same time, it would

  5. Advanced sorbent development progam; development of sorbents for moving-bed and fluidized-bed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and

  6. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

    2000-03-31

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost

  7. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AYALA, R E; VENKATARAMANI, V S

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a

  8. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  9. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb3Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb3TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.)

  10. Computation and control with neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-10-04

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Computation and control with neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future 'microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs

  12. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  13. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  14. DecisionNet: a database approach

    OpenAIRE

    Earley, Steven H.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the database design and implementation for DecisionNet -- a distributed decision support technology server for the World Wide Web. The main premise of DecisionNet is that decision support technologies can be utilized by consumers as services over the World Wide Web instead of being purchased as stand-alone products. In this sense, DecisionNet performs the role of an 'agent,' facilitating transactions between consumers and providers. All of DecisionNet's functions involve...

  15. Study of Fluidized-Bed Control Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of nuclear reactors with fluidized-bed control rods (FBCR) has been previously proposed; but, despite some apparent advantages over electromechanical systems, such rods have not received widespread attention. With the FBCR concept, the reactor control system becomes a flow-regulating system using either variable-speed pumps or motor-driven control valves in the main coolant. Alternatively, in-core by-pass piping similar to control systems now being developed for fluidized-bed reactors may be utilized. Some of the possible advantages of the FBCR concept are as follows: (1) Most pressure-vessel head penetrations are eliminated, and refueling is simplified; (2) Automatic scram results from a loss-of-flow accident; (3) Axial power can be shaped by the use of contoured channels or variable-sized particles; (4). Water-gap flux peaking can be reduced for the partially withdrawn control rod; (5) The temperature reactivity allowance may be reduced if the fluidized control rods have a negative temperature coefficient; and (6) Fabrication costs are much lower than for electromechanical systems. An evaluation of the FBCR concept, including construction of prototype models and testing of the hydraulic and nuclear characteristics, has been performed. Two types of rods were studied: transmission rods (thickness ≦ 2 mean-free-paths) and reflection rods (thickness ≦ 4 mean-free-paths). Acceptable hydraulic and nuclear characteristics are possible with both types. The feasibility of controlling low-power reactors by either transmission- or reflection-type fluidized.-bed control rods has been established. Furthermore, it was shown that the FBCR concept has good control properties which may be calculated by standard theoretical methods. For high-power, high-temperature applications, additional information on particle material characteristics is needed. A great advantage offered by the FBCR is the possibility of shaping the axial flux either by the use of particles of

  16. A MODEL OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE ACCEPTANCE OF MOBILE PHONE USE IN PUBLIC PLACES

    OpenAIRE

    BRENDA MAK; ROBERT C. NICKERSON; HENRI ISAAC

    2009-01-01

    Since the first commercial launch of cellular telecoms by NET in Tokyo Japan in 1979 and the launch of the NMT system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981, the mobile phone has undergone continual incremental innovation for changing market needs. This study investigates the factors affecting the attitudes towards the social acceptance of mobile phones in public places and how this attitude affects its usage. Theories on innovation and technology acceptance were reviewed, and studies...

  17. A Model of Attitudes toward the Acceptance of Mobile Phone Use in Public Places

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Brenda; Nickerson, Robert; Isaac, Henri

    2009-01-01

    International audience Since the first commercial launch of cellular telecoms by NET in Tokyo Japan in 1979 and the launch of the NMT system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981, the mobile phone has undergone continual incremental innovation for changing market needs. This study investigates the factors affecting the attitudes towards the social acceptance of mobile phones in public places and how this attitude affects its usage. Theories on innovation and technology acceptance ...

  18. L-286, Acceptance Test Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  19. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  20. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  1. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Keeffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  2. Proof nets for the Displacement calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Moot, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a proof net calculus for the Displacement calculus and show its correctness. This is the first proof net calculus which models the Displacement calculus directly and not by some sort of translation into another formalism. The proof net calculus opens up new possibilities for parsing and proof search with the Displacement calculus.

  3. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  4. No such thing as the Net Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Harry van; Vliet, H.M.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The propagandization of a Net Generation adds nothing to our understanding of the digital behaviour of young people. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the whole concept of a Net Generation rests on incorrect assumptions. Hence, arguments based on a Net Generation are not only irreleva

  5. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  6. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. Bed load transport in an obstruction-formed pool in a forest, gravelbed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Woodsmith, Richard D.

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines channel dynamics and bed load transport relations through an obstruction-forced pool in a forest, gravel-bed stream by comparing flow conditions, sediment mobility, and bed morphology among transects at the pool head, centre, and tail. Variable sediment supply from within and outside of the channel led to a complex pattern of scour and fill hysteresis. Despite the large flood magnitude, large portions of the bed did not scour. Scour was observed at three distinct locations: two of these were adjacent to large woody debris (LWD), and the third was along the flow path deflected by a major LWD obstruction. Bed material texture showed little change in size distribution of either surface or subsurface material, suggesting lack of disruption of the pre-flood bed. Fractions larger than the median size of the bed surface material were rarely mobile. Sediment rating relations were similar, although temporal variation within and among stations was relatively high. Relations between bed load size distribution and discharge were complex, showing coarsening with increasing discharge followed by fining as more sand was mobilized at high flow. Lack of local scour in the pool combined with bed load fining and net fill by relatively fine material implied that the dominant sources of mobile sediment were upstream storage sites and local bank collapse. Patterns of flow, channel dynamics, and sediment mobility were strongly affected by a LWD flow obstruction in the pool centre that created turbulent effects, thereby enhancing entrainment and transport in a manner similar to scour at bridge piers.

  9. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance of the...

  10. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  11. BeAtPlay.net

    OpenAIRE

    Tienhaara, Tommi

    2005-01-01

    BeAtPlay.net on peli tai leikki, jonka taustalla on ihmisten tarve ottaa kontaktia toisiin mukaviin ihmisiin. Uusien kontaktien luominen on kuitenkin vaikeaa, ja epäonnistumisiakin tarvitaan uskaltamisen lisäksi. Leikki kehittyi monien vaiheiden kautta. Ensin se oli jonkinlainen visuaalinen tarina lautapelille ja lopulta installaatio MoA05-näyttelyssä, joka innoitti ihmisiä jättämään viestejä toisilleen. Aina vaikeinta on ensimmäisen askeleen ottaminen. Toistaiseksi vaikeinta on pysäh...

  12. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  13. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  14. A Theory of Generative ConvNet

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwen; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Song-Chun; Wu, Ying Nian

    2016-01-01

    We show that a generative random field model, which we call generative ConvNet, can be derived from the commonly used discriminative ConvNet, by assuming a ConvNet for multi-category classification and assuming one of the categories is a base category generated by a reference distribution. If we further assume that the non-linearity in the ConvNet is Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) and the reference distribution is Gaussian white noise, then we obtain a generative ConvNet model that is unique am...

  15. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  16. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least two people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  18. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  19. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate under very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of approximately 0.7-0.8 W of electric power during the daylight time. As the provided power output is insufficient to operate all instruments simultaneously they are activated sequentially according to a specially designed cyclogram table which adapts itself to the different environmental constraints. Mission Status Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. Even if the MetNet mission is focused on the atmospheric science, the mission payload will also include additional kinds of geophysical instrumentation. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has

  1. Wind power: basic challenge concerning social acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wolsink

    2012-01-01

    This reference article gives an overview of social acceptance (acceptance by all relevant actors in society) of all relevant aspects of implementation and diffusion of wind power. In social acceptance three dimensions of acceptance are distinguished (socio-political -; community -; market acceptance

  2. The Effects of Creating Psychological Ownership on Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Jacques, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Motivated by the need to push further our understanding of physicians' acceptance of clinical information systems, we propose a relatively new construct, namely, psychological ownership. We situated the construct within a nomological net using a prevailing and dominant information technology adoption behavior model as a logical starting point.

  3. 77 FR 27768 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... containing two turbine/generator units rated at 2.5 megawatts each at 140 feet of net head; (2) a 3-mile-long... Rural Electric Company (the point of interconnection); and (3) appurtenant facilities. The estimated... Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications...

  4. Status of the pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskom is the South African state electricity utility, with an installed capacity of 38397 MW at the end of 1996 (some 98% of all national generating assets). It is largely coal-based with a small proportion (5%) nuclear. As part of Eskom's long-term planning process, investigations have been made into new power generation options. On reconsidering the nuclear option, Eskom identified two key issues: cost and public acceptance. It was considered that both of these were driven by the safety issues related to potential accidents and the only way to obtain competitive costs with nuclear power was to remove the potential (however remote) for accidents with significant off-site consequences. The only reactor type that was seen to meet this safety standard was the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). This paper discusses the PBMR project history, plant performance and design, its benefits, safety features, and current status. It concludes that the PBMR will provide South Africa with a competitive option for coastal generation and, internationally, it will be highly competitive with virtually all other generation options. (author)

  5. The real problem: public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the problem of public acceptibility of radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom. U.K. Nirex has responsibility for developing a deep repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the U.K., and it is also developing a public information programme aimed at obtaining public acceptibility for such a repository. The main objective of the programme is to raise the level of public awareness of radioactive waste disposal to the point where scientifically supported assurances on safety and environmental impact would be accepted by concerned people. Previous experience of Nirex in dealing with the public on the waste disposal issue is described - this includes the public opposition to the proposed use of Billingham and Elstow as sites for a repository. The main lesson learnt from the latter opposition by Nirex is that public relations must be part of Nirex's main business. (U.K.)

  6. Stochastic phonological grammars and acceptability

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, J; Coleman, John; Pierrehumbert, Janet

    1997-01-01

    In foundational works of generative phonology it is claimed that subjects can reliably discriminate between possible but non-occurring words and words that could not be English. In this paper we examine the use of a probabilistic phonological parser for words to model experimentally-obtained judgements of the acceptability of a set of nonsense words. We compared various methods of scoring the goodness of the parse as a predictor of acceptability. We found that the probability of the worst part is not the best score of acceptability, indicating that classical generative phonology and Optimality Theory miss an important fact, as these approaches do not recognise a mechanism by which the frequency of well-formed parts may ameliorate the unacceptability of low-frequency parts. We argue that probabilistic generative grammars are demonstrably a more psychologically realistic model of phonological competence than standard generative phonology or Optimality Theory.

  7. Long-term and high resolution measurements of bed level changes in a temperate, microtidal coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Pejrup, Morten; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a long-term monitoring program of bed level changes measured during 8 yr at an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal, temperate coastal lagoon. Additionally, bed level measurements obtained at a 10-min temporal resolution at the same tidal flat and at the bed of a ...... seriously threatened by the expected sea level rise in the 21st century.......This study presents the results of a long-term monitoring program of bed level changes measured during 8 yr at an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal, temperate coastal lagoon. Additionally, bed level measurements obtained at a 10-min temporal resolution at the same tidal flat and at the bed of a...... nearby tidal channel are presented. Short-term changes in bed level are one or two orders of magnitude larger than the annual net-deposition rate, which shows that the environment is highly dynamic with respect to erosion, transport and deposition of fine-grained sediment. Some seasonality in the bed...

  8. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  9. On Languages Accepted by P/T Systems Composed of joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Frisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some studies linked the computational power of abstract computing systems based on multiset rewriting to models of Petri nets and the computation power of these nets to their topology. In turn, the computational power of these abstract computing devices can be understood by just looking at their topology, that is, information flow. Here we continue this line of research introducing J languages and proving that they can be accepted by place/transition systems whose underlying net is composed only of joins. Moreover, we investigate how J languages relate to other families of formal languages. In particular, we show that every J language can be accepted by a log n space-bounded non-deterministic Turing machine with a one-way read-only input. We also show that every J language has a semilinear Parikh map and that J languages and context-free languages (CFLs are incomparable.

  10. Acceptance test of LANTIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance tests of radiotherapy equipment are very important. It is essential for the quality control of the equipment. Quality assurance checks for LANTIS was done during the installation and also periodically. QA involves checks for individual workstations, as well as for overall system. In modern radiotherapy centers, transferring data from one workstation to another via networking improves the quality of the treatment, reduces the errors and reduces the overall treatment time. In this hospital, Local Area Network Therapy Information system (LANTIS) from Siemens, is available for patient data transfer. Here, some of the acceptance checks carried out are presented

  11. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  12. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  13. Reactor vessel for pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wall and the bottom of the vessel for the gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor consist of numerous blocks of graphite or carbon rock piled up. They are held together by an exterior cylindrical or polygonal ring and supported by a foundation. The blocks form coherent sectors resp. annular sectors with well-defined separating lines. At high temperatures or load change operation these sectors behave like monolithic blocks expanding heely and contracting again, the center of the vessel remaining fixed. The forces causing the compression result from the own weight of the sectors and the weight of the pebble bed. This motion is supported by the convex arrangement of the opposite surfaces of the sectors and the supporting walls and by roller bearings. The bottom of the vessel may be designed funnel-shaped, in this way facilitating the removal of spheres. (DG)

  14. Confusion Analysis and Detection for Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Option processes often occur in a business procedure with respect to resource competition. In a business procedure modeled with a workflow net (WF-net, all decision behavior and option operations for business tasks are modeled and performed by the conflicts in corresponding WF-net. Concurrency in WF-nets is applied to keep a high-performance operation of business procedures. However, the firing of concurrent transitions in a WF-net may lead to the disappearance of conflicts in the WF-net. The phenomenon is usually called confusions that produces difficulties for the resolution of conflicts. This paper investigates confusion detection problems in WF-nets. First, confusions are formalized as a class of marked subnets with special conflicting and concurrent features. Second, a detection approach based on the characteristics of confusion subnets and the integer linear programming (ILP is developed, which is not required to compute the reachability graph of a WF-net. Examples of the confusion detection in WF-nets are presented. Finally, the impact of confusions on the properties of WF-nets is specified.

  15. Bed bathing patients in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    L Downey; Lloyd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct proced...

  16. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Solids mixing in spouted beds

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, H. H.; Bridgwater, J.; Professor J. Bridgwater

    1981-01-01

    Many industrial processes require contact between particles and a fluid or spray in order to effect drying, coating or granulation. One device capable of contacting fluid and particles efficiently is a spouted bed in which a jet of fluid is injected into solid particles. This forms an open channel or spout and induces material circulation in a downward moving annulus. For the continuous throughput of solids, knowledge is required of the mixing and particle motions within th...

  18. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  19. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  20. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  1. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  2. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  3. Safety culture and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  4. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco's facility

  5. Acceptance tests and commissioning measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the installation of a therapy machine, be it an orthovoltage X ray unit, cobalt unit, linac or brachytherapy machine, in a radiotherapy clinic, the medical physicist must perform a series of measurements and tasks prior to placing the unit into clinical operation. These duties include acceptance testing and commissioning. Various dosimetric and radiation measuring instruments and techniques are discussed

  6. AAL- technology acceptance through experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huldtgren, A.; Ascencio San Pedro, G.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research and development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies, their acceptance remains low. This is partially caused by a lack of accounting for users' needs and values, and the social contexts these systems are to be embedded in. Participatory design has some potential

  7. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  8. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  9. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines the current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad, the evolution of the public opinion in the last decade, and the interaction between the former and the latter. It emphasises the absolute priority of a professional communication and exchange to gain public acceptance. (orig.)

  10. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. Complex forcing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcolm O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T. M.

    2007-09-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  11. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. complex forcing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcom O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  12. Petri Nets for Biologically Motivated Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri nets are a general and well-established model of concurrent and distributed computation and behaviour, including that taking place in biological systems. In this survey paper, we are concerned with intrinsic relationships between Petri nets and two formal models inspired by aspects of the functioning of the living cell: membrane systems and reaction systems. In particular, we are interested in the benefits that can result from establishing strong semantical links between Petri nets and membrane systems and reaction systems. We first discuss Petri nets with localities reflecting the compartmentalisation modelled in membrane systems. Then special attention is given to set-nets, a new Petri net model for reaction systems and their qualitative approach to the investigation of the processes carried out by biochemical reactions taking place in the living cell.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation on the transient coupled heat and mass transfer in a radial flow desiccant packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present theoretical and experimental investigation of desiccant bed. ► Transient coupled heat and mass transfer in a radial flow desiccant packed bed has been reported. ► A real-time model is used. ► The prediction of air exit conditions from the bed is carried out. - Abstract: Theoretical and experimental investigation on the transient coupled heat and mass transfer in a radial flow desiccant packed bed has been reported in the present work. An experimental test rig has been designed and constructed to carry out the required experimental measurements. System parameters and flowing air conditions (bed weight, air velocity, air conditions – dry and wet bulb temperatures- at exit of test rig components) are measured and analyzed. A hollow cylindrical packed bed has been used as a desiccant dehumidifier. This configuration decreases the required power to blow air through the bed. In the theoretical study, prediction of air exit conditions from the bed is carried out based on the model of Barlow for the analysis of adsorption and regeneration processes in the desiccant bed. This model uses simple effectiveness equations for steady-state heat and mass exchangers within a finite difference procedure. Air at different conditions of temperature and humidity enters the regenerated bed and the exit temperature and humidity are plotted with time. Acceptable agreement is found between the theoretical and experimental results. The most effective parameters on the system performance are the initial water content of the bed and its initial temperature. Bed cooling during adsorption improves the system performance.

  14. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  15. Bed to wall heat transfer in supercritical water fluidized bed: Comparison with the gas–solid fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical water (SCW) fluidized bed is a new reactor concept for gasification of wet biomass. In this paper, the Eulerian two-fluid model based on Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow in fluidized bed was established, and the physical model of movement of single bubble up the wall was adopted. The comparison studies of particle distribution, temperature distribution and transient heat transfer characteristics between the SCW and gas–solid fluidized bed were carried out. The results show that the bubble diameter and rise velocity in SCW fluidized bed are smaller than those in gas–solid fluidized bed. With the increasing solid volume fraction near the wall, the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient decreases in SCW fluidized bed, while it increases in gas–solid fluidized bed. What is more, the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient is sensitive to superficial velocity where the solid volume fraction is low, which is different from that in gas–solid fluidized bed

  16. Now how large is the safety net?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey M. Lacker; John A. Weinberg

    2010-01-01

    According to estimates done by researchers at the Richmond Fed, the federal financial safety net covered $25 trillion in liabilities, or 59 percent of all financial liabilities, at the end of 2008. Such expansion of the safety net has weakened market discipline and contributed to instability in the financial sector. Instead of attempting to address the "too big to fail" problem by breaking up large firms, for instance, policymakers ought to focus on credibly scaling back the safety net and ma...

  17. Viewing systems for NET and TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very hostile environmental conditions are expected inside the NET (Next European Torus) and TFTR (Test Fusion Tokamak Reactor) vacuum vessels because of the machine structures activation by high energy neutrons. Remote viewing systems will therefore be required to perform a number of functions which will be essential for the identification, location and realization of most remote maintenance operations. This paper presents the CEA-UGRA recommendations for the NET viewing systems, NET Vessel Inspection System and NET Detailed Observation System, and a description of the viewing system which has been installed onto the TFTR Maintenance Manipulator. (author). 9 figs, 1 tab

  18. KauNet : Design and Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Johan; Hurtig, Per; Brunström, Anna

    2008-01-01

    KauNet is an emulation system that allows deterministic placement of packet losses and bit-errors as well as more precise control over bandwidth and delay changes. KauNet is an extension to the well-known Dummynet emulator in FreeBSD and  allows the use of pattern and scenario files to increase control and repeatability. This report provides a comprehensive description of the usage of KauNet, as well as a technical description of the design and implementation of KauNet.

  19. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  20. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  1. NET 4 for Enterprise Architects and Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Hate, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge insights from industry practitioners, .NET 4 for Enterprise Architects and Developers supplies in-depth coverage of the various server-side features of Microsoft .NET Framework 4 that can be leveraged in Enterprise Application development. It provides a fundamental understanding of the technical aspects of implementation and details a step-by-step approach for real-life implementation using specific .NET 4 features. The book is useful to architects, developers, students, and technology enthusiasts who wish to learn more about .NET 4. It illustrates key scenarios and spe

  2. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  3. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  4. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  5. Test-retest reliability of the net joint power transferred by the lower limbs during walking in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jandačka; Jaroslav Uchytil; Zdeněk Svoboda; Milan Elfmark; Miroslav Janura

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the measurement of net joint power during repeated gait measurements within one day and between two different measurement days. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied men who underwent repeated gait measurements within a day and between days participated in this research. An acceptable trial was one in which the participant complied with the range of walking speed 1.45 m/s ± 5%. Three-dimensional angles, angular velocities, net moments of force and net ...

  6. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  8. Pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) was identified by ESKOM, the electric utility of South Africa, as a leading option for the installation of new generating capacity to their electric grid. This innovative nuclear power plant incorporates a closed cycle primary coolant system utilizing helium to transport heat energy directly from the modular pebble bed reactor to a recuperative power conversion unit with a single-shaft turbine/compressor/generator. This replacement of the steam cycle that is common in present nuclear power plants (NPP) with a direct gas cycle provides the benefits of simplification and a substantial increase in overall system efficiency with the attendant lowering of capital and operational costs. Although the historical development of this plant is interrelated to other types of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), the principle focus herein is on the pebble bed (spherical) fuel element type reactor. The long-term development of this reactor type began in Germany by the KFA Nuclear Research Center (now FZJ). Two pebble bed plants were constructed in Germany, the 46 MW(th)/15 MW(e) Arbeitsgemeinshaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 750 MW(th)/296 MW(e) thorium high temperature reactor (THTR-300). Basically, these steam/electric plants validated the temperature and fission product retention capabilities of the ceramic (TRISO) coated fuel particle and the safety characteristics of the HTGR. Most notable of the operational achievements was with the AVR in sustaining longterm operation at an average core outlet temperature of 950 deg. C, and in demonstration of safety such as extended loss of forced cooling on the core. More details on the AVR and THTR-300 plants are provided The next evolution of the pebble bed plant began in the early 1980s with development of the modular reactor. This small reactor added the unique characteristic of being able to cool the core entirely by passive heat transfer mechanisms following postulated

  9. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  10. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  11. Acceptability of reactors in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System

  12. Acceptability of reactors in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System

  13. The evolutionary analysis of the ultimatum game based on the net-profit decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ye, Shun-qiang; Jones, Michael C.; Ye, Ye; Wang, Meng; Xie, Neng-gang

    2015-07-01

    In an ultimatum game where competitive pressures and alternating roles exist, we suppose that players make their decisions based on the net profit of their own. Here we conduct a behavioral experiment in a selection examination, and then we establish a model and study the evolution of strategies on square lattices. In this model, we specify a player's strategy with two parameters: offer level α ∈ [ 0 , 1) and net profit acceptance level β ∈ [ - 1 , 1) . Evolutionary results show that individuals characterized by fairness (α → 0.5) and moderate kindness (β advantage is gained by kindness.

  14. Analysis of bed agglomeration during gasification of wheat straw in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Walsh, Eilín; Hemmingway, Phil; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and composition of the ash content of straw poses technical challenges to its thermal conversion and have been widely reported to cause severe ash sintering and bed agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification. Literature indicates that a combination of reactor design and bed material measures is required to avoid defluidisation at temperatures above 800 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy this study investigated the initial agglomer...

  15. MICROTURBULENCE IN GRAVEL BED STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Kramer, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The overarching objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of relative submergence on the formation and evolution of cluster microforms in gravel bed streams and its implications to bedload transport. Secondary objectives of this research included (1) a detailed analysis of mean flow measurements around a clast; and (2) a selected number of experimental runs where the mean flow characteristics are linked together with the bed micro-topography observations around a clast. It is hypothesized that the relative submergence is an important parameter in defining the feedback processes between the flow and clasts, which governs the flow patterns around the clasts, thus directly affecting the depositional patterns of the incoming sediments. To examine the validity of the hypothesis and meet the objectives of this research, 19 detailed experimental runs were conducted in a tilting, water recirculating laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. A fixed array of clast-obstacles were placed atop a well-packed bed with uniform size glass beads. During the runs, multifractional spherical particles were fed upstream of the clast section at a predetermined rate. State-of-the-art techniques/instruments, such as imaging analysis software, Large Scale Particle Velocimeter (LSPIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were employed to provide unique quantitative measurements for bedload fluxes, clast/clusters geomorphic patterns, and mean flow characteristics in the vicinity of the clusters. Different flow patterns were recorded for the high relative submergence (HRS) and low relative submergence (LRS) experimental runs. The ADV measurements provided improved insight about the governing flow mechanisms for the HRS runs. These mechanisms were described with flow upwelling at the center of the flume and downwelling occurring along the flume walls. Flow downwelling corresponded to an increase in the free surface velocity. Additionally, the visual observations

  16. Fixed bed nuclear reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) is essentially a pressurized light water reactor (PWR) having spherical fuel elements constituting a suspended reactor core at its lowest bed porosity. The core is movable thus under any adverse condition, the fuel elements can leave the reactor core naturally through the force of gravity and fall into the passively cooled fuel chamber or leave the reactor all together entering the spent fuel pool. It is a small and modular reactor being simple in design. Its spent fuel is in such a convenient form and size that may be utilized directly as the source for irradiation and applications in agriculture and industry. This feature results in a positive impact on waste management and environmental protection. The principle features of the proposed reactor are that the concept is polyvalent, simple in design, may operate either as fixed or fluidized bed, have the core suspended contributing to inherent safety, passive cooling features of the reactor. The reactor is modular and has integrated primary system utilizing either water, supercritical steam or helium gas as its coolant. Some of the advantages of the proposed reactor are being modular, low environmental impact, exclusion of severe accidents, short construction period, flexible adaptation to demand, excellent load following characteristics, and competitive economics. The characteristics of the Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) concept may be analyzed under the light of the requirements set for the IV generation nuclear reactors. It is shown that FBNR meet the goals of (1) Providing sustainable energy generation that meets clean air objectives and promotes long-term availability of systems and effective fuel utilization for worldwide energy production, (2) Minimize and manage their nuclear waste and notably reduce the long term stewardship burden in the future, thereby improving protection for the public health and the environment, (3) Excel in safety and reliability

  17. Specialized nets of solid-state sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko V. L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The research of the specialized networks based on solid-state sensors with automatic tuning of parameters was carried out. The construction peculiarities of such nets and sensors design used in them were examined. The ways of costs reduction for nets firmware were offered.

  18. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is sep

  19. Rolling back the financial safety net

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Hetzel; Stephen Slivinski

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the federal financial safety net has increased the incentives for financial firms to take on more risk than they would have otherwise. Yet current regulatory reform proposals do not address this root cause of financial instability. Sharply curtailing the financial safety net is a necessary step to achieve enhanced market discipline.

  20. Fundamental aspects of netted radar performance

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Y

    2010-01-01

    Netted radar employs several spatially distributed transmitters and receivers for information retrieval. This system topology offers many advantages over traditional monostatic and bistatic systems which use a single transmitter and a single receiver. For example, it provides better utilization of reflected energy, more flexible system arrangement and enhanced information retrieval capability. Therefore, the netted radar system is of emerging interests among radar researchers. ...

  1. The State of Social Safety Nets 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This publication begins a series that will monitor and report on social safety nets in developing countries. This first report in the series provides key social safety nets statistics and explains trends using information from 146 countries, including detailed household survey data from 69 countries in the World Bank's Atlas of Social Protection: Indicators of Resilience and Equity (ASPIRE...

  2. Performance Analysis Using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of improved facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Coloured Petri nets is a formal method that is well suited for modeling and analyzing large and complex systems. The paper describes steps that have been taken to make a distinction between ...

  3. Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban a...

  4. Groebner Basis Procedures for Testing Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Angie; Heyworth, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains introductory material on Petri nets and Groebner basis theory and makes some observations on the relation between the two areas. The aim of the paper is to show how Groebner basis procedures can be applied to the problem of reachability in Petri nets, and to give details of an application to testing models of navigational systems.

  5. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  6. Entrainment of bed sediment by debris flows: results from large-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, Matthew; LaHusen, Richard G.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Griswold, Julie P.

    2011-01-01

    When debris flows grow by entraining sediment, they can become especially hazardous owing to increased volume, speed, and runout. To investigate the entrainment process, we conducted eight largescale experiments in the USGS debris-flow flume. In each experiment, we released a 6 m3 water-saturated debris flow across a 47-m long, ~12-cm thick bed of partially saturated sediment lining the 31º flume. Prior to release, we used low-intensity overhead sprinkling and real-time monitoring to control the bed-sediment wetness. As each debris flow descended the flume, we measured the evolution of flow thickness, basal total normal stress, basal pore-fluid pressure, and sediment scour depth. When debris flows traveled over relatively dry sediment, net scour was minimal, but when debris flows traveled over wetter sediment (volumetric water content > 0.22), debris-flow volume grew rapidly and flow speed and runout were enhanced. Data from scour sensors showed that entrainment occurred by rapid (5-10 cm/s), progressive scour rather than by mass failure at depth. Overriding debris flows rapidly generated high basal pore-fluid pressures when they loaded and deformed bed sediment, and in wetter beds these pressures approached lithostatic levels. Reduction of intergranular friction within the bed sediment thereby enhanced scour efficiency, entrainment, and runout.

  7. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    In many systems a number of different processes have a similar structure and behaviour. To shorten system description and system analysis it is desirable to be able to treat such similar processes in a uniform and succinct way. In this paper it is shown how Petri nets can be generalized to allow...... processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  9. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    for systems of the size and complexity we find in typical industrial proj- ects. To achieve this, we have combined the strength of Petri nets with the strength of programming languages. Petri nets provide the primitives for the description of the synchronisation of concurrent processes, while......Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas are...... communication protocols, dis- tributed systems, imbedded systems, automated production systems, work flow analysis and VLSI chips. The development of CP-nets has been driven by the desire to develop a modelling language ñ at the same time theoretically well-founded and versatile enough to be used in practice...

  10. Isopachs of net coal in the B and D coal zones, Deserado study area, Lower White River coal field, CO (des*thkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO polygon coverages showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than or equal to 1.2' thick for the B and D coal zones,...

  11. Spring packed particle bed fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a gas cooled particle bed nuclear fuel element. It comprises: a porous inner frit; a porous outer frit attached to the inner frit by an end cap t a first end and radially guided by a shoulder at a second end, forming an annulus between the frits; a fuel particle bed in the annulus; a first compressive device at each end of the annulus; and a second compressive device positioned in the annulus within the fuel particle bed

  12. Fluidized bed combustion in praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation at deregulated energy markets emphasize utilities competitiveness in power generation. This means power plant investment cost as well as operation and maintenance costs must be competitive to ensure economical performance. Improvements in competitiveness can also be achieved investing to modem combustion technology and this way improve power generation efficiency (lower fuel consumption). Other means to improve cost effectiveness are optimisation of daily operation and process control system but also improving fuel flexibility if feasible (fuel price). The other need for utilities in the future is of course environmental issues like reduction of CO2 emissions in particular. As known fluidized bed combustion offers many advantages that might be needed at future energy markets. These are superior fuel and operation flexibility, multi-fuel capability, environmental performance with inherently low NOx emissions due favourable combustion conditions and cost effective sulphur reduction applying in-furnace SO2 capture. These advantages makes fluidized bed combustion attractive alternative power generation in the future. The current trends for development of the technology are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  13. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  14. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  15. Reservoir evaluation of thin-bedded turbidites and hydrocarbon pore thickness estimation for an accurate quantification of resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoniyi, Bayonle; Stow, Dorrik

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the assessment of and production from turbidite reservoirs is to take full account of thin and medium-bedded turbidites (business drivers. We have studied in detail, a succession of thin-bedded turbidites associated with thicker-bedded reservoir facies in the North Brae Field, UKCS, using a combination of conventional logs and cores to assess the significance of thin-bedded turbidites in computing hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT). This quantity, being an indirect measure of thickness, is critical for an accurate estimation of original-oil-in-place (OOIP). By using a combination of conventional and unconventional logging analysis techniques, we obtain three different results for the reservoir intervals studied. These results include estimated net sand thickness, average sand thickness, and their distribution trend within a 3D structural grid. The net sand thickness varies from 205 to 380 ft, and HPT ranges from 21.53 to 39.90 ft. We observe that an integrated approach (neutron-density cross plots conditioned to cores) to HPT quantification reduces the associated uncertainties significantly, resulting in estimation of 96% of actual HPT. Further work will focus on assessing the 3D dynamic connectivity of the low-pay sands with the surrounding thick-bedded turbidite facies.

  16. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling......Titel: Afrapportering vedr. SATS-puljemidler til behandling og erfaringsopsamling vedr. BED for perioden 1. marts 2013 – 1. maj 2015. Baggrund: Binge Eating Disorder (BED), på dansk tvangsoverspisning, er en udbredt, men overset spiseforstyrrelse med alvorlige psykiske, fysiske og sociale...

  17. ASP.NET website programming problem, design, solution, Visual Basic .NET edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bellinaso, Marco

    2003-01-01

    What is this book about? The C# edition of ASP.NET Website Programming Problem-Design-Solution has been phenomenally successful, gaining rave reviews for its unique approach and valuable content. The blend of theory and practice. Now, due to demand from readers, a Visual Basic .NET edition of the book has been produced. This edition will offer the same blend of theory and practice that won so many fans for the C# edition. The book has been completely re-edited to ensure that it address the needs of ASP.net developers who use VB.net. ASP.NET Website Programming shows you how to build an in

  18. Fast Acceptance by Common Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Berg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Schelling (1969, 1971a,b, 1978 observed that macro-level patterns do not necessarily reflect micro-level intentions, desires or goals. In his classic model on neighborhood segregation which initiated a large and influential literature, individuals with no desire to be segregated from those who belong to other social groups nevertheless wind up clustering with their own type. Most extensions of Schelling's model have replicated this result. There is an important mismatch, however, between theory and observation, which has received relatively little attention. Whereas Schelling-inspired models typically predict large degrees of segregation starting from virtually any initial condition, the empirical literature documents considerable heterogeneity in measured levels of segregation. This paper introduces a mechanism that can produce significantly higher levels of integration and, therefore, brings predicted distributions of segregation more in line with real-world observation. As in the classic Schelling model, agents in a simulated world want to stay or move to a new location depending on the proportion of neighbors they judge to be acceptable. In contrast to the classic model, agents' classifications of their neighbors as acceptable or not depend lexicographically on recognition first and group type (e.g., ethnic stereotyping second. The FACE-recognition model nests classic Schelling: When agents have no recognition memory, judgments about the acceptability of a prospective neighbor rely solely on his or her group type (as in the Schelling model. A very small amount of recognition memory, however, eventually leads to different classifications that, in turn, produce dramatic macro-level effects resulting in significantly higher levels of integration. A novel implication of the FACE-recognition model concerns the large potential impact of policy interventions that generate modest numbers of face-to-face encounters with members of other social groups.

  19. GEP- NETS UPDATE: Genetics of neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Joakim; Skogseid, Britt

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, arising from neuroendocrine cells that are dispersed throughout the body. Around 20% of NETs occur in the context of a genetic syndrome. Today there are at least ten recognized NET syndromes. This includes the classical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasias types 1 and 2, and von Hippel-Lindau and neurofibromatosis type 1. Additional susceptibility genes associated with a smaller fraction of NETs have also been identified. Recognizing genetic susceptibility has proved essential both to provide genetic counseling and to give the best preventive care. In this review we will also discuss the knowledge of somatic genetic alterations in NETs. At least 24 genes have been implicated as drivers of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis, and the overall rates of genomic instability are relatively low. Genetic intra-tumoral, as well as inter-tumoral heterogeneity in the same patient, have also been identified. Together these data point towards the common pathways in NET evolution, separating early from late disease drivers. Although knowledge of specific mutations in NETs has limited impact on actual patient management, we predict that in the near future genomic profiling of tumors will be included in the clinical arsenal for diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutic decisions. PMID:27165966

  20. Wind energy and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Heat exchanger staybolt acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural integrity demonstration of the primary coolant piping system includes evaluating the structural capacity of each component against a large break or equivalent Double-Ended Guillotine Break. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The Savannah River Site heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. Access to the staybolts is limited due to a welded seal cap over the staybolts. An ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection technique to provide an in-situ examination of the staybolts has recently been developed at SRS. Examination of the staybolts will be performed to ensure their service condition and configuration is within acceptance limits. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. The heat exchanger head is analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts. Evaluation of specific, inactive staybolt configurations based on the UT results can be performed with the finite element model and fracture methodology in this report

  3. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  4. A lightweight TwiddleNet portal

    OpenAIRE

    Rimikis, Antonios M.

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms. This thesis involves research in mobile personal members, mobile social networks and media sharing models and develops a TwiddleNet portal running on a smart phone or a PDA so that the entire TwiddleNet system can be run on handheld devices for rapid deployment in emergen...

  5. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, A.; Sharma, T; M Singh; K. Fatma; V. S. Rawat; Aggarwal, M; Khandal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the m...

  6. Net-a-Porter我是传奇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏

    2011-01-01

    创立11年,市值3.5亿英镑。平均每月全球有数百万人登录,平均每天送出1000件商品,平均每笔订单达850美元。在金融危机影响最深重的2O08年,Net-a-Porter销售飙升234%。这些数字足以记录出奢侈品购物网站先驱Net-a-Porter的成就。Net-a-Porter,是一个传奇。

  7. The Mode of Net-Virus Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanXiuming; LiYing; JiaoJian; LiuYang; RenYong; QiuBen; CaoYiqun

    2004-01-01

    The computer network is not only of benefit to people, but also helpful for the spreading of viruses. The net-viruses spread more widely and rapidly than the traditional viruses, and network has become the major path of the virus spreading. The author analyzes the mode of the net-virus spreading, including E-mail spreading, positive scanning spreading and through-server spreading. Then some defense strategies in the anti-virus field are introduced, and some countermeasures of the net computer users are discussed.

  8. DeviceNet in SSRF control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the process of making preliminary design for the Shanghai Syn chrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) control system, we designed and implemented the fieldbus DeviceNet for communication between IOCs (I/O Controller) and device con trollers. DeviceNet, as an open network standard, provides application layer protocol (IOS/OSI layer 7) and thus can transparently connect devices and IOCs without any need for network programming. The application of the DeviceNet to the EPICS (Ex perimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based control system are described.

  9. Implementation of Provably Stable MaxNet

    OpenAIRE

    Suchara, Martin; Andrew, Lachlan L. H.; Witt, Ryan; Jacobsson, Krister; Wydrowski, Bartek P.; Low, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    MaxNet TCP is a congestion control protocol that uses explicit multi-bit signalling from routers to achieve desirable properties such as high throughput and low latency. In this paper we present an implementation of an extended version of MaxNet. Our contributions are threefold. First, we extend the original algorithm to give both provable stability and rate fairness. Second, we introduce the MaxStart algorithm which allows new MaxNet connections to reach their fair rates quickly. Third, we p...

  10. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    language designed for general system description. It is partly build upon Simula, but is more than a programming language, since it contains several features, which cannot be implemented on a computer system. E.g. a continuous time concept, concurrency between an unbounded number of components and the...... possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from this...

  11. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar;

    2014-01-01

    available, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need...... solutions. Finally, an overview on common research-oriented software products for SDR development, namely GNU Radio, Iris, and ASGARD, will be provided, including how to practically start the software development of simple applications. Finally, best practices and examples of all the software platforms will...... with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially...

  12. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  13. Transuranics elimination in an optimised pebble-bed sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear energy economy the nuclear waste is a big burden to its further development and deployment. The possibility of eliminating the long-term part of the waste presents an appealing opportunity to the sustainability and acceptance of a better and cleaner source of energy. It is shown that the proposed pebble-bed transmutator has suitable characteristics to transmute most of the isotopes that contribute to the long-term radioactivity. This proposed reactor presents also inherent safety characteristics, which is a necessary element in a new reactor design to be accepted by the society. Throughout this paper, we will characterise the new reactor concept, and present some of the neutronics and safety characteristics of an accelerator driven pebble-bed reactor, (ADS) for transuranics elimination. (author)

  14. Incorporation of a Cuban radiological station to the global net of isotopes in precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From March, 2002 the West station of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance located in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations, belongs to the Global Net of Isotopes in Precipitations. The obtained isotopic information of the analysis of the samples of monthly monitored precipitations (oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium) its are stored in a database, which is available through Internet. For the acceptance in the Global Net, it was necessary the incorporation to the monitoring of the station the meteorological surface variables. Also it was developed a software for the calculation of the tension of the water steam starting from the values of humidity and temperature. The obtained results in 2002 and published recently, its are inside the range of values reported for these isotopes in the Caribbean area. (Author)

  15. Test-retest reliability of the net joint power transferred by the lower limbs during walking in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the measurement of net joint power during repeated gait measurements within one day and between two different measurement days. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied men who underwent repeated gait measurements within a day and between days participated in this research. An acceptable trial was one in which the participant complied with the range of walking speed 1.45 m/s ± 5%. Three-dimensional angles, angular velocities, net moments of force and net power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were determined using external passive reflective markers, an 8-camera motion analysis system and two force plates. RESULTS: This study presents the patterns of the net power in the fundamental joints of the lower limbs in young healthy men at standard gait velocity. Intraclass correlation coefficients for net joint power measure reached values in the range of .70 to .89 on the first day, from .69 to .86 on the second day, and from .67 to .83 in total. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the measurement of the peak net joint power within one day and between the two measurement days was evaluated as satisfactory. The study provides the value of minimal detectable change for the peak net power of the lower limb in the sagittal plane during gait. The net joint power appears to be a reliable measure and could be used in practice.

  16. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Testing the spatial neutrality of the REMI net migration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) is conducting socioeconomic studies in the State of Nevada in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. The main purpose of the socioeconomic program is to avoid or minimize adverse socioeconomic impacts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) on local communities, counties, and the state of Nevada. This objective is being met by collecting data that can be used by the DOE and affected units of local government to monitor economic and demographic variables and forecast changes that may occur as a direct result of the YMP. One of the tools being used to develop population and employment forecasts in Clark, Lincoln, and Nye counties in Nevada is Regional Economic Modeling Inc.'s (REMI) Economic-Demographic Forecasting and Simulation (EDFS) model. The REMI model is widely used in applied economics for: forecasting and planning; economic development; transportation; energy and natural resources; taxation, budget, and welfare; United States policies; and environmental policies. This model was chosen by the DOE because it is a dynamic econometric model based on accepted economic theory and principles, and because of its favorable rating compared to other available models. The dynamic nature of the model offers improvements in forecasting capabilities over input-output models. Because the DOE is making extensive use of the REMI model, it is necessary to evaluate the model's forecasting performance. This study is an empirical test of the restrictions in the REMI model's net migration equation. The REMI model pools the data across regions to estimate net migration into each region. For this study we will examine Clark County net migration. We hypothesize that due to the differences among regions (such as distance, and geographic and cultural features specific to each region), pooling the data across regions may not be appropriate

  18. Nail bed injuries and deformities of nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ravindra Bharathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail bed injuries are common and management of these requires good knowledge of the nail bed anatomy. Proper management of these injuries will ensure good healing and prevent late deformities. When loss occurs it is challenging to reconstruct which can be done by grafts or microsurgical reconstruction to restore aesthetic appearance of fingers.

  19. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  20. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  1. Container and Raised-Bed Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Raised beds, while requiring a high initial labor input, offer improved growing conditions and advantages compared to the existing soil. Improved plant growth, increased yields, and better accessibility are reasons to construct raised beds. This publication reviews the proper containers and plants, planting instructions, watering and potting soils, overwintering plants and more.

  2. Acceptance of Others, Feeling of Being Accepted and Striving for Being Accepted Among the Representatives of Different Kinds of Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Stanoeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.

  3. NASA'S Standard Measures During Bed Rest: Adaptations in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Martin, David S.; Cromwell, Roni L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted analog of space flight that has been used extensively to investigate physiological adaptations in a larger number of subjects in a shorter amount of time than can be studied with space flight and without the confounding effects associated with normal mission operations. However, comparison across studies of different bed rest durations, between sexes, and between various countermeasure protocols have been hampered by dissimilarities in bed rest conditions, measurement protocols, and testing schedules. To address these concerns, NASA instituted standard bed rest conditions and standard measures for all physiological disciplines participating in studies conducted at the Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU) at the University of Texas-Medical Branch. Investigators for individual studies employed their own targeted study protocols to address specific hypothesis-driven questions, but standard measures tests were conducted within these studies on a non-interference basis to maximize data availability while reducing the need to implement multiple bed rest studies to understand the effects of a specific countermeasure. When possible, bed rest standard measures protocols were similar to tests nominally used for medically-required measures or research protocols conducted before and after Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. Specifically, bed rest standard measures for the cardiovascular system implemented before, during, and after bed rest at the FARU included plasma volume (carbon monoxide rebreathing), cardiac mass and function (2D, 3D and Doppler echocardiography), and orthostatic tolerance testing (15- or 30-minutes of 80 degree head-up tilt). Results to-date indicate that when countermeasures are not employed, plasma volume decreases and the incidence of presyncope during head-up tilt is more frequent even after short-duration bed rest while reductions in cardiac function and mass are progressive as bed rest duration

  4. Self-reliance and poverty: Net earnings capacity versus income for measuring poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Robert; Bershadker, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The United States' official poverty measure defines the poor in terms of a family's actual, yearly cash income relative to an estimate of the income needed to sustain a minimally acceptable standard of living. An alternative definition, designed to reflect a family's ability to achieve economic independence, would instead rest on its capacity for generating income. Net earnings capacity (NEC) is an indicator of the income a family could earn if all working-age family members work full-time, f...

  5. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  6. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  7. Bubbling fluidised bed gasification of wheat straw-gasifier performance using mullite as bed material

    OpenAIRE

    Mac an Bhaird, Seán T.; Hemmingway, Phil; Walsh, Eilín; McDonnell, Kevin; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of wheat straw as a fuel for gasification processes has been hindered due to a lack of experience and its propensity to cause bed agglomeration in fluidised bed gasifiers. In this study wheat straw was gasified in a small scale, air blown bubbling fluidised bed using mullite as bed material. The gasifier was successfully operated and isothermal bed conditions maintained at temperatures up to 750 ◦C. Below this temperature, the gasifier was operated at equivalence ratios from 0.1 ...

  8. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  9. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  10. Fluidized bed heating process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Capacitive electrical heating of a fluidized bed enables the individual solid particles within the bed to constitute the hottest portion thereof. This effect is achieved by applying an A. C. voltage potential between dielectric coated electrodes, one of which is advantageously the wall of the fluidized bed rejection zone, sufficient to create electrical currents in said particles so as to dissipate heat therein. In the decomposition of silane or halosilanes in a fluidized bed reaction zone, such heating enhances the desired deposition of silicon product on the surface of the seed particles within the fluidized bed and minimizes undesired coating of silicon on the wall of the reaction zone and the homogeneous formation of fine silicon powder within said zone.

  11. Sand attrition in conical spouted beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aranzazu R. Fernández-Akarregui; Jon Makibar; Isabel Alava; Luis Diaz; Fernando Cueva; Roberto Aguado; Gartzen Lopez; Martin Olazar

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out on the attrition in conical spouted beds using two sands with different properties for several bed heights and gas flow rates.Furthermore,the influence of a draft tube was studied at ambient and high temperatures.The main objective was to acquire knowledge on the attrition of sand beds for biomass pyrolysis in a pilot plant provided with a conical spouted bed reactor.A first-order kinetic equation is proposed for sand attrition in a conical spouted bed at room temperature.The predicted attrition rate constant depends exponentially on excess air velocity over that for minimum spouting.Both the draft tube and temperature increase contribute to reduction of attrition.

  12. BlueLine Online's ProjectNet

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    With the Internet acting as the ultimate communications medium, ProjectNet provides an instant, on-demand, secure online solution for all team members to communicate, share documents and collaborate using a standard Web browser.

  13. Net-Baryon Physics: Basic Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How does the fraction of energy carried by the net-baryon, B - anti-B , evolve as a function of the centre-of-mass collisional energy per nucleon, sqrt(s)? In order to answer this question we explore the net-baryon mechanism and it is propose a simple but consistent model for net-baryon production in high energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model basic ingredients are: valence string formation based on standard PDFs with QCD evolution; and string fragmentation via the Schwinger mechanism. Our model shows that a good description of the main features of net-baryon data is possible in the framework of a simplistic model, with the advantage of making the fundamental production mechanisms manifest. We compare results both with data and existing models. (authors)

  14. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  16. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  17. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed on the...... expected gain rate. The public money equivalent of a human life is assessed by use of a recently in (Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Pandey MD. Afordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo, 1997) suggested Life Quality Index (LQI......) that combines wealth in terms of Gross Domestic Product per person, life expectancy at birth, and yearly work time into a single number. The philosophy behind the published evaluations is that the prevention of a loss of a life is counteracted by a cost such that the LQI remains unchanged (Skjong R...

  18. Nuclear wastes and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to the storage of nuclear wastes is described. Certain criteria for a nuclear waste storage system that is based on ideas of technical soundess and public acceptability are set forth. These criteria are 1.) the wastes must be reliably contained at all times, 2.) the containers must be retrievable and maintainable, 3.) the storage facility must also provide isolation from external events and must also permit careful control of human access, 4.) the storage facility and containers must have plausible or demonstratble likelihood of lasting for 100 years, and 5.) the storage system should be able to accept and retrieve both processed waste and spent fuel elements interchangeably. A specific storage system concept that is based on proved data and that meets the 5 criteria is described. The waste, either glassified high-level waste or spent fuel-fuel bundles from which the end structures have been removed, is stored in sealed stainless steel containers, which is sealed in a second sealed container made of a durable metal such as Ti. The space between the two containers is filled with a gas that can be detected at very low concentrations. These containers are stored in a tunnel excavated into the side of a convenient mountain. The tunnel is excavated above flood level, is accessible by rail and/or road, and is designed for self-draining. A free-standing inner lining is constructed within the tunnel. Offset vertical shafts provide for ventilation. Continuous monitoring leak detectors are maintained in the tunnel and in the stack

  19. NET impact on deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Tobias A.; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in...

  20. Net versus gross national income and product

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Frits

    1990-01-01

    From a conceptual point of view, for most purposes net figures of Domestic Product and National Income are to be preferred to gross figures. Nevertheless, in practice gross figures are most often used on the ground of various arguments. In this paper, these arguments are challenged. To this end, attention is paid to the reliability of capital consumption estimates and the quantitative importance of employing net instead of gross figures. A sensitivity analysis is conducted for six OECD-countr...

  1. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  2. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    technical shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the...... indoor environment and energy performance of the technical shelter. Finally, a wind-solar hybrid energy system is designed as an alternative power solution for technical shelter, in order to achieve a net-zero energy target....

  3. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  4. CIMS Network Protocol and Its Net Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军舟; 顾冠群

    1997-01-01

    Computer communication network architectures for cims are based on the OSI Reference Model.In this paper,CIMS network protocol model is set up on the basis of the corresqonding service model.Then the authors present a formal specification of transport protocols by using an extended Predicate/Transition net system that is briefly introduced in the third part.Finally,the general methods for the Petri nets based formal specification of CIMS network protocols are outlined.

  5. Net Neutrality, Business Models, and Internet Interconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Pil Choi; Doh-Shin Jeon; Byung-Cheol Kim

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effect of net neutrality regulation in a two-sided market framework when content is heterogeneous in its sensitivity to delivery quality. We characterize the equilibrium in a neutral network constrained to offer the same quality vis-à-vis a non neutral network where Internet service providers are allowed to engage in second degree price discrimination with a menu of quality-price pairs. We find that the merit of net neutrality regulation depends crucially on content providers' ...

  6. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  7. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  8. Characterization of residues from waste combustion in fluidized bed boilers. Evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a thorough characterization of the solid residues from municipal solid waste combustion in a Kvaerner EnviroPower bubbling fluidized bed boiler in Lidkoeping, is presented. Three different end products are generated, namely bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash. The bottom ash, consisting of bed ash and hopper ash, is screened and useful bed material recycled. In the characterization, also the primary constituents bed ash and hopper ash have been included. A chemical characterization have been performed including total inorganic contents, content of unburnt matter, leaching behaviour (availability tests, column tests, pH-static tests) and leaching tests according to certain standards for classification (AFX31-210, DIN38414, TCLP). Physical characterization have included grain size distribution, grain density, compaction properties and stabilization of cyclone ash with subsequent testing of comprehensive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity. From an environmental point of view, the quality of the bottom ash and probably the cyclone ash from fluidized bed combustion as determined in this study, indicate a potential for utilization. Utilization of the bottom ash could be accepted in certain countries, e.g. France, according to their current limit values. In other countries, e.g. Sweden, no general limit values are given and utilization have to be applied for in each case. The judgement is then based, not only on total contents in the residue and its leaching behaviour, but also on the specific environmental conditions at the site. 7 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  9. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  10. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

    2008-07-25

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

  11. Hydrodynamic Studies on a Trickle Bed Reactor for Foaming Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bansal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic studies of trickle bed reactors (TBRs are essential for the design and prediction of their performance. The hydrodynamic characteristics involving pressure drop and dynamic liquid saturation are greatly affected by the physical properties of the liquids. In the present study experiments have been carried out in a concurrent downflow air - liquid trickle bed reactor to investigate the dynamic liquid saturation and pressure drop for the water (non-foaming and 3% polyethylene glycol and 4% polyethylene glycol foaming liquids in the gas continuous regime (GCF and foaming pulsing regime (FP. In the GCF regime the dynamic liquid saturation was found to increase with increase in liquid flow rate for non-foaming and foaming liquids. While for 3% and 4% polyethylene glycol solutions the severe foaming was observed in the high interaction regime and the regime is referred to as foaming pulsing (FP regime. The decrease in dynamic liquid saturation followed by a sharp rise in the pressure drop was observed during transition from gas GCF to FP regime. However in the FP regime, a dip in the dynamic liquid saturation was observed. The pressure drop for foaming liquids is observed to be manifolds higher compared to non-foaming liquid in the GCF regime. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 16th January 2010, Revised: 10th February 2010, Accepted: 21st Feberuary 2010[How to Cite: R. Gupta, A. Bansal. (2010. Hydrodynamic Studies on a Trickle Bed Reactor for Foaming Liquids. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 5 (1: 31-37. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.775.31-37][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.775.31-37 ][Cited by: Scopus 1 |

  12. Translating Colored Control Flow Nets into Readable Java via Annotated Java Workflow Nets.

    OpenAIRE

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system, and the interface between the system and the environment. Our translation maps CCFNs into Anno- tated Java Workflow Nets (AJWNs) as an intermediate step, and these AJWNs are finally mapped to Java. CCFN is in...

  13. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  14. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  15. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew; Freeman, Adam; Szpuszta, Mario; Agarwal, Vidya Vrat

    2010-01-01

    ASP.NET 4 is the latest version of Microsoft's revolutionary ASP.NET technology. It is the principal standard for creating dynamic web pages on the Windows platform. Pro ASP.NET 4 in VB 2010 raises the bar for high-quality, practical advice on learning and deploying Microsoft's dynamic web solution. This new edition is updated with everything you need to come to grips with the latest version of ASP.NET, including coverage of ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET AJAX 4, ASP.NET Dynamic Data, and Silverlight 3. Seasoned .NET professionals Matthew MacDonald and Mario Szpuszta explain how you can get the most fro

  16. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustor development program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, R.A.; Melick, T.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt, Orrville, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. The project itself was separated into three levels: (1) feasibility, (2--3) subsystem development and integration, and (4) proof-of-concept. In Level (1), the technical and economic feasibility of a 1 million Btu/hr coal-fired AFBC air heater was evaluated. In Level (2--3), the complete EER fluidized bed combustor (1.5 million Btu/hr) system was developed and tested. The goal or reducing SO{sub 2} emissions to 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu, from high sulfur Ohio coal, was achieved by adding limestone with a Ca/S (coal) ratio of {approximately} 3.0. Finally, in Level (4), the proof-of-concept system, a 2.2 million Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio.

  17. Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized-Bed Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviz Famouri

    2005-07-01

    In a variety of industrial applications, the use of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) provides various advantages, such as reducing environmental pollution and increasing process efficiency. The application of circulating fluidized bed technology contributes to the improvement of gas-solid contact, reduction of the cross-sectional area with the use of higher superficial velocities, the use of the solids circulation rate as an additional control variable, and superior radial mixing, Grace et al. [1]. In order to improve raw material usage and utility consumption, optimization and control of CFB is very important, and an accurate, real time model is required to describe and quantify the process. Currently there is no accepted way to construct a reliable model for such a complex CFB system using traditional methods, especially at the pilot or industrial scale. Three major obstacles in characterizing the system are: 1) chaotic nature of the system; 2) non-linearity of the system, and 3) number of immeasurable unknowns internal to the system,[2]. Advanced control theories and methods have the ability to characterize the system, and can overcome all three of these obstacles. These methods will be discussed in this report.

  18. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is' or 'there is not' (there is or there is not

  19. Improvement of Combustion Characteristics in Fluidized Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation is directed towards the experimental study of the effect of a new design of the bed temperature on the overall thermal efficiency and heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in gaseous fuel-fluidized bed combustion system. The experiments are performed on a water-cooled fluidized bed model furnace with cylindrical cross-section of 0.25 m diameter and its height is 0.60 m. the fluidising medium used is sand particles with average diameter 1.5 mm. The bed temperature is varied between 700 degree C and 1100 degree C. Measurements f carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations are carried out by using water-cooled sampling probe, and infrared and paramagnetic analyzers. The results obtained show that the bed temperature, the total heat transfer to the wall and the bed combustion efficiency increase with the decrease of the air-fuel ratio. It is also found that 91% of the total heat transfer is in the fluidising part of the bed and most of this heat is transferred by convection from hot sand particles to the wall. Two empirical formulae for the calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient and the particle convective heat transfer coefficient are proposed. A verification of the proposed empirical formulae is made by comparing the calculated values with the experimental results.

  20. Application of neural nets to solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequently the equilibrium behaviour and hydrodynamics of complex solvent extraction systems are poorly understood, so that it is not always feasible to use a phenomenological approach to modelling and design. In such instances the alternative is usually an empirical modelling approach, which requires the specification of the functional forms used in a regression analysis on experimental data. Due to their non-parametric nature, artificial neural networks offer an attractive alternative to such parametric empirical modelling, and have been used successfully in a variety of process engineering applications. The principles of these nets are demonstrated in two case studies, i.e. (a) the efficiency of extraction of rare-earths from the HEH (EHP)-kerosene-HCI system, and (b) the correlation of variables in a study on drop coalescence in liquid/liquid dispersions by flow through glass fibre beds. It is shown that feature extraction from data can be used to cluster the behaviour of different solvents, and that the well known self-organising map (SOM) is not always the most efficient tool for this purpose. (authors)

  1. Mix bed type desalting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  2. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  3. A Prototype Four Inch Short Hydride (Fish) Bed As A Replacement Tritium Storage Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi4.25Al0.75 metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi4.15Al0.85 material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  4. Co-firing characteristics of rice husk and coal in a cyclonic fluidized-bed combustor ({Psi}-FBC) under controlled bed temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Madhiyanon; P. Sathitruangsak; S. Soponronnarit [Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    This study extensively investigated temperature and emission characteristics, and the performance of co-firing rice husk with coal in a cyclonic fluidized-bed combustor ({Psi}-FBC) of 125 kWth nominal capacity. The {Psi}-FBC integrated the distinct features of cyclonic/vortex and fluidized-bed combustion. Fluidization, without any inert material, can be accomplished by the stirring blades and vortex ring. The combustor was equipped with a multi-passes water coil to regulate the bed temperatures, varying 800-900{sup o}C. Rice husk was co-fired with coal, a supplementary fuel, with coal blending ratios of 0-25% by thermal basis. The radial temperature profiles displayed vortex combustion along the wall, while the axial temperature profiles suggested a well-mixed condition in the lower part. The large depletion of O{sub 2} and proliferation of CO in the lower part revealed vigorous combustion beneath the vortex ring. A reducing atmosphere appeared unfavorable to NOx formation. The combustor showed satisfied E{sub c}, mostly {gt}98.5%. The optimum operating conditions with respect to NOx emissions were: (1) the thermal percentage of coal not {gt}20%, and (2) bed temperatures between 800 and 850{sup o}C. Otherwise, NOx emissions would exceed the regulations; even CO and SO{sub 2} emissions were well acceptable. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests

  6. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies. PMID:25591490

  7. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  8. Absorber rod for pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorber rod that can be moved into the pebble bed from the top reflector is enclosed by a cladding tube which, if it is completely moved down, ends above the pebble bed and is open at the bottom. Through the cladding tube the absorber rod is cooled with gas. The cladding tube consists of e.g. boron steel. If the absorber rod is drawn it takes along the cladding tube which is moved into the guide tube like a telescope. The rigidity of that part of the absorber rod projecting from the pebble bed is thus guaranteed. (DG)

  9. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  10. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  11. Issues on accepting nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been promoted so far as a national project to be an energy source sharing a large weight in the future and is also expected recently to be a means to suppress the global warming affected by the use of fossil fuels. From a stand point opposing to or cautious of the promotion of its extensive use, various issues on its incompatibility to the society such as technical problems pointed out that radioactivity miss-control may cause hazards, energy problems, political problems, cultural life problems, etc. are raised. Also in site areas, pros and cons on the evaluation of its contribution are spreading. However, the area of the issues is wide-spread and sometime too difficult to understand because of its specialty or barriers such as conviction and fixed distrust and so it is often seen that the controversies are lead to be governed by irritation or abandonment that ones argument is not understood by the party. In the social situation in which common interests for various stand points are hard to find, it looks only way for finding the direction of any decision in a political issue to mutually know the arguments through discussion as much as possible, correct erroneous understandings and expand the area of agreement. Hear, various issues on accepting nuclear power from a variety of stand points and view angles are summarized so as to be referred by various engineers and non-engineers to let the uselessly continuing deadlock proceed toward meaningful agreement. (author)

  12. Modeling of structural effects in biomedical elements after titanium oxidation in fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiński, J.; Szota, M.; Mendzik, K.

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation is one of the most employed methods to improve titanium and its alloys properties especially due to medical application. This process like most of the thermochemical treatment processes substantially influences on the characteristic of surface layers and the same on its mechanical and useful properties. Oxide coatings produced during titanium oxidation were examined due to their composition identification. Titanium was oxidized in fluidized bed in temperature range between 500÷700°C. Microstructures of titanium with a visible oxide coating on its surface after thermochemical treatment and changes of grain size in core of titanium samples are described. Moreover Xray phase analysis of obtained oxides coatings was made as well as microhardness measurements of titanium surface layers after oxidation process. Finally, the surfaces of titanium after oxidation in fluidized bed were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. All research results are used to built numerical model of oxidation process in fluidized. Titanium oxidation process in fluidized bed is very complicated, because changes of parameters are non linear characteristics. This fact and lack of mathematical algorithms describing this process makes modeling properties of titanium elements by traditional numerical methods difficult or even impossible. In this case it is possible to try using artificial neural network. Using neural networks for modeling oxidizing in fluidized bed is caused by several nets' features: non linear character, ability to generalize the results of calculations for data out of training set, no need for mathematical algorithms describing influence changes input parameters on modeling materials properties.

  13. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycles were evaluated for the Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic fuel cycle specified for the HTR-K and PNP is well qualified and will meet the requirements of these reactors. Twenty alternate fuel cycles are described, including high-conversion cycles, net-breeding cycles, and proliferation-resistant cycles. High-conversion cycles, which have a high probability of being successfully developed, promise a significant improvement in resource utilization. Proliferation-resistant cycles, also with a high probability of successful development, compare very favorably with those for other types of reactors. Most of the advanced cycles could be adapted to first-generation pebble bed reactors with no significant modifications

  14. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Amanda S; Slade, Daniel J; Thompson, Paul R; Mowen, Kerri A

    2012-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis. PMID:23264775

  15. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  16. Analysis of Reconfigurable Processors Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Petri net models for processing elements. The processing elements include: a general-purpose processor (GPP, a reconfigurable element (RE, and a hybrid element (combining a GPP with an RE. The models consist of many transitions and places. The model and associated analysis methods provide a promising tool for modeling and performance evaluation of reconfigurable processors. The model is demonstrated by considering a simple example. This paper describes the development of a reconfigurable processor; the developed system is based on the Petri net concept. Petri nets are becoming suitable as a formal model for hardware system design. Designers can use Petri net as a modeling language to perform high level analysis of complex processors designs processing chips. The simulation does with PIPEv4.1 simulator. The simulation results show that Petri net state spaces are bounded and safe and have not deadlock and the average of number tokens in first token is 0.9901 seconds. In these models, there are only 5% errors; also the analysis time in these models is 0.016 seconds.

  17. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  18. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  19. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  20. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  1. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  3. Benthic oxygen exchange in a live coralline algal bed and an adjacent sandy habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attard, Karl M.; Stahl, Henrik; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Turner, Gavin; Burdett, Heidi L.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    community benthic gross primary productivity (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) derived from diel EC time series collected during 5 seasonal measurement campaigns in temperate Loch Sween, Scotland. Measurements were also carried out at an adjacent (similar to 20 m distant) permeable......(-1) of carbon at the maerl bed and sand site, respectively, were required to sustain the benthic O-2 demand. Thus, the 2 benthic habitats efficiently entrap organic carbon and are sinks of organic material in the coastal zone. Parallel deployment of 0.1 m(2) benthic chambers during nighttime revealed...

  4. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  5. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determining net worth. A person's net worth is equal to its fair market value and fair market value shall be... financial condition, and business history. (6) The economic outlook for the person's industry and the market... intangible assets. (8) The value of the equity assumed in a plan of reorganization of a person in a...

  6. Pressurised fluidised bed power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A.; Anderson, L. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    The combined experience from almost 75,000 hours of operation on widely different coals in Pressurised Fluidised bed Combined-cycle (PFBC) plants in Sweden, Spain, the US and Japan have demonstrated the viability of ABB`s PFBC technology and the general simplicity of the concept, as well as plant control principles and serviceability. This technology is now commercially offered world-wide and PFBC is being recognized as a competitive solution for power and for combined heat and power applications. The combined-cycle feature makes PFBC highly efficient for power generation. When compared with conventional power plants, and for the same steam conditions, a PFBC plant typically produces at least 10% more electricity from the same amount of coal. There is potential for future additional efficiency increases. The coals used so far in the existing PFBC power plants include bituminous coals with a wide range of sulphur and ash contents, and a sub-bituminous Spanish `black lignite` with extremely high and variable levels of sulphur, ash, and moisture. Brown coal from the eastern parts of Germany will be used as the fuel in a newly ordered PFBC plant in Cottbus, Germany. Oil shale, petcoke, anthracite, and different types of biomass mixed with coal are presently being considered for other PFBC projects under discussion. PFBC is suitable for greenfield plants, but a market also exists for PFBC repowering of older steam plants. Repowering provides an opportunity to convert older, low capacity factor units into assets that lower the system`s production costs as well as improving environmental performance. Ash utilisation also holds promise, elevating the ash from a disposable waste to a valuable resource. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Hydrodynamics of circulating and bubbling fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that a review of modeling of the hydrodynamics of fluidization of bubbling beds showed that inviscid two-fluid models were able to predict a great deal of the behavior of bubbling beds because the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is the drag between the particles and the fluid. The formation, the growth and the bursting of bubbles were predicted. Predicted wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients and velocity profiles of jets agreed with measurements. Time average porosity distributions agreed with measurements done using gamma-ray densitometers without the use of any adjustable parameters. However, inviscid models could not correctly predict rates of erosion around tubes immersed into fluidized beds. To correctly model such behavior, granular stresses involving solids viscosity were added into the computer model. This viscosity arises due to random collision of particles. Several models fro this viscosity were investigated and the results compared to measurements of solids distributions in two-dimensional beds and to particle velocities reported in the literature. While in the case of bubbling beds the solids viscosity plays the role of a correction, modeling of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. Recent experimental data obtained at IIT and at IGT show that in CFB the solids viscous dissipation is responsible for as much as half of the pressure drop. From such measurement, solids viscosities were computed. These were used in the two fluid hydrodynamic model, to predict radial solids distributions and solids velocities which matched the experimental distributions. Most important, the model predicted cluster formation and transient internal circulation which is responsible for the favorable characteristics of CFBs, such as good wall-to-bed heat transfer. Video tape movies of computations compared favorably with high speed movies of the experiments

  8. Use of plutonium in pebble bed HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a summary of the current status of world-wide inventories of weapon-grade plutonium and plutonium from reprocessing of power reactor fuel. It addresses the use of pebble bed HTGRs for consumption of the plutonium in terms of the fuel cycle options. The requirements and neutronics aspects, and results from parameter studies conducted using pebble bed reactor types, are discussed, along with proliferation and waste disposal aspects. (author)

  9. Cognitive and emotional functioning in BED

    OpenAIRE

    Kittel, Rebekka; Brauhardt, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and is associated with eating disorder and general psychopathology and overweight/obesity. Deficits in cognitive and emotional functioning for eating disorders or obesity have been reported. However, a systematic review on cognitive and emotional functioning for individuals with BED is lacking. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted across three databases (Medline, PubMed, and PsycI...

  10. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman...

  11. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Griggs, J. A.; Bamber, J. L.; R. T. W. L. , Hurkmans; J. A. Dowdesewell; Gogineni, S. P.; I. Howat; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; S. Palmer; E. Rignot; D. Steinhage

    2013-01-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) o...

  12. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Dowdeswell, J. A; Gogineni, S. P.; I. Howat; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; S. Palmer; E. Rignot; D. Steinhage

    2013-01-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevat...

  13. NetWare的IDE光驱共享

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佚名

    1997-01-01

    自从NetWare V3.12以来,NetWare就开始支持SCSI光驱的共享了,许多书中都介绍了使用方法,安装也较为容易。但关于IDE光驱共享的问题讲述得并不多,并且没有涉及到一些实际问题。在这里根据我们的实践经验,讲述一下NetWare中实现IDE光驱共享时遇到的问题和使用经验。

  14. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically, the....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  15. Net-Baryon Physics: Basic Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Dias de Deus, J; Santo, M C Espirito; Milhano, J G; Pimenta, M

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that, in nuclear collisions, a sizable fraction of the available energy is carried away by baryons. As the baryon number is conserved, the net-baryon $B-\\bar{B}$ retains information on the energy-momentum carried by the incoming nuclei. A simple but consistent model for net-baryon production in high energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The basic ingredients of the model are valence string formation based on standard PDFs with QCD evolution and string fragmentation via the Schwinger mechanism. The results of the model are presented and compared with both data and existing models. These results show that a good description of the main features of net-baryon data is possible on the framework of a simplistic model, with the advantage of making the fundamental production mechanisms manifest.

  16. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  17. Instant Ext.NET application development

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book will show you how to get started with Ext.NET, and also provides practical examples and tips using some of the core controls with which you'll be up and running and coding rich UIs. The book also gives a brief explanation about some useful JavaScript tips and techniques to get you confident in writing your own object-orientated JavaScript for Ext.NET.This book is for anyone that wants to get started with Ext.NET. These simple, quick, and practical recipes will help you, as

  18. Professional ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Jon; Haack, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Top-selling MVC book from a top team at Microsoft—now fully updated!. ASP.NET MVC 2.0 is now available and shipping with Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4. A new update to Microsoft's Model-View-Controller technologies, MVC 2.0 enables developers to build dynamic, data-driven Web sites. This in-depth book shows you step-by-step how to use MVC 2.0. You'll learn both the theory behind MVC 2.0, as well as walk through practical tutorials, where you'll create a real-world application. Topics include transitioning from ASP.NET development, as well as an overview of related tools and technologies, inclu

  19. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  20. Investigation of volumetrically heated debris bed quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalikhin, M.J.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    A series of experiments were conducted at RIT (Royal Institute of Technology) in which hot homogeneous and stratified particle beds were quenched by establishing a column of water onto the top of the bed and by injection of water from the bottom delivered through downcomers from the water overlayer. For this experimental program the following approach was adopted. Since corium debris have a particle size distribution and are more like sand, the debris beds were built with sand of different particle size distributions, heated with a network of thin heaters, distributed uniformly in the sand bed to produce uniform volumetric heat generation. Low porosity beds were constructed, since they are the most difficult to quench with top flooding. The primary objective was to obtain data, which will provide a phenomenological basis for assessing margins for coolability of a degraded core debris bed in the lower head of an LWR vessel as well as steam generation rate from the interactions between core debris and water. This paper summarizes the experimental results along with related analysis. (authors)

  1. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingwen Li; Pradeep Gopalakrishnana; Rahul Garg; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD-DEM simulations of small-scale systems.Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing,bed expansion,bubble behavior,solids velocities,and particle kinetic energy.Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters.However,a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters,indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20-40 particle diameters.Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds.Hence,for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns,the effect of wails has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  2. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  3. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  4. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  5. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested

  6. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net. (iii) Using a weapon, trap or net. (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or used... possessing a loaded weapon in a motor vehicle, vessel or other mode of transportation is prohibited,...

  7. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...... it possible to condense the usually infinite state space of a timed Petri net into a finite condensed state space without loosing analysis power. The second method supports on-the-fly verification of certain safety properties of timed systems. We discuss the application of the two methods in a number...

  8. Environmental Radiation Studies Utilizing RadNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven

    2010-03-01

    RadNet is an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) managed environmental radiation and air quality monitoring station that has been recently installed on the Angelo State University campus. RadNet cycles air through a filter which collects particulate matter for an examination of alpha and beta activities of contained material. This project includes defining dominant alpha and beta emitters in the local environment, conducting a correlation study involving the effect of weather and wind direction on filter activity, physical interpretation of air quality index (AQI), and the use of X-ray fluorescence to verify radon decay progeny in the local environment.

  9. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  10. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  11. EBSCO收购OCLC NetLibrary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志刚(编译); 庞弘燊(校对)

    2010-01-01

    3月17日,OCLC和EBSCO签订协议,EBSCO将收购OCLC NetLibrary的资产,并获得选择收购现通过OCLC FirstSearch提供的数据库的权利。这次收购的资源包括NetLibrary在科罗拉多州博尔德的电子书和电子音频书平台,以及该平台的业务管理权利和基础设施。

  12. Fibonacci topological order from quantum nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendley, Paul; Isakov, Sergei V; Troyer, Matthias

    2013-06-28

    We analyze a model of quantum nets and show it has a non-Abelian topological order of doubled-Fibonacci type. The ground state has the same topological behavior as that of the corresponding string-net model, but our Hamiltonian can be defined on any lattice, has less complicated interactions, and its excitations are dynamical, not fixed. This Hamiltonian includes terms acting on the spins around a face, around a vertex, and special "Jones-Wenzl" terms that serve to couple long loops together. We provide strong evidence for a gap by exact diagonalization, completing the list of ingredients necessary for topological order. PMID:23848854

  13. Reducing polysemy in WordNet

    OpenAIRE

    Jiamjitvanich, Kanjana; Yatskevich, Mikalai

    2008-01-01

    A known problem of WordNet is that it is too ne-grained in its sense denitions. For instance, it does not distinguish between homographs and polysemes. This distinction is crucial in many natural language processing tasks. In this paper we propose to distinguish only between homographs withinWordNet data while merging all polysemous senses. The ultimate goal of this exercise is to compute a more coarsegrained version of linguistic database. In order to achieve this task we propose to merge al...

  14. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U. [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, E.; Surewaard, E. [Ford Research Center Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-05-25

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking. (author)

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Distinctive Features

    OpenAIRE

    Flaxman, Paul E.; Blackledge, J. T.; Bond, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    What are the distinctive theoretical and practical features of acceptance and commitment therapy? Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern behaviour therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness interventions alongside commitment and behaviour change strategies to enhance psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility refers to the ability to contact the present moment and change or persist in behaviour that serves one’s personally chosen values. Divided into two secti...

  16. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chr...

  17. Personal values and intention to accept ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Harfouche, Antoine; Kalika, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work-in-progress develops an integral model of individuals’ intention to accept Information and Communication Technology innovations (ICTIA model). It captures the influence of different external and internal variables on ICT’s acceptance and use at the first stages of the acceptance process. The model focuses on the association between (1) ICT perceived attributes and perceived characteristics of using ICT, (2) individual’s personal variables, specifically personal values, (3) environme...

  18. The Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    OpenAIRE

    Joy R. Pemberton; Joaquin Borrego, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents’ level of familism was used to predict the ir willingness toaccept several behavioral child treatment techniques. Eighty-two parents completed measures related to familism, child behavior problems, parenting stress, and acceptance of ...

  19. The acceptance of risks in modern civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic analysis or even consistent theory of the acceptance of risks is missing. So far it is limited to narrow subjects like economy, insurance and technology. In connection with the acceptance of technical risks the pros and cons of technology-assessment are dealt with. The 'gentle' way of technology has risks too, which at least jeopardize our prosperity. The acceptance of every risk in the end presupposes a sober consideration of unavoidable dangers and the yielded profit. (DG)

  20. Food allergy: Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Crevel, René; Chan, Chun-Han;

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food...... industry) on acceptable risk in food allergy. Understanding where these perspectives diverge and even conflict may help develop an approach to define what is acceptable. Uncertainty about food allergy, its consequences and how to manage them is the common denominator of the stakeholders’ views. In patients...... not a realistic possibility, consensus on acceptable risk will be needed....

  1. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  2. Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel

    19, 3 (2015), s. 366-385. ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2014

  3. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  4. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  5. The development of FL-net protocol monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FL-net is a network that is used in Industrial field. Such as PLC, board and computer connect with each other in the network. FL-net consists of UDP/IP and FAlink-protocol. The FL-net protocol is defined by Japan Electrical Manufacturers' Association(JEMA). The devices do not have concern with manufactures and models in order to connect with others in the FL-net. FL-net has no master node and every node observe other status. So the FL-net could not be down by particular node absence. For these benefits the FL-net is used in various systems. On the other hand, network failure had irregularly occurred in the FL-net. It was difficult to inspect these failure packets by general network analyzing software, because large amount of UDP/IP packets in the FL-net is flowing. In order to solve the problem, RIKEN/SACLA developed the FL-net protocol monitoring system, and Hitachi Zosen produced the system. Then, we installed the FL-net monitor into the SACLA network. FL-net monitor detected that participating node had leaved network. When FL-net monitor found the event, FL-net monitor saved packet data to a file. Analyzing the file, we knew about the occurring events in the network. We report the design, functions and installation into SACLA of the FL-net protocol monitor system. (author)

  6. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  7. CP-nets and Nash equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Rossi, F.; Venable, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    We relate here two formalisms that are used for different purposes in reasoning about multi-agent systems. One of them are strategic games that are used to capture the idea that agents interact with each other while pursuing their own interest. The other are CP-nets that were introduced to express q

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Register ] (REG-130507-11; 77 FR 72612) relating to the Net Investment Income Tax. On January 31, 2013, corrections to the proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register (78 FR 6781... published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is withdrawn as of December 2, 2013. Comments on this...

  9. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register (REG-130507-11; 77 FR 72612) relating to the Net Investment Income Tax. On January 31, 2013, corrections to the proposed regulations were published in the Federal Register (78 FR... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday,...

  10. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  11. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  12. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event struc...... structures that admit a sensible labeling with Mazurkiewicz trace alphabets....

  13. CM Net heterogeneous local network of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realization of the CM Net heterogeneous local network for the PDP-11 type computers with the RT-11 operational system control is described. The main advantage of the network is the realization of virtual disks in general form including a system unit. the network can be used everywhere, where the problem on computer connection by simple interfaces is stated. 6 refs

  14. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section 5.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  15. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37...

  16. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service...

  17. Networking offshore with HiSeasNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J.; Vernon, F.

    2008-12-01

    After more than 6 years of operations, the HiSeasNet satellite communications network continues to provide continuous internet connectivity for oceanographic research ships and platforms throughout the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. With additional bandwidth and ships brought online in 2008, HiSeasNet now supports 15 ships at sea as well as a seismic observatory on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. Employing a variety of networking technologies, HiSeasNet has allowed scientists to conduct videoconference outreach programs, maintain limited long-term real-time data collection, connect campus phones to shipboard phones through the ship's PBX using Voice over IP (VoIP) protocols, and direct multi-ship research from shore and other ships. Standard Internet protocols available include FTP, HTTPS, and SSH. As there are few UNOLS ships that are not HiSeasNet capable, network operations now focus on providing bandwidth flexibility (including short-term increases), operator training, and increased science and operations community resources. With still plenty of unused ship-to-shore bandwidth, online information, and trained technicians, there are many opportunities for science programs to send near-real-time data to shore for both single- cruise and more permanent deployments of equipment. Current real-time data feeds are collected on some ships and transported through NSF Real-time Observatory and Data management Network (ROADNet) Points-of-Presence units.

  18. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Engås, A.; Nordrum, S.; Iversen, S.

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  19. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  20. Switchgrass: Production, Economics, and Net Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The critical questions for a biomass bioenergy production system are: • What are the economics? • Is energy from biomass net energy positive? • Is production system information available and verified? • Is the system sustainable? To address these questions, ten farmers in the mid-continental USA w...