WorldWideScience

Sample records for bed coating scale-up

  1. Top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up in terms of relative droplet size and drying force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Top-spray fluid bed coating scale-up experiments have been performed in three scales in order to test the validity of two parameters as possible scaling parameters: The drying force and the relative droplet size. The aim was to be able to reproduce the degree of agglomeration as well...... as binder. Coating experiments were repeated for various drying force and relative droplet size values in three top-spray fluid bed scales being a small-scale (Type: GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), medium-scale (Type: Niro MP-1) and large-scale (Type: GEA MP-2/3). The tendency of agglomeration was assessed...... in terms of particle size fractions larger than 425 mu m determined by sieve analysis. Results indicated that the particle size distribution may be reproduced across scale with statistical valid precision by keeping the drying force and the relative droplet size constant across scale. It is also shown...

  2. Fluid Bed Coating and agglomeration: Scale-up and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl

    2009-01-01

    Resumé Coating af partikler i et fluidiseret leje er en fleksibel og alsidig proces, der finder udbredt anvendelse i fremstillingen af farmaceutiske og bioteknologiske produkter. Fluidiseretleje-granulatorer har en række vigtige fordele i forhold til andre typer af granulatorer såsom gode varme- og......, deaktivering af den aktive komponent pga. høj leje-temperatur og/eller høj fugtighed i lejet etc. Disse potentielle problemer forbundet med coating i et fluidiseret leje udgør det samlede optimeringsproblem, og den ingeniørmæssige udfordring består i at navigere indenfor disse ofte snævre grænser. Industrielle...... enzymprodukter involverer ofte coating i et fluidiseret leje, idet produkt-håndtering er lettere og enzymets opbevaringsstabilitet bedre i et tørt granulat end i en flydende formulering. Endvidere er det vigtigt, at enzymprodukter produceres med en konstant høj kvalitet. Som en konsekvens af dette er valg af...

  3. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for batch top-spray fluid bed coating processes based on Ronsse et al. [2007a.b. Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part I-model development and validation. journal of Food Engineering 78......, 296-307; Combined population balance and thermodynamic modelling of the batch top-spray fluidised bed coating process. Part II-model and process analysis. journal of Food Engineering 78, 308-322]. The model is based on one-dimensional discretisation of the fluid bed into a number of well-mixed control...

  4. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed III. Effect of scale, agitator rotational speed and blade shape on granule properties and development of a high accuracy scale-up theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2009-04-01

    The preparation of core particles suitable for subsequent film coating was examined using different scales of agitation fluidized beds. Specifically, the effects of agitator rotational speed and agitator blade shape in different scales of granulators on granule properties such as mass median diameter, apparent density, friability and shape factor were studied. As the agitator rotational speed was increased or when the agitator blade height and angle were large, the mass median diameter and friability of the granules decreased, while the apparent density and shape factor increased, in a manner independent of the vessel size because the granules were subjected to greater compression, shearing and rolling effects. The same core particles could not be prepared using granulators with different vessel sizes by simply adopting a conventional scale-up theory(1,2)) based on kinetic energy similarity. Here, a novel scale-up theory that takes into account agitator blade shape factors is proposed.(3)) When the two scale-up theories were compared, our new theory was capable of predicting the granule properties more accurately than the conventional theory. By adopting this novel theory, the same core particles could be prepared under different operating conditions in any scale of granulator.

  5. Scale-up of a pan-coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Turton, Richard; Joshi, Nitin; Hammerman, Elizabeth; Ergun, James

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a practical scale-up model for a solvent-based pan-coating process. Practical scale-up rules to determine the key parameters (pan load, pan speed, spray rate, air flow) required to control the process are proposed. The proposed scale-up rules are based on a macroscopic evaluation of the coating process. Implementation of these rules does not require complex experimentation or prediction of model parameters. The proposed scale-up rules were tested by conducting coating scale-up and scale-down experiments on 24-inch and 52-inch Vector Hi-coaters. The data demonstrate that using these rules led to similar cumulative drug release profiles (f2 > 50; and P Analysis of Variance [PANOVA] > 0.05 for cumulative percentage of drug released after 12 hours [Cum12]) from tablets made at 24- and 52-inch scales. Membrane characteristics such as opacity and roughness were also similar across the 2 scales. The effects of the key process variables on coat weight uniformity and membrane characteristics were also studied. Pan speed was found to be the most significant factor related to coating uniformity. Spray droplet size was found to affect the membrane roughness significantly, whereas opacity was affected by the drying capacity.

  6. Expanded bed chromatography of proteins in small-diameter columns. II. Methods development and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S; Chase, H

    2000-01-01

    The scaled down system developed in Part I of this series was further validated by using a 1-cm diameter column for method development studies for the separation of two model proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase and alpha-glucosidase, from unclarified yeast homogenate by hydrophobic interaction expanded bed chromatography based on the STREAMLINE matrix. The efficacy of solids removal and establishment of optimal binding and separation condition by stepwise elution were investigated. Equilibration of the EBA column and loading at high salt strengths affected the subsequent recovery of the two target proteins. Although good resolution between the target proteins could be achieved, peak tailing was found to be a consistent problem. The optimised separation protocol was scaled up 25-fold to a column diameter of 5.0 cm. The results were in good agreement with the run conducted in the 1-cm column, indicating the potential of using the small columns as an viable approach for method scouting and development studies.

  7. Validation of a model for process development and scale-up of packed-bed solid-state bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.; Oostra, J.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2002-01-01

    We have validated our previously described model for scale-up of packed-bed solid-state fermenters (Weber et al., 1999) with experiments in an adiabatic 15-dm3 packed-bed reactor, using the fungi Coniothyrium minitans and Aspergillus oryzae. Effects of temperature on respiration, growth, and sporula

  8. Optimization and scale-up of a fluid bed tangential spray rotogranulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J; Dumont, H; Bertrand, F; Legros, R

    2007-04-20

    The production of pellets in the pharmaceutical industry generally involves multi-step processing: (1) mixing, (2) wet granulation, (3) spheronization and (4) drying. While extrusion-spheronization processes have been popular because of their simplicity, fluid-bed rotogranulation (FBRG) is now being considered as an alternative, since it offers the advantages of combining the different steps into one processing unit, thus reducing processing time and material handling. This work aimed at the development of a FBRG process for the production of pellets in a 4.5-l Glatt GCPG1 tangential spray rotoprocessor and its optimization using factorial design. The factors considered were: (1) rotor disc velocity, (2) gap air pressure, (3) air flow rate, (4) binder spray rate and (5) atomization pressure. The pellets were characterized for their physical properties by measuring size distribution, roundness and flow properties. The results indicated that: pellet mean particle size is negatively affected by air flow rate and rotor plate speed, while binder spray rate has a positive effect on size; pellet flow properties are enhanced by operating with increased air flow rate and worsened with increased binder spray rate. Multiple regression analysis enabled the identification of an optimal operating window for production of acceptable pellets. Scale-up of these operating conditions was tested in a 30-l Glatt GPCG15 FBRG.

  9. Optimization and scale-up of oligonucleotide synthesis in packed bed reactors using computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Christian; Josten, Andre; Götz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the analysis of oligonucleotide synthesis in packed bed reactors was developed and used to optimize the scale up of the process. The model includes reaction kinetics data obtained under well defined conditions comparable to the situation in the packed bed. The model was validated in terms of flow conditions and reaction kinetics by comparison with experimental data. Experimental validation and the following model parameter studies by simulation were performed on the basis of a column with 0.3 g oligonucleotide capacity. The scale-up studies based on CFD modelling were calculated on a 440 g scale (oligonucleotide capacity).

  10. Hydrophobic interaction ligand selection and scale-up of an expanded bed separation of an intracellular enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M P; Bulmer, M A; Hjorth, R; Titchener-Hooker, N J

    2002-08-30

    A prototype Streamline-Phenyl matrix was evaluated in a hydrophobic interaction mode for the direct recovery of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from yeast cell homogenate. At 5% breakthrough of ADH, a yield of 100% was obtained for a dynamic expanded bed capacity of 240 U(ADH)/ml matrix with a purification factor of 9.2. This compared with a dynamic capacity of 3013 U(ADH)/ml matrix for the packed bed equivalent and a purification factor of 18. In both systems the purification factor was found to increase simultaneously with a decrease in yield as the load of homogenate or breakthrough of ADH was increased. The expanded bed mode of operation conferred considerable robustness with respect to process fouling. No loss in yield was seen over five cycles of repeat loading with an unclarified homogenate. By contrast the packed bed media showed a decrease in yield from 86 to 56% over the same period. Successful scale up of the expanded bed protocol for a 20% breakthrough was demonstrated over a fourfold increase in column diameter. The application of hydrophobic interaction chromatography mediated expanded bed adsorption and its scale-up is discussed in the context of large-scale operations.

  11. Toward a robust model of packing and scale-up for chromatographic beds. 1. Mechanical compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Ronald N; Maneval, James E; Fernandez, Erik J

    2004-01-01

    The packing of compressible biochromatographic resins at large scale suffers from a poor understanding of how column packing method, resin properties, and column geometry impact column performance. To improve understanding, we develop and evaluate a one-dimensional, continuum mechanics model of column packing by mechanical compression. We show that the model can quantitatively predict the change in bed height, applied stress, and internal axial porosity profile without adjustable parameters when the modulus and wall friction coefficients are determined independently. The model possesses theoretical relationships for wall support and resin rigidity that should enable it to describe the mechanical compression of any biochromatographic resin for any column diameter. Moreover, this framework could provide a path to analogous models for flow packing and dynamic axial compression.

  12. 循环流化床提升管反应器的放大问题%Scaling-up Problems of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了循环流化床提升管反应器流体动力学的复杂性,详细总结了循环流化床提升管反应器的放大效应,并讨论了循环流化床的放大方法和循环流化床的放大准则.最后,对循环流化床放大问题进行了展望.%The complexity of fluid dynamics in circulating fluidized bed riser reactor was briefly introduced in this paper. Furthermore, the scaling-up effects of circulating fluidized bed riser reactor were summarized in detail. Then, the scaling-up methods and criterions of circulating fluidized bed riser reactor were discussed. At last, the future development of scaling-up problems of circulating fluidized bed was prospected.

  13. [Experience in scaling up the film coating process for theophylline sustained-release pellets in mass production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunenberg, P; Lorck, C; Jünger, H; Laicher, A

    1998-05-01

    The scale-up of the film coating process for the production of Bronchoretard pellets (theophylline, CAS 58-55-9) is an example for the successful setup of a modern production technology designed to meet the increasing GMP requirements while taking into consideration ecological and economical aspects. This technology provides a reduction in polymer losses on drying from approx. 20% to under 5% and a distinct improvement in the reproducibility of the in vitro dissolution profiles. Double batch sizes and higher spray rates allow for a substantially higher batch turnover. A production line installed exclusively for Bronchoretard pellets and specific process optimization measures resulted in considerably lower lag-times of the equipment.

  14. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  15. SIMULATION OF PARTICLE COATING IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten; Vogt; Ernst-Ulrich; Hartge; Joachim; Werther; Gerd; Brunner

    2005-01-01

    Fluidized bed technology using supercritical carbon dioxide both as a fluidizing gas and as a solvent for the coating material makes possible the production of thin, uniform and solvent-free coatings. But operation at low fluidizing velocities, which is favorable to facilitate gas cleaning under the high pressure conditions, may lead to uneven distribution of the coating in the fluidized bed and to unstable operation due to agglomeration. Therefore a model has been developed which describes local fluid dynamics within the high pressure fluidized bed. Based on this model, the coating process is described and the distribution of the coating inside the fluidized bed is calculated. Furthermore a submodel for the calculation of local concentrations of liquid paraffin has been set up, which may be used as a basis for the prediction of agglomeration and thus stability of operation.

  16. Insect cell entrapment, growth and recovering using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor. Scaling up and recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventini-Monteiro, D; Dubois, S; Astray, R M; Castillo, J; Pereira, C A

    2015-12-20

    Insect cells are largely used for industrial production of vaccines, viral vectors and recombinant proteins as well as in research and development as an important tool for biology and bioprocess studies. They grow in suspension and are semi-adherent cells. Among the cell culture systems enabling scalable bioprocess the single-use fixed-bed iCELLis(®) bioreactors offer great advantages. We have established the conditions for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells entrapment into the fixed-bed, cell growth and recover from the fixed-bed once high cell densities were attained. Our established protocol allowed these cells, at a cell seeding of 2×1E5 cells/microfiber carriers (MC) (3.5×1E6cells/mL; 1.7×1E4cells/cm(2)), to grow inside a 4m(2)/200mL fixed-bed attaining a concentration of 5.3×1E6 cells/MC (9.5×1E7cells/mL; 4.7×1E5 cells/cm(2)) for S2 cells or 4.6×1E6 cells/MC (8×1E7cells/mL; 4.1×1E5cells/cm(2)) for Sf9 cells. By washing the fixed-bed, entrapped cells could then be recovered from the fixed-bed at a high rate (>85%) with high viability (>95%) by increasing the agitation to 1200/1500rpm. Although the cell yields in the fixed-bed bioreactor were comparable to those obtained in a stirred tank (respectively, 1.3×1E10 and 2.5×1E10 total cells), S2 cells stably transfected with a cDNA coding for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) showed a 30% higher preserved rRVGP production (2.5±0.1 and 1.9±0.1μg/1E7 cells), as evidenced by a conformational ELISA evaluation. These findings demonstrate not only the possibility to entrap, cultivate to high densities and recover insect cells using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor, but also that this system provides suitable physiological conditions for the entrapped cells to produce a cell membrane associated recombinant protein with higher specific biological activity as compared to classical suspension cell cultures.

  17. Acoustic monitoring of a fluidized bed coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Veski, Peep; Pedersen, Joan G.;

    2007-01-01

      The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of acoustic monitoring of a production scale fluidized bed coating process. The correlation between sensor signals and the estimated amount of film applied and percentage release, respectively, were investigated in coating potassium chloride...

  18. Expanded bed adsorption as a primary recovery step for the isolation of the insulin precursor MI3 process development and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixius, Peter; Mollerup, Inger; Jensen, Ole Elvang; Halfar, Markus; Thömmes, Jörg; Kula, Maria-Regina

    2006-01-05

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) was evaluated for the isolation of the human insulin precursor MI3, expressed and secreted by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isoelectric point of the insulin precursor (pH 5.3) makes cation exchange a prime candidate for direct adsorption. In order to find a suitable window of operation for the process the adsorption equilibrium was analysed in a wide range of operating conditions (pH and conductivity) and for three different stationary phases. The same array of operating conditions was examined with regard to stable fluidisation of the adsorbents in S. cerevisiae suspensions. Interactions of the yeast with the fluidised stationary phase were investigated by a pulse response technique and the hydrodynamics of the fluidised bed under process conditions by residence time distribution analysis. The case study demonstrates that by parallel examination of product binding and fluidisation quality a window of operation can be found. Analysis of the binding kinetics by breakthrough experiments and modelling led to the definition of a set of operating conditions, which yield a compromise between optimal use of the equilibrium capacity provided by the adsorbent and high throughput required for an industrial separation. After initial experiments on the bench scale the protocol was transferred successfully to pilot scale demonstrating the design of a reliable operation.

  19. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe;

    Although the processes of innovation have attracted attention of an increasing number of scholars, its political dynamics remains underexplored. Against this backdrop, this paper examines political behavior as critical aspects of the process of scaling up innovations. We revisit the concepts......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  20. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  1. Scale up and stability test for oxidative coupling of methane over Na2WO4-Mn/SiO2 catalyst in a 200 ml fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Liu; Xiaolai Wang; Dexin Yang; Runxiong Gao; Zhonglai Wang; Jian Yang

    2008-01-01

    The study of scale up for the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has been carried out in a 200 ml stainless steel fixed-bed reactor over a 5wt% Na2WO4-1.9wt% Mn/SiO2 (W-Mn/SiO2) catalyst. The effects of reaction conditions were investigated in detail. The results showed that, with increasing reaction temperature, the gas-phase reaction was enhanced and a significant amount of methane was converted into COX; with the CH4/O2 molar ratio of 5, the highest C2 (ethylene and ethane) yield of 25% was achieved; the presence of steam (as diluent) had a positive effect on the C2 selectivity and yield. Under lower methane gaseous hourly space velocity (GHSV), higher selectivity and yield of C2 were obtained as the result of the decrease of released heat energy. In 100 h reaction time, the C2 selectivity of 66%-61 % and C2 yield of 24.2%-25.4% were achieved by a single pass without any significant loss in catalytic performance.

  2. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  3. PARTICLE COATING BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION IN A FLUIDI7ED BED REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregor; Czok; Joachim; Werther

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum coatings were created onto glass beads by chemical vapor deposition in a fluidized bed reactor at different temperatures. Nitrogen was enriched with Triisobutylaluminum (TIBA) vapor and the latter was thermally decomposed inside the fluidized bed to deposit the elemental aluminum. To ensure homogeneous coating on the bed material, the fluidizing conditions necessary to avoid agglomeration were investigated for a broad range of temperatures.The deposition reaction was modeled on the basis of a discrete particle simulation to gain insight into homogeneity and thickness of the coating throughout the bed material. In particular, the take-up of aluminum was traced for selected particles that exhibited a large mass of deposited aluminum.

  4. State-of-the-art review and report on critical aspects and scale-up considerations in the design of fluidized-bed reactors. Final report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on the design of distributor plates and opening geometry to provide uniform flow over the reactor area. The design of granular bed filters is also considered. Pressure drops and particle size in the bed are discussed. (LTN)

  5. The SCALE-UP Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) project was developed nearly 20 years ago as an economical way to provide collaborative, interactive instruction even for large enrollment classes. Nearly all research-based pedagogies have been designed with fairly high faculty-student ratios. The economics of introductory courses at large universities often precludes that situation, so SCALE-UP was created as a way to facilitate highly collaborative active learning with large numbers of students served by only a few faculty and assistants. It enables those students to learn and succeed not only in acquiring content, but also to practice important 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and teamsmanship. The approach was initially targeted at undergraduate science and engineering students taking introductory physics courses in large enrollment sections. It has since expanded to multiple content areas, including chemistry, math, engineering, biology, business, nursing, and even the humanities. Class sizes range from 24 to over 600. Data collected from multiple sites around the world indicates highly successful implementation at more than 250 institutions. NSF support was critical for initial development and dissemination efforts. Generously supported by NSF (9752313, 9981107) and FIPSE (P116B971905, P116B000659).

  6. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully.

  7. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  8. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  9. In line NIR quantification of film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets during a fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Seo, Da-Young; Lee, Hea-Eun; Wang, In-Chun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Choi, Guang J

    2011-01-17

    Along with the risk-based approach, process analytical technology (PAT) has emerged as one of the key elements to fully implement QbD (quality-by-design). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied as an in-line/on-line analytical tool in biomedical and chemical industries. In this study, the film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets was examined for quantification using in-line NIR spectroscopy during a fluid-bed coating process. A precise monitoring of coating thickness and its prediction with a suitable control strategy is crucial to the quality assurance of solid dosage forms including dissolution characteristics. Pellets of a test formulation were manufactured and coated in a fluid-bed by spraying a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating solution. NIR spectra were acquired via a fiber-optic probe during the coating process, followed by multivariate analysis utilizing partial least squares (PLS) calibration models. The actual coating thickness of pellets was measured by two separate methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser diffraction particle size analysis (LD-PSA). Both characterization methods gave superb correlation results, and all determination coefficient (R(2)) values exceeded 0.995. In addition, a prediction coating experiment for 70min demonstrated that the end-point can be accurately designated via NIR in-line monitoring with appropriate calibration models. In conclusion, our approach combining in-line NIR monitoring with CLSM and LD-PSA can be applied as an effective PAT tool for fluid-bed pellet coating processes.

  10. New fluidized bed reactor for coating of energetic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Huijser, T.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    The process of altering and changing the properties of the energetic materials by coating has been studied extensively by several scientific groups. According to the desired application different coating techniques have been developed and applied to achieve satisfactory results. Among the already de

  11. Evaluation of extended-release applications for solid dispersion hot-melt fluid bed coatings utilizing hydrophobic coating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J P; Niebergall, P J

    1998-02-01

    A new hot-melt fluid bed coating method was evaluated for potential extended-release applications. Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) USP was chosen as a model drug. The assays for drug release and content uniformity were dictated by the USP Official Monograph for a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Extended-Release Capsule. The fluid bed chamber was charged with CPM-loaded nonpareils and hydrophobic coating agents in the solid state. The method consists of four processing stages: (a) warming, (b) preheating, (c) melting-spreading, and (d) cooling-congealing. Various hydrophobic coating agent candidates were evaluated for extended-release potential by a preliminary screen at a coating agent level of 1.5% (w/w). A beeswax coating agent was identified as the most promising candidate of the preliminary screen. After the level of beeswax was increased to 2.0%, the dissolution profile met all of the specifications of the USP Drug Release Test 1 for a CPM Extended-Release Capsule. The potency and content uniformity remained unchanged by the process. Dual coatings demonstrated a cumulative extension of release superior to the capability of a single coat. The new method is a viable alternative to hot-melt spray-coating methodologies. Organic solvents, spraying equipment, steam jackets, and/or heating tape are eliminated from the process. A reduction of equipment costs, setup time, and cleanup time may be realized. The method has demonstrated extended-release capabilities. No excessive attrition of potency or content uniformity has been noted. Additive, multiple coatings that have a cumulative effect on release retardation are feasible.

  12. Fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor for nanoparticles coating via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chen-Long; Liu, Xiao; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2015-07-01

    A fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor has been designed for coating on nanoparticles (NPs) via atomic layer deposition. It consists of five major parts: reaction chamber, dosing and fluidizing section, pumping section, rotary manipulator components, as well as a double-layer cartridge for the storage of particles. In the deposition procedure, continuous fluidization of particles enlarges and homogenizes the void fraction in the particle bed, while rotation enhances the gas-solid interactions to stabilize fluidization. The particle cartridge presented here enables both the fluidization and rotation acting on the particle bed, demonstrated by the analysis of pressure drop. Moreover, enlarged interstitials and intense gas-solid contact under sufficient fluidizing velocity and proper rotation speed facilitate the precursor delivery throughout the particle bed and consequently provide a fast coating process. The cartridge can ensure precursors flowing through the particle bed exclusively to achieve high utilization without static exposure operation. By optimizing superficial gas velocities and rotation speeds, minimum pulse time for complete coating has been shortened in experiment, and in situ mass spectrometry showed the precursor usage can reach 90%. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy results suggested a saturated growth of nanoscale Al2O3 films on spherical SiO2 NPs. Finally, the uniformity and composition of the shells were characterized by high angle annular dark field-transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor for nanoparticles coating via atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Chen-Long; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Shan, Bin, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-07-15

    A fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor has been designed for coating on nanoparticles (NPs) via atomic layer deposition. It consists of five major parts: reaction chamber, dosing and fluidizing section, pumping section, rotary manipulator components, as well as a double-layer cartridge for the storage of particles. In the deposition procedure, continuous fluidization of particles enlarges and homogenizes the void fraction in the particle bed, while rotation enhances the gas-solid interactions to stabilize fluidization. The particle cartridge presented here enables both the fluidization and rotation acting on the particle bed, demonstrated by the analysis of pressure drop. Moreover, enlarged interstitials and intense gas–solid contact under sufficient fluidizing velocity and proper rotation speed facilitate the precursor delivery throughout the particle bed and consequently provide a fast coating process. The cartridge can ensure precursors flowing through the particle bed exclusively to achieve high utilization without static exposure operation. By optimizing superficial gas velocities and rotation speeds, minimum pulse time for complete coating has been shortened in experiment, and in situ mass spectrometry showed the precursor usage can reach 90%. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy results suggested a saturated growth of nanoscale Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on spherical SiO{sub 2} NPs. Finally, the uniformity and composition of the shells were characterized by high angle annular dark field-transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  14. Breakthrough analysis for water disinfection using silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthombeni, Nomcebo H. [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Onyango, Maurice S., E-mail: OnyangoMS@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Momba, Maggie N.B. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance of silver nanoparticles coated resin in water disinfection is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigmoidal models are used to describe breakthrough curves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of the media in water disinfection is affected by process variables. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test with environmental water shows the media is effective in water disinfection. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in deactivating microbes in drinking water in a column filtration system. The coated resin beads are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the functional groups, morphology and the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the resin. The performance of the coated resin is evaluated as a function of bed mass, initial bacterial concentration and flow rate using Escherichia coli as model microbial contaminant in water. The survival curves of E. coli are expressed as breakthrough curves (BTCs), which are modeled using sigmoidal regression equations to obtain relevant rate parameters. The number of bed volumes processed at breakthrough point and capacity of the bed are used as performance indicators. Results show that performance increases with a decrease in initial bacterial concentration, an increase in flow rate and an increase in bed mass.

  15. Lits fluidisés pour l'industrie chimique. Extrapolation et amélioration des catalyseurs. Première partie : Etudes et modèles. Enseignements issus des pilotes Fluidized Beds in Chemical Industry. Scale Up and Catalysts Improvement. First Part: Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton R.

    2006-12-01

    est intitulée Études théoriques, réalités expérimentales, suggestions . Les bulles des lits fluidisés ont fait l'objet de très nombreux travaux, dont les résultats sont très souvent explicités sous la forme de modèles mécanistiques à un paramètre qui est le diamètre des bulles. Pour confronter ces modèles à l'expérience, une relation est établie entre le diamètre des bulles et la vitesse minimum de fluidisation de comportement. Des suggestions sont alors faites pour améliorer les modèles, et l'on propose des conclusions générales sur les lits fluidisés. The firsts catalytic fluidized beds appear near 1942 in petroleum industry and near 1960 in chemical industry. We only consider very high performances chemical fluidized bed reactors (> 99%. In the past, they were developed through the use of very expensive pilot plants of about 0. 5 m diameter and 10 in high. We will demonstrate that direct scale up from laboratory data is possible. This possibility gives also a simple method to improve catalysts used into operating units and opens fluidized bed technique to products that need only low production. Presentation is made with three articles:- In the first, Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants : after a description of the major scale-up problems, studies to solve then are summarized. Then scale-up works of two processes with the use of about 0. 5 m diameter pilot plant are given. From the results it is deduced the possible performances of a catalytic fluidized bed and how to operate to obtain then. - In the second*, Scale up with Only Laboratory Data , it is experimentally demonstrated that the information's scale-up can be obtained in a laboratory. A strategy to obtain them is suggested. An another result of theses experimental studies is that all physical properties of catalytic fluidized bed depends of only one parameter. It is called comportment incipient fluidization velocity . - In the third*, Theoretical Studies, Experimental

  16. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan;

    2003-01-01

    The parameters with effect on maximum spray rate and maximum relative outlet air humidity when coating pellets in a fluidised bed were investigated. The tested variables include type of water based modified release film coating (Eudragit® NE 30D, Eudragit® RS 30D, Aquacoat ECD®) coating principle...... (top spray, bottom spray), inlet air humidity and type of pellets (sugar spheres, microcrystalline cellulose pellets). The maximum spray rate was not influenced by the coating principles. The highest spray rate was obtained for the film polymer with the lowest tackiness which is assumed......-process calculation of degree of utilisation of the potential evaporation energy (DUE) of the outlet air and the relative outlet air humidity (RH). The spray rate is maximised using set points of DUE and RH as control parameters. The product temperature is controlled simultaneously by regulating the inlet air...

  17. The influence of the moisture content of microcrystalline cellulose on the coating process in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva O. S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the coating of microcrystalline cellulose with a polymeric suspension in a fluidized bed. The coating operation was carried out using a fluidized bed with top spraying by a double-fluid nozzle. The fluidized bed consists of a cylindrical column made of plexiglass with a height of 0.6 m and an inner diameter of 0.14 m. The polymeric coating suspension was formulated using Eudragit® as the basic component. As the quality of the coating product is greatly affected by the spraying characteristics, the influence of the flow rate of the coating suspension and the moisture content of the particles on the agglomeration index and efficiency of the process of coating microcrystalline cellulose was analyzed.

  18. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 1. Review and Agglomeration Regime Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    This paper, and two associated papers [Hede, P. D.; Jensen, A. D.; Bach, P. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1905 and 1914], address the fluid-bed coating of placebo enzyme granules (i.e., sodium sulfate cores, with a size range of 400-500 mu m) using two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA......-TiO2. The coating experiments were conducted in a medium-scale top-spray MP-1 fluid bed, and many rheological experiments were performed on the coating formulations to support the interpretation of the fluid-bed coating results. In this first part of the study, a thorough introduction to the inorganic...... salt and polymer film coating is provided, along with a presentation of the equipment and materials being used in this and the following papers. Results from agglomeration studies over a broad range of process conditions are presented, showing that the tendency toward agglomeration is always less...

  19. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the ’standard’ UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  20. Scaling up the Quality of Care Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieZhenming

    2005-01-01

    Like the pilot project, the scaling up of the quality of care approach is also new in China and requires continued research anct explorauon, in July 2003, the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) drew on the experience of scaling up the quality of care project and decided to launch a campaign to select and commend model counties (cities/districts) in implementing the project in order to set an example for different regions with different economies and ensure the quality of care approach is adequately applied.

  1. Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelle precursor pellets prepared by fluid-bed coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuxia Dong,1,2 Yunchang Xie,1 Jianping Qi,1 Fuqiang Hu,3 Yi Lu,1 Sanming Li,2 Wei Wu1 1School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education and PLA, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelles (MMs are potent carriers used for oral absorption of drugs that are poorly soluble in water; however, there are many limitations associated with liquid formulations. In the current study, the feasibility of preparing bile salt/phospholipid MM precursor (preMM pellets with high oral bioavailability, using fluid-bed coating technology, was examined. In this study, fenofibrate (FB and sodium deoxycholate (SDC were used as the model drug and the bile salt, respectively. To prepare the MMs and to serve as the micellular carrier, a weight ratio of 4:6 was selected for the sodium deoxycholate/phospholipids based on the ternary phase diagram. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 was selected as the dispersion matrix for precipitation of the MMs onto pellets, since it can enhance the solubilizing ability of the MMs. Coating of the MMs onto the pellets using the fluid-bed coating technology was efficient and the pellets were spherical and intact. MMs could be easily reconstituted from preMM pellets in water. Although they existed in a crystalline state in the preMM pellets, FB could be encapsulated into the reconstituted MMs, and the MMs were redispersed better than solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3 and Lipanthyl®. The redispersibility of the preMM pellets increased with the increase of the FB/PEG/micellar carrier. PreMM pellets with a FB:PEG:micellar carrier ratio of 1:1.5:1.5 showed 284% and 145% bioavailability relative to Lipanthyl® and solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3, respectively. Fluid-bed

  2. Fast dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs from fluidized bed coated nanocomposites: Impact of carrier size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Moreno, Jacqueline; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh

    2016-11-20

    Formation of core-shell nanocomposites of Fenofibrate and Itraconazole, model poorly water soluble drugs, via fluidized bed (FB) coating of their well-stabilized high drug loaded nanosuspensions is investigated. Specifically, the extent of dissolution enhancement, when fine carrier particles (sub-50μm) as opposed to the traditional large carrier particles (>300μm) are used, is examined. This allows testing the hypothesis that greatly increased carrier surface area and more importantly, thinner shell for finer carriers at the same drug loading can significantly increase the dissolution rate when spray-coated nanosuspensions are well-stabilized. Fine sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac(®) 200) carrier particles were made fluidizable via dry coating with nano-silica, enabling decreased cohesion, fluidization and subsequent nanosuspension coating. For both drugs, 30% drug loaded suspensions were prepared via wet-stirred media milling using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizers. The stabilizer concentrations were varied to affect the milled particle size and prepare a stable nanosuspension. The suspensions were FB coated onto hydrophilic nano-silica (M-5P) dry coated sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac(®) 200) carrier particles or larger carrier particles of median size >300μm (PrismaLac(®)40). The resulting finer composite powders (sub-100μm) based on GranuLac(®) 200 were freely flowing, had high bulk density, and had much faster, immediate dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drugs, in particular for Itraconazole. This is attributed to a much higher specific surface area of the carrier and corresponding thinner coating layer for fine carriers as opposed to those for large carrier particles.

  3. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou

    2002-12-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under DOE's Support of Advanced Fuel Research program, Contract No. DE-FG26-99FT40681. The contract period was October 2000 through September 2002. This R&D program investigated the modification of the mechanical strength of catalyst extrudates using Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) carbon-coated catalyst technology so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. Exothermic chemical reactions benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. The carbon-coated extrudates prepared using these procedures had sufficient attrition resistance and surface area for use in ebullated bed operation. The low cost of carbon coating makes the carbon-coated catalysts highly competitive in the market of catalyst extrudates.

  4. Transmissibility scale-up in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted to develop efficient methods for scaling of petrophysical properties from high resolution geological models to the resolution of reservoir simulation. Data from the Gypsy Field located in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used to evaluate the proposed method. The petrophysical property which was scaled in this study was the transmissibility between two grid blocks. A linear flow scale-up of the transmissibility between two grid blocks was conducted. It was determined that the scale-up of the productivity index is both important and necessary for determining the radial flow around the wellbore. Special consideration was needed for the pinch-out grid blocks in the system. Fine-scale and coarse-scale reservoir models were used to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed method. Performance predictions were compared with various reservoir flow case studies. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Microstructural investigation of phases and pinning properties in MBa2Cu3O7-x (M = Y and/or Gd) coated conductors produced by scale-up facilitie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hye-Jin; Moon, Han-Kyoul; Yoon, Seokhyun; Jo, William; Kim, Kunsu; Kim, Miyoung; Ko, Rock-Kil; Jo, Young-Sik; Ha, Dong-Woo

    2016-03-01

    To expedite the commercialization of coated conductors, a robust stacking architecture of the wires must be developed and the performance of the critical currents improved. More importantly, the manufacturability, or large-scale delivery, and the capability of sustaining production at a high rate must be considered. The products of three companies, American Superconductor, Superpower Inc., and SuNAM Co., Ltd, were selected because these companies have announced commercial-grade production lines and delivered a significant amounts of wires to the open market that meet the standards demanded by power devices. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to verify the structural properties and the phase formation in the wires, and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the conductors. In addition, Raman scattering spectroscopy was used for the analysis of the phase formation and for the elucidation of secondary phases in the superconducting layers. The field dependence of the critical current was also studied to compare the transport characteristics under relatively low and medium magnetic field at 77 K and 60 K. Pinning forces were obtained from the field dependence of transport properties and pinning characteristics were investigated. The theoretical and experimental analyses were combined together using the Dew-Hughes formula to extract the scaling exponents and estimate the irreversibility lines of the fields. The results showed that the three conductors possess pinning mechanisms that originate from core pinning with a surface pinning geometry. It is remarkable that the wires discussed in this paper exhibit very similar pinning characteristics even though they have different characteristics in terms of chemical composition, microstructure, stacking architectures, and distribution of parasitic phases.

  6. Scale up of proteoliposome derived Cochleate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Caridad; Bracho, Gustavo; Lastre, Miriam; González, Domingo; Gil, Danay; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Taboada, Carlos; Solís, Rosa L; Barberá, Ramón; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Cochleate are highly stable structures with promising immunological features. Cochleate structures are usually obtaining from commercial lipids. Proteoliposome derived Cochleate are derived from an outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria meningitidis B. Previously, we obtained Cochleates using dialysis procedures. In order to increase the production process, we used a crossflow system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The raw material and solutions used in the production process are already approved for human application. This work demonstrates that CFS is very efficient process to obtain Cochleate structures with a yield of more than 80% and the immunogenicity comparable to that obtained by dialysis membrane.

  7. Scaling up the curvature of mammalian metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eBueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A curvilinear relationship between mammalian metabolic rate and body size on a log-log scale has been adopted in lieu of thelongstanding concept of a 3/4 allometric relationship (Kolokotrones et al. 2010. The central tenet of Metabolic Ecology (ME states that metabolism at the individual level scales-up to drive the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems. If this tenet is correct, the curvature of metabolism should be perceived in other ecological traits. By analyzing the size scaling allometry of eight different mammalian traits including basal and field metabolic rate, offspring biomass production, ingestion rate, costs of locomotion, life span, population growth rate and population density we show that the curvature affects most ecological rates and

  8. Numerical investigation of solid mixing in a fluidized bed coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenche, Venkatakrishna; Feng, Yuqing; Ying, Danyang; Solnordal, Chris; Lim, Seng; Witt, Peter J.

    2013-06-01

    Fluidized beds are widely used in many process industries including the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Despite being an intensive research area, there are no design rules or correlations that can be used to quantitatively predict the solid mixing in a specific system for a given set of operating conditions. This paper presents a numerical study of the gas and solid dynamics in a laboratory scale fluidized bed coating process used for food and pharmaceutical industries. An Eulerian-Eulerian model (EEM) with kinetic theory of granular flow is selected as the modeling technique, with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS/Fluent being the numerical platform. The flow structure is investigated in terms of the spatial distribution of gas and solid flow. The solid mixing has been evaluated under different operating conditions. It was found that the solid mixing rate in the horizontal direction is similar to that in the vertical direction under the current design and operating conditions. It takes about 5 s to achieve good mixing.

  9. Formulating food protein-stabilized indomethacin nanosuspensions into pellets by fluid-bed coating technology: physical characterization, redispersibility, and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei He,1,2 Yi Lu,1 Jianping Qi,1 Lingyun Chen,3 Lifang Yin,2 Wei Wu1 1School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education and PLA, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology. Methods: Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, ß-lactoglobulin as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated. Results: The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much

  10. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou

    2001-10-26

    There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx}1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

  11. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou

    2000-11-17

    There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx} 1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

  12. The prediction of variability occurring in fluidized bed coating equipment. I. The measurement of particle circulation rates in a bottom-spray fluidized bed coater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X X; Turton, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect that changes in design and process variables had on the movement of particles around a fluidized bed coating apparatus. To measure the mean and variance of the particle cycle time distribution (CTD), the number of passages taken by a magnetic tracer particle through the spray zone was measured by a detector coil wound around the partition. The reproducibility of the measurement technique was tested by taking repeated measurements of the tracer particle movement, using similar bed operating conditions, and the method was found to give reproducible results. A series of experiments was carried out by varying operating conditions such as the partition gap, fluidizing air rate, and partition diameter and length, and measuring the change in the rate at which the tracer particle circulated in the coating device. The results of the experiments showed that, over the range of parameters tested in this work, the partition gap had the strongest influence on the rate of particle circulation. Moreover, for the 6-in.-diameter Wurster process used in the current work, the mean circulation time for the 1.1-mm-diameter Nu-Pareil particles was found to vary over the range of 2.2-10.4 sec. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the CTD could be linearly correlated over a wide range of operating conditions, with a correlation coefficient of 0.80. Finally, an estimate of the variability in mass coating uniformity was made based on the results from the cycle time distributions. It was concluded that the effect of variability in the CTD could account for only a small fraction of the variability in the observed mass coating distribution.

  13. Physical characterization of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex pellets prepared by a fluid-bed coating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lu; Xingwang Zhang; Jie Lai; Zongning Yin; Wei Wu

    2009-01-01

    Meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin (ME-β-CD) inclusion complex was prepared by a fluid-bed coating technique upon solvent removal and simultaneous depositing onto the surface of nonpareil pellets and using PVP K30 as a binding agent to facilitate good coating. The resultant pellets were spherical and intact in shape with good flowability and friability. SEM analysis showed that the pellets were smooth and had a tightly coated inclusion complex layer. In vitro dissolution of the inclusion complex pellets in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was dramatically enhanced at an ME/CD ratio of 1/1. DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry proved the absence of crystallinity in the ME/CD inclusion complexes. Moreover, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry together with Raman spectrometry indicated that the thiazole ring of ME was possibly included in the cavity of β-CD.

  14. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Chi Tsai; Mark Daniel G. de Luna; Bermillo-Arriesgado, Hanna Lee P.; Futalan, Cybelle M.; Colades, James I.; Meng-Wei Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, th...

  15. Multisite Studies and Scaling up in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A scale-up study in education typically expands the sample of students, schools, districts, and/or practices or materials used in smaller studies in ways that build in heterogeneity. Yet surprisingly little is known about the factors that promote successful scaling up efforts in education, in large part due to the absence of empirically supported…

  16. Readiness for Change. Scaling-Up Brief. Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Dean L.; Blase, Karen A.; Horner, Rob; Sugai, George

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this "Brief" is to define the variables a state or large district leadership team may wish to consider as they determine if they are "ready" to invest in the scaling-up of an innovation in education. As defined here, "scaling up" means that at least 60% of the students who could benefit from an innovation have access to that…

  17. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  18. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 3. The Role of Tackiness and the Tack Stokes Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first and second parts of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1893 and 1905], agglomeration tendencies were studied for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. Results showed that the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt...... coating process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions, because of differences in stickiness, not because of differences in bulk viscosities. It was further shown that it is possible to optimize the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency...... of agglomeration, similar to the salt coating process. With the PVA-TiO2, coating liquid layer thicknesses encountered during these fluid-bed coating processes, agglomeration seems to be governed primarily by liquid surface phenomena. A modification to the original viscous Stokes number is suggested in the present...

  19. Influence of scale-up on the abrasion of tablets in a pan coater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ronny; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of batch size during scale-up on the abrasion and edge splitting of flat faced lactose tablets. The weight loss of white tracer tablets in a batch of blue coated tablets was investigated in a laboratory scale pan coater and a pilot scale pan coater as a function of different pan speeds and mixing times. It was observed that increasing batch size resulted in a decreased weight loss due to less edge damaging. The higher number of tablet impacts at the pan wall in the laboratory scale compared to the pilot scale might be the reason for this phenomenon. The common assertion that an increase in batch size in scale-up leads to a higher abrasion or tablet damaging was not supported in the current study.

  20. Experimental study and simulation of mass distribution of the covering layer of soybean seeds coated in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, it was observed that the covering of soybean seeds with bacteria and micronutrients enhances vigorous growth of the plant thereby avoiding use of ammoniacal fertilizers. In the spouted bed covering can be done by pulverization of the coater slurry on the soybean seeds using a pneumatic atomizer. The optimum thickness of the cover allows the fundamental gaseous interchanges for germination and provides the ideal conditions for bacterium activity. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the process variables on thickness of the cover. A simulation of the mass distribution of seeds was obtained using a population balance model. Through the results obtained the operational conditions under which the coating layer distribution were determined has the greatest uniformity.

  1. Scaling-Up Successfully: Pathways to Replication for Educational NGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Alice; Dyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Non-government organisations (NGOs) are big players in international development, critical to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and constantly under pressure to "achieve more". Scaling-up their initiatives successfully and sustainably can be an efficient and cost effective way for NGOs to increase their impact across a…

  2. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  3. Charter Operators Spell Out Barriers to "Scaling Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    The pace at which the highest-performing charter-management organizations (CMOs) are "scaling up" is being determined largely by how rapidly they can develop and hire strong leaders and acquire physical space, and by the level of support they receive for growth from city or state policies, say leaders from some charter organizations…

  4. Sustaining and Scaling up the Impact of Professional Development Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a crucial topic: which factors influence the sustainability and scale-up of a professional development programme's impact? Theoretical models and empirical findings from impact research (e.g. Zehetmeier and Krainer, "ZDM Int J Math" 43(6/7):875-887, 2011) and innovation research (e.g. Cobb and Smith,…

  5. New tuberculosis technologies: challenges for retooling and scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M; Palamountain, K M

    2012-10-01

    The availability of new tools does not mean that they will be adopted, used correctly, scaled up or have public health impact. Experience to date with new diagnostics suggests that many national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in high-burden countries are reluctant to adopt and scale up new tools, even when these are backed by evidence and global policy recommendations. We suggest that there are several common barriers to effective national adoption and scale-up of new technologies: global policy recommendations that do not provide sufficient information for scale-up, complex decision-making processes and weak political commitment at the country level, limited engagement of and support to NTP managers, high cost of tools and poor fit with user needs, unregulated markets and inadequate business models, limited capacity for laboratory strengthening and implementation research, and insufficient advocacy and donor support. Overcoming these barriers will require enhanced country-level advocacy, resources, technical assistance and political commitment. Some of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries are emerging as early adopters of policies and technologies, and are increasing their investments in TB control. They may provide the first opportunities to fully assess the public health impact of new tools.

  6. Scaling up complex interventions: insights from a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron D; Riley, Barbara L; Stockton, Lisa; Abramowicz, Aneta; Zummach, Dana; Wong, Geoff; Robinson, Kerry L; Best, Allan

    2016-12-19

    Preventing chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, requires complex interventions, involving multi-component and multi-level efforts that are tailored to the contexts in which they are delivered. Despite an increasing number of complex interventions in public health, many fail to be 'scaled up'. This study aimed to increase understanding of how and under what conditions complex public health interventions may be scaled up to benefit more people and populations.A realist synthesis was conducted and discussed at an in-person workshop involving practitioners responsible for scaling up activities. Realist approaches view causality through the linkages between changes in contexts (C) that activate mechanisms (M), leading to specific outcomes (O) (CMO configurations). To focus this review, three cases of complex interventions that had been successfully scaled up were included: Vibrant Communities, Youth Build USA and Pathways to Education. A search strategy of published and grey literature related to each case was developed, involving searches of relevant databases and nominations from experts. Data extracted from included documents were classified according to CMO configurations within strategic themes. Findings were compared and contrasted with guidance from diffusion theory, and interpreted with knowledge users to identify practical implications and potential directions for future research.Four core mechanisms were identified, namely awareness, commitment, confidence and trust. These mechanisms were activated within two broad scaling up strategies, those of renewing and regenerating, and documenting success. Within each strategy, specific actions to change contexts included building partnerships, conducting evaluations, engaging political support and adapting funding models. These modified contexts triggered the identified mechanisms, leading to a range of scaling up outcomes, such as commitment of new communities, changes in relevant

  7. Collaborative Group Learning using the SCALE-UP Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    The time-honored conventional lecture (``teaching by telling'') has been shown to be an ineffective mode of instruction for science classes. In these cases, where the enhancement of critical thinking skills and the development of problem-solving abilities are emphasized, collaborative group learning environments have proven to be far more effective. In addition, students naturally improve their teamwork skills through the close interaction they have with their group members. Early work on the Studio Physics model at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the mid-1990's was extended to large classes via the SCALE-UP model pioneered at North Carolina State University a few years later. In SCALE-UP, students sit at large round tables in three groups of three --- in this configuration, they carry out a variety of pencil/paper exercises (ponderables) using small whiteboards and perform hands-on activities like demos and labs (tangibles) throughout the class period. They also work on computer simulations using a shared laptop for each group of three. Formal lecture is reduced to a minimal level and the instructor serves more as a ``coach'' to facilitate the academic ``drills'' that the students are working on. Since its inception in 1997, the SCALE-UP pedagogical approach has been adopted by over 100 institutions across the country and about 20 more around the world. In this talk, I will present an overview of the SCALE-UP concept and I will outline the details of its deployment at George Washington University over the past 4 years. I will also discuss empirical data from assessments given to the SCALE-UP collaborative classes and the regular lecture classes at GWU in order to make a comparative study of the effectiveness of the two methodologies.

  8. Scaling up of manufacturing processes of recycled carpet based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, feasibility of recycling post-consumer carpets using a modified vacuum assisted resisted molding process into large-scale components was successfully demonstrated. The scale up also included the incorporation of nano-clay films in the carpet composites. It is expected that the films will enhance the ability of the composite to withstand environmental degradation and also serve as a fire retardant. Low-cost resins were used to fabricate the recycled carpet-based composites. The scale up in terms of process was achieved by manufacturing composites without a hot press and thereby saving additional equipment cost. Mechanical and physical properties were evaluated. Large-scale samples demonstrated mechanical properties that were different from results from small samples. Acoustic tests indicate good sound absorption of the carpet composite. Cost analysis of the composite material based on the cost of the raw materials and the manufacturing process has been presented.

  9. Considerations for Scale-Up of Ferronickel Electric Smelting Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundermark, R. J.; Nelson, L. R.

    2017-02-01

    In ferronickel smelting, the selective carbothermic reduction of calcined nickel laterite ores in large electric furnaces yields a crude ferronickel product. The optimal process for nickel laterite smelting requires a fine balance between the metallurgical requirements of the process (feed composition, nickel recovery, energy consumption, product quality) and the capabilities of the feeding, tapping and off-gas systems, and especially of the furnace crucible and electrical system. The scale-up of nickel laterite smelting operations over the last 50 years has seen a tenfold increase in furnace power input. Furnace operations within the industry are examined to identify common trends and some new metrics are proposed which incorporate the combination of electrode power densities and the impact of alloy nickel grade on gas generation rates, and hence local electrode gas fluxes, which may impact on future scale-up of ferronickel furnaces.

  10. Scale-up and kinetic modeling for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Esra; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-09-01

    Bioethanol was produced from acidic hydrolysate of rice hulls using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. Two different issues (scale-up and kinetic modeling) were evaluated simultaneously and concomitantly for bioethanol production. During the step-wise scale-up process from 100 mL shaken flask to 10 L stirred-tank bioreactor, the constant Reynolds number and the constant impeller tip speed were evaluated as scale-up methodologies under laboratory conditions. It was determined that the volumetric bioethanol productivity was 88% higher in 10 L bioreactor in comparison to the value of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) in shaken flask. The modified Monod and Luedeking-Piret models provided an accurate approach for the modeling of the experimental data. Ethanol concentration reached the maximum level of 29.03 g/L, which was 5% higher than the value of model prediction in 10 L bioreactor. The findings of this research could contribute to the industrial scale productions especially from lignocellulosic raw materials.

  11. Scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金志华; 林建平; 岑沛霖

    2004-01-01

    Study of the effect of dissolved oxygen and shear stress on rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 showed that rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei XC 9-25 needs high dissolved oxygen and is not very sensitive to shearing stress. The scale-up ofrifamycin B fermentation withA, mediterranei XC 9-25 from a shaking flask to a 15 L fermentor was realized by controlling the dissolved oxygen to above 25% of saturation in the fermentation process, and the potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 15 L fermentor reached 10 g/L after 6-day batch fermentation. By continuously feeding glucose and ammonia in the fermentation process, the potency of rifamycin B fermentaion in the 15 L fermentor reached 18.67 g/L, which was 86.65% higher than that of batch fermentation. Based on the scale-up principle of constantly aerated agitation power per unit volume, the scale-up of rifamycin B fed-batch fermentation with continuous feed from a 15 L fermentor to a 7 m3 fermentor and further to a 60 m3 fermentor was realized successfully. The potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 7 m3 fermentor and in the 60 m3 fermentor reached 17.25 g/L and 19.11 g/L, respectively.

  12. Scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金志华; 林建平; 岑沛霖

    2004-01-01

    Study of the effect of dissolved oxygen and shear stress on rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 showed that rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei XC 9-25 needs high dissolved oxygen and is not very sensitive to shearing stress. The scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation withA. mediterranei XC 9-25 from a shaking flask to a 15 L fermentor was realized by controlling the dissolved oxygen to above 25% of saturation in the fermentation process, and the potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 15 L fermentor reached 10 g/L after 6-day batch fermentation.By continuously feeding glucose and ammonia in the fermentation process, the potency of rifamycin B fermentaion in the 15 L fermentor reached 18.67 g/L, which was 86.65% higher than that of batch fermentation. Based on the scale-up principle of constantly aerated agitation power per unit volume, the scale-up ofrifamycin B fed-batch fermentation with continuous feed from a 15 L fermentor to a 7 m3 fermentor and further to a 60 m3 fermentor was realized successfully. The potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 7 m3 fermentor and in the 60 m3 fermentor reached 17.25 g/L and 19.11 g/L, respectively.

  13. Entrapment of Rhizobium sp. by fluidized bed technique using polymers as coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spray-drying technique was applied for the development of three solid formulations of Rhizobium. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC with concentrations of 0.5 % were used as polymers. Results showed that none of the solid formulations had negative effects in vitro on the growth-promoting capacities of Rhizobium sp. G58 (p < 0.05. PCA´s first three components explained 84.5 % of the total variance. This analysis concluded that the solid formulation had not negative effects on the biological nitrogen fixation activity in vitro or on the process of nodulation in greenhouse experiments. Symbiosis between Rhizobium and the plant was effective, which suggested that, under controlled conditions, the coating process with the polymers had allowed a controlled release of the bacteria and a proper transfer of Rhizobium sp. from the microparticles to the root of the plant.

  14. Droplet size measurements for spray dryer scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, Pia; Hovgaard, Lars; Andersen, Sune Klint; Lindeløv, Jesper Saederup

    2008-01-01

    This study was dedicated to facilitate scale-up in spray drying from an atomization standpoint. The purpose was to investigate differences in operating conditions between a pilot and a production scale nozzle. The intension was to identify the operating ranges in which the two nozzles produced similar droplet size distributions. Furthermore, method optimization and validation were also covered. Externally mixing two-fluid nozzles of similar designs were used in this study. Both nozzles are typically used in commercially available spray dryers, and they have been characterized with respect to droplet size distributions as a function of liquid type, liquid flow rate, atomization gas flow rate, liquid orifice diameter, and atomization gas orifice diameter. All droplet size measurements were carried out by using the Malvern Spraytec with nozzle operating conditions corresponding to typical settings for spray drying. This gave droplets with Sauter Mean Diameters less than 40 microm and typically 5-20 microm. A model previously proposed by Mansour and Chigier was used to correlate the droplet size to the operating parameters. It was possible to make a correlation for water incorporating the droplet sizes for both the pilot scale and the production scale nozzle. However, a single correlation was not able to account properly for the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the droplet size distributions of ethanol could not be adequately predicted on the basis of the water data. This study has shown that it was possible to scale up from a pilot to production scale nozzle in a systematic fashion. However, a prerequisite was that the nozzles were geometrically similar. When externally mixing two-fluid nozzles are used as atomizers, the results obtained from this study could be a useful guideline for selecting appropriate operating conditions when scaling up the spray-drying process.

  15. Challenges in Designing and Scaling up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    of the latter is to develop a platform to activate hidden or latent resources in neighbourhoods. Both of the projects are an application of service design to the public sector and together provide useful insights about designing and scaling up highly localized and personalized services and service platforms......This paper is based on two European Union-funded projects: Life 2.0, which was recently completed, and My Neighbourhood, which is still ongoing. The goal of the former was to create location-based and socially networked services to support elderly people in living independently. The aim...

  16. Challenges in Designing and Scaling-up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    hidden or latent resources in neighbourhoods. Both the projects are based on the activities in four pilot locations. They are an application of service design to the public sector that provide interesting insights about designing and scaling up highly localised and personalised services and platforms......This paper is based on two EU funded projects: one recently completed, Life 2.0 and an on- going project, MyNeighborhood (MyN). The former was aimed at creating location based and socially networked services to support elderly people independent life. The latter is developing a platform to activate...

  17. Photocatalytic Active Coatings for Lignin Degradation in a Continuous Packed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Awungacha Lekelefac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of immobilized catalyst on porous glass support material via the sol-gel route is reported. TiO2-P25-SiO2 + Pt, TiO2-P25-SiO2, TiOSO4_30.6 wt%, and ZnO + TiO2-P25-SiO2 catalysts were synthesized and a comparative study is done regarding morphology of coatings, degradation rates, reaction rates, dissolved carbon (DC, formation of peaks, and fluorescence of products formed from the photocatalytic degradation of lignin sulfonate obtained from a local paper plant. Through simultaneous reaction-extraction pathways applying dialysis filtration and highly porous polystyrene divinylbenzene adsorbent resin (HR-P for solid phase extraction (SPE, an attempt has been made to isolate smaller molecules produced from photocatalytic degradation. Moreover relatively high lignin sulfonate (0.5 g/L concentrations are used in the reactions. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed a faster reduction in the concentration values for the aliphatic moiety compared to the aromatic moiety. Peaks were observed by both fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC suggesting the production of new substances and fluorophores.

  18. Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, I M; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Uttley, P; Fender, R P

    2006-12-07

    A long-standing question is whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary like Galactic black hole systems when appropriately scaled up by mass. If so, we can then determine how AGN should behave on cosmological timescales by studying the brighter and much faster varying Galactic systems. As X-ray emission is produced very close to the black holes, it provides one of the best diagnostics of their behaviour. A characteristic timescale--which potentially could tell us about the mass of the black hole--is found in the X-ray variations from both AGN and Galactic black holes, but whether it is physically meaningful to compare the two has been questioned. Here we report that, after correcting for variations in the accretion rate, the timescales can be physically linked, revealing that the accretion process is exactly the same for small and large black holes. Strong support for this linkage comes, perhaps surprisingly, from the permitted optical emission lines in AGN whose widths (in both broad-line AGN and narrow-emission-line Seyfert 1 galaxies) correlate strongly with the characteristic X-ray timescale, exactly as expected from the AGN black hole masses and accretion rates. So AGN really are just scaled-up Galactic black holes.

  19. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  20. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Limiting conditions/scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H(sub 2) from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: 1. Culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; 2. Mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; 3. Bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; 4. Evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; 5. Process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and 6. Economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

  1. TA Beliefs in a SCALE-UP Style Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeck, George; Settelmeyer, Sam; Li, Sissi; Demaree, Dedra

    2010-10-01

    In Spring 2010, the Oregon State University physics department instituted a SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) style studio classroom in the introductory, calculus-based physics series. In our initial implementation, comprised of two hours lecture, two hours of studio, and two hours lab work, the studio session was lead by a faculty member and either 2 GTAs or 1 GTA and 1 LA. We plan to move to a model where senior GTAs can lead studio sections after co-teaching with the faculty member. It is critical that we know how to prepare and support the instructional team in facilitating student learning in this setting. We examine GTA and LA pedagogical beliefs through reflective journaling, interviews, and personal experience of the authors. In particular, we examine how these beliefs changed over their first quarter of instruction, as well as the resources used to adapt to the new classroom environment.

  2. Microbial bioelectrosynthesis of hydrogen: Current challenges and scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Michael; Butler, Robin; Marsili, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions. The performance of the MEC is influenced by experimental parameters such as the electrode material, reactor design, microbial consortia and the substrate. In this review, factors that affect the performance of MECs are discussed and critically analysed. The potential for scale-up of H2 bioelectrosynthesis is also discussed.

  3. Preferred antiretroviral drugs for the next decade of scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global commitments aim to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART to 15 million people living with HIV by 2015, and recent studies have demonstrated the potential for widespread ART to prevent HIV transmission. Increasingly, countries are adapting their national guidelines to start ART earlier, for both clinical and preventive benefits. To maximize the benefits of ART in resource-limited settings, six key principles need to guide ART choice: simplicity, tolerability and safety, durability, universal applicability, affordability and heat stability. Currently available drugs, combined with those in late-stage clinical development, hold great promise to simplify treatment in the short term. Over the longer term, newer technologies, such as long-acting formulations and nanotechnology, could radically alter the treatment paradigm. This commentary reviews recommendations made in an expert consultation on treatment scale up in resource-limited settings.

  4. Compound scale-up at the discovery-development interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, Antonia A

    2006-11-01

    As a result of an economically challenging environment within the pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical companies and their departments must increase productivity and cut costs to stay in line with the market. Discovery-led departments such as the medicinal chemistry and lead optimization groups focus on synthesizing large varieties of compounds in minimal amounts, while the chemical development groups must then deliver a few chosen leads employing an optimized synthesis method and using multi-kilogram quantities of material. A research group at the discovery-development interface has the task of medium-scale synthesis which is important in the lead selection stage. The primary objective of this group is the initial scale-up of promising leads for extensive physicochemical and biological testing. The challenge of the interface group involves overcoming synthetic issues within the rigid, accelerated timelines.

  5. Bioprinting scale-up tissue and organ constructs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2015-07-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging field that is having a revolutionary impact on the medical sciences. It offers great precision for the spatial placement of cells, proteins, genes, drugs, and biologically active particles to better guide tissue generation and formation. This emerging biotechnology appears to be promising for advancing tissue engineering toward functional tissue and organ fabrication for transplantation, drug testing, research investigations, and cancer or disease modeling, and has recently attracted growing interest worldwide among researchers and the general public. In this Opinion, I highlight possibilities for the bioprinting scale-up of functional tissue and organ constructs for transplantation and provide the reader with alternative approaches, their limitations, and promising directions for new research prospects.

  6. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  7. Carnosol purification. Scaling-up centrifugal partition chromatography separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, Elodie; Berthod, Alain; Faure, Karine

    2016-09-30

    This paper illustrates the application of a recently proposed protocol allowing the scale-up prediction on hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography columns (centrifugal partition chromatographs or CPC). A commercial extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was used as the starting material containing 0.48% of carnosol, an active pharmaceutical ingredient with great potential. After a rapid method development on a small-scale 35-mL CPC instrument that allowed for the determination of the solvent system and maximum sample concentration and volume, the purification was transferred on two larger instruments using the "free space between peaks" method. The method takes into account the technical limitations of the larger instruments, such as pressure and/or maximum centrifugal field, and allows, by simply running an analytical-sized injection on the large scale rotor, to give an accurate prediction of the maximum sample load and best throughput. The 0.27g of rosemary extract maximum load on a 35-mL CPC was transferred as a 1.9g load on a 254-mL medium size CPC and 9g load on a 812-mL CPC. The maximum process efficiency of 3.1mg of carnosol per hour obtained on the small 35-mL column was transferred on the 254-mL CPC giving 8.3mg/h and, on the larger 812-mL column 49.4mg of carnosol could be obtained per hour. If the scaling-up in CPC instruments is not directly homothetic, it can be highly predictable through a few simple experiments.

  8. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, the breakthrough and exhaustion time were observed to favorably increase. Moreover, the adsorption capacity at breakthrough was observed to increase with decreasing initial concentration and flow rate and increasing bed height. The maximum adsorption capacity at breakthrough of 13.49 mg/g for Pb(II, 12.14 mg/g for Cu(II, and 10.29 mg/g for Ni(II was attained at an initial influent concentration of 200 mg/L, bed height of 2.0 cm, and flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Adsorption data were fitted with Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Experimental breakthrough curves were observed to be in good agreement (R2>0.85 and E%<50% with the predicted curves generated by the kinetic models. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of CCB in the removal of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a ternary metal solution.

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling-Up Nutrition in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Darnton-Hill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare continues to be in a state of flux; conventionally, this provides opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include technological breakthroughs, improved economies and increasing availability of healthcare. On the other hand, economic disparities are increasing and leading to differing accessibility to healthcare, including within affluent countries. Nutrition has received an increase in attention and resources in recent decades, a lot of it stimulated by the rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. An increase in ageing populations also has meant increased interest in nutrition-related chronic diseases. In many middle-income countries, there has been an increase in the double burden of malnutrition with undernourished children and overweight/obese parents and adolescents. In low-income countries, an increased evidence base has allowed scaling-up of interventions to address under-nutrition, both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Immediate barriers (institutional, structural and biological and longer-term barriers (staffing shortages where most needed and environmental impacts on health are discussed. Significant barriers remain for the near universal access to healthcare, especially for those who are socio-economically disadvantaged, geographically isolated, living in war zones or where environmental damage has taken place. However, these barriers are increasingly being recognized, and efforts are being made to address them. The paper aims to take a broad view that identifies and then comments on the many social, political and scientific factors affecting the achievement of improved nutrition through healthcare.

  10. Scaling Up Data-Centric Middleware on a Cluster Computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D T; Franklin, M J; Garlick, J; Abdulla, G M

    2005-04-29

    Data-centric workflow middleware systems are workflow systems that treat data as first class objects alongside programs. These systems improve the usability, responsiveness and efficiency of workflow execution over cluster (and grid) computers. In this work, we explore the scalability of one such system, GridDB, on cluster computers. We measure the performance and scalability of GridDB in executing data-intensive image processing workflows from the SuperMACHO astrophysics survey on a large cluster computer. Our first experimental study concerns the scale-up of GridDB. We make a rather surprising finding, that while the middleware system issues many queries and transactions to a DBMS, file system operations present the first-tier bottleneck. We circumvent this bottleneck and increase the scalability of GridDB by more than 2-fold on our image processing application (up to 128 nodes). In a second study, we demonstrate the sensitivity of GridDB performance (and therefore application performance) to characteristics of the workflows being executed. To manage these sensitivities, we provide guidelines for trading off the costs and benefits of GridDB at a fine-grain.

  11. Scaling-up ultrasound standing wave enhanced sedimentation filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Jeff E; Treves Brown, Bernard J; Fielden, Peter R; Wilkinson, Stephen J; Hawkes, Jeremy J

    2015-02-01

    Particle concentration and filtration is a key stage in a wide range of processing industries and also one that can be present challenges for high throughput, continuous operation. Here we demonstrate some features which increase the efficiency of ultrasound enhanced sedimentation and could enable the technology the potential to be scaled up. In this work, 20 mm piezoelectric plates were used to drive 100 mm high chambers formed from single structural elements. The coherent structural resonances were able to drive particles (yeast cells) in the water to nodes throughout the chamber. Ultrasound enhanced sedimentation was used to demonstrate the efficiency of the system (>99% particle clearance). Sub-wavelength pin protrusions were used for the contacts between the resonant chamber and other elements. The pins provided support and transferred power, replacing glue which is inefficient for power transfer. Filtration energies of ∼4 J/ml of suspension were measured. A calculation of thermal convection indicates that the circulation could disrupt cell alignment in ducts >35 mm high when a 1K temperature gradient is present; we predict higher efficiencies when this maximum height is observed. For the acoustic design, although modelling was minimal before construction, the very simple construction allowed us to form 3D models of the nodal patterns in the fluid and the duct structure. The models were compared with visual observations of particle movement, Chladni figures and scanning laser vibrometer mapping. This demonstrates that nodal planes in the fluid can be controlled by the position of clamping points and that the contacts could be positioned to increase the efficiency and reliability of particle manipulations in standing waves.

  12. WET-GRANULATION RESEARCH WITH APPLICATION TO SCALE-UP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel I.Tardos

    2005-01-01

    in a granulator by employing calibrated "test" particles of known strength. This knowledge is employed in granulation scale-up to determine a kinematic rule that conserves stresses in the small and the large-scale machines. It was found that conserving the magnitude of internal stresses in the moving powder yields granules with similar attributes in granulators of different size.

  13. High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Peter; Makwana, Neel M; Tighe, Christopher J; Gruar, Robert I; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J; Darr, Jawwad A

    2016-02-08

    A high-throughput optimization and subsequent scale-up methodology has been used for the synthesis of conductive tin-doped indium oxide (known as ITO) nanoparticles. ITO nanoparticles with up to 12 at % Sn were synthesized using a laboratory scale (15 g/hour by dry mass) continuous hydrothermal synthesis process, and the as-synthesized powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under standard synthetic conditions, either the cubic In2O3 phase, or a mixture of InO(OH) and In2O3 phases were observed in the as-synthesized materials. These materials were pressed into compacts and heat-treated in an inert atmosphere, and their electrical resistivities were then measured using the Van der Pauw method. Sn doping yielded resistivities of ∼ 10(-2) Ω cm for most samples with the lowest resistivity of 6.0 × 10(-3) Ω cm (exceptionally conductive for such pressed nanopowders) at a Sn concentration of 10 at %. Thereafter, the optimized lab-scale composition was scaled-up using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (at a rate of 100 g/hour by dry mass), and a comparable resistivity of 9.4 × 10(-3) Ω cm was obtained. The use of the synthesized TCO nanomaterials for thin film fabrication was finally demonstrated by deposition of a transparent, conductive film using a simple spin-coating process.

  14. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...... process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions. This is investigated further in this second part and concluded to be due to differences in coating solution stickiness, rather than differences in bulk viscosities. Furthermore, results show that it is possible to optimize...... the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating...

  15. Optimization design of the coating furnace by 3-d simulation of spouted bed dynamics in the coater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Bing; Shao, Youlin; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The 3-d Euler–Euler CFD simulation was adopted to study the particle dynamics in the spouted bed under different operation conditions and different gas inlet structures (traditional single-nozzle inlet, modified single-nozzle inlet, multi-nozzle inlet and swirl flow design inlet). The maximum spouted height is mainly determined by the gas velocity. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results in spouted bed with traditional single-nozzle inlet. The gas velocity increase will also reduce the volume of particle clusters in spouted bed with multi-nozzle inlet. By comparing simulation results, the multi-nozzle inlet and special swirl flow design inlet is better than single nozzle inlet for obtaining a more uniform fluidization state, which can disperse the gas to increase the gas–particle contact efficiency. The specially swirl flow design can reduce the accumulation of solid particles close to the wall further, especially at the bottom of the spouted bed. The experimental study should be given to validate the superiority of this newly swirl flow design inlet before the industrial application in the future.

  16. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO{sub 2} sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C., E-mail: cshoyo@us.es [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, J.M. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Ommen, J.R. van [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Product and Process Engineering, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Pérez-Maqueda, L.A.; Sayagués, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC – Universidad de Sevilla), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CaO coating at atmospheric pressure is applied on silica nanoparticles in a fluidized bed. • Atmospheric pressure would facilitate scaling-up of the process. • The conditions for the coating process at atmospheric pressure are discussed. • The CO{sub 2} sorbent capacity is demonstrated by TGA in carbonation/calcination. • STEM-EDX shows the presence of CaO on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO{sub 2} solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  17. Eficiência do processo de recobrimento de sementes de brócolos recobertas com polímero em leito de jorro Coating process efficiency for polymer coated broccoli seeds in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, sementes de brócolos foram recobertas em leito de jorro cone-cilíndrico, com suspensão aquosa de hidroxietilcelulose, visando a aprimorar a técnica do recobrimento de sementes, utilizando o processo fluidodinâmico. Foram investigados os efeitos das variáveis operacionais temperatura do ar de jorro, pressão de ar de atomização e vazão de suspensão de recobrimento, na eficiência do processo e na germinação das sementes. Os resultados revelaram que houve influência das variáveis operacionais na eficiência do processo e na germinação. Verificou-se, também, que as sementes recobertas apresentaram de 2 a 10% de umidade a menos que as sementes não-recobertas, quando em ambiente com temperatura controlada e saturado de vapor de água em determinado período.Broccoli seeds were coated in a conical-cylindrical spouted bed with an aqueous suspension of hydroxy ethyl cellulose aiming to improve the seeds coating technique using a fluid-dynamic process. An experimental design was applied to investigate the effects of the operating variables: gas temperature, atomizing air pressure and suspension flow rate on the germination of the seeds and on the process efficiency. Results indicated that the operating variables affect both the coating process efficiency and the germination ability. However, the analysis didn’t identify differences between the germination potential of coated and uncoated seeds. Coated seeds absorbed up to 10 percent less moisture than the uncoated ones, when the environment temperature and humidity were controlled over a period of time.

  18. Controlling the chemical stability of a moisture-sensitive drug product through monitoring and identification of coating process microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestur, Umesh; Pandey, Preetanshu; Badawy, Sherif; Lin, Judy; Desai, Divyakant

    2014-12-10

    The objective of this work was to monitor and identify the impact of coating microenvironment, as measured by PyroButtons(®) data loggers, on the chemical stability of a moisture-sensitive drug molecule brivanib alaninate (BA). BA tablets were coated at two different scales (15 and 24 in pan). PyroButtons(®) data loggers were allowed to move freely within the tablet bed to record the temperature and relative humidity conditions of the tablet bed. The tablet moisture content at the end of the coating runs, and the rate of hydrolysis of the BA tablets based on HPLC analysis was found to be a function of the coating thermodynamic microenvironment. Wetter coating conditions resulted in tablets with higher water content and showed greater degradation upon storage. The coating process which yielded acceptable stability in a 15 in coater was transferred to a 24 in coater by maintaining similar tablet-bed relative humidity and temperature conditions. This was compared to a traditional scale-up approach where the environmental equivalency factor (EEF) was matched between scales during coating. The moisture content observed across the two scales indicated that maintaining a similar tablet-bed microenvironment ensured consistent results between scales.

  19. Analytical Solution of Fick's Law of the TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles and Fuel Elements in Pebble-Bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian-Zhu; FANG Chao; SUN Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    T wo kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models (Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly. Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented, respectively. The analytica,solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system, a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element. Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.%@@ Two kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models(Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly.Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented,respectively.The analytical solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system,a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element.Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.

  20. Fundamental Issues Concerning the Sustainment and Scaling Up of Professional Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustaining and scaling up professional development for mathematics teachers raises several fundamental issues for researchers. This commentary addresses various definitions for sustainability and scaling up and how these definitions may affect the design of programs as well as the design of research. We consider four of the papers in…

  1. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  2. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Tasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  3. A Route to Scale Up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2010-01-26

    A new strategy is presented to scale up DNA origami using multi-helical DNA tiles as folding staples. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrate the two-dimensional structures formed by using this strategy.

  4. Experimental Study on Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with an Intermig Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Lifeng; Yin, Pan

    2017-02-01

    The scale-up of a solid-liquid stirred tank with an Intermig impeller was characterized via experiments. Solid concentration, impeller just-off-bottom speed and power consumption were measured in stirred tanks of different scales. The scale-up criteria for achieving the same effect of solid suspension in small-scale and large-scale vessels were evaluated. The solids distribution improves if the operating conditions are held constant as the tank is scaled-up. The results of impeller just-off-bottom speed gave X = 0.868 in the scale-up relationship ND X = constant. Based on this criterion, the stirring power per unit volume obviously decreased at N = N js, and the power number ( N P) was approximately equal to 0.3 when the solids are uniformly distributed in the vessels.

  5. Making the hospital a safer place by sonochemical coating of all its textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat; Perkas, Nina; Tzanov, Tzanko; Аrguirova, M; Leseva, M; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-07-01

    The ability to scale-up the sonochemical coating of medical textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles is demonstrated in the current paper. A roll-to-roll pilot installation to coat textiles was built taking into consideration the requirements of the sonochemical process. A long-run experiment was conducted in which 2500 m of fabric were coated with antibacterial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The metal oxide NPs were deposited from an ethanol:water solution. In this continuous process a uniform concentration of coated NPs over the length/width of the fabric was achieved. The antibacterial efficiency of the sonochemically-coated textiles was validated in a hospital environment by a reduction in the occurrence of nosocomial infections. NP-coated bed sheets, patient gowns, pillow cover, and bed covers were used by 21 patients. For comparison 16 patients used regular textiles. The clinical data indicated the reduced occurrence of hospital-acquired infections when using the metal oxide NP-coated textiles. In order to reduce the cost of the coating process and considering safety issues during manufacturing, the solvent (ethanol:water) (9:1 v:v) used for the long-run experiment, was replaced by water. Although lesser amounts of ZnO NPs were deposited on the fabric in the water-based process the antibacterial activity of the textiles was preserved due to the smaller size of the particles.

  6. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p repellency of DEET or IR3535 on LLIRNs. Vice versa, DEET and IR3535 increased spatial and excitatory repellency and reduced landing and probing frequency on LLIRNs resulting in strongly enhanced biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent

  7. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sarghini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel and food production (liquid whey waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of waste treatment, obtaining a final product with a higher economical value, combining the two processing lines. Although an edible film production procedure based on pectin extracted from fennel matrix and whey proteins has already been published in literature, the scale-up process highlighted several critical issues, in particular related to the fennel matrix. Nonetheless, the pilot plant configuration allowed an edible film to be produced that is suitable for use as a direct coating to improve the shelf-life of food products.

  8. Scale-up criterion of power consumption for a surface aerator used in wastewater treatment tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M. Issa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of operation costs in surface aeration basins or tanks is because of power requirements. Therefore, it is always necessary to find a dependable criterion for the predictive scale-up of power consumption measurements obtained at laboratory-scale surface aeration tanks to industrial-scale wastewater treatment surface aeration systems. A scale-up approach was proposed in this work for volumetric power consumption between geometrically similar laboratory-scale and industrial full-scale surface aeration tanks at an invariant Froude number Fr. Scale-up order between the laboratory and industrial sizes was 7.4. A mathematical correlation has been developed to estimate the volumetric power consumption and then compared with a model that already was investigated experimentally. Scale-up criterion involved the evaluation of three similarities; the geometrical, kinematic and dynamics. The scale-up basis that developed in this work led us to achieve a suitable scale-up criterion for volumetric power consumption in aeration tanks at matched surface flow condition. At matched Froude number Fr for the laboratory and industrial scales and at low and moderate turbine rotation speeds for surface aeration than 0.8 rps, complete predictions of volumetric power consumption have been achieved. The prediction by the existing previous model showed higher results than the actual values.

  9. Freeze-Drying Process Development and Scale-Up: Scale-Up of Edge Vial Versus Center Vial Heat Transfer Coefficients, Kv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikal, Michael J; Bogner, Robin; Mudhivarthi, Vamsi; Sharma, Puneet; Sane, Pooja

    2016-11-01

    This report presents calculations of the difference between the vial heat transfer coefficient of the "edge vial" and the "center vial" at all scales. The only scale-up adjustment for center vials is for the contribution of radiation from the shelf upon which the vial sits by replacing the emissivity of the laboratory dryer shelf with the emissivity of the production dryer shelf. With edge vials, scales-up adjustments are more complex. While convection is not important, heat transfer from the wall to the bands (surrounding the vial array) by radiation and directly from the band to the vials by both radiation and conduction is important; this radiation heat transfer depends on the emissivity of the vial and the bands and is nearly independent of the emissivity of the dryer walls. Differences in wall temperatures do impact the edge vial effect and scale-up, and estimates for wall temperatures are needed for both laboratory and manufacturing dryers. Auto-loading systems (no bands) may give different edge vial heat transfer coefficients than when operating with bands. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental values of the edge vial effect indicate that results calculated from the theory are of useful accuracy.

  10. A new scale-up approach for dispersive mixing in twin-screw compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Graeme; Bigio, David I.; Andersen, Paul; Wetzel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Scale-up rules in polymer processing are critical in ensuring consistency in product quality and properties when transitioning from low volume laboratory mixing processes to high volume industrial compounding. The scale-up approach investigated in this study evaluates the processes with respect to dispersive mixing. Demand of polymer composites with solid additives, such as carbon microfibers and nanotubes, has become increasingly popular. Dispersive mixing breaks down particles that agglomerate, which is paramount in processing composites because solid additives tend to collect and clump. The amount of stress imparted on the material governs the degree of dispersive mixing. A methodology has been developed to characterize the Residence Stress Distribution (RSD) within a twin-screw extruder in real time through the use of polymeric stress beads. Through this technique, certain mixing scale-up rules can be analyzed. The following research investigated two different scale-up rules. The industry standard for mixing scale-up takes the ratio of outer diameters cubed to convert the volumetric flow rate from the smaller process to a flow rate appropriate in the larger machine. This procedure then resolves both operating conditions since shear rate remains constant. The second rule studied is based on percent drag flow, or the fraction of pumping potential, for different elements along the screw configuration. The percent drag flow rule aims to bring greater focus to operating conditions when scaling-up with respect to dispersive mixing. Through the use of the RSD methodology and a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach, rigorous statistical analysis was used to determine the validity between the scale-up rules of argument.

  11. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  12. A quality by design approach to scale-up of high-shear wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Badawy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    High-shear wet granulation is a complex process that in turn makes scale-up a challenging task. Scale-up of high-shear wet granulation process has been studied extensively in the past with various different methodologies being proposed in the literature. This review article discusses existing scale-up principles and categorizes the various approaches into two main scale-up strategies - parameter-based and attribute-based. With the advent of quality by design (QbD) principle in drug product development process, an increased emphasis toward the latter approach may be needed to ensure product robustness. In practice, a combination of both scale-up strategies is often utilized. In a QbD paradigm, there is also a need for an increased fundamental and mechanistic understanding of the process. This can be achieved either by increased experimentation that comes at higher costs, or by using modeling techniques, that are also discussed as part of this review.

  13. Operation of a fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1978-11-15

    In the fluidized-bed denitrification process developed, bacteria are allowed to grow and attach themselves to 0.25 to 0.60-mm-OD coal particles, and nitrate-containing solution is pumped up through the column at a velocity sufficient to fluidize the bacteria-coated coal particles. The denitrification bacteria convert the nitrate ions to nitrogen gas. A 10-cm-ID column has been operated by Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant personnel to test the scale-up and operational characteristics of the fluidized bed process. The reactor consists of a tapered bottom section for flow distribution, several straight 10-cm-ID cylindrical sections, and a tapered top section for solid/liquid disengaging. Increasing the diameter of the reactor by a factor of two did not cause any decrease in reactor performance. The fluidized-bed reactor is characterized by short-residence-time requirements (about 2 minutes per meter of height), and by high, but variable, denitrification rates (2 to 35 g NO/sub 3//sup -/-N/dm/sup 3//day). The reactor is best suited for relatively low-concentration nitrate wastes (<1 wt% NO/sub 3//sup -/). The economics of using the reactor for high-concentration wastes (>20 wt% NO/sub 3//sup -/) is less favorable, but still may be competitive with other reactor types. 9 figs, 2 tables.

  14. Simulation and Scale-up of Barium Sulphate Precipitation Process Using CFD Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俊波; 卫宏远; 王静康; JohnGarsideb

    2005-01-01

    Some empirical mixing models were used to describe the imperfect mixing in precipitation process.However, the models can not, in general, reflect the details of interactions between mixing and crystallization in a vessel. In this study, CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technique were developed by simulating the precipitation of barium sulphate in stirred tanks by integration of population balance equations with a CFD solver. Two typical impellers, Rushton and pitched blade turbines, were employed for agitation. The influence of feed concentration and position on crystal product properties was investigated by CFD simulation. The scale-up of these precipitators was systematically studied. Significant effect on the crystal properties was found for the scale-up under some conditions.Keywords simulation, scale up, precipitation, CFD(computational fluid dynamics)

  15. Statistical data generated through CFD to aid in the scale-up of shear sensitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Das, Shankhadeep; Cloeter, Mike; Gillis, Paul; Poindexter, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A number of industrial processes are considered shear-sensitive, where the product quality depends on achieving the right balance between mixing energy input and the resulting strain rate distribution in the process. Examples of such industrial processes are crystallization, flocculation and suspension polymerization. Scale-up of such processes are prone to a number of challenges including the optimization of mixing and shear rate distribution in the process. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be a valuable tool to aid in the process scale-up; however for modeling purpose, the process will often need to be simplified appropriately to reduce the computational complexity. Commercial CFD tools with appropriate Lagrangian particle tracking models can be used to gather statistical data such as maximum strain rate distribution and maximum number of passes through a specific strain rate. This presentation will discuss such statistical tools and their application to a model scale-up problem.

  16. Enabling and challenging factors in institutional reform: The case of SCALE-UP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kathleen; Knaub, Alexis; Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Beichner, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    While many innovative teaching strategies exist, integration into undergraduate science teaching has been frustratingly slow. This study aims to understand the low uptake of research-based instructional innovations by studying 21 successful implementations of the Student Centered Active Learning with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) instructional reform. SCALE-UP significantly restructures the classroom environment and pedagogy to promote highly active and interactive instruction. Although originally designed for university introductory physics courses, SCALE-UP has spread to many other disciplines at hundreds of departments around the world. This study reports findings from in-depth, open-ended interviews with 21 key contact people involved with successful secondary implementations of SCALE-UP throughout the United States. We defined successful implementations as those who restructured their pedagogy and classroom and sustained and/or spread the change. Interviews were coded to identify the most common enabling and challenging factors during reform implementation and compared to the theoretical framework of Kotter's 8-step Change Model. The most common enabling influences that emerged are documenting and leveraging evidence of local success, administrative support, interaction with outside SCALE-UP user(s), and funding. Many challenges are linked to the lack of these enabling factors including difficulty finding funding, space, and administrative and/or faculty support for reform. Our focus on successful secondary implementations meant that most interviewees were able to overcome challenges. Presentation of results is illuminated with case studies, quotes, and examples that can help secondary implementers with SCALE-UP reform efforts specifically. We also discuss the implications for policy makers, researchers, and the higher education community concerned with initiating structural change.

  17. Scale-up of dextransucrase production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in fed batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelena Georgina L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fed batch fermentation was carried out for the dextransucrase enzyme production from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and the production was scale-up using oxygen transfer criteriuom. It was found that in 5 L vessel fermentation capacity, the best agitation speed was 225 min-1 and aeration rate was 0.15 vvm, obtaining dextransucrase activity of 127 DSU/mL.. The maximum enzyme production velocity coincide with the maximum growth velocity between 6 and 7 h of fermentation, which confirmed that dextransucrase production was associated with microbial growth. High enzyme yields were achieved during scale up based on oxygen transfer rate.

  18. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilot scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit

  19. "Scaling Up" Educational Change: Some Musings on Misrecognition and Doxic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Educational policy-makers around the world are strongly committed to the notion of "scaling up". This can mean anything from encouraging more teachers to take up a pedagogical innovation, all the way through to system-wide efforts to implement "what works" across all schools. In this paper, I use Bourdieu's notions of…

  20. Analysis and Improvement of a Scaled-Up and Stacked Microbial Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.J.G.; Heijne, ter A.; Saakes, M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is inevitable when power outputs have to be obtained that can power electrical devices other than small sensors. This research has used a bipolar plate MFC stack of four cells with a total working volume of 20 L and a total membrane surface area of 2 m2. The ca

  1. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: Experiences from rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Nahar (Tasmin); K. Azad (Kishwar); B.H. Aumon (Bedowra Haq); L. Younes (Layla); S. Shaha (Sanjit); A. Kuddus (Abdul); A. Prost (Audrey); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A. Costello (Anthony); E. Fottrell (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowle

  2. Integrated Graduate and Continuing Education in Protein Chromatography for Bioprocess Development and Scale-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Jungbauer

    2011-01-01

    We describe an intensive course that integrates graduate and continuing education focused on the development and scale-up of chromatography processes used for the recovery and purification of proteins with special emphasis on biotherapeutics. The course includes lectures, laboratories, teamwork, and a design exercise and offers a complete view of…

  3. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  4. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  5. Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Fischer Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. CONCLUSION: Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4 by 2015.

  6. 复合肥喷涂包裹尿素转鼓流化床试验装置的设计%Design of Experimental Unit of Rotary Drum Fluidization Bed for Spray Coating Urea with Compound Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石学勇; 王金铭; 王金刚

    2014-01-01

    Because rotary drum fluidization bed technology has advantages of low power consumption, good spraying effect, high product quality, compaction of equipment, great production capacity, and low investment, therefore, rotary drum fluidization bed process is chosen for spray coating urea with compound fertilizer experiment.The process calculation of rotary drum fluidization bed used in experiment is introduced, through calculating of heat balance and selection of major equipments, such as fluidization fan, rotary drum for coating, and spray nozzle, etc., the design of experimental unit is completed.%转鼓流化床技术具有动力消耗低、喷涂效果好、产品质量高、设备紧凑、生产能力大、投资低等诸多优势,为此,复合肥喷涂包裹尿素试验选定转鼓流化床工艺。介绍了试验所用转鼓流化床的工艺计算,通过热量衡算和对流化风机、包裹滚筒、喷头等主要设备的选型,完成了试验装置的设计。

  7. Multiscale modeling of gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der M.A.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Andrews, A.T.; Sundaresan, S.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models of gas-fluidized beds have become an important tool in the design and scale up of gas-solid chemical reactors. However, a single numerical model which includes the solid-solid and solid-fluid interaction in full detail is not feasible for industrial-scale equipment, and for this rea

  8. Scale effects and scaling-up by geometric-optical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小文; 王锦地; A.H.Strahler

    2000-01-01

    This is a follow-up paper to our "Scale effect of Planck’s law over nonisothermal blackbody surface". More examples are used to describe the scale effect in detail, and the scaling-up of Planck law over blackbody surface is further extended to three-dimension nonisothermal surface. This scaling-up results in a conceptual model for the directionality and spectral signature of thermal radiation at the scale of remote sensing pixels. This new model is also an improvement of Li-Strahler-Friedl conceptual model in a sense that the new model needs only statistic parameters at the pixel scale, without request of sub-pixel scale parameters as the LSF model does.

  9. Scale effects and scaling-up by geometric-optical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This is a follow-up paper to our "Scale effect of Planck's law over nonisothermal blackbody surface".More examples are used to describe the scale effect in detail,and the scaling-up of Planck law over blackbody surface is further extended to three-dimension nonisothermal surface.This scaling-up results in a conceptual model for the directionality and spectral signature of thermal radiation at the scale of remote sensing pixels.This new model is also an improvement of Li-Strahler-Friedl conceptual model in a sense that the new model needs only statistic parameters at the pixel scale,without request of sub-pixel scale parameters as the LSF model does.

  10. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price.

  11. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya.

  12. Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention is cost saving and creates fiscal space in the future that otherwise would have been encumbered by antiretroviral treatment costs. An investment of US$1,500,000,000 between 2011 and 2015 to achieve 80% coverage in 13 priority countries in southern and eastern Africa will result in net savings of US$16,500,000,000. Strong political leadership, country ownership, and stakeholder engagement, along with effective demand creation, community mobilisation, and human resource deployment, are essential. This collection of articles on determining the cost and impact of VMMC for HIV prevention signposts the way forward to scaling up VMMC service delivery safely and efficiently to reap individual- and population-level benefits.

  13. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  14. Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelleira Martínez, Oscar J; Fremier, Alexander K; Günter, Sven; Ramos Bendaña, Zayra; Vierling, Lee; Galbraith, Sara M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ordoñez, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem service-based management requires an accurate understanding of how human modification influences ecosystem processes and these relationships are most accurate when based on functional traits. Although trait variation is typically sampled at local scales, remote sensing methods can facilitate scaling up trait variation to regional scales needed for ecosystem service management. We review concepts and methods for scaling up plant and animal functional traits from local to regional spatial scales with the goal of assessing impacts of human modification on ecosystem processes and services. We focus our objectives on considerations and approaches for (1) conducting local plot-level sampling of trait variation and (2) scaling up trait variation to regional spatial scales using remotely sensed data. We show that sampling methods for scaling up traits need to account for the modification of trait variation due to land cover change and species introductions. Sampling intraspecific variation, stratification by land cover type or landscape context, or inference of traits from published sources may be necessary depending on the traits of interest. Passive and active remote sensing are useful for mapping plant phenological, chemical, and structural traits. Combining these methods can significantly improve their capacity for mapping plant trait variation. These methods can also be used to map landscape and vegetation structure in order to infer animal trait variation. Due to high context dependency, relationships between trait variation and remotely sensed data are not directly transferable across regions. We end our review with a brief synthesis of issues to consider and outlook for the development of these approaches. Research that relates typical functional trait metrics, such as the community-weighted mean, with remote sensing data and that relates variation in traits that cannot be remotely sensed to other proxies is needed. Our review narrows the gap between

  15. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  16. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rensburg Dingie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up.

  17. A scaled-up system to evaluate zooplankton spatial avoidance and the population immediate decline concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rita; Materatski, Patrick; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José Paulo; Ribeiro, Rui

    2012-06-01

    Most laboratory tests may underestimate adverse effects in real scenarios of contamination because they imply the forced exposure of organisms to contaminants, thus overlooking the possibility of emigration. Avoidance from contaminants has been observed in several aquatic organisms, and avoidance-based tests have been recommended to be included in risk assessment studies. To reduce uncertainty in the extrapolation of laboratory derived results, the first aim of the present study was to compare both the median avoidance concentration and the lowest-observed-effect gradient (LOEG) values of atrazine for the cladoceran Daphnia magna, between an already developed 1.1-m-long system and a scaled-up system, three times longer. Second, the present study aimed at evaluating the population immediate decline--the proportion of the population that disappears (avoids and, if not, dies)--through the integration of the relationships between lethality and avoidance versus contaminant concentration. Daphnia magna significantly avoided atrazine, during 12-h exposures, with similar results in the original and scaled-up systems. The population immediate decline at the 48-h median lethal concentration would be 94%. Even at a concentration eliciting only 5% mortality, the population immediate decline would be over 50%. Achieving a higher pertinence of avoidance results and a better understanding of the LOEG values and their time dependence, scaling up the system further both spatially and temporally, and modeling explicit spatial dynamics in exposure and organism movement in space and time are needed.

  18. Fermentation scale up for α-arbutin production by Xanthomonas BT-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meng; Ren, Yi; Liu, Changxia; Liu, Ruican; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Chunqiao

    2016-09-10

    α-Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone that has an inhibitory function against tyrosinase. The aim of the present study is to develop an efficient and inexpensive method for large-scale production of α-arbutin by using Xanthomonas BT-112 as biocatalyst. To accomplish this goal, various surfactants were tested to enhance the α-arbutin production, and the optimal operational conditions for 30L jar fermenter were scaled up for a production level of 3000L with using a constant volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and the volumetric aeration rate per volume unit (Q/V) as scale-up criteria. Under the optimized conditions, the α-arbutin produced in the presence of 0.4% (w/v) Tween-80 was 124.8% higher than that of the control, and the yield of α-arbutin in 3000L fermenter was 38.2g/L with a molar conversion ratio of 93.7% based on the amount of hydroquinone supplied. This result is comparable to the results from laboratory-scale fermenter. Hence, 100-fold scale-up was successfully achieved.

  19. Development and Scale Up Of a Chemical Process in Pharmaceutical Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Belwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Every process has its own significance and one has to study factors which impact to the process and its procedure to be followed. This paper is more concerned of how a process is scaled up from lab scale to pilot plant scale, which is the major step in any industry because moving directly towards manufacturing level consumes time and money. The report introduces about pharmaceutical industry and how it is different from the other industries and provides firsthand experience for all the engineers to explore the equipment, process and unit operations included in it. First aspect of scale up is safety and then comes economy, purity and optimums. It includes the process and its unit operations such as reactors, distillation, filtration, crystallization, drying and the equipment involving these operations. Consequently, the scale up rules, factors influenced strategies and other considerations are observed. To learn and understand the unit process and operations with their importance, a case study taking one of the stages of production is discussed here

  20. Analysis and improvement of a scaled-up and stacked microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Arjan; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Saakes, Michel; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2009-12-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is inevitable when power outputs have to be obtained that can power electrical devices other than small sensors. This research has used a bipolar plate MFC stack of four cells with a total working volume of 20 L and a total membrane surface area of 2 m(2). The cathode limited MFC performance due to oxygen reduction rate and cell reversal. Furthermore, residence time distribution curves showed that bending membranes resulted in flow paths through which the catholyte could flow from inlet to outlet, while leaving the reactants unconverted. The cathode was improved by decreasing the pH, purging pure oxygen, and increasing the flow rate, which resulted in a 13-fold power density increase to 144 W m(-3) and a volumetric resistivity of only 1.2 mOmega m(3) per cell. Both results are major achievements compared to results currently published for laboratory and scaled-up MFCs. When designing a scaled-up MFC, it is important to ensure optimal contact between electrodes and substrate and to minimize the distances between electrodes.

  1. Scale-up of affinity membrane modules: comparison between lumped and physical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimartino, Simone; Boi, Cristiana; Sarti, Giulio C

    2015-03-01

    Membrane chromatography represents one of the emerging technologies for downstream processing in the biotechnology industry. This process is currently used in polishing steps for antibody manufacturing, while its application is still under development for the capture step. To promote its employment in large-scale processes, it is crucial to develop a simple, yet reliable, simulation tool able to describe the process performance in a predictive way at all scales. In this work, the physical model for the description of protein purification with affinity membrane chromatography has been used to predict the performance of scaled-up systems and compared with the lumped model, frequently used for its deceptive simplicity. Two commonly used binding kinetics have been implemented in the models, namely the Langmuir and the bi-Langmuir equations. The two models describe equally well experimental data obtained in a lab-scale apparatus, while, on the contrary, important differences are observed in scaled-up systems even at the early stages of breakthrough, which are particularly relevant in industrial-scale operations. It is seen that for both kinetics, the physical model is more appropriate and safer to use for scale-up purposes.

  2. Scale-up of nature’s tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanna L.; Knothe, Lillian E.; Whan, Renee M.; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L. Knothe

    2017-01-01

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently “smart” material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues’ biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  3. Scale-up of nature's tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanna L; Knothe, Lillian E; Whan, Renee M; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L Knothe

    2017-01-11

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently "smart" material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues' biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  4. Scale-up of electrolytic and photoelectrolytic processes for water reclaiming: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín de Vidales, María J; Cotillas, Salvador; Perez-Serrano, José F; Llanos, Javier; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the scale-up of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation processes with diamond anodes for the removal of organic pollutants and disinfection of treated urban wastewater, two of the most important parameters for the reclaiming of wastewater. The removal of organics was studied with actual biologically treated urban wastewater intensified with 100 mg dm(-3) of caffeine, added as a trace organic pollutant. The disinfection was also studied with biologically treated urban wastewater, and Escherichia coli was used to monitor the efficiency of the process. Results obtained with a single DiaCell® 101 were compared with those obtained with a single-stack DiaCell® 1001 and with a pilot plant made up of five of these stacks. Results obtained demonstrate that scale-up is not a simple but a very complex process, in which not only the electrode and the irradiation dose are important but also mass transfer conditions. Enhanced mass transport conditions have a determining and very positive effect on the removal of organics and a negative effect on the disinfection. Likewise, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects in a different way in the different setups used, having a great influence on the removal of complex organics and on the speciation of oxidants produced during disinfection. This works helps to understand the key differences observed in the scale-up, and it is a first approach for future works focused on the real application of conductive diamond electrochemical oxidation.

  5. Nurse Family Partnership: Comparing Costs per Family in Randomized Trials Versus Scale-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Hendrie, Delia

    2015-12-01

    The literature that addresses cost differences between randomized trials and full-scale replications is quite sparse. This paper examines how costs differed among three randomized trials and six statewide scale-ups of nurse family partnership (NFP) intensive home visitation to low income first-time mothers. A literature review provided data on pertinent trials. At our request, six well-established programs reported their total expenditures. We adjusted the costs to national prices based on mean hourly wages for registered nurses and then inflated them to 2010 dollars. A centralized data system provided utilization. Replications had fewer home visits per family than trials (25 vs. 31, p = .05), lower costs per client ($8860 vs. $12,398, p = .01), and lower costs per visit ($354 vs. $400, p = .30). Sample size limited the significance of these differences. In this type of labor intensive program, costs probably were lower in scale-up than in randomized trials. Key cost drivers were attrition and the stable caseload size possible in an ongoing program. Our estimates reveal a wide variation in cost per visit across six state programs, which suggests that those planning replications should not expect a simple rule to guide cost estimations for scale-ups. Nevertheless, NFP replications probably achieved some economies of scale.

  6. Estimates of child deaths prevented from malaria prevention scale-up in Africa 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisele Thomas P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding from external agencies for malaria control in Africa has increased dramatically over the past decade resulting in substantial increases in population coverage by effective malaria prevention interventions. This unprecedented effort to scale-up malaria interventions is likely improving child survival and will likely contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 to reduce the Methods The Lives Saved Tool (LiST model was used to quantify the likely impact that malaria prevention intervention scale-up has had on malaria mortality over the past decade (2001-2010 across 43 malaria endemic countries in sub-Saharan African. The likely impact of ITNs and malaria prevention interventions in pregnancy (intermittent preventive treatment [IPTp] and ITNs used during pregnancy over this period was assessed. Results The LiST model conservatively estimates that malaria prevention intervention scale-up over the past decade has prevented 842,800 (uncertainty: 562,800-1,364,645 child deaths due to malaria across 43 malaria-endemic countries in Africa, compared to a baseline of the year 2000. Over the entire decade, this represents an 8.2% decrease in the number of malaria-caused child deaths that would have occurred over this period had malaria prevention coverage remained unchanged since 2000. The biggest impact occurred in 2010 with a 24.4% decrease in malaria-caused child deaths compared to what would have happened had malaria prevention interventions not been scaled-up beyond 2000 coverage levels. ITNs accounted for 99% of the lives saved. Conclusions The results suggest that funding for malaria prevention in Africa over the past decade has had a substantial impact on decreasing child deaths due to malaria. Rapidly achieving and then maintaining universal coverage of these interventions should be an urgent priority for malaria control programmes in the future. Successful scale-up in many African countries will likely

  7. Effect of fluidized bed coating granulation with gelatin on the release characteristics of mint flavor powder%明胶包衣对薄荷香精释放特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏宇; 曾茂茂; 何志勇; 秦昉; 陈洁

    2013-01-01

    Effect of properties of gelatin and its emulsion as coating agents on release characteristics of mint flavor powder had been studied on this paper.Mint flavor powder was coated using gelatin and its emulsion as coating agents by the fluidized bed,and then encapsulation efficiency and release characteristics were measured by gas chromatography as a measure f coating quality indicators.The results showed that the emulsion of 10% gelatin,20% oil content based on gelatin mass achieve a higher quality of the coated granules which had 90.44% encapsulation efficiency and reached 60% release rate in 11 min.The above results showed that it was possible for fluidized bed coating operation to improve the property of sustain release by coating the gelatin emulsion.%研究了以明胶及其乳状液作为包衣剂的性质对薄荷粉末香精释放特性的影响.以明胶及其乳状液为包衣剂对薄荷香精进行流化床包衣操作制备包衣颗粒,再利用气相色谱法测定包埋效率和释放特性作为衡量包衣质量的指标.结果显示,以明胶浓度10%,含油量占明胶质量20%的乳状液为包衣剂,制备的包衣颗粒质量较高,包埋效率为90.44%,释放率在11min达到60%.上述结果表明,明胶乳状液作为包衣剂对薄荷香精进行包衣操作能够提高薄荷香精的缓释性能.

  8. Scaling-up the medical workforce in Timor-Leste: challenges of a great leap forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jorge; Dussault, Gilles; Buchan, James; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2013-11-01

    The health services system of Timor-Leste (T-L) will, by 2015, add 800 physicians, most of them trained in Cuba, to the 233 employed by the national health system in 2010-2011. The need for more physicians is not in discussion: poor health indicators, low coverage and utilization of services, and poor quality of services are well documented in T-L. However, the choice of this scaling-up, with a relatively narrow focus on the medical workforce, needs to be assessed for its relevance to the health profile of the country, for its comprehensiveness in terms of other complementary measures needed to make it effective. This article discusses the potential effects of the rapid scaling-up of the medical workforce, and the organizational capacity needed to monitor the process and eventually mitigate any deleterious consequences. The analysis is based on a review of documentation collected on site (T-L) and on interviews with key-informants conducted in 2011. We stress that any workforce scaling-up is not simply a matter of increasing numbers of professionals, but should combine improved training, distribution, working conditions, management and motivation, as a means towards better performing health services' systems. This is a major challenge in a context of limited organizational and managerial capacity, underdeveloped information systems, limited training and research capacity, and dependency on foreign aid and technical assistance. Potential risks are associated with funding the additional costs of recruiting more personnel, associated expenditures on infrastructure, equipment and consumables, the impact on current staff mix, and the expected increased demand for services. We conclude that failing to manage effectively the forthcoming "great leap forward" will have long term effects: formal policies and plans for the balanced development of the health workforce, as well as strengthened institutions are urgently needed.

  9. Protein crystallization in stirred systems--scale-up via the maximum local energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejkal, Benjamin; Helk, Bernhard; Rondeau, Jean-Michel; Anton, Sabine; Wilke, Angelika; Scheyerer, Peter; Fries, Jacqueline; Hekmat, Dariusch; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Macromolecular bioproducts like therapeutic proteins have usually been crystallized with µL-scale vapor diffusion experiments for structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Little systematic know-how exists for technical-scale protein crystallization in stirred vessels. In this study, the Fab-fragment of the therapeutic antibody Canakinumab was successfully crystallized in a stirred-tank reactor on a 6 mL-scale. A four times faster onset of crystallization of the Fab-fragment was observed compared to the non-agitated 10 µL-scale. Further studies on a liter-scale with lysozyme confirmed this effect. A 10 times faster onset of crystallization was observed in this case at an optimum stirrer speed. Commonly suggested scale-up criteria (i.e., minimum stirrer speed to keep the protein crystals in suspension or constant impeller tip speed) were shown not to be successful. Therefore, the criterion of constant maximum local energy dissipation was applied for scale-up of the stirred crystallization process for the first time. The maximum local energy dissipation was estimated by measuring the drop size distribution of an oil/surfactant/water emulsion in stirred-tank reactors on a 6 mL-, 100 mL-, and 1 L-scale. A comparable crystallization behavior was achieved in all stirred-tank reactors when the maximum local energy dissipation was kept constant for scale-up. A maximum local energy dissipation of 2.2 W kg(-1) was identified to be the optimum for lysozyme crystallization at all scales under study.

  10. Challenges Associated with Scaling up Artemisinin Combination Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa ; A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qader SS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. One key strategic intervention is provision of early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. A major setback has been the development of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. To overcome this, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT as a first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Artemether Lumefantrine (AL and Artesunate Amodiaquine (ASAQ are the main drugs of choice. There are key implementation issues, which may have a bearing on the scaling up of this new treatment. This article reviewed the published papers on ACT with focus on sustainability, compliance, and diagnosis. ACTs are costly, but highly effective. Their scaling up is the most cost effective malaria intervention currently available. Most countries rely heavily on the Global Fund for their scaling up. AL has a short shelf life, a complicated six-dose regimen that requires intake with fat to ensure sufficient bioavailability. High rates of adherence have been reported. Use of parasitic diagnosis is advocated to ensure rational use. Parasitic diagnostics like rapid test and microscopy are currently inadequate. The majority of malaria cases may continue to be diagnosed clinically leading to over prescription of drugs. ACTs are currently not available at the community level for home based management of malaria. Issues related to safety and rational use need to be addressed before their use in the informal health sector like community drug sellers and community health workers. The majority of malaria cases at the community level could go untreated or continue to be treated using less effective drugs.We conclude that ACTs are highly effective. A major challenge is ensuring rational use and access at the household level. It is hoped that addressing these issues will increase the likelihood that ACT achieves its intended goals of reducing morbidity

  11. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

  12. An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombini Manuela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7. Results The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling. Conclusions The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place – in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the

  13. Transmission expansion for renewable energy scale-up emerging lessons and recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Madrigal, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    In their efforts to increase the share of renewable in electricity grids to reducing emissions or increasing energy diversity, developed and developing countries are finding that a considerable scale-up of investments in transmission infrastructures will be necessary to achieve their goals. Renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, and hydro power, tend to be sited far from existing electricity grids and consumption centers. Achieving desired supply levels from these sources requires that networks be expanded to reach many sites and to ensuring the different supply variation patterns of

  14. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  15. Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

    2014-06-01

    Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up.

  16. Process considerations for the scale-up and implementation of biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Fu, Wenjing; Jensen, Jacob Skibsted

    2010-01-01

    and biocatalysis in particular is a rather young technology. Although significant progress has been made in the implementation of new processes (especially in the pharmaceutical industry) no fixed methods for process design have been established to date. In this paper we present some of the considerations required...... to scale-up a biocatalytic process and some of the recently developed engineering tools available to assist in this procedure. The tools will have a decisive role in helping to identify bottlenecks in the biocatalytic development process and to justify where to put effort and resources....

  17. Process understanding for scale-up and manufacture of active ingredients

    CERN Document Server

    Houson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Process Understanding is the underpinning knowledge that allows the manufacture of chemical entities to be carried out routinely, robustly and to the required standard of quality. This area has gained in importance over the last few years, particularly due to the recent impetus from the USA`s Food and Drug Administration. This book covers the multidisciplinary aspects required for successful process design, safety, modeling, scale-up, PAT, pilot plant implementation, plant design as well the rapidly expanding area of outsourcing. In discussing what process understanding means to differ

  18. Demonstrate Scale-up Procedure for Glass Composite Material (GCM) for Incorporation of Iodine Loaded AgZ.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Croes, Kenneth James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.

  19. Scale-up of the production of highly reactive biogenic magnetite nanoparticles using Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J M; Muhamadali, H; Coker, V S; Cooper, J; Lloyd, J R

    2015-06-06

    Although there are numerous examples of large-scale commercial microbial synthesis routes for organic bioproducts, few studies have addressed the obvious potential for microbial systems to produce inorganic functional biomaterials at scale. Here we address this by focusing on the production of nanoscale biomagnetite particles by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, which was scaled up successfully from laboratory- to pilot plant-scale production, while maintaining the surface reactivity and magnetic properties which make this material well suited to commercial exploitation. At the largest scale tested, the bacterium was grown in a 50 l bioreactor, harvested and then inoculated into a buffer solution containing Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide and an electron donor and mediator, which promoted the formation of magnetite in under 24 h. This procedure was capable of producing up to 120 g of biomagnetite. The particle size distribution was maintained between 10 and 15 nm during scale-up of this second step from 10 ml to 10 l, with conserved magnetic properties and surface reactivity; the latter demonstrated by the reduction of Cr(VI). The process presented provides an environmentally benign route to magnetite production and serves as an alternative to harsher synthetic techniques, with the clear potential to be used to produce kilogram to tonne quantities.

  20. Microbial electrolysis cell scale-up for combined wastewater treatment and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carrera, L; Escapa, A; Mehta, P; Santoyo, G; Guiot, S R; Morán, A; Tartakovsky, B

    2013-02-01

    This study demonstrates microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) scale-up from a 50mL to a 10L cell. Initially, a 50mL membraneless MEC with a gas diffusion cathode was operated on synthetic wastewater at different organic loads. It was concluded that process scale-up might be best accomplished using a "reactor-in-series" concept. Consequently, 855mL and 10L MECs were built and operated. By optimizing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the 855mL MEC and individually controlling the applied voltages of three anodic compartments with a real-time optimization algorithm, a COD removal of 5.7g L(R)(-1)d(-1) and a hydrogen production of 1.0-2.6L L(R)(-1)d(-1) was achieved. Furthermore, a two MECs in series 10L setup was constructed and operated on municipal wastewater. This test showed a COD removal rate of 0.5g L(R)(-1)d(-1), a removal efficiency of 60-76%, and an energy consumption of 0.9Whperg of COD removed.

  1. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  3. Scaling-up of complex whole-cell bioconversions in conventional and non-conventional media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    The use of whole cells is becoming a more common approach in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries in order to obtain pure compounds with fewer production steps, higher yields, and cleaner processes, as compared to those achieved with traditional strategies. Whole cells are often used as enzymes pools, in particular when multi-step reactions and/or co-factor regeneration are envisaged. Nonetheless, published information on the scale-up of such systems both in aqueous and in two-phase aqueous-organic systems is relatively scarce. The present work aims to evaluate suitable scale-up criteria in conventional and non-conventional medium for a whole-cell bioconversion that uses resting cells of Mycobacterium sp. NRRL B-3805 to cleave the side chain of beta-sitosterol, a poorly water-soluble substrate. The experiments were performed in 24-well microtiter plates and in 250 mL shaken flasks as orbital stirred systems, and in 300 mL stirred tanks as mechanically stirred systems. Results show that productivity yields were similar in all scales tested, when maintaining oxygen mass transfer coefficients constant in aqueous systems, or when maintaining constant volumetric power consumption in aqueous-organic two-phase systems.

  4. Preparation, characterization and scale-up of sesamol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandita Kakkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesamol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SSLNs were prepared with the aim of minimizing its distribution to tissues and achieving its targeting to the brain. Three scale-up batches (100x1 L of S-SLNs were prepared using a microemulsification technique and all parameters were statistically compared with the small batch (1x;10 mL. S-SLNs with a particle size of less than 106 nm with a spherical shape (transmission electron microscopy were successfully prepared with a total drug content and entrapment efficiency of 94.26±2.71% and 72.57±5.20%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of lipidic nanoparticles while powder X-ray diffraction revealed their amorphous profile. S-SLNs were found to be stable for three months at 5±3°C in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. The SLN preparation process was successfully scaled-up to a 100x batch on a laboratory scale. The procedure was easy to perform and allowed reproducible SLN dispersions to be obtained.

  5. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mie; Eshow, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  6. Scaling-Up Quantum Heat Engines Efficiently via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Beau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction, and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inverse-square pairwise interactions that includes non-interacting and hard-core bosons as limiting cases.

  7. Scaling-up quantum heat engines efficiently via shortcuts to adiabaticity

    CERN Document Server

    Beau, M; del Campo, A

    2016-01-01

    The finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine that uses a single particle as a working medium generally increases the output power at the expense of inducing friction that lowers the cycle efficiency. We propose to scale up a quantum heat engine utilizing a many-particle working medium in combination with the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity to boost the nonadiabatic performance by eliminating quantum friction and reducing the cycle time. To this end, we first analyze the finite-time thermodynamics of a quantum Otto cycle implemented with a quantum fluid confined in a time-dependent harmonic trap. We show that nonadiabatic effects can be controlled and tailored to match the adiabatic performance using a variety of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As a result, the nonadiabatic dynamics of the scaled-up many-particle quantum heat engine exhibits no friction and the cycle can be run at maximum efficiency with a tunable output power. We demonstrate our results with a working medium consisting of particles with inv...

  8. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  9. A practical approach for the scale-up of roller compaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weixian; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-09-01

    An alternative approach for the scale-up of ribbon formation during roller compaction was investigated, which required only one batch at the commercial scale to set the operational conditions. The scale-up of ribbon formation was based on a probability method. It was sufficient in describing the mechanism of ribbon formation at both scales. In this method, a statistical relationship between roller compaction parameters and ribbon attributes (thickness and density) was first defined with DoE using a pilot Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor. While the milling speed was included in the design, it has no practical effect on granule properties within the study range despite its statistical significance. The statistical relationship was then adapted to a commercial Alexanderwerk WP200 roller compactor with one experimental run. The experimental run served as a calibration of the statistical model parameters. The proposed transfer method was then confirmed by conducting a mapping study on the Alexanderwerk WP200 using a factorial DoE, which showed a match between the predictions and the verification experiments. The study demonstrates the applicability of the roller compaction transfer method using the statistical model from the development scale calibrated with one experiment point at the commercial scale.

  10. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2016-07-14

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  11. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  12. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  13. Overestimates of survival after HAART: implications for global scale-up efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Bisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring the effectiveness of global antiretroviral therapy scale-up efforts in resource-limited settings is a global health priority, but is complicated by high rates of losses to follow-up after treatment initiation. Determining definitive outcomes of these lost patients, and the effects of losses to follow-up on estimates of survival and risk factors for death after HAART, are key to monitoring the effectiveness of global HAART scale-up efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort study comparing clinical outcomes and risk factors for death after HAART initiation as reported before and after tracing of patients lost to follow-up was conducted in Botswana's National Antiretroviral Therapy Program. 410 HIV-infected adults consecutively presenting for HAART were evaluated. The main outcome measures were death or loss to follow-up within the first year after HAART initiation. Of 68 patients initially categorized as lost, over half (58.8% were confirmed dead after tracing. Patient tracing resulted in reporting of significantly lower survival rates when death was used as the outcome and losses to follow-up were censored [1-year Kaplan Meier survival estimate 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.94 before tracing and 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.86 after tracing, log rank P<0.001]. In addition, a significantly increased risk of death after HAART among men [adjusted hazard ratio 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.87] would have been missed had patients not been traced [adjusted hazard ratio 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-3.05]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to high rates of death among patients lost to follow-up after HAART, survival rates may be inaccurate and important risk factors for death may be missed if patients are not actively traced. Patient tracing and uniform reporting of outcomes after HAART are needed to enable accurate monitoring of global HAART scale-up efforts.

  14. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  15. Scale up aspects of directional solidification and Czochralski silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropka, Natasha; Ervik, Torunn; Czupalla, Matthias; Kiessling, Frank M.

    2016-10-01

    We performed 3D simulations of directional solidification (DS) and Czochralski (Cz) silicon growth processes in traveling magnetic fields (TMFs) and verified them with the experimental data that were available. Particularly, we studied silicon DS growth in real G1, G2 and G5 size setups and Cz growth in 6″ and 24″ crucibles in furnaces provided with KRISTMAG® heater magnet modules (HMMs). TMFs were used for a solid/liquid interface shaping and for a melt stirring. Based on our simulation findings, we discussed scale up challenges and proposed a method for safe upscaling. The method related all present driving forces using dimensionless numbers: Grashof (Gr), Stephan (Ste), Reynolds (Re), Shielding (S) and magnetic forcing number (F).

  16. Experimental and scale up study of the flame spread over the PMMA sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamourian Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the flame spread mechanisms over the solid fuel sheets, downward flame spread over vertical polymethylmethacrylate sheets with thicknesses from 1.75 to 5.75 mm have been examined in the quiescent environment. The dependence of the flame spread rate on the thickness of sheets is obtained by one-dimensional heat transfer model. An equation for the flame spread rate based on the thermal properties and the thickness of the sheet by scale up method is derived from this model. During combustion, temperature within the gas and solid phases is measured by a fine thermocouple. The pyrolysis temperature, the length of the pyrolysis zone, the length of the preheating zone, and the flame temperature are determined from the experimental data. Mathematical analysis has yielded realistic results. This model provides a useful formula to predict the rate of flame spread over any thin solid fuel.

  17. Scaling-up of membraneless microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for domestic wastewater treatment: Bottlenecks and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, A; San-Martín, M I; Mateos, R; Morán, A

    2015-03-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have the potential to become a sustainable domestic wastewater (dWW) treatment system. However, new scale-up experiences are required to gain knowledge of critical issues in MEC designs. In this study we assess the ability of two twin membraneless MEC units (that are part of a modular pilot-scale MEC) to treat dWW. Batch tests yielded COD removal efficiencies as high as 92%, with most of the hydrogen (>80% of the total production) being produced during the first 48h. During the continuous tests, MECs performance deteriorated significantly (energy consumption was relatively high and COD removal efficiencies fell below 10% in many cases), which was attributed to an inadequate configuration of the anodic chamber, insufficient mixing inside this chamber, inefficient hydrogen management on the cathode side and finally to dWW in itself. Some alternatives to the current design are suggested.

  18. Teaching assistant-student interactions in a modified SCALE-UP classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeck, George; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    In the spring term of 2010, Oregon State University (OSU) began using a SCALE-UP style classroom in the instruction of the introductory calculus-based physics series. Instruction in this classroom was conducted in weekly two-hour sessions facilitated by the primary professor and either two graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) or a graduate teaching assistant and an undergraduate learning assistant (LA). During the course of instruction, two of the eight tables in the room were audio and video recorded. We examine the practices of the GTAs in interacting with the students through both qualitative and quantitative analyses of these recordings. Quantitatively, significant differences are seen between the most experienced GTA and the rest. A major difference in confidence is also observed in the qualitative analysis of this GTA compared to a less experienced GTA.

  19. Influence of tray geometry on scaling up distillation efficiency from laboratory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, F.; Castells, F. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Catalunya (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper studies the effect of tray geometry (especially hole diameter) and liquid tray composition on tray efficiency in a bench-scale distillation column. The results of this study are used for scaling up tray efficiency. Two binary systems, ethanol/water and cyclohexane/n-heptane, were considered. The operating conditions were atmospheric pressure and total reflux. For each one, two different hole diameters (small and large) were also tested. Kirschbaum`s industrial data (1962) for the ethanol/water system and of Yanagi and Sakata`s (1982) for the cyclohexane/n-heptane system were considered as reference values. The results show the importance of reproducing the hole diameter and liquid tray composition in small trays for using laboratory data to predict large tray efficiency.

  20. Effects of the strategies of geological modelling and simulation on scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Gypsy formation in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used in a study in which three different geological models were developed using different criteria related to reducing the number of layers needed to represent a reservoir in reservoir simulation. To develop a lithofacies model, initial identification of lithofacies layers is needed. One approach in reducing the number of grid blocks needed in simulation study is to combine thinner layers represented by scaled petrophysical properties. The geological models in this study were based on channel identifiers, lithofacies and flow units. The strategies of geological modelling have a significant impact on scale-up. The use of lithofacies as a criterion provided the closes match to fine scale-results. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. Scale-up of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis laboratory services, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sonya S; Yagui, Martin; Ascencios, Luis; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Quispe, Neyda; Bonilla, Cesar; Blaya, Joaquin; Taylor, Allison; Contreras, Carmen; Cegielski, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Peruvian National Tuberculosis (TB) Program, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), Socios en Salud, and US partners have worked to strengthen the national TB laboratory network to support treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. We review key lessons of this experience. The preparation phase involved establishing criteria for drug susceptibility testing (DST), selecting appropriate DST methods, projecting the quantity of DST and culture to ensure adequate supplies, creating biosafe laboratory facilities for DST, training laboratory personnel on methods, and validating DST methods at the NRL. Implementation involved training providers on DST indications, validating conventional and rapid first-line DST methods at district laboratories, and eliminating additional delays in specimen transport and result reporting. Monitoring included ongoing quality control and quality assurance procedures. Hurdles included logistics, coordinating with policy, competing interests, changing personnel, communications, and evaluation. Operational research guided laboratory scale-up and identified barriers to effective capacity building.

  2. Scaling up effects of Mg hydride in a temperature and pressure-controlled hydrogen storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verga, M.; Armanasco, F.; Guardamagna, C.; Valli, C. [CESI RICERCA S.p.A., Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Bianchin, A.; Lo Russo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Agresti, F.; Maddalena, A.; Principi, G. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    A research program addressed to evaluate the magnesium hydride storage scaling up effects is being developed by CESI RICERCA, Milano, and the Hydrogen Group of Padova University. A storage device containing 500 g of magnesium hydride powder (manufactured by Venezia Tecnologie S.p.A. using high-energy ball milling) has been designed and tested in different operating conditions. A number of absorption and desorption cycles at different temperatures and pressures has been carried out in order to see if the results are comparable with laboratory data obtained on small amounts (fractions of grams) of powder samples. A sensible performance degradation that reduced the overall storage capacity of about 50% has been noticed after 20 cycles, presumably due to local powder heating, fragmentation and subsequent compaction. Further tests on a smaller tank equipped also with a porous baffle gave useful indications for the design of an improved large hydrogen reservoir. (author)

  3. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: berath@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, Suite 739, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Geobacter sulfurreducens during Industrial Bioprocess Scale-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Ellis, David I; Allwood, J William; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Correa, Elon; Alrabiah, Haitham; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-05-15

    During the industrial scale-up of bioprocesses it is important to establish that the biological system has not changed significantly when moving from small laboratory-scale shake flasks or culturing bottles to an industrially relevant production level. Therefore, during upscaling of biomass production for a range of metal transformations, including the production of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles by Geobacter sulfurreducens, from 100-ml bench-scale to 5-liter fermentors, we applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a metabolic fingerprinting approach followed by the analysis of bacterial cell extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling. FTIR results clearly differentiated between the phenotypic changes associated with different growth phases as well as the two culturing conditions. Furthermore, the clustering patterns displayed by multivariate analysis were in agreement with the turbidimetric measurements, which displayed an extended lag phase for cells grown in a 5-liter bioreactor (24 h) compared to those grown in 100-ml serum bottles (6 h). GC-MS analysis of the cell extracts demonstrated an overall accumulation of fumarate during the lag phase under both culturing conditions, coinciding with the detected concentrations of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, nicotinamide, and glycerol-3-phosphate being at their lowest levels compared to other growth phases. These metabolites were overlaid onto a metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens, and taking into account the levels of these metabolites throughout the fermentation process, the limited availability of oxaloacetate and nicotinamide would seem to be the main metabolic bottleneck resulting from this scale-up process. Additional metabolite-feeding experiments were carried out to validate the above hypothesis. Nicotinamide supplementation (1 mM) did not display any significant effects on the lag phase of G. sulfurreducens cells grown in the 100-ml serum bottles. However

  5. Liposome and niosome preparation using a membrane contactor for scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Thuy; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem

    2012-06-01

    The scaling-up ability of liposome and niosome production, from laboratory scale using a syringe-pump device to a pilot scale using the membrane contactor module, was investigated. For this aim, an ethanol injection-based method was applied for liposome and niosome preparation. The syringe-pump device was used for laboratory scale batches production (30 ml for liposomes, 20 ml for niosomes) then a pilot scale (750 ml for liposomes, 1000 ml for niosomes) were obtained using the SPG membrane contactor. Resulted nanovesicles were characterized in terms of mean vesicles size, polydispersity index (PdI) and zeta potential. The drug encapsulation efficiency (E.E.%) was evaluated using two drug-models: caffeine and spironolactone, a hydrophilic and a lipophilic molecule, respectively. As results, nanovectors mean size using the syringe-pump device was comprised between 82 nm and 95 nm for liposomes and between 83 nm and 127 nm for niosomes. The optimal E.E. of caffeine within niosomes, was found around 9.7% whereas the spironolactone E.E. reached 95.6% which may be attributed to its lipophilic properties. For liposomes these values were about 9.7% and 86.4%, respectively. It can be clearly seen that the spironolactone E.E. was slightly higher within niosomes than liposomes. Optimized formulations, which offered smaller size and higher E.E., were selected for pilot scale production using the SPG membrane. It has been found that vesicles characteristics (size and E.E.%) were reproducible using the membrane contactor module. Thus, the current study demonstrated the usefulness of the membrane contactor as a device for scaling-up both liposome and niosome preparations with small mean sizes.

  6. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  7. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-03-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice.

  8. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Savitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. Results We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. Conclusions The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current

  9. Scaling up a Mobile Telemedicine Solution in Botswana: Keys to Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Kagiso; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Park, Elizabeth; Dikai, Zambo; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana's health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialized medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients' access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT) network infrastructure characterized by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today's health care demands is a tedious, long, and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilizing wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP) to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialized health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology, and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as "Kgonafalo." Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices, and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Botswana government and a private

  10. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbaya Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of

  11. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Aisling

    2010-09-17

    Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non

  12. Scaling up and error analysis of transpiration for Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J.; Li, W.; Feng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water consumption information of the forest stand is the most important factor for regional water resources management. However, water consumption of individual trees are usually measured based on the limited sample trees , so, it is an important issue how to realize eventual scaling up of data from a series of sample trees to entire stand. Estimation of sap flow flux density (Fd) and stand sapwood area (AS-stand) are among the most critical factors for determining forest stand transpiration using sap flow measurement. To estimate Fd, the various links in sap flow technology have great impact on the measurement of sap flow, to estimate AS-stand, an appropriate indirect technique for measuring each tree sapwood area (AS-tree) is required, because it is impossible to measure the AS-tree of all trees in a forest stand. In this study, Fd was measured in 2 mature P. euphratic trees at several radial depths, 0~10, 10~30mm, using sap flow sensors with the heat ratio method, the relationship model between AS-tree and stem diameter (DBH), growth model of AS-tree were established, using investigative original data of DBH, tree-age, and AS-tree. The results revealed that it can achieve scaling up of transpiration from sample trees to entire forest stand using AS-tree and Fd, however, the transpiration of forest stand (E) will be overvalued by 12.6% if using Fd of 0~10mm, and it will be underestimated by 25.3% if using Fd of 10~30mm, it implied that major uncertainties in mean stand Fd estimations are caused by radial variations in Fd. E will be obviously overvalued when the AS-stand is constant, this result imply that it is the key to improve the prediction accuracy that how to simulate the AS-stand changes in the day scale; They also showed that the potential errors in transpiration with a sample size of approximately ≥30 were almost stable for P.euphrtica, this suggests that to make an allometric equation it might be necessary to sample at least 30 trees.

  13. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  14. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%.

  15. Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick Wingerson

    2004-12-15

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

  16. Understanding Barriers to Scaling Up HIV-Assisted Partner Services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Marielle; Wamuti, Beatrice Muthoni; Owuor, Mercy; Bukusi, David; Maingi, Peter Mutiti; Otieno, Felix Abuna; Cherutich, Peter; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Farquhar, Carey

    2016-11-01

    Assisted partner services (APS) are more effective than passive referral in identifying new cases of HIV in many settings. Understanding the barriers to the uptake of APS in sub-Saharan Africa is important before its scale up. In this qualitative study, we explored client, community, and healthcare worker barriers to APS within a cluster randomized trial of APS in Kenya. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with clients who declined enrollment in the APS study and 9 focus group discussions with health advisors, HIV testing and counseling (HTC) counselors, and the general HTC client population. Two analysts coded the data using an open coding approach and identified major themes and subthemes. Many participants reported needing more time to process an HIV-positive result before providing partner information. Lack of trust in the HTC counselor led many to fear a breach of confidentiality, which exacerbated the fears of stigma in the community and relationship conflicts. The type of relationship affected the decision to provide partner information, and the lack of understanding of APS at the community level contributed to the discomfort in enrolling in the study. Establishing trust between the client and HTC counselor may increase uptake of APS in Kenya. A client's decision to provide partner information may depend on the type of relationship he or she is in, and alternative methods of disclosure may need to be offered to accommodate different contexts. Spreading awareness about APS in the community may make clients more comfortable providing partner information.

  17. Scale-up of biopesticide production processes using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valèro, J R; Surampalli, R Y; Smith, J

    2004-12-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides to ascertain the performance of the process in shake flasks, and in two geometrically similar fermentors (15 and 150 l) utilizing wastewater sludge as a raw material. The results showed that it was possible to achieve better oxygen transfer in the larger capacity fermentor. Viable cell counts increased by 38-55% in the bioreactor compared to shake flasks. As for spore counts, an increase of 25% was observed when changing from shake flask to fermentor experiments. Spore counts were unchanged in bench (15 l) and pilot scale (5.3-5.5 e(+08) cfu/ml; 150 l). An improvement of 30% in the entomotoxicity potential was obtained at pilot scale. Protease activity increased by two to four times at bench and pilot scale, respectively, compared to the maximum activity obtained in shake flasks. The maximum protease activity (4.1 IU/ml) was obtained in pilot scale due to better oxygen transfer. The Bt fermentation process using sludge as raw material was successfully scaled up and resulted in high productivity for toxin protein yield and a high protease activity.

  18. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant...... the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling...... price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...

  19. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Torre Jorgenson, M.

    2016-10-01

    Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this paper we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. The map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  20. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  1. Transforming Global Health by Improving the Science of Scale-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Kruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In its report Global Health 2035, the Commission on Investing in Health proposed that health investments can reduce mortality in nearly all low- and middle-income countries to very low levels, thereby averting 10 million deaths per year from 2035 onward. Many of these gains could be achieved through scale-up of existing technologies and health services. A key instrument to close this gap is policy and implementation research (PIR that aims to produce generalizable evidence on what works to implement successful interventions at scale. Rigorously designed PIR promotes global learning and local accountability. Much greater national and global investments in PIR capacity will be required to enable the scaling of effective approaches and to prevent the recycling of failed ideas. Sample questions for the PIR research agenda include how to close the gap in the delivery of essential services to the poor, which population interventions for non-communicable diseases are most applicable in different contexts, and how to engage non-state actors in equitable provision of health services in the context of universal health coverage.

  2. Scaling up the Fabrication of Mechanically-Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curtin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost, were developed. First, a simple physical method was invented to scale-up the constrained formation of fibrous nanostructures process (CoFFiN to fabricate relatively large foams. Specifically, a gas deflector system capable of maintaining conditions supportive of carbon nanofiber foam growth throughout a relatively large mold was developed. ANSYS CFX models were used to simulate the gas flow paths with and without deflectors; the data generated proved to be a very useful tool for the deflector design. Second, a simple method for selectively leaching the Pd catalyst material trapped in the foam during growth was successfully tested. Multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and mechanical testing, were employed to characterize the foams generated in this study. All results confirmed that the larger foam samples preserve the basic characteristics: their interwoven nanofiber microstructure forms a low-density tridimensional solid with viscoelastic behavior. Fiber growth mechanisms are also discussed. Larger samples of mechanically-robust carbon nanofiber foams will enable the use of these materials as strain sensors, shock absorbers, selective absorbents for environmental remediation and electrodes for energy storage devices, among other applications.

  3. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Chun, Jaehun; Choi, Young Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2016-01-25

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high hydrogen content of 14-16 wt% below 200°C and high volumetric density. In our previous paper, we selected AB in silicone oil as a role model for a slurry hydrogen storage system. Materials engineering properties were optimized by increasing solid loading by using an ultra-sonic process. In this paper, we proceeded to scale up to liter size batches with solid loadings up to 50 wt% (8 wt% H2) with dynamic viscosities less than 1000cP at 25°C. The use of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-15, shows significant promise in controlling the level of foaming produced during the thermal dehydrogenation of the AB. Through the development of new and efficient processing techniques and the ability to adequately control the foaming, stable homogenous slurries of high solid loading have been demonstrated as a viable hydrogen delivery source.

  4. Scaling up the global nursing health workforce: contributions of an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukholm, Ellen E; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Talbot, Lise R; Bednash, Geraldine; Raines, Fay; Potempa, Kathleen; Nugent, Pauline; Clark, Dame Jill Macleod; Bernhauser, Sue; Parfitt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper key highlights of the scholarly work presented at the Toronto 2008 Global Alliance for Nursing Education & Scholarship (GANES) conference are summarized, challenges opportunities and issues facing nursing education globally arising from the conference discourse are outlined and initial steps are suggested as a way forward to a shared global view of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education and scholarship. This shared view arises from beginning understandings of the issues and opportunities we face globally starting with and building upon the lessons learned from the literature and from the experiences of nursing educators and nursing education organization locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The theme of the groundbreaking GANES Toronto conference was "Educating the future nursing and health workforce: A global challenge". One hundred seventy delegates from 17 countries attended the event, with over 80 papers presented. A primary focus of GANES is the contribution of a strategic alliance of national nursing education organizations to contribute to nursing education leading practices and policy that address the scaling up of global nursing and health workforce. The founding members of GANES see a clear link between a strong educational infrastructure and strong scholarship activities in nursing and the ability of a society to be healthy and prosperous. Evidence presented at the recent GANES conference supports that belief. Through the strength of partnerships and other capacity-building efforts, member countries can support each other to address the global nursing education and health challenges while respecting the local issues.

  5. Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Vietnam: An Overview and Scaling-Up Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam T. M. Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%. Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years.

  6. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  7. Optimization and scale-up of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekanti, Usha; Mohanty, Lipsa; Venugopal, Parvathy; Balasubramanian, Sudha; Totey, Satish; Ta, Malancha

    2010-11-01

    MSCs are promising candidates for stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Umbilical cord is the easiest obtainable biological source of MSCs and the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord is a rich source of fetus-derived stem cells. However, the use of MSCs for therapeutic application is based on their subsequent large-scale in vitro expansion. A fast and efficient protocol for generation of large quantities of MSCs is required to meet the clinical demand and biomedical research needs. Here we have optimized conditions for scaling up of WJ-MSCs. Low seeding density along with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation in the growth medium, which is DMEM-KO, resulted in propagation of more than 1 x 10(8) cells within a time period of 15 days from a single umbilical cord. The upscaled WJ-MSCs retained their differentiation potential and immunosuppressive capacity. They expressed the typical hMSC surface antigens and the addition of bFGF in the culture medium did not affect the expression levels of HLA-DR and CD 44. A normal karyotype was confirmed in the large-scale expanded WJ-MSCs. Hence, in this study we attempted rapid clinical-scale expansion of WJ-MSCs which would allow these fetus-derived stem cells to be used for various allogeneic cell-based transplantations and tissue engineering.

  8. Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

    2014-01-01

    The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage. PMID:24596895

  9. Accelerated Reforms in Healthcare Financing: The Need to Scale up Private Sector Participation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuoma John Ejughemre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage.

  10. Time-resolved transglottal pressure measurements in a scaled up vocal fold model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Hunter; Krane, Michael; Rogers, Dylan; Misfeldt, Mitchel; Wei, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Experimental measurements of flow through a scaled up dynamic human vocal fold model are presented. The simplified 10x scale vocal fold model from Krane, et al. (2007) was used to examine fundamental features of vocal fold oscillatory motion. Of particular interest was the temporal variation of transglottal pressure multiplied by the volume flow rate through the glottis throughout an oscillation cycle. Experiments were dynamically scaled to examine a range of frequencies, 100 - 200 Hz, corresponding to the male and female voice. By using water as the working fluid, very high resolution, both spatial and temporal resolution, was achieved. Time resolved movies of flow through symmetrically oscillating vocal folds will be presented. Both individual realizations as well as phase-averaged data will be shown. Key features, such as randomness and development time of the Coanda effect, vortex shedding, and volume flow rate data have been presented in previous APS-DFD meetings. This talk will focus more on the relation between the flow and aeroacoustics associated with vocal fold oscillations. Supported by the NIH.

  11. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Ford, Nathan; Jahn, Andreas; Schouten, Erik J; Libamba, Edwin; Chimbwandira, Frank; Maher, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  12. Excellence in Physics Education Award: SCALE-UP, Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) Project combines curricula and a specially-designed instructional space to enhance learning. SCALE-UP students practice communication and teamwork skills while performing activities that enhance their conceptual understanding and problem solving skills. This can be done with small or large classes and has been implemented at more than 250 institutions. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. SCALE-UP classtime is spent primarily on ``tangibles'' and ``ponderables''--hands-on measurements/observations and interesting questions. There are also computer simulations (called ``visibles'') and hypothesis-driven labs. Students sit at tables designed to facilitate group interactions. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Impressive learning gains have been measured at institutions across the US and internationally. This talk describes today's students, how lecturing got started, what happens in a SCALE-UP classroom, and how the approach has spread. The SCALE-UP project has greatly benefitted from numerous Grants made by NSF and FIPSE to NCSU and other institutions.

  13. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickles, Robert Jerome [Univ of Wisconsin

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing

  14. Evaluating Ecotypes as a means of Scaling-up Permafrost Thermal Measurements in Western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In many regions, permafrost temperatures are increasing due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. Yet in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. Thus, classifying the landscape into general ecotypes might be an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data. To evaluate using ecotypes as a way of scaling-up permafrost thermal data within a region we selected an area in Western Alaska, the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, which is on the boundary between continuous and discontinuous permafrost. This region was selected because previously an ecological land classification had been conducted and a very high-resolution ecotype map was generated. Using this information we selected 18 spatially distributed sites covering the most abundant ecotypes, where we are collecting low vertical resolution soil temperature data to a depth of 1.5 meters at most sites. At three additional core sites, we are collecting air temperature, snow depth, and high vertical resolution soil temperature to a depth of 3 meters. The sites were installed in the summers of 2011 and 2012; consequently, we have at least two years of data from all sites. Mean monthly and mean annual air temperature and snow depth for all three core sites are similar within the 2012-2014 period. Additionally, the average air temperature and snow depth from our three cores sites compares well with that of a nearby meteorological station for which long-term data is available. During the study period snow depth

  15. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  16. SCALING UP A MOBILE TELEMEDICINE SOLUTION IN BOTSWANA: KEYS TO SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagiso eNdlovu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective health care delivery is significantly compromised in an environment where resources, both human and technical, are limited. Botswana’s health care system is one of the many in the African continent with few specialised medical doctors, thereby posing a barrier to patients’ access to health care services. In addition, the traditional landline and non-robust Information Technology (IT network infrastructure characterised by slow bandwidth still dominates the health care system in Botswana. Upgrading of the landline IT infrastructure to meet today’s health care demands is a tedious, long and expensive process. Despite these challenges, there still lies hope in health care delivery utilising wireless telecommunication services. Botswana has recently experienced a tremendous growth in the mobile telecommunication industry coupled with an increase in the number of individually owned mobile devices. This growth inspired the Botswana-UPenn Partnership (BUP to collaborate with local partners to explore using mobile devices as tools to improve access to specialised health care delivery. Pilot studies were conducted across four medical specialties, including radiology, oral medicine, dermatology and cervical cancer screening. Findings from the studies became vital evidence in support of the first scale-up project of a mobile telemedicine solution in Botswana, also known as Kgonafalo. Some technical and social challenges were encountered during the initial studies, such as malfunctioning of mobile devices, accidental damage of devices and cultural misalignment between IT and healthcare providers. These challenges brought about lessons learnt, including a strong need for unwavering senior management support, establishment of solid local public-private partnerships, and efficient project sustainability plans. Sustainability milestones included the development and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU between the Botswana government and

  17. Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Ana M; Fernandes, José A; Faulwetter, Sarah; Nunes, Joana; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Mieszkowska, Nova; Artioli, Yuri; Yool, Andrew; Calosi, Piero; Arvanitidis, Christos; Findlay, Helen S; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W L; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    . Scaling up the results of experimental climate change research requires approaches that account for long-term, multiscale responses to multiple stressors, in an ecosystem context.

  18. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Eduard J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Methods Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries and others intending to develop them (NG-countries. Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Results Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Conclusions Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  19. Scale-up model describing the impact of lubrication on tablet tensile strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Joseph; Moore, Francis

    2010-10-31

    Lubrication of 2:1 and 1:1 blends of microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose or dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) with 0.33% or 1% magnesium stearate, as model free-flowing pharmaceutical formulations, was performed in rotary drum blenders. Blender process parameters examined in this study included type (Bin, V, and Turbula), volume (0.75-Quart to 200-L), fraction of headspace in the blender after the blend is loaded (30-70%), speed (6-202 rpm), and time (up to 225 min). Based on analysis of the experimental data, the following model for the impact of the lubrication process on tablet tensile strength at 0.85 solid fraction, TS(SF=0.85), was obtained, TS(SF=0.85)=TS(SF=0.85,0) [βexp(-γ×V(1/3)×F(headspace)×r)+(1-β)], where V is blender volume, F(headspace) is the headspace fraction, r is the number of revolutions (i.e. speed × time), TS(SF=0.85,0) is the initial tensile strength of the blend, β is the sensitivity of the blend to lubrication, and γ is the lubrication rate constant of the formulation. This model can be used to maintain tensile strength during scale-up, by ensuring that (V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(1)=(V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(2). The model also suggests that formulations with DCP are less sensitive to lubrication and more slowly lubricated than formulations with spray-dried lactose (i.e. smaller β and γ values).

  20. The Design and Scale-Up of Multiple-Impeller Fermenters for Liquid Film Controlled Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labík, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically agitated gas-liquid contactors are frequently used in the chemical, food and biochemical industries as fermenters and as hydrogenation or chlorination reactors. However wide is the usage of such vessels, their design is not based on chemical engineering data, but is still rather empirical. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a tool for the rational design of agitated gas-liquid contactors that is based on fundamental chemical engineering parameters that are transferable to other systems and operating conditions. Focusing on liquid film-controlled processes and using the data from fermenters of different scales, we develop kLa correlations that are suitable for scale-up. First, we discuss how to determine the proper experimental kLa values, which are not distorted by other equipment parameters as is the gas residence time. We demonstrate the possible kLa distortion on the pilot-plant experimental data by comparing the results obtained by two different experimental techniques. Further, we present physically correct kLa data for fully non-coalescent (sodium sulphate solution batch. The data are presented both for laboratory and pilot-plant fermenters. We identify the process parameters, the values of which are dependent on the vessel scale when operated under the same power input per volume, and, using these parameters, we develop common kLa correlations suitable to describe the data for various scales of the vessel. The correlations developed reduce the uncertainty in predicting the volume of industrial scale fermenters from almost 1/2 to 1/4 of their total volume, thereby enabling significant reductions in both the initial costs, and operating costs.

  1. Optimization and Scale-up Isolation and Culture of Neonatal Porcine Islets: Potential for Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cara; Lyon, James G; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    One challenge that must be overcome to allow transplantation of neonatal porcine islets (NPIs) to become a clinical reality is defining a reproducible and scalable protocol for the efficient preparation of therapeutic quantities of clinical grade NPIs. In our standard protocol, we routinely isolate NPIs from a maximum of four pancreases, requiring tissue culture in 16 Petri dishes (four per pancreas) in Ham's F10 and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We have now developed a scalable and technically simpler protocol that allows us to isolate NPIs from a minimum of 12 pancreases at a time by employing automated tissue chopping, collagenase digestion in a single vessel, and tissue culture/media changes in 75% fewer Petri dishes. For culture, BSA is replaced with human serum albumin and supplemented with Z-VAD-FMK general caspase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor cocktail. The caspase inhibitor was added to the media for only the first 90 min of culture. NPIs isolated using the scalable protocol had significantly more cellular insulin recovered (56.9 ± 1.4 µg) when compared to the standard protocol (15.0 ± 0.5 µg; p protocol, recovery of β-cells (6.0 × 10(6) ± 0.2 vs. 10.0 × 10(6) ± 0.4; p protocol. During a static glucose stimulation assay, the SI of islets isolated by the standard protocol were significantly lower than the scale-up protocol (4.3 ± 0.2 vs. 5.5 ± 0.1; p protocol had significantly lower blood glucose levels than the mice that receiving NPIs from the standard protocol (p protocol is a significantly more efficient means for preparing therapeutic quantities of clinical grade NPIs.

  2. Nutrient biogeochemical cycles in the Gulf of Riga: scaling up field studies with a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2002-05-01

    A box model has been implemented to understand the large-scale biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the Gulf of Riga. The large data sets collected within the international Gulf of Riga Project in 1993/1995 were used to validate the model. The comparison to data was useful in scaling up to the gulf-wide level and scrutinizing the conclusions based on short-term field surveys and experimental studies. The simulations indicate that the limiting role was passing from silicon to phosphorus to nitrogen over the seasons of organic production. However, on an annual scale, nutrient limitation was close to the "Redfield equilibrium". Mass balance considerations, based on modeled coupled fluxes, disagree with the conclusions on low sediment denitrification and high phosphorus retention in the pelagic system, which were derived from isolated measurements. Nutrient budgets constructed with the model revealed the high buffer capacity of the Gulf of Riga. The nutrient residence times span a range from 6 years for N to 70 years for Si. The buffering arises from intensive internal recycling in the water body and by the bottom sediments. The budgets indicate that the Gulf retains about two-thirds of external nitrogen and silicon inputs, while phosphorus retention is only 10%. A slow response to external perturbations is demonstrated with numerical experiments run for 15 years under 50% reductions of terrestrial nutrient inputs. These experiments imply that the most effective is the N+P reduction scenario, which resulted in a 20% decrease of primary production after 12 years. A reduction of P resulted in only a 6% decrease of primary production; however, it yielded an 80% drop in the amount of nitrogen fixation.

  3. SCALE-UP STUDIES ON IMMOBILIZATION OF LACTOPEROXIDASE USING MILK WHEY FOR PRODUCING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Al-Baarri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypothiocyanite (OSCN–, produced by lactoperoxidase (LPO in the presence of SCN– and H2O2,inhibits the growth of bacteria. This inhibition is called by LPO system (LPOS. Our laboratory scalestudy in previous experiment showed that whey immobilized on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow (SP-FF couldproduce OSCN– continuously. Then, the purpose of this study is to scale up continuous production ofOSCN– using immobilized whey. Immobilized whey was generated by circulating various amounts ofwhey through SP-FF. To generate OSCN–, 10 ml of the substrate solution containing 0.5 mM SCN– and0.5 mM H2O2, was circulated through immobilized whey and followed by washing with pure water. Thenext cycle was done by circulating a fresh 10 ml of substrate solution at the same concentration. Theresult indicated that a stable immobilization efficiency of more than 90% was achieved in the SP-FFcirculated with 300 ml or less of whey per gram of SP-FF. When stored at 4˚C, immobilized wheyretained 80% LPO activity until 3 weeks storage. The reaction solution discharged from immobilizedwhey was observed to contain approximately 0.4 mM OSCN–. The experiment using 1.0 g ofimmobilized whey produced a stable 0.4 mM OSCN– production and antimicrobial activity for at least 6cycles. The increase in resin volume accompanied by the increase in whey volume resulted the extensionof a stable OSCN– production. The experiment using recycled SP-FF did not affect to the stability ofOSCN– production and antimicrobial activity. These results may open the way for the large-scaleproduction of OSCN−.

  4. Scaled-up separation of cellobiohydrolase1 from a cellulase mixture by ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Lane, Andrew N; Willing, Gerold A; Berson, R Eric

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose often involves cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, of which cellobiohydrolase1 (CBH1) is the most abundant (about 60% of total cellulases) and plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A method for separating sufficient quantities from the bulk cellulase cocktail is highly desirable for many studies, such as those that aim to characterize binding and hydrolysis kinetics of CBH1. In this work, CBH1 was separated from other Spezyme CP cellulases by ion-exchange chromatography using an efficient modification of a smaller scale process. The ion-exchange column was connected to a vacuum manifold system to provide a steady flow through parallel columns and thus achieve scale-up for enzyme separation. With five 5-mL columns running in parallel, about 55 mg of CBH1 was separated from 145 mg of Spezyme CP in a single separation. Step elution was used to replace the continuous gradient used at smaller scale. The purified CBH1 was collected in the fraction eluted with a buffer containing 0.33 M salt and showed comparable purity and activity as the enzyme purified by a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The stability of separated CBH1 was studied for up to 2 days and good thermal stability was observed. Separated CBH1 also showed both high adsorption to bacterial microcrystalline cellulose with ~4 μmol/g maximum adsorption and a K(a) of 5.55 ± 2.34 μM(-1) , and good hydrolytic activity based on atomic force microscopy observations that show a reduction in fiber height.

  5. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture.

  6. Roller compaction process development and scale up using Johanson model calibrated with instrumented roll data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Sprockel, Omar; Jerzweski, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Roller compaction is a dry granulation process used to convert powder blends into free flowing agglomerates. During scale up or transfer of roller compaction process, it is critical to maintain comparable ribbon densities at each scale in order to achieve similar tensile strengths and subsequently similar particle size distribution of milled material. Similar ribbon densities can be reached by maintaining analogous normal stress applied by the rolls on ribbon for a given gap between rolls. Johanson (1965) developed a model to predict normal stress based on material properties and roll diameter. However, the practical application of Johanson model to estimate normal stress on the ribbon is limited due to its requirement of accurate estimate of nip pressure i.e. pressure at the nip angle. Another weakness of Johanson model is the assumption of a fixed angle of wall friction that leads to use of a fixed nip angle in the model. To overcome the above mentioned limitations, we developed a novel approach using roll force equations based on a modified Johanson model in which the requirement of pressure value at nip angle was eliminated. An instrumented roll on WP120 roller compactor was used to collect normal stress data measured at three locations across the width of a roll (P1, P2, P3), as well as gap and nip angle data on ribbon for placebo and various active blends along with corresponding process parameters. The nip angles were estimated directly using experimental pressure profile data of each run. The roll force equation of Johanson model was validated using normal stress, gap, and nip angle data of the placebo runs. The calculated roll force values compared well with those determined from the roll force equation provided for the Alexanderwerk(®) WP120 roller compactor. Subsequently, the calculation was reversed to estimate normal stress and corresponding ribbon densities as a function of gap and RFU (roll force per unit roll width). A placebo model was developed

  7. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  8. CFD analysis of the flow-field scale-up influence on the electrodes performance in a PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Gatto, I.; Giacoppo, G.; Urbani, F.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contessen. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was used as a useful tool to obtain numerical relationships among similar flow-field designs having different active areas. Assuming that, at fixed current density, the porous layer velocity distribution calculated for the smallest size geometry was the optimal, a scale-up methodology has been proposed and implemented in software. It allows acquisition of the scaled-up flow-field by multiplying the reference cell parameters by suitable factors (scale factors). A calibration methodology has also been proposed by the introduction of a feedback factor evaluated by CFD analysis. A first application of this procedure has been carried out to scale-up a 5-125cm{sup 2} cell. (author)

  9. The impact and cost of scaling up midwifery and obstetrics in 58 low- and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bartlett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: To guide achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, we used the Lives Saved Tool to provide a novel simulation of potential maternal, fetal, and newborn lives and costs saved by scaling up midwifery and obstetrics services, including family planning, in 58 low- and middle-income countries. Typical midwifery and obstetrics interventions were scaled to either 60% of the national population (modest coverage or 99% (universal coverage. FINDINGS: Under even a modest scale-up, midwifery services including family planning reduce maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths by 34%. Increasing midwifery alone or integrated with obstetrics is more cost-effective than scaling up obstetrics alone; when family planning was included, the midwifery model was almost twice as cost-effective as the obstetrics model, at $2,200 versus $4,200 per death averted. The most effective strategy was the most comprehensive: increasing midwives, obstetricians, and family planning could prevent 69% of total deaths under universal scale-up, yielding a cost per death prevented of just $2,100. Within this analysis, the interventions which midwifery and obstetrics are poised to deliver most effectively are different, with midwifery benefits delivered across the continuum of pre-pregnancy, prenatal, labor and delivery, and postpartum-postnatal care, and obstetrics benefits focused mostly on delivery. Including family planning within each scope of practice reduced the number of likely births, and thus deaths, and increased the cost-effectiveness of the entire package (e.g., a 52% reduction in deaths with midwifery and obstetrics increased to 69% when family planning was added; cost decreased from $4,000 to $2,100 per death averted. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that scaling up midwifery and obstetrics could bring many countries closer to achieving mortality reductions. Midwives alone can achieve remarkable mortality reductions, particularly when they

  10. Scale-up of a bioprocess for textile wastewater treatment using Bjerkandera adusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Prigione, Valeria; Tigini, Valeria; Giansanti, Pietro; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Twelve basidiomycetes were investigated for their ability to degrade 13 industrial dyes and to treat four model wastewaters from textile and tannery industry, defined on the basis of discharged amounts, economic relevance and representativeness of chemical structures of the contained dyes. The best degradation yields were recorded for one strain of Bjerkandera adusta able to completely decolourise most of the dyes and to decolourise and detoxify three simulated wastewaters, showing a significant physiological versatility which is very useful for application purposes. The effects of different nutrient sources were investigated in order to optimize the yields of decolourisation and detoxification. Manganese-peroxidase and manganese-independent peroxidase were the only recorded enzymatic activities. In order to evaluate its true bioremediation potential, this strain was packed in a fixed-bed bioreactor, for treatment of large volumes of a real wastewater. The fungus resulted effective during 10 cycles of decolourisation, remaining active for a very long period, in non-sterile conditions.

  11. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, J.P.; Ketting, E.; Chandra-Mouli, V.; Raudsepp, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a

  12. Chapter 6. Scaling Up Solutions to State, National and Global Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling-up solutions require learning and adapting lessons between locations and at different scales. To accomplish this, common metrics are vital to building a shared language. For California, this has meant careful financial, cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment methods leading to carbon accounting in many avenues of government (via the Low Carbon Fuel Standard or the Cap and Trade program. These methods themselves interact, such as the use of carbon accounting for the resources needed to manage water and other key resources; the use of criteria air pollution monitoring to identify environmental injustices; and the use of carbon market revenues to address these inequalities, through investment in best available abatement technologies (BACT and in job creation in disadvantaged communities anticipated in the emerging clean energy sector.  Creating interdisciplinary partnerships across the UC Campuses and the National Laboratories to innovate science and technology is critical to scalable carbon neutrality solutions. As an example, we can build coordinated research and development programs across UC and California, with strong partnerships with the Federal government to coordinate and “multiply” resources that accelerate development and deployment. These partnerships should be strongly goal-focused, i.e., they are created to solve specific, large problems, to enable quantitatively measurable outcomes within energy generation, efficiency and CO2 abatement categories. Intersectoral partnerships should be fostered across campuses, laboratories, with state, federal and multi-lateral organizations funding to develop technologies and deploy solutions at scale. Integrated partnerships with industry are required to influence markets, deploy solutions, and create new industries and jobs.  Beyond California, we need to establish consortia with industry and foundations to deploy solutions at the regional, state, national, and international scale to

  13. Scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding support programmes: the example of KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Desmond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for six months is the mainstay of global child health and the preferred feeding option for HIV-infected mothers for whom replacement feeding is inappropriate. Promotion of community-level EBF requires effective personnel and management to ensure quality counselling and support for women. We present a costing and cost effectiveness analysis of a successful intervention to promote EBF in high HIV prevalence area in South Africa, and implications for scale-up in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The costing of the intervention as implemented was calculated, in addition to the modelling of the costs and outcomes associated with running the intervention at provincial level under three different scenarios: full intervention (per protocol, simplified version (half the number of visits compared to the full intervention; more clinic compared to home visits and basic version (one third the number of visits compared to the full intervention; all clinic and no home visits. Implementation of the full scenario costs R95 million ($14 million per annum; the simplified version R47 million ($7 million and the basic version R4 million ($2 million. Although the cost of the basic scenario is less than one tenth of the cost of the simplified scenario, modelled effectiveness of the full and simplified versions suggest they would be 10 times more effective compared to the basic intervention. A further analysis modelled the costs per increased month of EBF due to each intervention: R337 ($48, R206 ($29, and R616 ($88 for the full, simplified and basic scenarios respectively. In addition to the average cost effectiveness the incremental cost effectiveness ratios associated with moving from the less effective scenarios to the more effective scenarios were calculated and reported: Nothing-Basic R616 ($88, Basic-Simplified R162 ($23 and Simplified-Full R879 ($126. CONCLUSIONS: The simplified scenario, with a

  14. Spatial Translation and Scaling Up of LID Practices in Deer Creek Watershed in East Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Damien

    This study investigated two important aspects of hydrologic effects of low impact development (LID) practices at the watershed scale by (1) examining the potential benefits of scaling up of LID design, and (2) evaluating downstream effects of LID design and its spatial translation within a watershed. The Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was used to model runoff reduction with the implementation of LID practices in Deer Creek watershed (DCW), Missouri. The model was calibrated from 2003 to 2007 (R2 = 0.58 and NSE = 0.57), and validated from 2008 to 2012 (R2 = 0.64 and NSE = 0.65) for daily direct runoff. Runoff simulated for the study period, 2003 to 2012 (NSE = 0.61; R2 = 0.63), was used as the baseline for comparison to LID scenarios. Using 1958 areal imagery to assign land cover, a predevelopment scenario was constructed and simulated to assess LID scenarios' ability to restore predevelopment hydrologic conditions. The baseline and all LID scenarios were simulated using 2006 National Land Cover Dataset. The watershed was divided in 117 subcatchments, which were clustered in six groups of approximately equal areas and two scaling concepts consisting of incremental scaling and spatial scaling were modelled. Incremental scaling was investigated using three LID practices (rain barrel, porous pavement, and rain garden). Each LID practice was simulated at four implementation levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) in all subcatchments for the study period (2003 to 2012). Results showed an increased runoff reduction, ranging from 3% to 31%, with increased implementation level. Spatial scaling was investigated by increasing the spatial extent of LID practices using the subcatchment groups and all three LID practices (combined) implemented at 50% level. Results indicated that as the spatial extent of LID practices increased the runoff reduction at the outlet also increased, ranging from 3% to 19%. Spatial variability of LID implementation was examined by

  15. Long-Term Outcomes on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Scale-Up Program in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Seema T.; Chang, Charlotte A.; Eisen, Geoffrey; Jolayemi, Toyin; Banigbe, Bolanle; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Background While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria. Methods We conducted a retrospective multi-site program evaluation of adult patients (age ≥15 years) initiating antiretroviral therapy between June 2004 and February 2012 in Nigeria. The baseline characteristics of patients were described and longitudinal analyses using primary endpoints of immunologic recovery, virologic rebound, treatment failure and long-term adherence patterns were conducted. Results Of 70,002 patients, 65.2% were female and median age was 35 (IQR: 29–41) years; 54.7% were started on a zidovudine-containing and 40% on a tenofovir-containing first-line regimen. Median CD4+ cell counts for the cohort started at 149 cells/mm3 (IQR: 78–220) and increased over duration of ART. Of the 70,002 patients, 1.8% were reported as having died, 30.1% were lost to follow-up, and 0.1% withdrew from treatment. Overall, of those patients retained and with viral load data, 85.4% achieved viral suppression, with 69.3% achieving suppression by month 6. Of 30,792 patients evaluated for virologic failure, 24.4% met criteria for failure and of 45,130 evaluated for immunologic failure, 34.0% met criteria for immunologic failure, with immunologic criteria poorly predicting virologic failure. In adjusted analyses, older age, ART regimen, lower CD4+ cell count, higher viral load, and inadequate adherence were all predictors of virologic failure. Predictors of immunologic failure differed slightly, with age no longer predictive, but female sex as protective; additionally, higher baseline CD4+ cell count was also predictive of failure. Evaluation of long-term adherence patterns revealed that the majority of patients

  16. Teacher Teams and School Processes in Scaling-Up a Content Literacy Innovation in High Schools. Final Report: The Evaluation of the Scale-Up of Reading Apprenticeship through the Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Education (RAISE) Project. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denis; Zacamy, Jenna; Lazarev, Valeriy; Lin, Li; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Hegseth, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    We report on the scaling up of a high school content literacy framework, Reading Apprenticeship, over a period of four years as part of the independent evaluation of an Investing in Innovation grant from the U.S. Department of Education to WestEd's Strategic Literacy Institute (SLI). Our goal was to understand the school processes that support…

  17. On the Scale-up of Gas-Hydrate-Forming Reactors: The Case of Gas-Dispersion-Type Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko H. Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For establishing hydrate-based technologies for natural-gas storage/transport, CO2 capture from industrial flue gases, etc., we need appropriate guidelines for the scale-up of hydrate production/processing equipment from laboratory scales to industrial scales. This paper aims to provide technical remarks on the scale-up of hydrate-forming reactors, the central components of hydrate production/processing equipment, particularly focusing on such a reactor design that hydrate-forming gas is dispersed in an aqueous phase which is either stirred in a tank or forced to flow through a tube. Based on the principles of classical fluid mechanics and heat-transfer analysis, the paper derives semi-empirical formulas that show how the capacity for heat discharge from each reactor and the power for operating the reactor are required to change with an increase in its size. Consequently, it is concluded that the stirred-tank design is unfavorable for significant scale-up and that the scale-up of tubular reactors should be made without significantly increasing the in-tube flow velocity.

  18. Culture scale-up studies as seen from the viewpoint of oxygen supply and dissolved carbon dioxide stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Naoki; Kano, Kenjiro; Maki, Yasuyuki; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen supply and dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO(2)) stripping are two of the most important control parameters in cell culture. In this study, we investigated the effect of scale-up on the volumetric gas transfer coefficient with bioreactors of different sizes (working volume: 80 L, 500 L, 2000 L, and 10,000 L; aspect ratio: 1.0-1.6). Sparging air into water increased the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), an index of oxygen supply efficiency, by scale-up roughly in proportion to the depth of the water. A corresponding increase in k(L)a was found in a real cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. dCO(2) stripping efficiency was evaluated in water tests using changes in k(L)a(co2), an index defined in relation to k(L)a. k(L)a(co2) increased following surface aeration, but the rate of increase was reduced by scale-up, which was attributed to a decrease in the liquid surface-to-volume ratio. A similar decrease in efficiency was observed in a 2000 L bioreactor by increasing the liquid volume at constant liquid surface area. The observed scale-up effects are discussed based on a simple theoretical consideration.

  19. Studies of Process Parameters on Scale up of Nd:YAG Nanopowder Synthesis by Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranmala Laishram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale up of process from 6 g to 200 g batch for preparation of phase pure Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG nanopowder by sol-gel process using nitrate-citrate route was carried out. Optimisation of process parameters was done to resolve problems associated with large batch such as evolution of large amount of acidic fumes, increased gelation and drying time and incomplete calcination. The problem of exhaust of excess acidic fumes with size scale up was handled by passing ammonia and optimized pH of the sol. Process of drying the sol was optimised for large batch size. On scaling up from 6 g to 200 g batch incomplete crystallization was observed  on calcination under conditions optimized for 6 g batch. The causes of incomplete calcination with size scale up was identified and resolved to achieve completely crystalline particles in the range of ~25 nm to 50 nm.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.199-202, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.837

  20. Scale-Up Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide from H2/O2 with Multiple Parallel DBD Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianli; ZHOU Juncheng; SU Ji; GUO Hongchen; WANG Xiangsheng; GONG Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The scale-up synthesis of H202 from H2/O2 via a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)under ambient conditions was studied. A plasma reactor consisting of multiple parallel DBD tubes was designed to scale up the H2O2 synthesis. The number of tubes had no significant effect on the discharge mode, and no decay occurred in H2O2 selectivity during the scale-up process.These advantages made this technology more stable and efficient. The reactor's energy efficiency increased with the number of tubes and reached 136 g H2O2/kWh in the four-tube reaction. The total energy efficiency was limited by the extremely low energy transfer efficiency of power supply,and might be enhanced by optimizing the impedance matching between the power supply and the reactor load. As a result, an assembly of multiple DBD tubes may provide a viable route for the scale-up synthesis of H2O2 by a non-equilibrium plasma.

  1. The barriers to sustaining and scaling-up housing experiments in community-care: the dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.J.; Voordijk, J.T.; Dewulf, G.P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into barriers to sustaining and scaling-up housing and community-care innovations related to changing the long-term care (LTC) system. Design/methodology/approach – Two housing and community-care experiments were studied. The 11 barrie

  2. Fenton chemistry-based detemplation of an industrially relevant microcrystalline beta zeolite. Optimization and scaling-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Iniesta, Maria Jesus; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    A mild template removal of microcrystalline beta zeolite, based on Fenton chemistry, was optimized. Fenton detemplation was studied in terms of applicability conditions window, reaction rate and scale up. TGA and CHN elemental analysis were used to evaluate the detemplation effectiveness, while 'CP,

  3. Scale up tools in reactive extrusion and compounding processes. Could 1D-computer modeling be helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, J.-L.; David, C.; Quinebèche, S.; Blondel, P.

    2014-05-01

    Industrial scale-up (or scale down) in Compounding and Reactive Extrusion processes is one of the most critical R&D challenges. Indeed, most of High Performances Polymers are obtained within a reactive compounding involving chemistry: free radical grafting, in situ compatibilization, rheology control... but also side reactions: oxidation, branching, chain scission... As described by basic Arrhenius and kinetics laws, the competition between all chemical reactions depends on residence time distribution and temperature. Then, to ensure the best possible scale up methodology, we need tools to match thermal history of the formulation along the screws from a lab scale twin screw extruder to an industrial one. This paper proposes a comparison between standard scale-up laws and the use of Computer modeling Software such as Ludovic® applied and compared to experimental data. Scaling data from a compounding line to another one, applying general rules (for example at constant specific mechanical energy), shows differences between experimental and computed data, and error depends on the screw speed range. For more accurate prediction, 1D-Computer Modeling could be used to optimize the process conditions to ensure the best scale-up product, especially in temperature sensitive reactive extrusion processes. When the product temperature along the screws is the key, Ludovic® software could help to compute the temperature profile along the screws and extrapolate conditions, even screw profile, on industrial extruders.

  4. Collaboration, negotiation, and coalescence for interagency-collaborative teams to scale-up evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Fettes, Danielle L; Hurlburt, Michael S; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, Lara; Willging, Cathleen E; Chaffin, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Implementation and scale-up of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often portrayed as involving multiple stakeholders collaborating harmoniously in the service of a shared vision. In practice, however, collaboration is a more complex process that may involve shared and competing interests and agendas, and negotiation. The present study examined the scale-up of an EBP across an entire service system using the Interagency Collaborative Team approach. Participants were key stakeholders in a large-scale county-wide implementation of an EBP to reduce child neglect, SafeCare. Semistructured interviews and/or focus groups were conducted with 54 individuals representing diverse constituents in the service system, followed by an iterative approach to coding and analysis of transcripts. The study was conceptualized using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework. Although community stakeholders eventually coalesced around implementation of SafeCare, several challenges affected the implementation process. These challenges included differing organizational cultures, strategies, and approaches to collaboration; competing priorities across levels of leadership; power struggles; and role ambiguity. Each of the factors identified influenced how stakeholders approached the EBP implementation process. System-wide scale-up of EBPs involves multiple stakeholders operating in a nexus of differing agendas, priorities, leadership styles, and negotiation strategies. The term collaboration may oversimplify the multifaceted nature of the scale-up process. Implementation efforts should openly acknowledge and consider this nexus when individual stakeholders and organizations enter into EBP implementation through collaborative processes.

  5. Schinus terebinthifolius countercurrent chromatography (Part II): Intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda das Neves; Vieira, Mariana Neves; Garrard, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Jerz, Gerold; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-09-30

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is being widely used across the world for purification of various materials, especially in natural product research. The predictability of CCC scale-up has been successfully demonstrated using specially designed instruments of the same manufacturer. The reality is that the most of CCC users do not have access to such instruments and do not have enough experience to transfer methods from one CCC column to another. This unique study of three international teams is based on innovative approach to simplify the scale-up between different CCC machines using fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius berries dichloromethane extract as a case study. The optimized separation methodology, recently developed by the authors (Part I), was repeatedly performed on CCC columns of different design available at most research laboratories across the world. Hexane - ethyl acetate - methanol - water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was used as solvent system with masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids as target compounds to monitor stationary phase retention and calculate peak resolution. It has been demonstrated that volumetric, linear and length scale-up transfer factors based on column characteristics can be directly applied to different i.d., volume and length columns independently on instrument make in an intra-apparatus scale-up and inter-apparatus method transfer.

  6. A novel Online-to-Offline (O2O model for pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV testing scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarandeep Anand

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Adam’s Love O2O model is highly effective in linking online at-risk MSM and TG to PrEP and HIV testing services, and has high potential to be replicated and scaled up in other settings with high Internet penetration among key populations.

  7. Scale up, optimization and stability analysis of Curcumin C3 complex-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Amalendu P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticle based delivery of anticancer drugs have been widely investigated. However, a very important process for Research & Development in any pharmaceutical industry is scaling nanoparticle formulation techniques so as to produce large batches for preclinical and clinical trials. This process is not only critical but also difficult as it involves various formulation parameters to be modulated all in the same process. Methods In our present study, we formulated curcumin loaded poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-CURC. This improved the bioavailability of curcumin, a potent natural anticancer drug, making it suitable for cancer therapy. Post formulation, we optimized our process by Reponse Surface Methodology (RSM using Central Composite Design (CCD and scaled up the formulation process in four stages with final scale-up process yielding 5 g of curcumin loaded nanoparticles within the laboratory setup. The nanoparticles formed after scale-up process were characterized for particle size, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, in vitro release kinetics and pharmacokinetics. Stability analysis and gamma sterilization were also carried out. Results Results revealed that that process scale-up is being mastered for elaboration to 5 g level. The mean nanoparticle size of the scaled up batch was found to be 158.5 ± 9.8 nm and the drug loading was determined to be 10.32 ± 1.4%. The in vitro release study illustrated a slow sustained release corresponding to 75% drug over a period of 10 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of PLGA-CURC in rats following i.v. administration showed two compartmental model with the area under the curve (AUC0-∞ being 6.139 mg/L h. Gamma sterilization showed no significant change in the particle size or drug loading of the nanoparticles. Stability analysis revealed long term physiochemical stability of the PLGA-CURC formulation. Conclusions A successful

  8. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the

  9. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  10. Scale-up of two-phase flow in heterogeneous chalk. Matrix properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This investigation presents scale-up of a detailed heterogeneous geostatistical model to a full field reservoir simulation model, considering both single and two-phase flow properties. The model represents a typical low permeability Danish North Sea chalk reservoir and includes capillary pressure and saturation end-point variations. Two new up-scaling methods has been investigated, all based on fine scale simulation on a cross section of the geomodel. The first methods assumes piston style behaviour and a coupled viscosity is introduced into the basic Darcy`s equations. The second method is a modification of the JBN method traditionally applied in analysing results from core flooding experiments, which emerged as the most successful and therefore also the recommended method. 1. In addition to the up scaling work we review the Equivalent Radius Method for capillary pressure normalisation with explicit derivation of type functions for Maastrichtian and Danian chalk types. Implementation of the Equivalent Radiuo Method in the COSI reservoir simulator by an optikal set of key-words. There are six specific results from this work: 1. The equivalent radius method is robust to changes of scale and yields model initialisations by initial and irreducible water saturations on a full field simulation scale that agree well with values derived from averaging on a fine-scale. 2. The residual oil saturations are strongly scale dependent and the description of the residual oil as a function of the irreducible water is not applicable on a full field scale and will lead to an overestimation of the residual oil present in the reservoir. The effective residual oil saturations on a full field-scale must be considered functions of the effective initial water saturations, in order to take into account fine-scale variations in the oil/water contacts. 3. The effective permeability as calculated by statistical averages does not differ seriously from results obtained by fine-grid numerical

  11. Solar thermal production of zinc - Final steps toward scale-up - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.

    2008-05-15

    A 10 kW receiver-reactor prototype (called ZIRRUS) was further improved and tested for the solar thermal de-composition of ZnO, which is the 1{sup st} step of the two-step water-splitting thermochemical ZnO/Zn cycle. The rotating cylindrical cavity was made of either sintered ZnO or sintered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles placed on top of a multi-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramics for thermal shock resistance, mechanical stability, gas diffusion barrier, and thermal insulation. Pre-heated Ar gas was injected for aerodynamic window protection and for minimizing recombination of product gases in the cavity. Experimentation was carried out at PSI's High-Flux Solar Simulator with the direct heating 10 kW reactor prototype subjected to peak radiative fluxes exceeding 5,800 suns. The reactor operated without incident for a total of more than 40 h at maximum temperatures - measured behind the ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles - ranging from 1807-1907 K. Thermal dissociation of ZnO(s) near 2000 K was demonstrated for experimental runs over 4 h in transient ablation mode with up to nine semi-continuous feed cycles of ZnO particles. A working Zn/O{sub 2} separation device based on the rapid quenching of the Zn/O{sub 2} mixture is ready to be incorporated at the exit of the solar reactor. Zinc yields of up to 94% were obtained when using total Ar/Zn(g) dilution of 530 and a cooling rate of about 10{sup 5} K/s. The fully integrated solar reactor will be scaled up to the pilot scale of 100 kW. A newly developed reactor model that couples radiation, conduction, and convection heat transfer to the reaction kinetics will allow determining optimal operational conditions for matching the feeding rate to the reaction rate and for maximizing solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency. The 2{sup nd} step of the ZnO/Zn cycle has been experimentally demonstrated at ETH using an aerosol-flow reactor for in-situ formation and hydrolysis of Zn nanoparticles

  12. Scaling up carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes from leaf and soil to the canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulin; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) with atmospheric concentrations around 500 ppt is an analog of CO2 which can potentially serve as powerful and much needed tracer of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and global gross primary production (GPP). However, questions remain regarding the application of this approach due to uncertainties in the contributions of different ecosystem components to the canopy scale fluxes of COS. We used laser quantum cascade spectroscopy in combination with soil and branch chambers, and eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange fluxes of COS and CO2 (NEE) in citrus orchard during the driest summer month to test our ability to integrate the chamber measurements into the ecosystem fluxes. The results indicated that: 1) Soil fluxes showed clear gradient from continuous uptake under the trees in wet soil of up to -4 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 emission of ~0.5 umol m-2s-1) to emission in dry hot and exposed soil between rows of trees of up to +3 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 emission of ~11 umol m-2s-1). In all cases a clear correlation between fluxes and soil temperature was observed. 2) At the leaf scale, midday uptake was ~5.5 pmol m-2s-1 (CO2 uptake of ~1.8 umol m-2s-1). Some nighttime COS uptake was observed in the citrus leaves consistent with nocturnal leaf stomatal conductance. Leaf relative uptake (LRU) of COS vs. CO2 was not constant over the diurnal cycle, but showed exponential correlation with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime. 3) At the canopy scale mid-day summer flux reached -12.0 pmol m-2s-1 (NEE ~6 umol m-2s-1) with the diurnal patterns of COS fluxes following those of CO2 fluxes during the daytime, but with small COS uptake fluxes maintained also during the night when significant CO2 emission fluxes were observed. The canopy-scale fluxes always indicated COS uptake, irrespective of the soil emission effects. GPP estimates were consistent with conventional indirect estimates based on NEE and nocturnal measurements. Scaling up

  13. Scaling up paediatric HIV care with an integrated, family-centred approach: an observational case study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyirika, Emmanuel; Towle, Megan S; Achan, Joyce; Muhangi, Justus; Senyimba, Catherine; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2013-01-01

    Family-centred HIV care models have emerged as an approach to better target children and their caregivers for HIV testing and care, and further provide integrated health services for the family unit's range of care needs. While there is significant international interest in family-centred approaches, there is a dearth of research on operational experiences in implementation and scale-up. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors during scale-up of family-centred care in ten health facilities and ten community clinics supported by a non-governmental organization, Mildmay, in Central Uganda. Methods included key informant interviews with programme management and families, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data. In the 84 months following the scale-up of the family-centred approach in HIV care, Mildmay experienced a 50-fold increase of family units registered in HIV care, a 40-fold increase of children enrolled in HIV care, and nearly universal coverage of paediatric cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Mildmay experience emphasizes the importance of streamlining care to maximize paediatric capture. This includes integrated service provision, incentivizing care-seeking as a family, creating child-friendly service environments, and minimizing missed paediatric testing opportunities by institutionalizing early infant diagnosis and provider-initiated testing and counselling. Task-shifting towards nurse-led clinics with community outreach support enabled rapid scale-up, as did an active management structure that allowed for real-time review and corrective action. The Mildmay experience suggests that family-centred approaches are operationally feasible, produce strong coverage outcomes, and can be well-managed during rapid scale-up.

  14. Impact monitoring of the national scale up of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh: repeat ecologic surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Larson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries. In 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO/UNICEF revised their clinical management of childhood diarrhea guidelines to include zinc. The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of the first national campaign to scale up zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh. METHODS/FINDINGS: Between September 2006 to October 2008 seven repeated ecologic surveys were carried out in four representative population strata: mega-city urban slum and urban nonslum, municipal, and rural. Households of approximately 3,200 children with an active or recent case of diarrhea were enrolled in each survey round. Caretaker awareness of zinc as a treatment for childhood diarrhea by 10 mo following the mass media launch was attained in 90%, 74%, 66%, and 50% of urban nonslum, municipal, urban slum, and rural populations, respectively. By 23 mo into the campaign, approximately 25% of urban nonslum, 20% of municipal and urban slum, and 10% of rural under-five children were receiving zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. The scale-up campaign had no adverse effect on the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term monitoring of scale-up programs identifies important gaps in coverage and provides the information necessary to document that intended outcomes are being attained and unintended consequences avoided. The scale-up of zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea rapidly attained widespread awareness, but actual use has lagged behind. Disparities in zinc coverage favoring higher income, urban households were identified, but these were gradually diminished over the two years of follow-up monitoring. The scale up campaign has not had any adverse effect on the use of ORS. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Informing policy and programme decisions for scaling up the PMTCT and paediatric HIV response through joint technical missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashi, Mariam; Viswanathan, Rekha; Ekpini, Rene; Chandan, Upjeet; Idele, Priscilla; Luo, Chewe; Legins, Ken; Chatterjee, Anirban

    2013-07-01

    In 2005, due to slow global progress in the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV programmes, the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on the Prevention of HIV infection among Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children initiated joint technical missions (JTMs) to countries of high HIV disease burden. The JTMs were intended to galvanize country actions for a more comprehensive response to PMTCT and paediatric HIV by bringing national and global stakeholders together to review national policies and programmes and develop country-specific recommendations for accelerating scale-up. Between 2005 and 2010, the IATT conducted JTMs in 18 low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, to assess the role played by the missions, a review in the first eight countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) that hosted JTMs was undertaken. Country progress was assessed through desk review and key informant interviews. For each country, documents reviewed included JTM reports, baseline data for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment, and 2004 to 2007 trend data on key PMTCT and paediatric HIV indicators. Drawing upon the findings, this paper posits that JTMs contributed to national scale-up of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes through strengthening governance and co-ordination mechanisms for the programmes, promoting enabling policy environments, and supporting the development of national scale-up plans, which have been critical for leveraging additional financial resources for scale-up. Although the impact of the JTMs could be enhanced through greater follow-up and continued targeted assistance in technical areas such as infant and young child feeding, community-based programming and supply chain management, findings indicate that the JTMs are a useful mechanism for informing policy and programme decisions necessary for scaling up PMTCT and paediatric HIV responses. Moreover, by bringing

  16. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  17. Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Tiwari, Manish Kumar;

    2009-01-01

    This study isolated a novel erythritol-producing yeast strain, which is capable of growth at high osmolarity. Characteristics of the strain include asexual reproduction by multilateral budding, absence of extracellular starch-like compounds, and a negative Diazonium blue B color reaction......, it produced 245 g/L of erythritol, corresponding to 2.86 g/L/h productivity and 61% yield, the highest erythritol yield ever reported by an erythritol-producing microorganism. Erythritol production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (7 L fermenter) to pilot (300 L) and plant (50,000 L) scales using...... the dissolved oxygen as a scale-up parameter. Erythritol production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to that at the laboratory scale, indicating that the production of erythritol by P. tsukubaensis KN75 holds commercial potential....

  18. Scale-Up Effects of CO2 Capture by Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA Solutions in Terms of Loading Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, results from three different CO2 capture experimental scales (laboratory, pilot unit, and a larger pilot unit, using aqueous amine solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA 20 wt %, are compared in terms of loading capacity. All three tested scales produced results regarding CO2 absorption using MDEA aqueous solutions, which were largely in accordance with the theoretical loading capacity of the used amine. Nevertheless, the observed differences between the theoretical and actual absorption behaviors of MDEA solutions for the different scales can be justified with the relative weight that process variables exhibit when the process is scaled up. Therefore, in order to achieve a correct scale-up of the process, simulations should be performed in order to define the best set of operational parameters in order to achieve high production yields and therefore more process profitability.

  19. Positive spill-over effects of ART scale up on wider health systems development: evidence from Ethiopia and Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasschaert Freya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health initiatives have enabled the scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART over recent years. The impact of HIV-specific funds and programmes on non-HIV-related health services and health systems in genera has been debated extensively. Drawing on evidence from Malawi and Ethiopia, this article analyses the effects of ART scale-up interventions on human resources policies, service delivery and general health outcomes, and explores how synergies can be maximized. Methods Data from Malawi and Ethiopia were compiled between 2004 and 2009 and between 2005 and 2009, respectively. We developed a conceptual health systems framework for the analysis. We used the major changes in human resources policies as an entry point to explore the wider health systems changes. Results In both countries, the need for an HIV response triggered an overhaul of human resources policies. As a result, the health workforce at health facility and community level was reinforced. The impact of this human resources trend was felt beyond the scale up of ART services; it also contributed to an overall increase in functional health facilities providing curative, mother and child health, and ART services. In addition to a significant increase in ART coverage, we observed a remarkable rise in user rates of non-HIV health services and an improvement in overall health outcomes. Conclusions Interventions aimed at the expansion of ART services and improvement of long-term retention of patients in ART care can have positive spill-over effects on the health system. The responses of Malawi and Ethiopia to their human resources crises was exceptional in many respects, and some of the lessons learnt can be useful in other contexts. The case studies show the feasibility of obtaining improved health outcomes beyond HIV through scaled-up ART interventions when these are part of a long-term, system-wide health plan supported by all decision makers and funders.

  20. Developing Design Criteria and Scale Up Methods for Water-Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks for Adsorption Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    the scale up of MOF synthesis has also plagued MOFs. Hence, the goal of this Ph.D. dissertation research is to design ammonia -selective, water stable... Synthesis of Isostructural Pillared MOFs 138 Table 7.1: Structural Summary of MOFs and Their Ammonia Capacities 163 Table 8.1: Adsorption Loadings...MOF synthesis has also plagued MOFs. Hence, the goal of this Ph.D. dissertation research has been to design ammonia -selective, water stable MOF(s

  1. Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: the "breastfeeding gear" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Curry, Leslie; Minhas, Dilpreet; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) promotion is one of the most cost-effective interventions to advance mother-child health. Evidence-based frameworks and models to promote the effective scale up and sustainability of BF programs are still lacking. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature reports was conducted to identify key barriers and facilitators for scale up of BF programs in low- and middle-income countries. The review identified BF programs located in 28 countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. Study designs included case studies, qualitative studies, and observational quantitative studies. Only 1 randomized, controlled trial was identified. A total of 22 enabling factors and 15 barriers were mapped into a scale-up framework termed "AIDED" that was used to build the parsimonious breastfeeding gear model (BFGM). Analogous to a well-oiled engine, the BFGM indicates the need for several key "gears" to be working in synchrony and coordination. Evidence-based advocacy is needed to generate the necessary political will to enact legislation and policies to protect, promote, and support BF at the hospital and community levels. This political-policy axis in turn drives the resources needed to support workforce development, program delivery, and promotion. Research and evaluation are needed to sustain the decentralized program coordination "gear" required for goal setting and system feedback. The BFGM helps explain the different levels of performance in national BF outcomes in Mexico and Brazil. Empirical research is recommended to further test the usefulness of the AIDED framework and BFGM for global scaling up of BF programs.

  2. Improving the Network Scale-Up Estimator: Incorporating Means of Sums, Recursive Back Estimation, and Sampling Weights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Habecker

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveys--by asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a "hidden" subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation "trimming" to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights.

  3. 滴流床反应器中液体扩散的分形表征%FRACTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LIQUID DISPERSION IN TRICKLE BED REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧铭; 刘秀凤; 李冬; 张宝泉

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Dispersion is very important to the design of trickle bed reactor for both chemical and biochemical processes. The degree of dispersion often influences reactor performance and scale-up.

  4. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Curran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  5. Up-scaling expectations among Pakistan's HIV bureaucrats: entrepreneurs of the self and job precariousness post-scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has documented how the expansion of HIV programming has produced new subjectivities among the recipients of interventions. However, this paper contends that changes in politics, power and subjectivities may also be seen among the HIV bureaucracy in the decade of scale-up. One year's ethnographic fieldwork was conducted among AIDS control officials in Pakistan at a moment of rolling back a World Bank-financed Enhanced Programme. In 2003, the World Bank convinced the Musharraf regime to scale up the HIV response, offering a multimillion dollar soft loan package. I explore how the Enhanced Programme initiated government employees into a new transient work culture and turned the AIDS control programmes into a hybrid bureaucracy. However, the donor money did not last long and individuals' entrepreneurial abilities were tested in a time of crisis engendered by dependence on aid, leaving them precariously exposed to job insecurity, and undermining the continuity of AIDS prevention and treatment in the country. I do not offer a story of global 'best practices' thwarted by local 'lack of capacity', but an ethnographic critique of the transnational HIV apparatus and its neoliberal underpinning. I suggest that this Pakistan-derived analysis is more widely relevant in the post-scale-up decade.

  6. What are the constraints and opportunities for HIVST scale-up in Africa? Evidence from Kenya, Malawi and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi van Rooyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV self-testing (HIVST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing among untested populations in sub-Saharan Africa and is on the brink of scale-up. However, it is unclear to what extent HIVST would be supported by stakeholders, what policy frameworks are in place and how variations between contexts might influence country-preparedness for scale-up. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of HIVST among stakeholders in three sub-Saharan countries. Methods: Fifty-four key informant interviews were conducted in Kenya (n=16, Malawi (n=26 and South Africa (n=12 with government policy makers, academics, activists, donors, procurement specialists, laboratory practitioners and health providers. A thematic analysis was conducted in each country and a common coding framework allowed for inter-country analysis to identify common and divergent themes across contexts. Results: Respondents welcomed the idea of an accurate, easy-to-use, rapid HIV self-test which could increase testing across all populations. High-risk groups, such as men, Men who have sex with men (MSM, couples and young people in particular, could be targeted through a range of health facility and community-based distribution points. HIVST is already endorsed in Kenya, and political support for scale-up exists in South Africa and Malawi. However, several caveats remain. Further research, policy and ensuing guidelines should consider how to regulate, market and distribute HIVST, ensure quality assurance of tests and human rights, and critically, link testing to appropriate support and treatment services. Low literacy levels in some target groups would also need context-specific consideration before scale up. World Health Organization (WHO policy and regulatory frameworks are needed to guide the process in those areas which are new or specific to self-testing. Conclusions: Stakeholders in three HIV endemic sub-Saharan countries felt that HIVST will be an

  7. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  8. The BeUpstanding ProgramTM: Scaling up the Stand Up Australia Workplace Intervention for Translation into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve N Healy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context and purpose: Too much sitting is now recognised as a common risk factor for several health outcomes, with the workplace identified as a key setting in which to address prolonged sitting time. The Stand Up Australia intervention was designed to reduce prolonged sitting in the workplace by addressing influences at multiple-levels, including the organisation, the environment, and the individual. Intervention success has been achieved within the context of randomised controlled trials, where research staff deliver several of the key intervention components. This study describes the initial step in the multi-phase process of scaling up the Stand Up Australia intervention for workplace translation. Methods: A research-government partnership was critical in funding and informing the prototype for the scaled up BeUpstanding programTM. Evidence, protocols and materials from Stand Up Australia were adapted in collaboration with funding partner Workplace Health and Safety Queensland to ensure consistency and compatibility with existing government frameworks and resources. In recognition of the key role of workplace champions in facilitating workplace health promotion programs, the BeUpstanding programTM is designed to be delivered through a stand-alone, free, website-based toolkit using a 'train the champion' approach. Key findings and significance: The BeUpstanding programTM was influenced by the increasing recognition of prolonged sitting as an emerging health issue as well as industry demand. The research-government partnership was critical in informing and resourcing the development of the scaled-up program.

  9. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-02-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice

  10. Population size estimation of men who have sex with men through the network scale-up method in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ezoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are one of the groups most at risk for HIV infection in Japan. However, size estimates of MSM populations have not been conducted with sufficient frequency and rigor because of the difficulty, high cost and stigma associated with reaching such populations. This study examined an innovative and simple method for estimating the size of the MSM population in Japan. We combined an internet survey with the network scale-up method, a social network method for estimating the size of hard-to-reach populations, for the first time in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An internet survey was conducted among 1,500 internet users who registered with a nationwide internet-research agency. The survey participants were asked how many members of particular groups with known population sizes (firepersons, police officers, and military personnel they knew as acquaintances. The participants were also asked to identify the number of their acquaintances whom they understood to be MSM. Using these survey results with the network scale-up method, the personal network size and MSM population size were estimated. The personal network size was estimated to be 363.5 regardless of the sex of the acquaintances and 174.0 for only male acquaintances. The estimated MSM prevalence among the total male population in Japan was 0.0402% without adjustment, and 2.87% after adjusting for the transmission error of MSM. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated personal network size and MSM prevalence seen in this study were comparable to those from previous survey results based on the direct-estimation method. Estimating population sizes through combining an internet survey with the network scale-up method appeared to be an effective method from the perspectives of rapidity, simplicity, and low cost as compared with more-conventional methods.

  11. Scaling-up a public health innovation: a comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Deborah L; Crane, Barbara B; Benson, Janie; Solo, Julie; Fetters, Tamara

    2007-06-01

    Post-abortion care (PAC), an innovation for treating women with complications of unsafe abortion, has been introduced in public health systems around the world since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). This article analyzes the process of scaling-up two of the three key elements of the original PAC model: providing prompt clinical treatment to women with abortion complications and offering post-abortion contraceptive counseling and methods in Bolivia and Mexico. The conceptual framework developed from this comparative analysis includes the environmental context for PAC scale-up; the major influences on start-up, expansion, and institutionalization of PAC; and the health, financial, and social impacts of institutionalization. Start-up in both Bolivia and Mexico was facilitated by innovative leaders or catalyzers who were committed to introducing PAC services into public health care settings, collaboration between international organizations and public health institutions, and financial resources. Important processes for successful PAC expansion included strengthening political commitment to PAC services through research, advocacy, and partnerships; improving health system capacity through training, supervision, and development of service guidelines; and facilitating health system access to essential technologies. Institutionalization of PAC has been more successful in Bolivia than Mexico, as measured by a series of proposed indicators. The positive health and financial impacts of PAC institutionalization have been partially measured in Bolivia and Mexico. Other hypotheses--that scaling-up PAC will significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, decrease abortion-related stigma, and prepare the way for efforts to reform restrictive abortion laws and policies--have yet to be tested.

  12. Application of twin screw extrusion to the manufacture of cocrystals: scale-up of AMG 517-sorbic acid cocrystal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurio, Dominick; Nagapudi, Karthik; Li, Lan; Quan, Peter; Nunez, Fernando-Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    The application of twin screw extrusion (TSE) in the scale-up of cocrystal production was investigated by using AMG 517-sorbic acid as a model system. Extrusion parameters that influenced conversion to the cocrystal such as temperature, feed rate and screw speed were investigated. Extent of conversion to the cocrystal was found to have a strong dependence on temperature and a moderate dependence on feed rate and screw speed. Cocrystals made by the TSE process were found to have superior mechanical properties than solution grown cocrystals. Additionally, moving to a TSE process eliminated the need for solvent.

  13. Scaling up watershed model parameters: flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River Basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River Basin were made using the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). A primary focus of the investigation was to assess the potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River Basin. Scaling up was done in a step-wise manner, beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic-wetness-index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made for subsequent simulations, culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River Basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. The scaling-up process resulted in nine simulations being made. Simulation 7 best matched the streamflows at station 02175000, Edisto River near Givhans, SC, which was the downstream limit for the TOPMODEL setup, and was obtained by adjusting the scaling factor, including streamflow routing, and using NEXRAD precipitation data for the Edisto River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of model-fit efficiency and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for simulation 7 were 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the McTier Creek and Edisto River models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the substantial difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL

  14. Membrane-aerated biofilms for high rate biotreatment: performance appraisal, engineering principles, scale-up, and development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syron, Eoin; Casey, Eoin

    2008-03-15

    Diffusion of the electron acceptor is the rate controlling step in virtually all biofilm reactors employed for aerobic wastewater treatment. The membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a technology that can deliver oxygen at high rates and transfer efficiencies, thereby enhancing the biofilm activity. This paper provides a comparative performance rate analysis of the MABR in terms of its application for carbonaceous pollutant removal, nitrification/denitrification and xenobiotic biotreatment. We also describe the mechanisms influencing process performance in the MABR and the inter-relationships between these factors. The challenges involved in scaling-up the process are discussed with recommendations for prioritization of research needs.

  15. Coupling Research on the Process of Transfer of Surplus Labor Forces and Scaling-up of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of giving an overview of efficiency research on transformation of land from fragmentation to scale economy, by using the concept of coupling in physics, this paper expounds the behavior basis of transfer of surplus rural labor forces in China and transformation of land from fragmentation to scaling up, and analyzes behaviors of all parties and equilibrium outcomes in the three stages concerning the transformation of agricultural land from fragmentation to scaling up as follows. At the first stage of coupling, after multitudinous rural surplus labor forces emerge, the farmers begin to go to city seeking jobs. In this period, the amalgamation of land management has not occurred and the single farmer’s land has not yet concentrated. The total land area of single farmer has not yet increased and the total amount of farmers has not yet decreased. At the second stage of coupling, driven by living standards and income, multitudinous rural surplus labor forces begin to live in the city permanently in fact, and the scale management of rural land begins to arise. Foreign funded enterprises begin to enter agriculture, and the industrialization management of agriculture is equipped with the most fundamental conditions due to the occurrence of scaling up of land. At the third stage of coupling, the transfer of rural surplus labor forces basically ends. The property rights of agricultural land or the management forms also, in a large measure, concentrate. The obstacles to agricultural scaling-up management are solved fundamentally, and the income gap between urban areas and rural areas is narrowed. Urban-rural population migration is no longer the main form of China’s population migration. This stage has not yet been realized in China and it is the future state of villages. Finally, through the two cases researched by the predecessors, we verify the research results of the preceding two stages, which provides reliable reference for transformation of China

  16. Systematic Monitoring of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up: adoption of efficiency elements in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane T Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SYMMACS, the Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up, tracked the implementation and adoption of six elements of surgical efficiency-use of multiple surgical beds, pre-bundled kits, task shifting, task sharing, forceps-guided surgical method, and electrocautery--as standards of surgical efficiency in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This multi-country study used two-staged sampling. The first stage sampled VMMC sites: 73 in 2011, 122 in 2012. The second stage involved sampling providers (358 in 2011, 591 in 2012 and VMMC procedures for observation (594 in 2011, 1034 in 2012. The number of VMMC sites increased significantly between 2011 and 2012; marked seasonal variation occurred in peak periods for VMMC. Countries adopted between three and five of the six elements; forceps-guided surgery was the only element adopted by all countries. Kenya and Tanzania routinely practiced task-shifting. South Africa and Zimbabwe used pre-bundled kits with disposable instruments and electrocautery. South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe routinely employed multiple surgical bays. CONCLUSIONS: SYMMACS is the first study to provide data on the implementation of VMMC programs and adoption of elements of surgical efficiency. Findings have contributed to policy change on task-shifting in Zimbabwe, a review of the monitoring system for adverse events in South Africa, an increased use of commercially bundled VMMC kits in Tanzania, and policy dialogue on improving VMMC service delivery in Kenya. This article serves as an overview for five other articles following this supplement.

  17. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... your daily activities. Why Do I Need Bed Rest? Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  18. Scaled-up bioconversion of fish waste to liquid fertilizer using a 5 L ribbon-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Van Thingoc; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2011-10-01

    A scaled-up conversion process of fish waste to liquid fertilizer was performed in a 5 L ribbon-type reactor. Biodegradation was performed by inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.84 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of mixed microorganisms for 96 h. As a result, the pH changed from 6.92 to 5.72, the cell number reached 7.28 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and approximately 430 g (28.3%) of fish waste was degraded. Analyses indicated that the 96 h culture of inoculated fish waste possessed comparable fertilizing ability to commercial fertilizers in hydroponic culture with amino acid contents of 6.91 g 100 g(-1). Therefore, the scaled-up production achieved a more satisfactory fish waste degradation rate (3.61 g h(-1)) than the flask-scale production (0.24 g h(-1)). The biodegraded broth of fish waste at room temperature did not undergo putrefaction for 6 months due to the addition of 1% lactate.

  19. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  20. A quantitative visualization study of flow in a scaled-up model of a centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T; Yamane, T; Orita, T; Tateishi, T

    1996-02-01

    A quantitative flow visualization study of a scaled-up model of a centrifugal blood pump was performed. Since the size of the scaled-up model was three times as large as the original pump under development, and the kinematic viscosity of the saline solution used as the working fluid was approximately one-third that of the blood, we obtained a similar flow at one twenty-seventh the angular velocity of the original pump. The flow was visualized by seeding the saline solution with neutrally buoyant particles and by illuminating the model with a laser light sheet. Since the gap flow behind the impeller is important for thrombus formation, it was recorded by a high-speed video camera, and the velocity field was evaluated automatically by particle tracking velocimetry. It was shown that in the gap behind the impeller there existed a region where the velocity profile was almost flat which can be called a core region. The results indicated the effectiveness of the present visualization technique for centrifugal blood pumps.

  1. Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kim, Jung-Soo; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2009-05-01

    This study isolated a novel erythritol-producing yeast strain, which is capable of growth at high osmolarity. Characteristics of the strain include asexual reproduction by multilateral budding, absence of extracellular starch-like compounds, and a negative Diazonium blue B color reaction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the species Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and has been named P. tsukubaensis KN75. When P. tsukubaensis KN75 was cultured aerobically in a fed-batch culture with glucose as a carbon source, it produced 245 g/L of erythritol, corresponding to 2.86 g/L/h productivity and 61% yield, the highest erythritol yield ever reported by an erythritol-producing microorganism. Erythritol production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (7 L fermenter) to pilot (300 L) and plant (50,000 L) scales using the dissolved oxygen as a scale-up parameter. Erythritol production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to that at the laboratory scale, indicating that the production of erythritol by P. tsukubaensis KN75 holds commercial potential.

  2. Assessing the Impact of a Vinasse Pilot Plant Scale-Up on the Key Processes of the Ethanol Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ramos-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the byproducts generated in the cane sugar production is molasses, which is used for ethanol distillation. However, one of the problems of distilleries is vinasse. Vinasse is highly water pollutant and is dumped untreated in lakes or rivers and damages the environment. The company FALA developed a pilot plant that uses vinasse to produce a type of livestock feed called MD60. In this paper, the impact of the pilot plant’s scale-up in the key processes of the company’s supply chain is analyzed. With the help of a sensitivity analysis, this study finds the values that would allow the company to improve its order fulfillment indicator and to increase profits, assuming an expected demand by the introduction of this new product into the market. The results show that (1 the pilot plant fulfills 32% of the orders, (2 according to the current vinasse storage capacity, it is possible to fulfill up to 77% of the orders by scaling up the pilot plant, (3 to satisfy 100% of the orders, it is necessary to use all the vinasse generated, and (4 the highest profit is reached by processing all the vinasse and by considering the upper sale price.

  3. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

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    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  4. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Mario; Del Corso, Antonella; Lenzarini, Francesca; Peroni, Eleonora; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis), and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size) allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:27781156

  5. Scale-up fermentation of recombinant Candida rugosa lipase expressed in Pichia pastoris using the GAP promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jinwen; Deng, Riqiang; Wang, Xunzhang

    2008-03-01

    The high-cell-density fermentation of Candida rugosa lipase in the constitutive Pichia pastoris expression system was scaled up from 5 to 800 l in series by optimizing the fermentation conditions at both lab scale and pilot scale. The exponential feeding combined with pH-stat strategy succeeded in small scale studies, while a two-stage fermentation strategy, which shifted at 48 h by fine tuning the culture temperature and pH, was assessed effective in pilot-scale fermentation. The two-stage strategy made an excellent balance between the expression of heterogeneous protein and the growth of host cells, controlling the fermentation at a relatively low cell growth rate for the constitutive yeast expression system to accumulate high-level product. A stable lipase activity of approximately 14,000 IU ml(-1) and a cell wet weight of ca. 500 g l(-1) at the 800-l scale were obtained. The efficient and convenient techniques suggested in this study might facilitate further scale-up for industrial lipase production.

  6. Towards high power output of scaled-up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) using multiple electron collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingchuan; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Wang, Lei; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed at achieving high power output of benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) with novel geometric anode setups (inverted tube granular activated charcoal (IT-GAC) and carbon cloth roll (CCR)) and multiple anodes/electron collectors. The lab-scale tests showed the power density of IT-GAC and CCR anodes achieved at 2.92 and 2.55 W m(-2), the highest value ever reported in BMFCs. The power density of BMFCs substantially increased with electron collector number (titanium rods) in anodes. The connection of multiple electron collectors with multiple cathodes had much higher total voltage/current output than that with single cathode. The possibility of maintaining high power density at scaled-up BMFCs was explored by arranging multiple anodes in sediment. The compact configuration of multiple CCR anodes contacting each other did not deteriorate the performance of individual anodes, showing the feasibility of maximizing anode numbers per sediment footprint and achieving high power output. Multiple IT-GAC and CCR anodes with multiple collectors effectively utilized sediment at both horizontal and vertical directions and enhanced electron collection efficiency. This study demonstrated that bacterial adhesion and electron collection should be optimized on small anodes in order to maintain high power density and achieve high power output in the scaled-up BMFCs.

  7. Establishment, Culture, and Scale-up of Brugmansia candida Hairy Roots for the Production of Tropane Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Alejandra Beatriz; Rodriguez Talou, Julián; Giulietti, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Brugmansia candida (syn. Datura candida) is a South American native plant that produces tropane alkaloids. Hyoscyamine, 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine (anisodamine), and scopolamine are the most important ones due to their anticholinergic activity. These bioactive compounds have been historically and widely applied in medicine and their demand is continuous. Their chemical synthesis is costly and complex, and thereby, these alkaloids are industrially produced from natural producer plants. The production of these secondary metabolites by plant in vitro cultures such as hairy roots presents certain advantages over the natural source and chemical synthesis. It is well known that hairy roots produced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection are fast-growing cultures, genetically stable and able to grow in hormone-free media. Additionally, recent progress achieved in the scaling up of hairy root cultures makes this technology an attractive tool for industrial processes. This chapter is focused on the methods for the induction and establishment of B. candida hairy roots. In addition, the scaling up of hairy root cultures in bioreactors and tropane alkaloid analysis is discussed.

  8. Agglomeration in fluidized beds: detection and counteraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels. M.

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized beds comprise a quantity of solid particles that is suspended by an upward flowing gas. They are used for a variety of processes in the chemical industry, such as catalytic reactions, drying, coating and energy conversion. A major problem in industrial practice is the occurrence of unwante

  9. Removal of Uranium (Ⅵ) by Fixed Bed Ion-exchange Column Using Natural Zeolite Coated with Manganese Oxide%锰氧化物负载沸石固定床离子交换柱去除铀(VI)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹卫华; 赵蕾; 韩润平

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of uranium (Ⅵ) on the manganese oxide coated zeolite (MOCZ) from aqueous solution was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of bed height, flow rate, particle size, initial concentration of uranium (Ⅵ), initial pH, presence of salt and competitive ions. The U-uptake by MOCZ increased with initial uranium (Ⅵ) concentration and bed height, but decreased as the flow rate and particle size increased. In the presence of salt and competitive ions, the breakthrough time was shorter. The ad-sorption capacity reached a maximum at pH of 6.3. The Thomas model was applied to the experimental data to de-termine the characteristic parameters of the column for process design using linear regression. The breakthrough curves calculated from the model were in good agreement with the experimental data. The BDST model was used to study the influence of bed height on the adsorption of uranium (Ⅵ). Desorption of uranium (Ⅵ) in the MOCZ column was investigated. The column could be used for at least four adsorption-desorption cycles using 0.1 mol'L-1 NaHCO3 solution as the elution. After desorption and regeneration with deionized water, MOCZ could be reused to adsorb uranium (Ⅵ) at a comparable capacity. Compared to raw zeolite, MOCZ showed better capacity for uranium (Ⅵ) removal.

  10. Study on preparation of the microencapsulated diet for larvae of Pseudosciaena crocea using fluidized bed coating process%流化床制备大黄鱼仔稚幼体微胶囊饲料的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢中国; 王芙蓉; 牛化欣; 祝爱侠; 袁信华; 过世东

    2011-01-01

    The basal diet as core material was made into ball-shape granule and the diet microencapsulated with ethyl cellulose was prepared using fluidized bed coating process. Over 70% of the microencapsulated diet were between 150~840μm in size. The inclusion efficiency and lipid encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulated diet was estimated to be 97.2% ± 1.7%, 63.2% ± 3.7% respectively. The nitrogen retention efficiency of the microencapsulated diet incubation in 35‰ NaCl solution for 20,40,60min was 3.6% ± 2.6% ,5.8% ± 3.5% ,53.7% ±4.2%, respectively. The surface superstructure of microencapsulated diet observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM)was of regulation and uniformity,not conglutination. The larvae of Pseudosciaena crocea of 15d after hatching were fed with the microencapsulated diet for 25d as experimental group and the control was fed with frozen copepods. At the end of the experiment,the survival of the larvae in experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group, however the body weight was greater than that in the control group.%将基础饲料先制成球丸,用流化床制备乙基纤维素包衣的微胶囊饲料.微胶囊饲料粒径为150~840μm的达70%.微胶囊饲料的包含率和脂类包埋率分别为97.2%±1.7%,63.2%±3.7%,在35.0%.的NaCl溶液中浸泡20,40,60min,氮保留率分别为73.6%±2.6%,65.8%±3.5%,53.7%±4.2%.扫描电镜(SEM)观察微胶囊饲料表面为均匀光滑一致的包衣膜,形状规则且无粘连现象.将微胶囊饲料饲喂15日龄大黄鱼25d作为实验组,对照组饲喂冷藏挠足类.实验结束时,实验组大黄鱼鱼苗的成活率虽显著低于对照组,但体重大于对照组.

  11. Coming home to die? The association between migration and mortality in rural Tanzania before and after ART scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Levira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prior to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART, demographic surveillance cohort studies showed higher mortality among migrants than residents in many rural areas. Objectives: This study quantifies the overall and AIDS-specific mortality between migrants and residents prior to ART, during ART scale-up, and after widespread availability of ART in Rufiji district in Tanzania. Design: In Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS, the follow-up of individuals aged 15–59 years was categorized into three periods: before ART (1998–2003, during ART scale-up (2004–2007, and after widespread availability of ART (2008–2011. Residents were those who never migrated within and beyond HDSS, internal migrants were those who moved within the HDSS, and external migrants were those who moved into the HDSS from outside. Mortality rates were estimated from deaths and person-years of observations calculated in each time period. Hazard ratios were estimated to compare mortality between migrants and residents. AIDS deaths were identified from verbal autopsy, and the odds ratio of dying from AIDS between migrants and residents was estimated using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Internal and external migrants experienced higher overall mortality than residents before the introduction of ART. After widespread availability of ART overall mortality were similar for internal and external migrants. These overall mortality experiences observed were similar for males and females. In the multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and social economic status, internal migrants had similar likelihood of dying from AIDS as residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–1.87 while external migrants were 70% more likely to die from AIDS compared to residents prior to the introduction of ART (AOR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.06–2.73. After widespread availability of ART with the

  12. Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt

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    Mansour Joan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2002, the Egypt Ministry of Health and Population faced the challenge of improving access to and quality of services in rural Upper Egypt in the face of low morale among health workers and managers. From 1992 to 2000, the Ministry, with donor support, had succeeded in reducing the nationwide maternal mortality rate by 52%. Nevertheless, a gap remained between urban and rural areas. Case description In 2002, the Ministry, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and assistance from Management Sciences for Health, introduced a Leadership Development Programme (LDP in Aswan Governorate. The programme aimed to improve health services in three districts by increasing managers' ability to create high performing teams and lead them to achieve results. The programme introduced leadership and management practices and a methodology for identifying and addressing service delivery challenges. Ten teams of health workers participated. Discussion and evaluation In 2003, after participation in the LDP, the districts of Aswan, Daraw and Kom Ombo increased the number of new family planning visits by 36%, 68% and 20%, respectively. The number of prenatal and postpartum visits also rose. After the United States funding ended, local doctors and nurses scaled up the programme to 184 health care facilities (training more than 1000 health workers. From 2005 to 2007, the Leadership Development Programme participants in Aswan Governorate focused on reducing the maternal mortality rate as their annual goal. They reduced it from 85.0 per 100,000 live births to 35.5 per 100,000. The reduction in maternal mortality rate was much greater than in similar governorates in Egypt. Managers and teams across Aswan demonstrated their ability to scale up effective public health interventions though their increased commitment and ownership of service challenges. Conclusions When teams learn and apply empowering leadership and

  13. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  14. What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamey Gavin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most low and middle income countries (LMICs are currently not on track to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. One way to accelerate progress would be through the large-scale implementation of evidence-based health tools and interventions. This study aimed to: (a explore the barriers that have impeded such scale-up in LMICs, and (b lay out an “implementation research agenda”—a series of key research questions that need to be addressed in order to help overcome such barriers. Methods Interviews were conducted with fourteen key informants, all of whom are academic leaders in the field of implementation science, who were purposively selected for their expertise in scaling up in LMICs. Interviews were transcribed by hand and manually coded to look for emerging themes related to the two study aims. Barriers to scaling up, and unanswered research questions, were organized into six categories, representing different components of the scaling up process: attributes of the intervention; attributes of the implementers; scale-up approach; attributes of the adopting community; socio-political, fiscal, and cultural context; and research context. Results Factors impeding the success of scale-up that emerged from the key informant interviews, and which are areas for future investigation, include: complexity of the intervention and lack of technical consensus; limited human resource, leadership, management, and health systems capacity; poor application of proven diffusion techniques; lack of engagement of local implementers and of the adopting community; and inadequate integration of research into scale-up efforts. Conclusions Key steps in expanding the evidence base on implementation in LMICs include studying how to: simplify interventions; train “scale-up leaders” and health workers dedicated to scale-up; reach and engage communities; match the best delivery strategy to the specific health problem and

  15. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  16. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up

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    Gary Reid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of the effects of scale-up on mixing time for a stirred-tank bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonvillani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixing time is one of the criteria most widely used to characterize mixing intensity in bioprocesses. In bioreactors, mixing mainly depends on amount of energy consumed, reactor and stirrer shapes, airing speed and the rheology of the medium. In this work we experimentally determined the mixing times for a lab-scale bioreactor equipped with a stirrer propelled by two Rushton turbines. From these experiments we could obtain expressions to evaluate the effects of stirring speed, superficial gas velocity, specific power consumption and system geometry on mixing times under various flow regimes. The resulting correlations were employed to analyze the effect of scale-up on mixing times for the production of Staphylococcus aureus Smith.

  18. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

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    Akudo Ikpeazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. METHODOLOGY: It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots". In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. RESULTS: Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%, hotels/lodges (29.6%, streets (16.6%, and brothels (14.6%. Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. CONCLUSION: FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning

  19. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  20. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Morales-Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. METHODS: Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. RESULTS: During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361% during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding

  1. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Harmony F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized human resource crises. As part of ART services expansion in Lusaka, Zambia, we implemented a comprehensive task-shifting program among existing health providers and community-based workers. Training begins with didactic sessions targeting specialized skill sets. This is followed by an intensive period of practical mentorship, where providers are paired with trainers before working independently. We provide on-going quality assessment using key indicators of clinical care quality at each site. Program performance is reviewed with clinic-based staff quarterly. When problems are identified, clinic staff members design and implement specific interventions to address targeted areas. From 2005 to 2007, we trained 516 health providers in adult HIV treatment; 270 in pediatric HIV treatment; 341 in adherence counseling; 91 in a specialty nurse "triage" course, and 93 in an intensive clinical mentorship program. On-going quality assessment demonstrated improvement across clinical care quality indicators, despite rapidly growing patient volumes. Our task-shifting strategy was designed to address current health care worker needs and to sustain ART scale-up activities. While this approach has been successful, long-term solutions to the human resource crisis are also urgently needed to expand the number of providers and to slow staff migration out of the region.

  2. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for

  3. Scale-up potential of ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method to produce biologically active inositol phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Jamel S

    2002-01-25

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that an analytical ion-pair HPLC procedure used to determine phytic acid (IP6) and its degradation products (IP3-IP5) can be transformed to a preparative purification method. A commercial phytic acid (CPA) preparation was separated into its component fractions of IP3, IP4, IPS, and IP6 on two C18 columns (1.8 and 4.2 ml) using 51% methanol containing 0.6-1% tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as ion-pair reagent and 0-0.025 M formic acid (pH 4.3) as eluent at 1.7 and 3.0 cm/min linear velocity, respectively, and 40 degrees C. Elution was monitored at 40 degrees C by a refractive index detector. Reproducible separation of CPA into four well-resolved peaks on these columns was possible after optimizing method variables, particularly the concentration of ion-pair reagent in the injected sample (>1.5%). The same separations were obtained after CPA loads were scaled up 25 times on a steel column (15 cm x 19 mm I.D.), packed with Ethyl C2 sorbent (10 microm) and on a 25 cm x 21.2 mm I.D. C18 column, but at a reduced linear velocity to increase the resolution. Therefore, this optimization of separation not only is useful for analysis of phytic acid and its degradation products but also it provides key parameters for scale up for further fractionation and characterization.

  4. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  5. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas–solid fluidized beds: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is therefore essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive t...

  6. The Failure Mechanisms and Solutions of Anti-wear Thermal Spray Coatings for Solid Waste Incineration Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler%垃圾焚烧循环流化床锅炉防磨热喷涂涂层失效机理及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金力; 陈国星; 黄科峰; 吴树辉; 盛洪产; 楼军; 章平衡; 薛猛

    2012-01-01

    本文分析了垃圾焚烧炉循环流化床(CFB)锅炉水冷壁管防磨热喷涂涂层的失效机理:S及碱金属等引起的S腐蚀导致涂层鼓泡,在炉内高温物料的磨损下涂层逐渐破损、剥落直至加速剥落失效。热喷涂防腐抗磨双效复合涂层能很好的解决了垃圾焚烧炉水冷壁同时存在的高温腐蚀和磨损的问题。%This paper analyzes the failure mechanisms of anti-wear thermal spray coatings on water wall tube of the wastes incineration Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. Sulfur corrosion caused by alkali, S and the Compound above lead to coatings bubbling, which are then gradually abraded by the high temperature flowing objects in the boiler. The coatings would be peeled off faster and faster once they are breaking. Composite thermal spray coatings of double-effect,corrosion, both abrasion resistant anticorrosive, is a good solution to high temperature corrosion and wear problems simultaneously.

  7. A moving-bed gasifier with internal recycle of pyrolysis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A co-current moving bed gasifier with internal recycle and separate combustion of pyrolysis gas has been developed with the aim of producing a design suitable for scaling-up downdraft gasifiers while maintaining a low tar content in the producer gas. Using wood chips with a moisture content of 7-9 w

  8. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech “Mock-up” version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi-­experimental setup. The same instructor taught two sections of an introductory biology course in the SCALE-UP and Mock-up rooms. Although students in both sections were equivalent in terms of gender, grade point average, incoming ACT, and drop/fail/withdraw rate, the Mock-up classroom enrolled significantly more freshmen. Controlling for class standing, multiple regression modeling revealed no significant differences in exam, in-class, preclass, and Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Concept Inventory scores between the SCALE-UP and Mock-up classrooms. Thematic analysis of student comments highlighted that collaboration and whiteboards enhanced the learning experience, but technology was not important. Student satisfaction and attitudes were comparable. These results suggest that the benefits of a SCALE-UP experience can be achieved at lower cost without technology features. PMID:28213582

  9. Scaling-up from an implementation trial to state-wide coverage: results from the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Edward D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Program (GGT DPP, a small implementation trial, has been scaled-up to the Victorian state-wide ‘Life!’ programme with over 10,000 individuals enrolled. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS is an evaluation of the translation from the GGT DPP to the Life! programme. We report results from the preliminary phase (pMDPS of this evaluation. Methods The pMDPS is a randomised controlled trial with 92 individuals aged 50 to 75 at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes randomised to Life! or usual care. Intervention consisted of six structured 90-minute group sessions: five fortnightly sessions and the final session at 8 months. Participants underwent anthropometric and laboratory tests at baseline and 12 months, and provided self-reported psychosocial, dietary, and physical activity measures. Intervention group participants additionally underwent these tests at 3 months. Paired t tests were used to analyse within-group changes over time. Chi-square tests were used to analyse differences between groups in goals met at 12 months. Differences between groups for changes over time were tested with generalised estimating equations and analysis of covariance. Results Intervention participants significantly improved at 12 months in mean body mass index (−0.98 kg/m2, standard error (SE = 0.26, weight (−2.65 kg, SE = 0.72, waist circumference (−7.45 cm, SE = 1.15, and systolic blood pressure (−3.18 mmHg, SE = 1.26, increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.07 mmol/l, SE = 0.03, reduced energy from total (−2.00%, SE = 0.78 and saturated fat (−1.54%, SE = 0.41, and increased fibre intake (1.98 g/1,000 kcal energy, SE = 0.47. In controls, oral glucose at 2 hours deteriorated (0.59 mmol/l, SE = 0.27. Only waist circumference reduced significantly (−4.02 cm, SE = 0.95. Intervention participants significantly

  10. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based

  11. Applying a framework for assessing the health system challenges to scaling up mHealth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Natalie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technology has demonstrated the potential to improve health service delivery, but there is little guidance to inform decisions about acquiring and implementing mHealth technology at scale in health systems. Using the case of community-based health services (CBS in South Africa, we apply a framework to appraise the opportunities and challenges to effective implementation of mHealth at scale in health systems. Methods A qualitative study reviewed the benefits and challenges of mHealth in community-based services in South Africa, through a combination of key informant interviews, site visits to local projects and document reviews. Using a framework adapted from three approaches to reviewing sustainable information and communication technology (ICT, the lessons from local experience and elsewhere formed the basis of a wider consideration of scale up challenges in South Africa. Results Four key system dimensions were identified and assessed: government stewardship and the organisational, technological and financial systems. In South Africa, the opportunities for successful implementation of mHealth include the high prevalence of mobile phones, a supportive policy environment for eHealth, successful use of mHealth for CBS in a number of projects and a well-developed ICT industry. However there are weaknesses in other key health systems areas such as organisational culture and capacity for using health information for management, and the poor availability and use of ICT in primary health care. The technological challenges include the complexity of ensuring interoperability and integration of information systems and securing privacy of information. Finally, there are the challenges of sustainable financing required for large scale use of mobile phone technology in resource limited settings. Conclusion Against a background of a health system with a weak ICT environment and limited implementation capacity, it remains

  12. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  13. Scale-up of the Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT Polymerization Using Continuous Flow Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Micic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled radical polymerization process using the Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT approach was scaled up by a factor of 100 from a small laboratory scale of 5 mL to a preparative scale of 500 mL, using batch and continuous flow processing. The batch polymerizations were carried out in a series of different glass vessels, using either magnetic or overhead stirring, and different modes of heating: Microwave irradiation or conductive heating in an oil bath. The continuous process was conducted in a prototype tubular flow reactor, consisting of 6 mm ID stainless steel tubing, fitted with static mixers. Both reactor types were tested for polymerizations of the acid functional monomers acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid in water at 80 °C with reaction times of 30 to 40 min. By monitoring the temperature during the exothermic polymerization process, it was observed that the type and size of reactor had a significant influence on the temperature profile of the reaction.

  14. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  15. Dynamic Single-Use Bioreactors Used in Modern Liter- and m(3)- Scale Biotechnological Processes: Engineering Characteristics and Scaling Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffelholz, Christian; Kaiser, Stephan C; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During the past 10 years, single-use bioreactors have been well accepted in modern biopharmaceutical production processes targeting high-value products. Up to now, such processes have mainly been small- or medium-scale mammalian cell culture-based seed inoculum, vaccine or antibody productions. However, recently first attempts have been made to modify existing single-use bioreactors for the cultivation of plant cells and tissue cultures, and microorganisms. This has even led to the development of new single-use bioreactor types. Moreover, due to safety issues it has become clear that single-use bioreactors are the "must have" for expanding human stem cells delivering cell therapeutics, the biopharmaceuticals of the next generation. So it comes as no surprise that numerous different dynamic single-use bioreactor types, which are suitable for a wide range of applications, already dominate the market today. Bioreactor working principles, main applications, and bioengineering data are presented in this review, based on a current overview of greater than milliliter-scale, commercially available, dynamic single-use bioreactors. The focus is on stirred versions, which are omnipresent in R&D and manufacturing, and in particular Sartorius Stedim's BIOSTAT family. Finally, we examine development trends for single-use bioreactors, after discussing proven approaches for fast scaling-up processes.

  16. Evaluating the effects of scaling up on the performance of bioelectrochemical systems using a technical scale microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert Keith; Harnisch, Falk; Wirth, Sebastian; Wahlandt, Helge; Dockhorn, Thomas; Dichtl, Norbert; Schröder, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the challenges of the scaling up process of bioelectrochemical systems on the example of a technical scale microbial electrolysis cell referred to as the "prototype". Anodically treating real wastewater and operated in continuous mode at a hydraulic retention time of 1.23 d with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD)-loading rate of 0.5 g O2 d(-1) L Reactor(-1) the prototype on average showed COD removal efficiency of 67% with effluent concentrations of 210 mg O2 L(-1) and an ammonium elimination rate of 17.8 ± 3.9 mg Nd(-1) L Reactor(-1) resulting in effluent concentrations of 30.7 ± 3.7 mg NL(-1) with a removal efficiency of 40% at a current generation of 72 μA cm(-2) and Coulomb efficiency of 11%. A model is described as a method for comparing conventional and BES based technology using the above mentioned criteria and balancing them against the respective loading rates.

  17. Using Simulation and Budget Models to Scale-Up Nitrogen Leaching from Field to Region in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Huffman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC to develop an integrated, nationally applicable, socioeconomic/biophysical modeling capability in order to predict the environmental impacts of policy and program scenarios. This paper outlines our Decision Support System (DSS, which integrates the IROWCN (Indicator of the Risk of Water Contamination by Nitrogen index with the agricultural policy model CRAM (Canadian Regional Agricultural Model and presents an outline of our methodology to provide independent assessments of the IROWCN results through the use of nitrogen (N simulation models in select, data-rich areas. Three field-level models — DSSAT, N_ABLE, and EPIC — were evaluated using local measured data. The results show that all three dynamic models can be used to simulate biomass, grain yield, and soil N dynamics at the field level; but the accuracy of the models differ, suggesting that models need to be calibrated using local measured data before they are used in Canada. Further simulation of IROWCN in a maize field using N_ABLE showed that soil-mineral N levels are highly affected by the amount of fertilizer N applied and the time of year, meaning that fertilizer and manure N applications and weather data are crucial for improving IROWCN. Methods of scaling-up simulated IROWCN from field-level to soil-landscape polygons and CRAM regions are discussed.

  18. Scaling up ATLAS production system for the LHC Run 2 and beyond: project ProdSys2

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; García Navarro, José Enrique; Golubkov, Dmitry; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Vaniachine, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data processing needs of the ATLAS experiment grow continuously, as more data and more use cases emerge. For Big Data processing the ATLAS experiment adopted the data transformation approach, where software applications transform the input data into outputs. In the ATLAS production system, each data transformation is represented by a task, a collection of many jobs, submitted by the ATLAS workload management system (PanDA) and executed on the Grid. Our experience shows that the rate of tasks submission grows exponentially over the years. To scale up the ATLAS production system for new challenges, we started the ProdSys2 project. PanDA has been upgraded with the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Patterns in ATLAS data transformation workflows composed of many tasks, provided a scalable production system framework for template definitions of the many-tasks workflows. These workflows are being implemented in the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) that generates individual tasks for processing ...

  19. Scaling up ATLAS production system for the LHC Run 2 and beyond: project ProdSys2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, M.; De, K.; Garcia, J.; Navarro; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Vaniachine, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Big Data processing needs of the ATLAS experiment grow continuously, as more data and more use cases emerge. For Big Data processing the ATLAS experiment adopted the data transformation approach, where software applications transform the input data into outputs. In the ATLAS production system, each data transformation is represented by a task, a collection of many jobs, submitted by the ATLAS workload management system (PanDA) and executed on the Grid. Our experience shows that the rate of task submission grows exponentially over the years. To scale up the ATLAS production system for new challenges, we started the ProdSys2 project. PanDA has been upgraded with the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Patterns in ATLAS data transformation workflows composed of many tasks provided a scalable production system framework for template definitions of the many-tasks workflows. These workflows are being implemented in the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) that generates individual tasks for processing by JEDI. We report on the ATLAS experience with many-task workflow patterns in preparation for the LHC Run 2.

  20. Scale up of a novel tri-substrate fermentation for enhanced production of Aspergillus niger lipase for tallow hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Naidu, R B; Gowthaman, M K; Kambe, T Nakajima; Kamini, N R

    2010-09-01

    A novel tri-substrate fermentation (TSF) process was developed for the production of lipase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594 using agro-industrial residues, wheat bran (WB), coconut oil cake (COC) and an agro-product, wheat rawa (WR). The lipase activity was 628.7+/-13 U/g dry substrate (U/gds) at 30 degrees C and 96 h and growth studies indicated that addition of WR significantly augmented the biomass and lipase production. Scale up of lipase production at 100g and 3 kg (3 x 1 kg) tray-level batch fermentation resulted in 96% and 83.0% of enzyme activities, respectively, at 72 h. Maximum activity of 745.7+/-11U/gds was obtained, when fermented substrate was extracted in buffer containing 1% (w/v) sodium chloride and 0.5% (w/v) Triton X-100. Furthermore, the direct application of fermented substrate for tallow hydrolysis makes the process economical for industrial production of biofuel.

  1. Scale-up of polyamide and polyester Parsol® MCX nanocapsules by interfacial polycondensation and solvent diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpo, Marianna; Anselmi, Cecilia; Vauthier, Christine; Mitri, Khalil; Hanno, Ibrahim; Huang, Nicolas; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2013-10-01

    The scale-up of oil-containing polyamide nanocapsules produced by simultaneous interfacial polycondensation and solvent diffusion was successfully achieved. Up to 1,500 mL were produced by using a Y-shaped mixer device. The sizes of nanocapsules containing olive oil were modulated from 646 to 211 nm by changing process parameters without modification of the formulation composition. All the results of nanocapsule diameters (dsc) expressed as a function of the Reynolds number (Re) showed the existence of a typical power-law relationship. It was demonstrated that the high turbulences created upon nanocapsule formation are the most important parameter allowing to nanocapsule size to be controlled without modifying the formulation composition. Finally, the power-law relationship was used to predict the size of nanocapsules composed of polyamide or polyester and loaded with Parsol(®) MCX. The physico-chemical properties of both polyamide and polyester nanocapsules at the laboratory scale were compared to the ones obtained at the pilot scale. The encapsulation efficiency was higher than 98% in both types of nanocapsules at the laboratory and the pilot scales. The in vitro releases of Parsol(®) MCX from polyester nanocapsules were reproducible at both scales. This is the first time such a power-law was described for the preparation of nanocapsules by interfacial polycondensation and solvent diffusion.

  2. Nanowire-organic thin film transistor integration and scale up towards developing sensor array for biomedical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Hankins, Phillip T.; Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    Exploratory research works have demonstrated the capability of conducting nanowire arrays in enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity of bio-electrodes in sensing applications. With the help of different surface manipulation techniques, a wide range of biomolecules have been successfully immobilized on these nanowires. Flexible organic electronics, thin film transistor (TFT) fabricated on flexible substrate, was a breakthrough that enabled development of logic circuits on flexible substrate. In many health monitoring scenarios, a series of biomarkers, physical properties and vital signals need to be observed. Since the nano-bio-electrodes are capable of measuring all or most of them, it has been aptly suggested that a series of electrode (array) on single substrate shall be an excellent point of care tool. This requires an efficient control system for signal acquisition and telemetry. An array of flexible TFTs has been designed that acts as active matrix for controlled switching of or scanning by the sensor array. This array is a scale up of the flexible organic TFT that has been fabricated and rigorously tested in previous studies. The integration of nanowire electrodes to the organic electronics was approached by growing nanowires on the same substrate as TFTs and fl ip chip packaging, where the nanowires and TFTs are made on separate substrates. As a proof of concept, its application has been explored in various multi-focal biomedical sensing applications, such as neural probes for monitoring neurite growth, dopamine, and neuron activity; myocardial ischemia for spatial monitoring of myocardium.

  3. Scaling-up Strategy as an Appropriate Approach for Sustainable New Town Development? Lessons from Wujin, Changzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved rapid urbanization and unprecedented economic booming over the past three decades. Numerous cities and towns dreamed of cloning the miracles of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai, in terms of their international development. However, inappropriate development strategies have meant that the majority of fast expanding urban suburbs or newly developed towns suffer a high ratio of vacant dwellings in real estate markets and a massive loss of farmland. The frequent exposure of these empty cities to mass media or the public has urged urban governments to impose fiscal austerity. These unexpected and negative consequences of urban development have explicit conflicts with sustainability. This paper aims to provide a political economy view of these unsustainable outcomes of new development. To achieve this, the processes and agendas of new city or town planning in Wujin District, Changzhou City, are analyzed and evaluated from the perspective of scale theory. Extensive interviews conducted with local politicians at different levels, planners, real estate agents and local residents facilitate the interpretation of these processes and agendas. It is argued that the legends of Shenzhen and Pudong, Shanghai originate from a modified neoliberal capitalism intervention at the right time and place, with which other peer cities are not comparable. It is concluded that the scaling-up strategy is not appropriate for the local new town development of Wujin, which has led to unsustainable outcomes—empty cities and towns—and created important lessons for the sustainable development of Chinese cities.

  4. Extreme scale-down approaches for rapid chromatography column design and scale-up during bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Chromatography is a ubiquitous protein purification step owing to its unparalleled ability to recover and purify molecules from highly complex industrial feedstocks. Traditionally, column development has been driven by a combination of prior experience and empirical studies in order to make the best choices for design variables. Economic constraints now demand that companies engage with a more systematic exploration of a chromatographic design space. To deliver this capability using purely conventional laboratory columns, however, would require considerable resources to identify practical and economical operating protocols. Hence, recently there has been increased use of extremely small-scale devices that gather data quickly and with minimal feed requirements. Such information can be obtained either during early development for screening and trend-finding purposes or later for more accurate scale-up prediction. This chapter describes some of the key drivers for these small-scale studies and the different types of extreme scale-down chromatography formats that exist and illustrates their use through published case studies. Since extreme scale-down experimentation is linked to fundamental mechanistic engineering approaches as well, the utility of these in delivering process understanding is also highlighted.

  5. Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Scaling up in Class 1 reservoir type rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Doughty, D.

    1993-04-01

    A synergistic rock characterization methodology has been developed. It derives reservoir engineering parameters from X-ray tomography (CT) scanning, computer assisted petrographic image analysis, minipermeameter measurements, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). This rock characterization methodology is used to investigate the effect of small-scale rock heterogeneity on oil distribution and recovery. It is also used to investigate the applicability of imaging technologies to the development of scaleup procedures from core plug to whole core, by comparing the results of detailed simulations with the images ofthe fluid distributions observed by CT scanning. By using the rock and fluid detailed data generated by imaging technology describe, one can verify directly, in the laboratory, various scaling up techniques. Asan example, realizations of rock properties statistically and spatially compatible with the observed values are generated by one of the various stochastic methods available (fuming bands) and are used as simulator input. The simulation results were compared with both the simulation results using the true rock properties and the fluid distributions observed by CT. Conclusions regarding the effect of the various permeability models on waterflood oil recovery were formulated.

  6. OligoPrep PVA support for oligonucleotide synthesis in columns on a scale up to 10 micromol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sheena; Anderson, Emma

    2007-01-01

    OligoPrep is a macroporous polyvinylacetate (PVA) biodegradable support that has been designed for cost-effective automated synthesis of oligonucleotides using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Originally developed for large-scale oligonucleotide synthesis in beds and reactors, we present here its utility for medium-scale work of 1-10 micromol in column syntheses on standard DNA synthesizers. We show how an increase in scale, and, therefore, yield, can be achieved without significant increase in reagent quantity. Additional deblock and oxidation cycles can provide high coupling yields, and the use of concentrated ammonia in aqueous methylamine (AMA) for oligonucleotide cleavage and deprotection results in excellent recovery.

  7. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  8. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  9. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  10. iCCM policy analysis: strategic contributions to understanding its character, design and scale up in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Brandes, Neal; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria remain leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age and access to effective and appropriate treatment for sick children is extremely low where it is needed most. Integrated community case management (iCCM) enables community health workers to provide basic lifesaving treatment for sick children living in remote communities for these diseases. While many governments in sub-Saharan Africa recently changed policies to support iCCM, large variations in implementation remain. As a result, the collaboration represented in this supplement examined the policy processes underpinning iCCM through qualitative case study research in six purposively identified countries (Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique) and the global context. We introduce the supplement, by reviewing how policy analysis can inform: (a) how we frame iCCM and negotiate its boundaries, (b) how we tailor iCCM for national health systems and (c) how we foster accountability and learning for iCCM. In terms of framing, iCCM boundaries reflect how an array of actors use evidence to prioritize particular aspects of child mortality (lack of access to treatment), and how this underpins the ability to reach consensus and legitimate specific policy enterprises. When promoted at national level, contextual health system factors, such as the profile of CHWs and the history of primary health care, cannot be ignored. Adaptation to these contextual realities may lead to unintended consequences not forseen by technical or managerial expertize alone. Further scaling up of iCCM requires understanding of the political accountabilities involved, how ownership can be fostered and learning for improved policies and programs sustained. Collectively these articles demonstrate that iCCM, although often compartmentalized as a technical intervention, also reflects the larger and messier real world of health politics, policy and practice, for which policy analysis is vital

  11. Scale-up impacts on mass transfer and bioremediation of suspended naphthalene particles in bead mill bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuching; Riess, Ryan; Nemati, Mehdi; Hill, Gordon; Headley, John

    2008-11-01

    Scale-up effects on mass transfer and bioremediation of suspended naphthalene particles have been studied in 20 and 58L bead mill bioreactors and compared to data generated earlier with a laboratory scaled bioreactor. The bead mill bioreactor performance with respect to naphthalene mass transfer rate was dependent on the size and loading of the inert particles, as well as the rotational speed of the roller apparatus. The optimum operating conditions were found to be 15mm glass beads at a loading of 50% (total volume of particles/working volume of bioreactor: v/v%) and a bioreactor rotational speed of 50rpm. The highest naphthalene mass transfer coefficients obtained in the large scale system under these optimum conditions (19.6 and 22.4h(-1) for 20 and 58L vessels, respectively) were higher than those determined previously in a 2.5L bead mill bioreactor (0.7h(-1)). The acute toxicity tests indicated that the bioreactor effluent was less toxic than the untreated naphthalene suspension. Biodegradation rates obtained in these large scale bead mill bioreactors under optimum conditions (36-37.4mgL(-1)h(-1)) were higher than those achieved in the control bioreactors of similar sizes (11.4 and 11.6mgL(-1)h(-1)) but were slower than those previously determined in a 2.5L bead mill bioreactor (59-61.5mgL(-1)h(-1)). The limitation of oxygen in the large scale systems and damage of the bacterial cells due to the crushing effects of the large beads are likely contributing factors in the lower observed biodegradation rates. The optimum conditions with respect to naphthalene mass transfer might not necessarily translate to optimum performance with regard to bioremediation.

  12. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  13. The Frequency of Alcohol Use in Iranian Urban Population: The Results of a National Network Scale Up Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background In Islamic countries alcohol consumption is considered as against religious values. Therefore, estimation of frequency of alcohol consumptions using direct methods is prone to different biases. In this study, we indirectly estimated the frequency of alcohol use in Iran, in network of a representative sample using network scale up (NSU method. Methods In a national survey, about 400 participants aged above 18 at each province, around 12 000 in total, were recruited. In a gender-match face to face interview, respondents were asked about the number of those who used alcohol (even one episode in previous year in their active social network, classified by age and gender. The results were corrected for the level of visibility of alcohol consumption. Results The relative frequency of alcohol use at least once in previous year, among general population aged above 15, was estimated at 2.31% (95% CI: 2.12%, 2.53%. The relative frequency among males was about 8 times higher than females (4.13% versus 0.56%. The relative frequency among those aged 18 to 30 was 3 times higher than those aged above 30 (3.97% versus 1.36%. The relative frequency among male aged 18 to 30 was about 7%. Conclusion It seems that the NSU is a feasible method to monitor the relative frequency of alcohol use in Iran, and possibly in countries with similar culture. Alcohol use was lower than non-Muslim countries, however, its relative frequency, in particular in young males, was noticeable.

  14. Scaling-up the use of generic antiretrovirals in resource-limited countries: generic drugs for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Passarelli, Carlos; Lui, Iris; Guichard, Anne-Claire; Simao, Mariangela; De Lay, Paul; Loures, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) continues to increase around the world because of the increasing number on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their associated increase of life expectancy, in addition to the number of people newly infected with HIV each year. Unless a 'cure' can be found for HIV infection, PLHIV can anticipate the need to take antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the rest of their lives. Because ARVs are now being used for HIV prevention, as well as for therapeutic purposes, the need for effective, affordable ARVs with few adverse effects will continue to rise. It is important to note that the dramatic growth in treatment coverage of PLHIV seen during the past decade has been primarily due to the increased use of generic ARVs. Thus, there will be a need to scale-up the research and development, production, distribution and access to generic ARVs and ART regimens. However, these processes must occur within national and international regulated free-market economic systems and must deal with increasingly multifaceted patent issues affecting the price while ensuring the quality of the ARVs. National and international regulatory mechanisms will have to evolve, which will affect broader national and international economic and trade issues. Because of the complexity of these issues, the Editors of this Supplement conceived of asking experts in their fields to describe the various steps from relevant research and development, to production of generic ARVs, their delivery to countries and subsequently to PLHIV in low- and middle-income countries. A main objective was to highlight how these steps are interrelated, how the production and delivery of these drugs to PLHIV in resource-limited countries can be made more effective and efficient, and what the lessons are for the production and delivery of a broader set of drugs to people in low- and middle-income countries.

  15. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.

  16. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  18. Catalyst-coated cement beads for the degradation and mineralization of fungicide carbendazim using laboratory and pilot-scale reactor: catalyst stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanjit; Verma, Anoop; Bansal, Palak; Aggarwal, Kashish; Kaur, Taranjeet; Toor, Amrit Pal; Sangal, Vikas Kumar

    2017-03-18

    The fixed-bed photocatalytic degradation of fungicide carbendazim using catalyst-coated spherical cement beads has been investigated. Thirty beads with optimum size 13 mm along with 0.3 gL(-1) H2O2 with an initial concentration of carbendazim of 10 mgL(-1) were the optimized conditions for better degradation. The reduction in COD and total organic carbon along with the generation of nitrite and nitrate ions under the optimized conditions confirms the complete mineralization of compound. The suggested degradation pathway for carbendazim has also been proposed as intermediates formed during photodegradation were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coated cement beads were found to be durable even after 30 cycles as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Scale-up trails have also been carried out in a solar-baffled fixed-bed reactor for the degradation of pollutant to seek the commercial viability of the technique.

  19. What Is Needed to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis? A Model-Based Assessment on the Impact of Scaling Up Mass Drug Administration Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randee J Kastner

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a neglected tropical disease for which more than a billion people in 73 countries are thought to be at-risk. At a global level, the efforts against LF are designed as an elimination program. However, current efforts appear to aim for elimination in some but not all endemic areas. With the 2020 goal of elimination looming, we set out to develop plausible scale-up scenarios to reach global elimination and eradication. We predict the duration of mass drug administration (MDA necessary to reach local elimination for a variety of transmission archetypes using an existing model of LF transmission, estimate the number of treatments required for each scenario, and consider implications of rapid scale-up.We have defined four scenarios that differ in their geographic coverage and rate of scale-up. For each scenario, country-specific simulations and calculations were performed that took into account the pre-intervention transmission intensity, the different vector genera, drug regimen, achieved level of population coverage, previous progress toward elimination, and potential programmatic delays due to mapping, operations, and administration.Our results indicate that eliminating LF by 2020 is unlikely. If MDA programs are drastically scaled up and expanded, the final round of MDA for LF eradication could be delivered in 2028 after 4,159 million treatments. However, if the current rate of scale-up is maintained, the final round of MDA to eradicate LF may not occur until 2050.Rapid scale-up of MDA will decrease the amount of time and treatments required to reach LF eradication. It may also propel the program towards success, as the risk of failure is likely to increase with extended program duration.

  20. Determining design and scale-up parameters for degradation of atrazine with suspended Pseudomonas sp. ADP in aqueous bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglione, Nicole; Rodgers, V G J; Peeples, Tonya L

    2008-01-01

    This work investigated the kinetic parameters of atrazine mineralization by suspended cells of Pseudomonas sp. ADP in both shake flasks and spherical stirred tank batch reactors (SSTR). The degradation of atrazine and growth of Pseudomonas sp. ADP were studied. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and stirring speeds in both reactors at varying initial concentrations of atrazine. Cell growth and atrazine concentration were monitored over time, and a Monod model with one limiting substrate was used to characterize the kinetic behavior. Temperature, stirring speed, and reactor type were all found to significantly affect the regressed Monod parameters. At 27 degrees C and 200 rpm, for the shaker flask experiments, mu max and Ks were determined to be 0.14 (+/-0.01) h-1 and 1.88 (+/-1.80) mg/L, respectively. At 37 degrees C, mu max and Ks increased to 0.25 (+/-0.05) h-1 and 9.59 (+/-6.55) mg/L, respectively. As expected, stirrer speed was also found to significantly alter the kinetic parameters. At 27 degrees C and 125 rpm, mu max and Ks were 0.04 (+/-0.002) h-1 and 3.72 (+/-1.05) mg/L, respectively, whereas at 37 degrees C and 125 rpm, mu max and Ks were 0.07 (+/-0.008) h-1 and 1.65 (+/-2.06) mg/L. In the SSTR the kinetic parameters mu max and Ks at room temperature were determined to be 0.12 (+/-0.009) h-1 and 2.18 (+/-0.47) mg/L, respectively. Although the mu max values for both types of reactors were similar, the shaker flask experiments resulted in considerable error. Error analysis on calculated values of Ks were found to impact estimates in atrazine concentration by as much as two orders of magnitude, depending on the reactor design, illustrating the importance of these factors in reactor scale-up.

  1. Gross primary productivity of the true steppe in central Asia in relation to NDVI: scaling up CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other characteristics of CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity (P g ) is most directly related to photosynthetic activity. Until recently, it was considered difficult to obtain measurement-based P g . The objective of our study was to evaluate if P g can be estimated from continuous CO2 flux measurements using nonlinear identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of ecosystem-scale, light-response curves. Estimates of P g and ecosystem respiration (R e ) were obtained using Bowen ratio– energy-balance measurements of CO2 exchange in a true-steppe ecosystem in northern Kazakhstan during four growing seasons (1998–2001). The maximum mean weekly apparent quantum yield (αmax) was 0.0388 mol CO2 mol photons and the maximum mean weekly P g was 28 g CO2/m2/day in July 2000. The highest mean weekly R e max (20 g CO2m2/day) was observed in July of both 1999 and 2000. Nighttime respiration calculated from daily respiration corrected for length of the dark period and temperature (using Q 10 = 2) was closely associated with measured nighttime respiration (R 2 = 0.67 to 0.93). The 4-year average annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1617 g CO2/m2/ year (range = 1308–1957). Ten-day normalized difference vegetation index corrected for the start of the season (NDVIsos) was closely associated with 10-day average P g (R 2 = 0.66 to 0.83), which was higher than R 2 values for regressions of mean 10-day net daytime fluxes on NDVIsos (0.55–0.72). This demonstrates the advantage of usingP g in scaling up flux-tower measurements compared to other characteristics (net daytime flux or net 24-h flux).

  2. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  3. Reactive distillation : The front-runner of industrial process intensification - A full review of commercial applications, research, scale-up, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G. Jan

    2007-01-01

    Most industrial scale reactive distillations (presently more than 150), operated worldwide today at capacities of 100-3000 ktonnes/y, and are reported in this paper. Most of these plants started up less than 15 years ago. The drivers, processes, systems, scale-up methods and partner collaborations f

  4. Scale-up of ART in Malawi has reduced case notification rates in HIV-positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyerere, H; Girma, B; Mpunga, J; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D; Jahn, A; Chimbwandira, F M

    2016-12-21

    Setting: For 30 years, Malawi has experienced a dual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) that has recently begun to be attenuated by the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objective: To report on the correlation between ART scale-up and annual national TB case notification rates (CNR) in Malawi, stratified by HIV-positive and HIV-negative status, from 2005 to 2015. Design: A retrospective descriptive ecological study using aggregate data from national reports. Results: From 2005 to 2015, ART was scaled up in Malawi from 28 470 to 618 488 total patients, with population coverage increasing from 2.4% to 52.2%. During this time, annual TB notifications declined by 35%, from 26 344 to 17 104, and the TB CNR per 100 000 population declined by 49%, from 206 to 105. HIV testing uptake increased from 51% to 92%. In known HIV-positive TB patients, the CNR decreased from a high of 1247/100 000 to 710/100 000, a 43% decrease. In known HIV-negative TB patients, the CNR also decreased, from a high of 66/100 000 to 49/100 000, a 26% decrease. Conclusion: TB case notifications have continued to decline in association with ART scale-up, with the decline seen more in HIV-positive than HIV-negative TB. These findings have programmatic implications for national TB control efforts.

  5. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  6. NRF2011-EDU001-EL001 EduLab Project Scaling-up Reflections on Using Open Source Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lye, Sze Yee

    2014-01-01

    eduLab (MOE, 2012b) is a key programme under the third MasterPlan for ICT in Education (mp3) where teachers with good ideas for an ICT-enhanced lesson or curriculum (learning with computer models through inquiry, example PhET (PhET, 2011) can come together to collaborate. eduLab aims to support teachers to develop, prototype and test-bed their lesson ideas (journey in 2012-2014) while ensuring that the results, in the form of complete lesson packages (see http://edulab.moe.edu.sg/edulab-programmes/existing-projects third project), are scalable across schools to benefit the wider teaching community. Our models and lessons are downloadable here http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2013/03/moe-excel-fest-2013-scaling.html We have collaborated with namely Professor Francisco Esquembre, Professor Fu-Kwun Hwang and Wolfgang Christian and created Open Source Computer Models on the topic of 1 Dimensional Collision (Loo Kang Wee, 2012b), Falling Magnet in Coil, Ripple Tank (Duffy, 2010; G. H. Goh et al., 2012; Ong, Ng, Goh, ...

  7. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  8. Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaser, Miriam; Naelapaa, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating...... formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain......) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p...

  9. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  10. Biomass ash-bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in FBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, H.J.M.; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial-scale ins......In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial...... describes a fundamental study on the mechanisms of defluidization. For the studied process of bed defluidization due to sintering of grain-coating layers, it was found that the onset of the process depends on (a) a critical coating thickness, (b) on the fluidization velocity when it is below approximately...... four times the minimum fluidization velocity, and (c) on the viscosity (stickiness) of the outside of the grains (coating)....

  11. Studies on column size scale-up and flow profile in conical shape liquid chromatographic column of 10° by visualization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Wenna; Tan Feng; Guan Yafeng

    2006-01-01

    An improved visualization device made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used to study the 3D flow profile inside conical columns of a 10° opening angle packed with C18 phase.The outside wall of the conical columns was rectangular in shape in order to improve the transparency property of the column wall and reduce the deformation of the image for better observation of the flow profiles of colored solutes inside the column.The influence of flow rate,particle size and shape on the flow profile of a colored band were studied on a 5-cm-long column and a scaled-up column of four fold in volume.It was found that the flow rates of the mobile phase had little influence on the flat flow profile of the iodine band while the properties of the stationary phase had a certain influence on them.We observed that the flow profiles of the scaled-up column were flat during the whole chromatographic process,and the efficiency and resolution of the column were also increased in accordance with theoretical prediction.The experimental results proved that the 10° conical columns can be proportionally scaled up while still keeping the flat flow profile,sample load per unit volume of packing material,and column efficiency,which are superior to the conventional column.

  12. SUENTP code simulations of scale-up and economic evaluation of non-thermal plasma technology for exhaust gas emission control of coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J.; Chang, J.-S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1998-07-01

    Computer code (SUENTP) to predict scale up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower process - was developed for a commercialized power plant. This code was written by spread sheet type MS Excel with visual basic for application and comprise data input procedure, scale-up (design) procedure, economic calculation procedure, and output procedure. Data obtained from pilot plant tests are input with general data so that they might be led to the conceptual design data of commercial plants by scale-up procedure. In the next economic evaluation procedure, the total capital investment and the total annual cost. The total capital investment comes into the indirect annual cost as the item of capital recovery. The levelized cost and the levelized busbar cost could be shown in the output table. An example calculation was presented to evaluate the cost of three non-thermal systems and the results were compared with a conventional wet-scrubber/selective catalytic reduction combined system. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Application of a chromatography model with linear gradient elution experimental data to the rapid scale-up in ion-exchange process chromatography of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2007-08-24

    We applied the model described in our previous paper to the rapid scale-up in the ion exchange chromatography of proteins, in which linear flow velocity, column length and gradient slope were changed. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments, and obtained data for the peak salt concentration and peak width. From these data, the plate height (HETP) was calculated as a function of the mobile phase velocity and iso-resolution curve (the separation time and elution volume relationship for the same resolution) was calculated. The scale-up chromatography conditions were determined by the iso-resolution curve. The scale-up of the linear gradient elution from 5 to 100mL and 2.5L column sizes was performed both by the separation of beta-lactoglobulin A and beta-lactoglobulin B with anion-exchange chromatography and by the purification of a recombinant protein with cation-exchange chromatography. Resolution, recovery and purity were examined in order to verify the proposed method.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Asynchronous Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建刚

    2004-01-01

    Asynchronous simulated moving bed chromatography (ASMBC), known also as the "VARICOL" process, is more efficient and flexible than the well-known and traditional simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC). A detailed model of ASMBC, taking account of non-linear competitive isotherms, mass transfer parameters, and complex port switching schedule parameters, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics of ASMBC.The simulated performance is in close agreement with the experimental data of chiral separation reported in the literature. The simulation results show that ASMBC can achieve the performance similar to SMBC with fewer columns and can achieve better performance than SMBC with the same total column number. All design and operation parameters can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This detailed ASMBC model and the numerical technique are useful for design, operation, optimization and scale-up of ASMBC.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Scaling Up the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment for Treating Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keely Jordan

    Full Text Available Obstetric hemorrhage (OH, which includes hemorrhage from multiple etiologies during pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum, is the leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for one-quarter of global maternal deaths. The Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG is a first-aid device for obstetric hemorrhage that can be applied for post-partum/post miscarriage and for ectopic pregnancies to buy time for a woman to reach a health care facility for definitive treatment. Despite successful field trials, and endorsement by safe motherhood organizations and the World Health Organization (WHO, scale-up has been slow in some countries. This qualitative study explores contextual factors affecting uptake.From March 2013 to April 2013, we conducted 13 key informant interviews across four countries with a large burden of maternal mortality that had achieved varying success in scaling up the NASG: Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. These key informants were health providers or program specialists working with the NASG. We applied a health policy analysis framework to organize the results. The framework has five domains: attributes of the intervention, attributes of the implementers, delivery strategy, attributes of the adopting community, the socio-political context, and the research context.The interviews from our study found that relevant facilitators for scale-up are the simplicity of the device, local and international champions, well-developed training sessions, recommendations by WHO and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and dissemination of NASG clinical trial results. Barriers to scaling up the NASG included limited health infrastructure, relatively high upfront cost of the NASG, initial resistance by providers and policy makers, lack of in-country champions or policy makers advocating for NASG implementation, inadequate return and exchange programs, and lack of political will.There was a continuum of uptake ranging in

  16. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  17. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  18. Characterization of the pneumatic behavior of a novel spouted bed apparatus with two adjustable gas inlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryczka, O.; Heinrich, S.; Miteva, V.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Jacob, M.; Mörl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the importance of spouted bed technology has significantly increased in the context of drying processes as well as granulation, agglomeration or coating processes. Within this work the fluid dynamics of a novel spouted bed plant with two adjustable gas inlets is investigated. By analysis of

  19. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.

  20. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO2 sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Hoyo, C.; Valverde, J. M.; van Ommen, J. R.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P. E.; Pérez-Maqueda, L. A.; Sayagués, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO2 solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO2 nanoparticles.

  1. The preparation of calcium superoxide in a flowing gas stream and fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P. C.; Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1980-01-01

    Superoxides can be used as sources of chemically stored oxygen in emergency breathing apparatus. The work reported here describes the use of a low-pressure nitrogen gas sweep through the reactant bed, for temperature control and water vapor removal. For a given set of gas temperature, bed thickness, and reaction time values, the highest purity calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, was obtained at the highest space velocity of the nitrogen gas sweep. The purity of the product was further increased by flow conditions that resulted in the fluidization of the reactant bed. However, scale-up of the low-pressure fluidized bed process was limited to the formation of agglomerates of reactant particles, which hindered thermal control by the flowing gas stream. A radiofrequency flow discharge inside the reaction chamber prevented agglomeration, presumably by dissipation of the static charges on the fluidized particles.

  2. Experimental study of the drying in dense fluidized beds of a synthetic mud coated with support particulates; Etude experimentale du sechage en lit fluidise dense d'une boue synthetique enrobee sur des particules supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, C.; Shakourzadeh, K. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, L.G.P.I., 60 (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental study of a new drying process for muddy materials and based on the fluidization technique. The granular phase has been obtained by the coating with mud of a porous mineral support, inert and recyclable in the process. Activated porous particulates of alumina (2-5 mm) have been chosen because of their heat transfer properties. A first part of the experimental study concerns the drying process. The second part concerns the attrition and elutriation mechanisms. The experimental measurements have been performed with a laboratory fluidized column (internal diameter = 150 mm) and with a fluidized column (internal diameter = 400 mm) from a semi-industrial facility. The air velocity and the drying temperature are the main adjustment parameters. The working temperatures have been fixed between 20 and 150 deg. C. (J.S.)

  3. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design: We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results: By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions: The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority

  4. Partnering to proceed: scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bahati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how to implement promising small-scale projects to reduce reproductive ill health and HIV vulnerability in young people on a large scale. This evaluation documents and explains how a partnership between a non-governmental organization (NGO and local government authorities (LGAs influenced the LGA-led scale-up of an innovative NGO programme in the wider context of a new national multisectoral AIDS strategy. Methods Four rounds of semi-structured interviews with 82 key informants, 8 group discussions with 49 district trainers and supervisors (DTS, 8 participatory workshops involving 52 DTS, and participant observations of 80% of LGA-led and 100% of NGO-led meetings were conducted, to ascertain views on project components, flow of communication and decision-making and amount of time DTS utilized undertaking project activities. Results Despite a successful ten-fold scale-up of intervention activities in three years, full integration into LGA systems did not materialize. LGAs contributed significant human resources but limited finances; the NGO retained control over finances and decision-making and LGAs largely continued to view activities as NGO driven. Embedding of technical assistants (TAs in the LGAs contributed to capacity building among district implementers, but may paradoxically have hindered project integration, because TAs were unable to effectively transition from an implementing to a facilitating role. Operation of NGO administration and financial mechanisms also hindered integration into district systems. Conclusions Sustainable intervention scale-up requires operational, financial and psychological integration into local government mechanisms. This must include substantial time for district systems to try out implementation with only minimal NGO support and modest output targets. It must therefore go beyond the typical three- to four-year project cycles. Scale-up of NGO pilot projects of this

  5. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  6. A Review of Coated Conductor Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永利; 时东陆

    2003-01-01

    The developments of coated conductor technology have been reviewed. It is shown that the critical current density of high-Tc wires can begreatly enhanced by using three-fold approaches: grain alignment, grain boundary doping, and optimization of the grain architecture. Major advances have been made in the last16 years mainly in three aspects: substrates, buffer layers and the YBCO layer. Cost is still the main concern for scale up, especially for the approach through vapor depositions, such as the PLD method. TFA-MOD or other CSD methods may be the trend to overcome cost and speed consideration during the scale up. However, high reliability and reproducibility will be the new focus for these techniques. Ni-alloy tapes seem to have advantages over pure Ni in terms of mechanicalstrength and oxidation resistance. Depositing a pure Ni layer on top of Ni-based alloys (such as Ni-Cr and Ni-W alloys) solves the problem of low strength ofNi and poor texture of Ni alloys. The RABiTS and IBAD are the two robust approaches for the texture generation. But the buffer materials and architectures being investigated remain unclear, though CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 and MgO are commonly used buffer layers for RABiTS and IBAD respectively. For the case where a buffer layer isunavoidable, a non-vacuum process would be suitable for low cost and scale up. However, none of the buffer layer fabrication processes through CSD has been demonstrated results good enough for long length coated conductor applications. While, a high Jc superconducting layer can be produced by TFA-MOD, which brings a bright future for coated conductors. Clearly, there are still many scientific and technological barriers to be overcome before any long length of high Jc coated conductor be produced commercially. But theoretical analyses and technological progress show the potential for the practical application of coatedconductor wires in the near future.

  7. Conformal nanocoating of zirconia nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Luis F; George, Steven M; Weimer, Alan W

    2005-07-01

    Primary zirconia nanoparticles were conformally coated with alumina ultrathin films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor. Alternating doses of trimethylaluminium and water vapour were performed to deposit Al(2)O(3) nanolayers on the surface of 26 nm zirconia nanoparticles. Transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed ex situ. Bulk Al(2)O(3) vibrational modes were observed for coated particles after 50 and 70 cycles. Coated nanoparticles were also examined with transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Analysis revealed highly conformal and uniform alumina nanofilms throughout the surface of zirconia nanoparticles. The particle size distribution and surface area of the nanoparticles are not affected by the coating process. Primary nanoparticles are coated individually despite their high aggregation tendency during fluidization. The dynamic aggregation behaviour of zirconia nanoparticles in the fluidized bed plays a key role in the individual coating of nanoparticles.

  8. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  9. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  10. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Virtual Test Bed 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Virtual Test Bed Donald T. Resio U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Phone...into three parts: 1) assembly of field and laboratory data sets for testing ; 2) set-up of a benchmark system; and 3) exercising the benchmark system

  11. 基于流化床包衣工艺的伊曲康唑速释微丸的制备和评价研究%Formulation and Characterization of Immediate-Release Itraconazole-Loaded Pellets Prepared by Fluidized Bed Spray Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单利; 史焱; 王玉丽; 赵琳琳; 杨美燕; 蒋庆宇; 高春生

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用流化床包衣工艺制备速释型伊曲康唑固体分散体载药微丸.方法 以常见的亲水性辅料为载体材料,溶剂法制备水不溶性药伊曲康唑的固体分散溶液,然后将其喷雾干燥共沉淀于流化床底喷锅内的蔗糖丸芯表面上,直接形成速释型伊曲康唑固体分散体载药微丸,并对其药物溶出度、晶型表征、外观性状、以及溶剂残留等进行系统评价.结果 制备的伊曲康唑载药微丸外观光洁美观,药物以无定形或分子态存在于载药层中,符合固体分散体结构特征.HPMC ES/伊曲康唑(1.5∶1,w/w)固体分散体载药微丸的药物溶出迅速,15 min可达80%以上.为保证溶剂残留在药典规定的限度内,制备的伊曲康唑载药微丸需要在真空80℃干燥6h以上.结论 采用流化床底喷上药包衣技术制备速释型伊曲康唑固体分散体载药微丸,质量可控,工艺可行.%OBJECTIVE To develop immediate-released itraconazole-loaded pellets prepared by fluidized bed spray coating. METHODS With common hydrophilic excipients( HPMC E5, PVP K30, PEG6000, and Poloxamer 188) as the carrier material, solid dispersion solution(dichloromethane-ethanol, 1:1, V/V)containing water-insoluble itraconazole was prepared, and then was sprayed on the surface of the sugar cores in fluidized bed to directly form immediate-reaease drug-loaded pellets containing itraconazole solid dispersion. Subsequently, its drug dissolution, crystal characterization, appearance, and residual solvent were evaluated. RESULTS The obtained pellets are clean and beautiful appearance. And itraconazole in the drug-loaded layer exists in amorphous or molecular state, meets with the solid dispersion structure. It was interesting that, the pellets containing HPMC E5/itraconazole( 1.5: 1 , w/w)solid dispersion were of rapid drug dissolution( 15 min up to 80% ). To ensure that residual solvent within the limits, it was necessary that the obtained pellets were

  12. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture: A Scale-Up Study from Laboratory to Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanon E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfortunately almost systematically on small, laboratory scale, modules. Given the level of flue gas flow rates which have to be treated for carbon capture applications, a consistent scale-up methodology is obviously needed for a rigorous engineering design. In this study, the possibilities and limitations of scale-up strategies for membrane contactors have been explored and will be discussed. Experiments (CO2 absorption from a gas mixture in a 30%wt MEA aqueous solution have been performed both on mini-modules and at pilot scale (10 m2 membrane contactor module based on PTFE hollow fibers. The results have been modelled utilizing a resistance in series approach. The only adjustable parameter is in fitting the simulations to experimental data is the membrane mass transfer coefficient (km, which logically plays a key role. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with scaleup computations from lab scale to pilot scale modules, with a particular emphasis on the km value, are presented and critically discussed.

  13. Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1 burden of illness; (2 community effectiveness; (3 economic evaluation; and (4 knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.

  14. A qualitative assessment of participation in a rapid scale-up, diagonally-integrated MDG-related disease prevention campaign in Rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy De Ver Dye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries face severe scale-up barriers toward achievement of MDGs. We ascertained motivational and experiential dimensions of participation in a novel, rapid, "diagonal" Integrated Prevention Campaign (IPC in rural Kenya that provided prevention goods and services to 47,000 people within one week, aimed at rapidly moving the region toward MDG achievement. Specifically, the IPC provided interventions and commodities targeting disease burden reduction in HIV/AIDS, malaria, and water-borne illness. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews (IDI were conducted with 34 people (18 living with HIV/AIDS and 16 not HIV-infected randomly selected from IPC attendees consenting to participate. Interviews were examined for themes and patterns to elucidate participant experience and motivation with IPC. FINDINGS: Participants report being primarily motivated to attend IPC to learn of their HIV status (through voluntary counseling and testing, and with receipt of prevention commodities (bednets, water filters, and condoms providing further incentive. Participants reported that they were satisfied with the IPC experience and offered suggestions to improve future campaigns. INTERPRETATION: Learning their HIV status motivated participants along with the incentive of a wider set of commodities that were rapidly deployed through IPC in this challenging region. The critical role of wanting to know their HIV status combined with commodity incentives may offer a new model for rapid scaled-up of prevention strategies that are wider in scope in rural Africa.

  15. 'FAN the SUN brighter': fortifying Africa nutritionally (FAN) - the role of public private partnership in scaling up nutrition (SUN) in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablah, Mawuli; Baker, Shawn K; Badham, Jane; De Zayas, Alfred

    2013-11-01

    The scaling up nutrition (SUN) policy framework requires extensive public–private partnership (PPP). Malnutrition is multi-dimensional and should engage multi-sectoral platforms. The SUN policy however did not fully embrace the dynamics of harnessing PPP. The objectives of the present paper are to highlight the reasons for the apprehension around PPP and illustrate how effective coordination of PPP in West Africa has contributed to implementing large-scale food fortification with micronutrients as a complementary nutrition intervention. The experience of Helen Keller International (HKI) in scaling up food fortification was emphasised with understanding of the factors contributing to indifference by the international community to private sector contribution to SUN. The roles of different stakeholders in a PPP are elucidated and the process linked to who, why and how to engage. The private sector provides direct nutrition services while the public sector creates the enabling environment for the private sector to thrive on social values. Through this approach fortified vegetable oil and wheat flour are now reaching over 70% of the population in West Africa. As a neutral broker HKI coordinated and facilitated dialogue among the different stakeholders. The core competencies of each stakeholder were harnessed and each partner was held accountable. It concludes that multi-sectoral relationship must be transparent, equitable and based on shared mutual interests. The rules and values of PPP offer opportunities for SUN.

  16. Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

    2013-11-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5 × 10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass.

  17. CFD-aided cell settler design optimization and scale-up: effect of geometric design and operational variables on separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuyi; Yanagimachi, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The inclined multiplate (lamella) gravity settler has proven to be an effective cell retention device in industrial perfusion cell culture applications. Investigations on the effects of geometric design and operational variables of the cell settler are crucial to understanding how to best improve the settler performance. Maximizing the harvest/perfusion flow rate while minimizing viable cell loss out of the harvest is the primary challenge for optimization of the settler design. This study demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be utilized to accurately model and evaluate the settler separation performance for near-monodisperse suspensions and therefore aid in the design optimization of the settler under these baseline conditions. With the preferred geometric features that were identified from CFD modeling results, we proposed design guidelines for the scale-up of these multiplate settler systems. With these guidelines and performance verification using the CFD model, a new large-scale settler was designed and fabricated for a perfusion cell culture process using a minimally aggregating production cell line. Perfusion cell culture runs with this particular cell line were performed with this settler, and the CFD model was able to predict the initial ramp-up performance, proving it to be a valuable scale-up design tool for this production process.

  18. Scaling-up parameters for site restoration process using surfactant-enhanced soil washing coupled with wastewater treatment by Fenton and Fenton-like processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandala, Erick R; Cossio, Horacio; Sánchez-Lopez, Adriana D; Córdova, Felipe; Peralta-Herández, Juan M; Torres, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of scaling-up parameters for a site restoration process using a surfactant-enhanced soil washing (SESW) process followed by the application of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton and photo-Fenton) was performed. For the SESW, different parameters were varied and the soil washing efficiency for pesticide (2,4-D) removal assessed. The resulting wastewater was treated using the Fenton reaction in the absence and presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for pesticide removal. Results showed that agitation speed of 1550 rpm was preferable for the best pesticide removal from contaminated soil. It was possible to wash contaminated soils with different soil concentrations; however the power drawn was higher as the soil concentration increased. Complete removal of the pesticide and the remaining surfactant was achieved using different reaction conditions. The best degradation conditions were for the photo-Fenton process using [Fe(II)] = 0.3 mM; [H2O2] = 4.0 mM where complete 2,4-D and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) removal was observed after 8 and 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. Further increase in the hydrogen peroxide or iron salt concentration did not show any improvement in the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters, i.e. reaction rate constant and scaling-up parameters, were determined. It was shown that, by coupling both processes (SESW and AOPs), it is possible the restoration of contaminated sites.

  19. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by a bacterial biofilm supported on zeolite: optimisation of the operational conditions and Scale-Up of the bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M. [IBB - Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro de Engenharia Biologica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Branco, M.; Tavares, T. [IBB - Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro de Engenharia Biologica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Neves, I.C. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Quimica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Sanroman, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a bioreactor system and its scale-up to remove Cr(VI) from solution. The bioreactor is based on an innovative process that combines bioreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by the bacterium Arthrobacter viscosus and Cr(III) sorption by a specific zeolite. Batch studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale bioreactor, taking into account different operating conditions. Several variables, such as biomass concentration, pH and zeolite pre-treatment, were evaluated to increase removal efficiency. The obtained results suggest that the Cr removal efficiency is improved when the initial biomass concentration is approximately 5 g L{sup -1} and the pH in the system is maintained at an acidic level. Under the optimised conditions, approximately 100 % of the Cr(VI) was removed. The scale-up of the developed biofilm process operating under the optimised conditions was satisfactorily tested in a 150-L bioreactor. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  1. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  3. Multispectral Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nanowires. 2.2 Project Objectives  This project used spin coating technology, new and commercial nanoparticle composites, and ODC’s patented...of this project. The spin coating method to deposit polymers has been widely studied and allows for simple, low cost depositions of thin films...Figure 5). Spin coating controls the layer thickness by balancing the centrifugal forces of a developing thin film to the viscous forces that increase

  4. Morbus Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.

    2010-01-01

    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  5. Scale-up from microtiter plate to laboratory fermenter: evaluation by online monitoring techniques of growth and protein expression in Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbrecht Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, an enormous number of new bioprocesses have evolved in the biotechnology industry. These bioprocesses have to be developed fast and at a maximum productivity. Up to now, only few microbioreactors were developed to fulfill these demands and to facilitate sample processing. One predominant reaction platform is the shaken microtiter plate (MTP, which provides high-throughput at minimal expenses in time, money and work effort. By taking advantage of this simple and efficient microbioreactor array, a new online monitoring technique for biomass and fluorescence, called BioLector, has been recently developed. The combination of high-throughput and high information content makes the BioLector a very powerful tool in bioprocess development. Nevertheless, the scalabilty of results from the micro-scale to laboratory or even larger scales is very important for short development times. Therefore, engineering parameters regarding the reactor design and its operation conditions play an important role even on a micro-scale. In order to evaluate the scale-up from a microtiter plate scale (200 μL to a stirred tank fermenter scale (1.4 L, two standard microbial expression systems, Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, were fermented in parallel at both scales and compared with regard to the biomass and protein formation. Results Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa ranging from 100 to 350 1/h were obtained in 96-well microtiter plates. Even with a suboptimal mass transfer condition in the microtiter plate compared to the stirred tank fermenter (kLa = 370-600 1/h, identical growth and protein expression kinetics were attained in bacteria and yeast fermentations. The bioprocess kinetics were evaluated by optical online measurements of biomass and protein concentrations exhibiting the same fermentation times and maximum signal deviations below 10% between the scales. In the experiments, the widely applied green

  6. An assessment of hepatitis B vaccine introduction in India: Lessons for roll out and scale up of new vaccines in immunization programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the Universal Immunization Program (UIP of 10 states of India in the year 2007-08. This assessment was planned and conducted to ascertain the reasons for low reported coverage of Hepatitis B (Hep B vaccine in comparison of similarly timed diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT vaccine; to identify operational and programmatic challenges in new vaccine introductions, and to derive lessons for further scale up of Hep B vaccination (or for introduction of any new vaccine in UIP of India. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling with both quantitative and qualitative data collection. Two districts each were purposively selected from 5 of the 10 states, which introduced Hep B vaccine, in the year 2007-08. A protocol was devised and data was collected through desk review, in-depth interviews and on-site observation at state, districts and facility levels. The assessment was completed in December 2009. Results: Coverage with three doses of Hep B vaccine was lower than similarly timed three doses of DPT vaccine. Poor stock management ("stock outs or nil stocks" at various levels, incomplete recording and reporting, perceived high cost & related fear of wastage of vaccine in 10 dose vial, and incomplete knowledge amongst health functionaries about vaccination schedule were the main reasons cited for reported lower coverage. Hep B vaccine birth dose was introduced in only 3 of 5 states evaluated. The additional reasons for low Hep B birth dose coverage were lack of knowledge amongst Health Workers about birth dose administration, no mechanism for recording birth dose, and insufficient trainings, official communications, and coordination at various levels. Conclusions: This assessment documents challenges faced in the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in UIP in India and summarizes the lessons learnt. It is concluded that for successful introduction and scale up of any new vaccine in national or state

  7. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  8. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  9. Bioactive polyketides isolated from agar-supported fermentation of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA, taking advantage of the scale-up device, Platotex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Cortial, Sylvie; Retailleau, Pascal; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA was cultivated on agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF) using the scale-up prototype Platotex. In total nine compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture. Among them, compounds LMA-P1, Sch-642305, DHTO and LMA-P2 had already been reported in our previous work on liquid state fermentation. The trihydroxybenzene lactone cytosporone D and dothiorelone A has been recently isolated from Phomopsis and Magnaporthe species. In addition, three compounds were isolated consisting in the reduced methoxy derivative of Sch-642305 (1), a hydroxylated derivative of LMA-P2 (2) and a linear ethyl ester polyketide (3) similar to the previously reported LMA-P3. Antimicrobial activity and inhibition of Escherichia coli DnaG primase were investigated. Cytosporone D inhibited the E. coli DnaG primase, a Gram-negative antimicrobial target, with an IC50 of 0.25 mM.

  10. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  11. Rechargeable lithium battery with spinel-related λ-MnO 2 III. Scaling-up problems associated with LiMn 2O 4 synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manev, V.; Momchilov, A.; Nassalevska, A.; Sato, Atsushi

    The scaling-up problems connected with the LiMn 2O 4 synthesis were studied. A strong effect of the mass of the starting materials and of the air flow rate through the furnace during the synthesis on the specific capacity was observed. The increase of the batch amount brings about a reduction in the specific surface area of the product, which cannot be compensated by grinding because it leads to considerable reduction of its electrochemical utilization. The very fast or slow cooling of the synthesized material have a negative effect on the specific capacity. The process of preparation of LiMn 2O 4 spinel with high electrochemical performance is a rather complex procedure, but it is possible to obtain a product, which is capable to exchange reversibly up to 0.9 equiv. Li per mole.

  12. Scale up production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA at different aeration, agitation and controlled dissolved oxygen levels in fermenter using Halomonas campisalis MCM B-1027

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav R Kshirsagar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodegradable plastic, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA was demonstrated using culture of moderately haloakalitolerant Halomonas campisalis MCMB-1027. Production of PHA was carried out at different aeration (0.5-1, 1, and 1.5 vvm and agitation (100,150 and 200 rpm in 14 L fermenter. Maximum production of PHA was 40.69% on the basis of dry cell mass at 1 vvm and 100 rpm. Material balance over maltose revealed that aeration 1 vvm and agitation 100 rpm was optimum for conversion of utilized maltose into PHA. Controlled dissolved oxygen in the range 1-5% level during PHA accumulation phase facilitated to increase PHA content to 56.23%. A correlation equation was developed by fixing mass transfer coefficient (KLa and applied successfully for scale up production of PHA in 120 L fermenter. 1H NMR analysis showed percentage of HB and HV unit 95.83 and 4.17 respectively.

  13. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausi Khoti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children

  14. Prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for scaling-up malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy in Tanzania: the perspective of national level officers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal;

    2008-01-01

    -depth interviews were made with national level malaria control officers in 2006 and 2007. Data was analysed manually using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results: IPTp has been under implementation countrywide since 2001 and the 2005 evaluation report showed increased coverage of women taking two doses....... Necessary concerted efforts towards fostering uptake and coverage of two IPTp doses were emphasized by the national level officers, who called for further action including operational health systems research to understand challenges and suggest ways forward for effective implementation and high coverage...... of IPTp. Conclusion: The benefit of IPTp is appreciated by national level officers who are encouraged by trends in the coverage of IPTp doses. However, their appeal for concerted efforts towards IPTp scaling-up through rectifying the systemic constraints and operational research is important and supported...

  15. Results of flotation scale-up from RTD function. Escalamiento de resultados de flotacion de minerales a traves de la funcion DTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L.; Jofre, J.; Barria, J.; Menacho, J. (Centro de Investigacion MInera y Metalurgica, Santiago (Switzerland))

    1995-01-01

    A review on the main residence time distribution (RTD) models currently applied to flotation is presented. Perfect mix, plug flow, N perfect mix reactor in series and the general combined model are included. In flotation diagnosis the most required model is the N non perfect mix reactor in series (NPRS). As a invariant physical meaning is usually assigned to the different shift in time and intensity of the peaks, wrong conclusion may with regard to the real mix state and correct scaling-up of the flotation recovery. In the present paper the above situation is overcome by integrating semi batch results in an analytical way, with the assistance of the Garcia-Zuniga and Klimpel equations for the recovery and the NPRS model for the mix state. Highly accurate predictions at industrial scale are obtained as compared to other methods. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E

    2011-08-01

    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  17. Quality of mixing in a stired bioreactor used for animal cells culture: heterogeneities in a lab scale bioreactor and evolution of mixing time with scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal cells are industrially cultivated inside stirred bioreactors to produce proteinic compounds. Due to the use of mild agitation conditions in order to limit mechanical constraints, the homogeneity of the culture medium can be far from perfect. This study has therefore two objectives: the global characterization of the mixing via the mixing time and the local description of concentration fields. The mixing time is measured by conductimetry inside 20 l, 80 l, 600 l tanks. The Grenville correlation is adjusted on these experimental measurements to improve the prediction of the mixing time during the scale-up of the process. The concentration fields are visualized by the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (P.L.I.F. technique in the 20 l tank. This part of the study is focused on the time evolution of the maximum value of the tracer concentration inside measurement planes and of the numerical distribution of theses concentration fields.

  18. Scaling up interventions to eliminate neonatal tetanus: factors associated with the coverage of tetanus toxoid and clean deliveries among women in Vientiane, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Kanako; Xaysomphoo, Duangpachan; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Douangmala, Somthana; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2009-07-09

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) is one of seven countries that have not eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus in more than 50% of districts. We conducted a community-based household survey to assess the achievements of strategies towards maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in the capital province. The coverage of tetanus toxoid (TT) was 79.7% by the protection-at-birth (PAB) method. The percentages of deliveries attended by skilled personnel and of deliveries at a health facility were 68.4% and 63.7%, respectively. The progress towards eliminating neonatal tetanus in Lao PDR is not sufficient despite the study sites being placed in the capital province. The lack of continuum of care for mothers and newborns is the major obstacle to scale up the tetanus toxoid coverage and PAB as well as clean deliveries.

  19. Optimizing the solar photo-Fenton process in the treatment of contaminated water. Determination of intrinsic kinetic constants for scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Miguel [Universidad de Los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (PSA) (Spain); Pulgarin, Cesar [Institute of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Contreras, Sandra; Curco, David; Gimenez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago [Department d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    The elimination of aromatic compounds present in surface water by photo-Fenton with sunlight as the source of radiation was studied. The concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are key factors for this process. A solar simulator and a prototype parabolic collector were used as laboratory-scale reactors to find the parameters of those key factors to be used in the CPC (compound parabolic collector) pilot plant reactor. The initial mineralization rate constant (k{sub obs}) was determined and evaluated at different Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to find the best values for maximum efficiency. In all the experiments the mineralization of an aqueous phenol solution was described by assuming a pseudo-first-order reaction. The intrinsic kinetic constants not dependent on the lighting conditions were also estimated for scale-up. (author)

  20. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorożyński, Przemysław; Jamróz, Witold; Niwiński, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works.

  1. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Mumba, Grace Tembo; Gill, Michelle M.; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider’s perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  2. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine D Shelley

    Full Text Available Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015 elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16 was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19. While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into

  3. Scaling Up Family Planning to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality: The Potential Costs and Benefits of Modern Contraceptive Use in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chola, Lumbwe; McGee, Shelley; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Buchmann, Eckhart; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Family planning contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and child mortality. However, many women still do not use modern contraception and the numbers of unintended pregnancies, abortions and subsequent deaths are high. In this paper, we estimate the service delivery costs of scaling up modern contraception, and the potential impact on maternal, newborn and child survival in South Africa. Methods The Family Planning model in Spectrum was used to project the impact of modern contraception on pregnancies, abortions and births in South Africa (2015-2030). The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) was increased annually by 0.68 percentage points. The Lives Saved Tool was used to estimate maternal and child deaths, with coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions increasing by 5% annually. A scenario analysis was done to test impacts when: the change in CPR was 0.1% annually; and intervention coverage increased linearly to 99% in 2030. Results If CPR increased by 0.68% annually, the number of pregnancies would reduce from 1.3 million in 2014 to one million in 2030. Unintended pregnancies, abortions and births decrease by approximately 20%. Family planning can avert approximately 7,000 newborn and child and 600 maternal deaths. The total annual costs of providing modern contraception in 2030 are estimated to be US$33 million and the cost per user of modern contraception is US$7 per year. The incremental cost per life year gained is US$40 for children and US$1,000 for mothers. Conclusion Maternal and child mortality remain high in South Africa, and scaling up family planning together with optimal maternal, newborn and child care is crucial. A huge impact can be made on maternal and child mortality, with a minimal investment per user of modern contraception. PMID:26076482

  4. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  5. Scaling up beyond 'pills and skills': preventing parent-to-child HIV/AIDS transmission and the public/private divide in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Megan S

    2009-10-01

    This paper argues that current HIV/AIDS intervention models in southern India--in particular, those targeting the prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT)--underutilize the private sector and thereby compromise an efficient integration of HIV/AIDS humanitarian responses into India's health development system. While PPTCT is a critical strategy for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic-particularly in countries like India, where prevalence rates among young women are escalating-the cascade of prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum PPTCT interventions are often difficult for women and spouses to access as a result of socio-cultural, structural and economic obstacles. Recognizing the complex ecologies within which PPTCT interventions must take place, qualitative analysis focussed on current PPTCT gaps in southern India and how healthcare providers and policymakers are moving to scale-up PPTCT by integrating into maternal, child and reproductive health services. Fieldwork highlighted a particularly stark gap in PPTCT delivery-the divide in scale-up efforts between public facilities and the private sector, which provides over 50% of national antenatal services. The private sector often serves as women's first point of healthcare contact, as they will avoid reputably poor-quality public facilities; vulnerable groups (e.g. rural and urban poor, tribal communities) are also seeking out subsidized private care, notably in faith-based facilities. Recognizing the need to revise the current humanitarian and health response, this paper details initial efforts to integrate into private care, with aim to present practitioners' successes, challenges and good practices for use in cross learning and a foundation for future research. This paper's analysis makes recommendations for key PPTCT providers and emphasizes the need to: (a) saturate PPTCT services in the private sector, and (b) strengthen mechanisms for integrating PPTCT across sector (private, public, and civil society

  6. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Katharine D; Ansbro, Éimhín M; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Gill, Michelle M; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  7. Scaling up access to antiretroviral drugs in a middle-income country: public sector drug delivery in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Francois; Schneider, Helen; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; van Rensburg-Bonthuyzen, Ega Janse; Jacobs, Nandipha; van Rensburg, Dingie H C J

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the distribution and management of drugs and supplies in scaling up access to public sector antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a middle-income country. More specifically, a case study of the Free State Province of South Africa is presented focusing on: the mobilisation and training of pharmaceutical staff for ART, processes related to the ordering, distribution and storage of medicines, continuity of ART supplies and the impact of ART delivery on other drugs and supplies. Data were obtained from longitudinal research conducted between April 2004 and July 2006 comprising three surveys of the first 20 health facilities providing ART in the province, key informant interviews and observations made of provincial ART Task Team meetings. The supply of ART in the Province was managed through the existing drug supply system but with special mechanisms to ensure integrity of ART supplies and security of stock within the existing supply system. Initial hiccups in the procurement of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for South Africa (a national function) caused delays in putting patients on ART, although these supply problems were short-lived. At provincial level, not all pharmacist posts created for the programme were filled, and pharmacists working in the rest of the health system were subsequently trained to take on ART programme functions. Electronic systems were not established at all service sites, which in part contributed to delays in the delivery of drugs and supplies to more peripheral units. Adequate space to safely store ARV drugs remained problematic. The introduction of the ART programme did not create disruptions in the supply of non-ART essential drugs, which in fact improved over the period of observation. It is concluded that despite some process, human resource and infrastructural challenges, the drug management system in the Free State succeeded in incorporating public sector ART within its existing drug distribution network and functions, at

  8. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  9. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  10. Numerical Study of Pyrolysis of Biomass in Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Lathouwers, Danny

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a numerical-simulation study of pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized-bed reactors, performed by use of the mathematical model described in Model of Fluidized Bed Containing Reacting Solids and Gases (NPO-30163), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of various operating conditions on the efficiency of production of condensable tar from biomass. The numerical results indicate that for a fixed particle size, the fluidizing-gas temperature is the foremost parameter that affects the tar yield. For the range of fluidizing-gas temperatures investigated, and under the assumption that the pyrolysis rate exceeds the feed rate, the optimum steady-state tar collection was found to occur at 750 K. In cases in which the assumption was not valid, the optimum temperature for tar collection was found to be only slightly higher. Scaling up of the reactor was found to exert a small negative effect on tar collection at the optimal operating temperature. It is also found that slightly better scaling is obtained by use of shallower fluidized beds with greater fluidization velocities.

  11. Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassine, M; Henry, F; Guerin, P; Briand, X

    2002-08-21

    The conventional agriculture leads to some important pollution of ground water (particularly, by nitrates). The solution is the coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. In this work, we have studied the water vapour and liquid diffusion through polymer films detached from their support. Therefore, we may classify polymers as a function of their properties like water vapour and liquid barrier. We may choose the best polymer(s) for coating.coated fertilizers by chosen polymer(s) with mechanical techniques such as fluidised bed and pan coating. Moreover, the electron microscopy used to see the quality of the wall has showed the presence of pores due to the rapid evaporation of solvent. A drying in air current and an annealing could be done to avoid this problem.followed the ions release of fertilizers immersed in distilled water by conductimetry. The more interesting result was obtained with fertilizers coated by polylactic acid. In effect, the total release reached three weeks.

  12. The HIV Treatment Gap: Estimates of the Financial Resources Needed versus Available for Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy in 97 Countries from 2015 to 2020.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin Dutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO released revised guidelines in 2015 recommending that all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART upon diagnosis. However, few studies have projected the global resources needed for rapid scale-up of ART. Under the Health Policy Project, we conducted modeling analyses for 97 countries to estimate eligibility for and numbers on ART from 2015 to 2020, along with the facility-level financial resources required. We compared the estimated financial requirements to estimated funding available.Current coverage levels and future need for treatment were based on country-specific epidemiological and demographic data. Simulated annual numbers of individuals on treatment were derived from three scenarios: (1 continuation of countries' current policies of eligibility for ART, (2 universal adoption of aspects of the WHO 2013 eligibility guidelines, and (3 expanded eligibility as per the WHO 2015 guidelines and meeting the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS "90-90-90" ART targets. We modeled uncertainty in the annual resource requirements for antiretroviral drugs, laboratory tests, and facility-level personnel and overhead. We estimate that 25.7 (95% CI 25.5, 26.0 million adults and 1.57 (95% CI 1.55, 1.60 million children could receive ART by 2020 if countries maintain current eligibility plans and increase coverage based on historical rates, which may be ambitious. If countries uniformly adopt aspects of the WHO 2013 guidelines, 26.5 (95% CI 26.0 27.0 million adults and 1.53 (95% CI 1.52, 1.55 million children could be on ART by 2020. Under the 90-90-90 scenario, 30.4 (95% CI 30.1, 30.7 million adults and 1.68 (95% CI 1.63, 1.73 million children could receive treatment by 2020. The facility-level financial resources needed for scaling up ART in these countries from 2015 to 2020 are estimated to be US$45.8 (95% CI 45.4, 46.2 billion under the current scenario, US$48.7 (95

  13. Scale-up study on combustibility and emission formation with two biomass fuels (B quality wood and pepper plant residue) under BFB conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif Ahmed; de Jong, Wiebren; Jansens, Peter Johannes [Department of Process and Energy, Section Energy Technology, Faculty 3ME, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, NL-2628 CA, Delft (Netherlands); Aho, Martti; Vainikka, Pasi [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Spliethoff, Hartmut [TU Munich, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Kraftanlagen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller reactor. Traditional flue gases were analyzed. In addition, impactor measurements were carried out to determine the mass flow of the finest fly ash and toxic elements. These measurements were compared with EU emission directives for biomass co-incineration. It was possible to combust DW without operational problems. However, the DW was contaminated with lead, which tended to get strongly enriched in the fine fly ash. Pb tends to be adsorbed on the measurement line surfaces stronger than many other toxic elements and therefore proved difficult to collect and measure. Enrichment of Pb in the fine fly ash can be weakened by co-firing DW with PPR. Increasing the share of PPR up to 50% markedly reduces the toxic metal concentration in the finest fly ash. This, however, leads to increased mass flow of fine fly ash and increases the potential risks of operational problems such as bed agglomeration and fouling. (author)

  14. Microarray-based gene expression analysis as a process characterization tool to establish comparability of complex biological products: scale-up of a whole-cell immunotherapy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Senger, Ryan S; Paredes, Carlos; Banik, Gautam G; Lin, Andy; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2009-11-01

    Whole-cell immunotherapies and other cellular therapies have shown promising results in clinical trials. Due to the complex nature of the whole cell product and of the sometimes limited correlation of clinical potency with the proposed mechanism of action, these cellular immunotherapy products are generally not considered well characterized. Therefore, one major challenge in the product development of whole cell therapies is the ability to demonstrate comparability of product after changes in the manufacturing process. Such changes are nearly inevitable with increase in manufacturing experience leading to improved and robust processes that may have higher commercial feasibility. In order to comprehensively assess the impact of the process changes on the final product, and thus establish comparability, a matrix of characterization assays (in addition to lot release assays) assessing the various aspects of the cellular product are required. In this study, we assessed the capability of DNA-microarray-based, gene-expression analysis as a characterization tool using GVAX cancer immunotherapy cells manufactured by Cell Genesys, Inc. The GVAX immunotherapy product consists two prostate cancer cell lines (CG1940 and CG8711) engineered to secrete human GM-CSF. To demonstrate the capability of the assay, we assessed the transcriptional changes in the product when produced in the presence or absence of fetal bovine serum, and under normal and hypoxic conditions, both changes intended to stress the cell lines. We then assessed the impact of an approximately 10-fold process scale-up on the final product at the transcriptional level. These data were used to develop comparisons and statistical analyses suitable for characterizing culture reproducibility and cellular product similarity. Use of gene-expression data for process characterization proved to be a reproducible and sensitive method for detecting differences due to small or large changes in culture conditions as might be

  15. The significant scale up and success of Transmission Assessment Surveys 'TAS' for endgame surveillance of lymphatic filariasis in Bangladesh: One step closer to the elimination goal of 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohammad J.; Azad, Motasim B.; Mahmood, A. S. M. Sultan; Khair, Abul; Rahman, Muhammad Mujibur; Hafiz, Israt; Ramaiah, K. D.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Mableson, Hayley E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bangladesh had one of the highest burdens of lymphatic filariasis (LF) at the start of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) with an estimated 70 million people at risk of infection across 34 districts. In total 19 districts required mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission, and 15 districts were considered low endemic. Since 2001, the National LF Programme has implemented MDA, reduced prevalence, and been able to scale up the WHO standard Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) across all endemic districts as part of its endgame surveillance strategy. This paper presents TAS results, highlighting the momentous geographical reduction in risk of LF and its contribution to the global elimination target of 2020. Methodology/Principal findings The TAS assessed primary school children for the presence of LF antigenaemia in each district (known as an evaluation unit—EU), using a defined critical cut-off threshold (or ‘pass’) that indicates interruption of transmission. Since 2011, a total of 59 TAS have been conducted in 26 EUs across the 19 endemic MDA districts (99,148 students tested from 1,801 schools), and 22 TAS in the 15 low endemic non-MDA districts (36,932 students tested from 663 schools). All endemic MDA districts passed TAS, except in Rangpur which required two further rounds of MDA. In total 112 students (male n = 59; female n = 53), predominately from the northern region of the country were found to be antigenaemia positive, indicating a recent or current infection. However, the distribution was geographically sparse, with only two small focal areas showing potential evidence of persistent transmission. Conclusions/Significance This is the largest scale up of TAS surveillance activities reported in any of the 73 LF endemic countries in the world. Bangladesh is now considered to have very low or no risk of LF infection after 15 years of programmatic activities, and is on track to meet elimination targets

  16. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27

  17. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  18. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  19. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  1. Operational modelling to guide implementation and scale-up of diagnostic tests within the health system: exploring opportunities for parasitic disease diagnostics based on example application for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ivor; Adams, Emily; Doulla, Basra; Squire, S Bertel

    2014-12-01

    Research and innovation in the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases has led to the development of several promising diagnostic tools, for example in malaria there is extensive literature concerning the use of rapid diagnostic tests. This means policymakers in many low and middle income countries need to make difficult decisions about which of the recommended tools and approaches to implement and scale-up. The test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of the tools alone are not a sufficient basis on which to make these decisions as policymakers need to also consider the best combination of tools, whether the new tools should complement or replace existing diagnostics and who should be tested. Diagnostic strategies need dovetailing to different epidemiology and structural resource constraints (e.g. existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose operational modelling to assist with these complex decisions. Projections of patient, health system and cost impacts are essential and operational modelling of the relevant elements of the health system could provide these projections and support rational decisions. We demonstrate how the technique of operational modelling applied in the developing world to support decisions on diagnostics for tuberculosis, could in a parallel way, provide useful insights to support implementation of appropriate diagnostic innovations for parasitic diseases.

  2. Scale-up protein separation on stainless steel wide bore toroidal columns in the type-J counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue Hugh; Hewitson, Peter; van den Heuvel, Remco N A M; Zhao, Yan; Siebers, Rick P G; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Sutherland, Ian

    2015-12-11

    Manufacturing high-value added biotech biopharmaceutical products (e.g. therapeutic proteins) requires quick-to-develop, GMP-compliant, easy-to-scale and cost effective preparatory chromatography technologies. In this work, we describe the construction and testing of a set of 5-mm inner diameter stainless steel toroidal columns for use on commercially available preparatory scale synchronous J-type counter-current chromatography (CCC) machinery. We used a 20.2m long column with an aqueous two-phase system containing 14% (w/w) PEG1000 and 14% (w/w) potassium phosphate at pH 7, and tested a sample loading of 5% column volume and a mobile phase flow rate of 20ml/min. We then satisfactorily demonstrated the potential for a weekly protein separation and preparation throughput of ca. 11g based on a normal weekly routine for separating a pair of model proteins by making five stacked injections on a single portion of stationary phase with no stripping. Compared to our previous 1.6mm bore PTFE toroidal column, the present columns enlarged the nominal column processing throughput by nearly 10. For an ideal model protein injection modality, we observed a scaling up factor of at least 21. The 2 scales of protein separation and purification steps were realized on the same commercial CCC device.

  3. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  4. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  5. Platotex: an innovative and fully automated device for cell growth scale-up of agar-supported solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Slimani, Noureddine; Cortial, Sylvie; Schmitz-Alfonso, Isabelle; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2011-02-01

    Among various factors that influence the production of microbial secondary metabolites (MSM), the method of cultivation is an important one that has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to increase microbial throughput and simplify the extraction and workup steps, we performed a study to compare liquid-state fermentation (LSF) with agar-supported solid-state fermentation (AgSF). We found that AgSF is not only more suitable for our applications but offers, for some microbial strains, a higher yield and broader diversity of secondary metabolites. The main limitation of AgSF is the lack of a system to allow production scale-up. In order to overcome this obstacle we developed Platotex, an original fermentation unit offering 2 m(2) of cultivation surface that combines automatic sterilization, cultivation, and drying steps. Platotex is also able to support both LSF and solid-state fermentation (SSF). Platotex conforms to international security and quality requirements and benefits from total remote automation through industrial communication and control standards.

  6. Meaningful change or more of the same? The Global Fund's new funding model and the politics of HIV scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the fourth decade of HIV and AIDS, sustainability of treatment and prevention programmes is a growing concern in an environment of shrinking resources. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) will be critical to maintaining current trajectories of scale-up and ultimately, ensuring access to HIV treatment and prevention for people in low/middle-income countries. The authors' prior research in India, Zambia and South Africa contributed evidence on the politics and impact of new institutional and funding arrangements, revealing a 'rhetoric-reality gap' in their impact on health systems, civil society participation, and achievement of population health. With its new funding strategy and disbursement model, the Fund proposes dramatic changes to its approach, emphasising value for money, greater fund predictability and flexibility and more proactive engagement in recipient countries, while foregrounding a human rights approach. This paper reviews the Fund's new strategy and examines its potential to respond to key criticisms concerning health systems impact, particularly the elite nature of this funding mechanism that generates competition between public and private sectors and marginalises local voices. The authors analyse strategy documents against their own research and published literature and reflect on whether the changes are likely to address challenges faced in bringing HIV programmes to scale and their likely effect on AIDS politics.

  7. A novel wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TSH1 in scaling-up of solid-state fermentation of ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Du

    Full Text Available The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY. These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol.

  8. The Frequency of High-Risk Behaviors Among Iranian College Students Using Indirect Methods: Network Scale-Up and Crosswise Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the direct questions usually underestimate the frequency of sensitive behaviors, indirect methods can be used to estimate the frequency of some risky behaviors such as illicit drug use, sexual behaviors especially where these behaviors are highly stigmatized. Objectives In the current study, we indirectly estimated the prevalence of some risky behaviors among college students using two indirect methods: network scale-up (NSU and crosswise model (CM. Patients and Methods Having recruited 563 students from one of Iran’s major medical universities, the prevalence of opium and drug use, alcohol consumption, relationships with the opposite sex (RWOS,and extra/pre-marital sex (EPMS were estimated using two indirect methods. Results The estimated prevalence using the CM and NSU were alcohol consumption (16.8% vs. 8.1%, opium use (2.2% both, methamphetamine use (7.2% vs. 1.2%, taking tramadol without medical indications (14.8% vs. 4.8%, RWOS (42.3% vs. 31.9%, and EPMS (12.4% vs. 7.1%. Conclusions Lower estimations in the NSU method might be due to the transmission barrier, which means that students were not fully aware of the high-risk behaviors of their close friends. Nonetheless, it seems that these risky behaviors were more or less common among Iranian college students.

  9. Predictable and linear scale-up of four phenolic alkaloids separation from the roots of Menispermum dauricum using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Houding; Peng, Ming; Ye, Haoyu; Chen, Lijuan; Peng, Aihua; Tang, Minghai; Zhang, Fan; Shi, Jie

    2010-07-15

    This paper describes how distribution ratios were used for prediction of peak elution in analytical high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) to explore the method for separation and purification of bioactive compounds from the roots of Menispermum dauricum. Then important parameters related to HPCCC separations including solvent systems, sample concentration, sample loading volume and flow rate were optimized on an analytical Mini-DE HPCCC and finally linearly scaled up to a preparative Midi-DE HPCCC with nearly the same resolutions and separation time. Four phenolic alkaloids were for the first time obtained by HPCCC separation with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). This process produced 131.3 mg daurisolin, 197.1 mg dauricine, 32.4 mg daurinoline and 14.7 mg dauricicoline with the purity of 97.6%, 96.4%, 97.2% and 98.3%, respectively from 500 mg crude extract of the roots of M. dauricum in a one-step separation. The purities of compounds were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

  10. Experimental study and Monte Carlo modeling of object motion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    OpenAIRE

    García Gutiérrez, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Fluidized beds are employed for a wide variety of applications such as drying, coating of particles, catalytic reactions, or thermal conversion processes. In a number of these applications, objects differing in density and/or size from the dense phase material are found in the bed. These objects can be agglomerates, catalysts or reactants. In this PhD thesis, a fundamental study of the motion of objects is presented, but considering also the main characteristics of the thermal ...

  11. Chaotic Study in a Large Jetting Fluidized Bed with a Vertical Nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@1 INTRODUCTION Jetting fluidized beds have been widely applied in such processes as catalytic and flame reactions, combustion and gasification of coal, treatment of waste, cleaning of dusty gases, coating and granulation[1-3]. The flow characteristics of jetting fiuidized beds are relevant to the stable gas jet and the high rates of heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fast chemical reaction pro cess near the gas distributor.

  12. Scaling up manufacturing of ZnO thin layers for application in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells; Aufskalierung der Herstellung von ZnO-Duennschichten fuer die Anwendung in flexiblen farbstoffsensibilisierten Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Florian

    2012-10-19

    to demonstrate the suitability for scale-up of the fabrication method of ZnO/eosin Y hybrid layers. This miniplant setup was characterised in detail and appropriate deposition parameters have been determined. Porous ZnO layers have been prepared successfully on FTO glass substrates on an area of 38.88 cm{sup 2} and on ITO-PET plastic substrates on an area of 34.56 cm{sup 2}. The suitability of the fabricated layers for the assembly of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells has been demonstrated by means of several operative modules. While these modules achieved decent conversion efficiencies of up to 2.58 % under low light intensities, strongly decreasing conversion efficiencies were observed with increasing light intensities. Too high series resistances have been identified as the cause. (orig.)

  13. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  14. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  15. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.

  16. High Retention Among HIV-infected Children in Rwanda During Scale-up and Decentralization of HIV Care and Treatment Programs, 2004 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, Gilbert; Lahuerta, Maria; Teasdale, Chloe; Mugisha, Veronicah; Kayonde, Leonard; Muhayimpundu, Ribakare; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Vandebriel, Greet; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Sahabo, Ruben; Twyman, Peter; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to scale-up HIV treatment in high burden countries have resulted in wider access to care, improved survival and decreased morbidity for HIV-infected children. The country of Rwanda has made significant achievements in expanding coverage of pediatric HIV services. Methods We describe the extent of and factors associated with mortality and lost to follow-up (LTF) in children (HIV care at 39 ICAP-supported facilities across Rwanda from 2004 to 2010 by antiretroviral treatment (ART) status. We estimated the 1-year cumulative incidence of death and LTF among all children enrolled in care (pre-ART) and children on ART. Survival analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with death and LTF in both groups. Results Between January 2004 and June 2010, 3244 children with a median age of 5.7 years (interquartile range 2.8–9.6) enrolled in HIV care. One-year cumulative incidence for death and LTF among pre-ART children was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3–5%) and 5% (95% CI: 4–6%), respectively. Overall, 2035 (63%) children initiated ART, median age 6.3 years (interquartile range 3.3–10.4): 1-year Kaplan–Meier estimates of death and LTF were 3% (95% CI: 3–4%) and 1% (95% CI: 1–2%), respectively. Factors associated with an increased hazard for death among pre-ART children included being HIV care in Rwanda. Younger children continue to be particularly vulnerable, underscoring the urgent need for early identification, rapid treatment initiation and long-term retention in care. PMID:23407098

  17. Is scale-up of community mobilisation among sex workers really possible in complex urban environments? The case of Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anine Kongelf

    Full Text Available In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs have been scaled-up in India's national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments.Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as 'sex workers'. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more 'hidden' ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and 'pimps' continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous 'community' of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported.Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support

  18. A community empowerment approach to the HIV response among sex workers: effectiveness, challenges, and considerations for implementation and scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Morgan-Thomas, Ruth; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Mwangi, Peninah; Win, Kay Thi; McFall, Allison; Fonner, Virginia A; Butler, Jennifer

    2015-01-10

    A community empowerment-based response to HIV is a process by which sex workers take collective ownership of programmes to achieve the most effective HIV outcomes and address social and structural barriers to their overall health and human rights. Community empowerment has increasingly gained recognition as a key approach for addressing HIV in sex workers, with its focus on addressing the broad context within which the heightened risk for infection takes places in these individuals. However, large-scale implementation of community empowerment-based approaches has been scarce. We undertook a comprehensive review of community empowerment approaches for addressing HIV in sex workers. Within this effort, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of community empowerment in sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries. We found that community empowerment-based approaches to addressing HIV among sex workers were significantly associated with reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and with increases in consistent condom use with all clients. Despite the promise of a community-empowerment approach, we identified formidable structural barriers to implementation and scale-up at various levels. These barriers include regressive international discourses and funding constraints; national laws criminalising sex work; and intersecting social stigmas, discrimination, and violence. The evidence base for community empowerment in sex workers needs to be strengthened and diversified, including its role in aiding access to, and uptake of, combination interventions for HIV prevention. Furthermore, social and political change are needed regarding the recognition of sex work as work, both globally and locally, to encourage increased support for community empowerment responses to HIV.

  19. Screening by imaging: scaling up single-DNA-molecule analysis with a novel parabolic VA-TIRF reflector and noise-reduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hoff, Marcel; Reuter, Marcel; Dryden, David T F; Oheim, Martin

    2009-09-21

    Bacteriophage lambda-DNA molecules are frequently used as a scaffold to characterize the action of single proteins unwinding, translocating, digesting or repairing DNA. However, scaling up such single-DNA-molecule experiments under identical conditions to attain statistically relevant sample sizes remains challenging. Additionally the movies obtained are frequently noisy and difficult to analyse with any precision. We address these two problems here using, firstly, a novel variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence (VA-TIRF) reflector composed of a minimal set of optical reflective elements, and secondly, using single value decomposition (SVD) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio prior to analysing time-lapse image stacks. As an example, we visualize under identical optical conditions hundreds of surface-tethered single lambda-DNA molecules, stained with the intercalating dye YOYO-1 iodide, and stretched out in a microcapillary flow. Another novelty of our approach is that we arrange on a mechanically driven stage several capillaries containing saline, calibration buffer and lambda-DNA, respectively, thus extending the approach to high-content, high-throughput screening of single molecules. Our length measurements of individual DNA molecules from noise-reduced kymograph images using SVD display a 6-fold enhanced precision compared to raw-data analysis, reaching approximately 1 kbp resolution. Combining these two methods, our approach provides a straightforward yet powerful way of collecting statistically relevant amounts of data in a semi-automated manner. We believe that our conceptually simple technique should be of interest for a broader range of single-molecule studies, well beyond the specific example of lambda-DNA shown here.

  20. Effect of RANS-Type Turbulence Models on Adiabatic Film Cooling Effectiveness over a Scaled Up Gas Turbine Blade Leading Edge Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepuri, Giridhara Babu; Talanki Puttarangasetty, Ashok Babu; Kolke, Deepak Kumar; Jesuraj, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature is one of the key technologies in raising gas turbine engine power output. Film cooling is one of the efficient cooling techniques to cool the hot section components of a gas turbine engines in turn the turbine inlet temperature can be increased. This study aims at investigating the effect of RANS-type turbulence models on adiabatic film cooling effectiveness over a scaled up gas turbine blade leading edge surfaces. For the evaluation, five different two equation RANS-type turbulent models have been taken in consideration, which are available in the ANSYS-Fluent. For this analysis, the gas turbine blade leading edge configuration is generated using Solid Works. The meshing is done using ANSYS-Workbench Mesh and ANSYS-Fluent is used as a solver to solve the flow field. The considered gas turbine blade leading edge model is having five rows of film cooling circular holes, one at stagnation line and the two each on either side of stagnation line at 30° and 60° respectively. Each row has the five holes with the hole diameter of 4 mm, pitch of 21 mm arranged in staggered manner and has the hole injection angle of 30° in span wise direction. The experiments are carried in a subsonic cascade tunnel facility at heat transfer lab of CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratory with a Reynolds number of 1,00,000 based on leading edge diameter. From the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation it is found that K-ɛ Realizable model gives more acceptable results with the experimental values, compared to the other considered turbulence models for this type of geometries. Further the CFD evaluated results, using K-ɛ Realizable model at different blowing ratios are compared with the experimental results.

  1. Revisiting a universal airborne light detection and ranging approach for tropical forest carbon mapping: scaling-up from tree to stand to landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Grégoire; Sabatier, Daniel; Rutishauser, Ervan

    2014-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning provides continuous coverage mapping of forest canopy height and thereby is a powerful tool to scale-up above-ground biomass (AGB) estimates from stand to landscape. A critical first step is the selection of the plot variables which can be related to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) statistics. A universal approach was previously proposed which combines local and regional estimates of basal area (BA) and wood density with LiDAR-derived canopy height to map carbon at a regional scale (Asner et al. in Oecologia 168:1147-1160, 2012). Here we explore the contribution of stem diameter distribution, specific wood density and height-diameter (H-D) allometry to forest stand AGB and propose an alternative model. By applying the new model to a large tropical forest data set we show that an appropriate choice of input variables is essential to minimize prediction error of stand AGB which will propagate at larger scale. Stem number (N) and average stem cross-sectional area should be used instead of BA when scaling from tree to plot. Stand quadratic mean diameter above the census threshold diameter size should be preferred over stand mean diameter as it reduces the prediction error of stand AGB by a factor of ten. Wood density should be weighted by stem volume per species instead of BA. LiDAR-derived statistics should prove useful for estimating local H-D allometries as well as mapping N and the mean quadratic diameter above 10 cm at the landscape level. Prior stratification into forest types is likely to improve both estimation procedures significantly and is considered the foremost current challenge.

  2. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  3. Proposal of a framework for scale-up life cycle inventory: A case of nanofibers for lithium iron phosphate cathode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bálint; Bachtin, Krystyna; Kiliç, Ali; Amor, Ben; Weil, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Environmental assessments are crucial for the management of the environmental impacts of a product in a rapidly developing world. The design phase creates opportunities for acting on the environmental issues of products using life cycle assessment (LCA). However, the LCA is hampered by a lack of information originating from distinct scales along the product or technology value chain. Many studies have been undertaken to handle similar problems, but these studies are case-specific and do not analyze the development options in the initial design phase. Thus, systematic studies are needed to determine the possible scaling. Knowledge from such screening studies would open the door for developing new methods that can tackle a given scaling problem. The present article proposes a scale-up procedure that aims to generate a new life cycle inventory (LCI) on a theoretical industrial scale, based on information from laboratory experiments. Three techniques are described to obtain the new LCI. Investigation of a laboratory-scale procedure is discussed to find similar industrial processes as a benchmark for describing a theoretical large-scale production process. Furthermore, LCA was performed on a model system of nanofiber electrospinning for Li-ion battery cathode applications. The LCA results support material developers in identifying promising development pathways. For example, the present study pointed out the significant impacts of dimethylformamide on suspension preparation and the power requirements of distinct electrospinning subprocesses. Nanofiber-containing battery cells had greater environmental impacts than did the reference cell, although they had better electrochemical performance, such as better wettability of the electrode, improving the electrode's electrosorption capacity, and longer expected lifetime. Furthermore, material and energy recovery throughout the production chain could decrease the environmental impacts by 40% to 70%, making the nanofiber a

  4. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  5. Challenges to the scale-up of the Nigerian National Health Insurance Scheme: Public knowledge and opinions in urban Kano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U M Lawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study examined the challenges in the implementation and scale-up of the National Health insurance Scheme (NHIS in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : We designed this descriptive cross-sectional study to investigate the knowledge and opinions of 150 randomly selected adults in urban Kano regarding the NHIS. Data was analyzed using Epi Info™ 3.2.05 statistical software. Respondents′ knowledge of NHIS was scored and graded using a system adapted from previous studies. Results : The mean age of respondents was 39.1 ± 11.1 years, and the majority were currently married (76.7%, males (76.0%, had formal education (82.0%, and were civil servants (52.7%. More than half (52.0% of the respondents had poor knowledge of the NHIS. Respondents′ knowledge of NHIS did not differ significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, or occupation. Although the majority (74.7% opined that the NHIS is a good initiative, a significant proportion was pessimistic about the scheme: 31.3% said that it is a good scheme but not practicable and 28.0% felt that it is only for the rich. Conclusion : In view of the poor level of knowledge and the pessimism about the NHIS, the government/NHIS office should expedite the implementation of the package for the under-five children and/or the disabled to demonstrate the usefulness of the scheme. The Federal Ministry of Health, the NHIS, and the development partners should intensify efforts for public enlightenment, using electronic and print media as well as other traditional methods of communication.

  6. Supporting the massive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy: the evolution of PEPFAR-supported treatment facilities in South Africa, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Elysia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has an estimated 1.5 million persons in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART. In 2004, the South African government began collaborating with the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR to increase access to ART. We determined how PEPFAR treatment support changed from 2005-2009. Methods In order to describe the change in number and type of PEPFAR-supported ART facilities, we analyzed routinely collected program-monitoring data from 2005-2009. The collected data included the number, type and province of facilities as well as the number of patients receiving ART at each facility. Results The number of PEPFAR-supported facilities providing ART increased from 184 facilities in 2005 to 1,469 facilities in 2009. From 2005-2009 the number of PEPFAR-supported government facilities increased 10.1 fold from 54 to 546 while the number of PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities (including general practitioner and NGO facilities increased 6.2 fold from 114 to 708. In 2009 the total number of persons treated at PEPFAR-supported NGO facilities was 43,577 versus 501,089 persons at PEPFAR-supported government facilities. Overall, the median number of patients receiving ART per site increased from 81 in 2005 to 136 in 2009. Conclusions To mitigate the gap between those needing and those receiving ART, more facilities were supported. The proportion of government facilities supported and the median number of persons treated at these facilities increased. This shift could potentially be sustainable as government sites reach more individuals and receive government funding. These results demonstrate that PEPFAR was able to support a massive scale-up of ART services in a short period of time.

  7. Challenges Facing Successful Scaling Up of Effective Screening for Cardiovascular Disease by Community Health Workers in Mexico and South Africa: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Abrahams-Gessel; Denman, CA; TA, Gaziano; NS, Levitt; T, Puoane

    2016-01-01

    The integration of community health workers (CHWs) into primary and secondary prevention functions in health programs and services delivery in Mexico and South Africa has been demonstrated to be effective. Task-sharing related to adherence and treatment, from nurses to CHWs, has also been effectively demonstrated in these areas. HIV/AIDS and TB programs in South Africa have seen similar successes in task-sharing with CHWs in the areas of screening for risk and adherence to treatment. In the area of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is a policy commitment to integrating CHWs into primary health care programs at public health facilities in both Mexico and South Africa in the areas of reproductive health and infant health. Yet current programs utilizing CHWs are not integrated into existing primary health care services in a comprehensive manner for primary and secondary prevention of NCDs. In a recently completed study, CHWs were trained to perform the basic diagnostic function of primary screening to assess the risk of suffering a CVD-related event in the community using a non-laboratory risk assessment tool and referring persons at moderate to high risk to local government clinics, for further assessment and management by a nurse or physician. In this paper we compare the experience with this CVD screening study to successful programs in vaccination, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, and TB specifically to identify the barriers we identified as limitations to replicating these programs in the area of CVD diagnosis and management. We review barriers impacting the effective translation of policy into practice, including scale up issues; training and certification issues; integrating CHW to existing primary care teams and health system; funding and resource gaps. Finally, we suggest policy recommendations to replicate the demonstrated success of programs utilizing task-sharing with CHWs in infectious diseases and reproductive health, to integrated programs in NCD

  8. Modeling the microbial growth and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Christian L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Salau, Nina P G

    2014-10-01

    Aiming to scale up and apply control and optimization strategies, currently is required the development of accurate plant models to forecast the process nonlinear dynamics. In this work, a mathematical model to predict the growth of the Kluyveromyces marxianus and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was built up. A parameter estimation technique was performed to fit the mathematical model to the experimental data. The estimated parameters and the model fitness were evaluated with statistical analyses. The results have shown the estimated parameters significance, with 95 % confidence intervals, and the good quality of process model to reproduce the experimental data.

  9. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  10. A Comparison of the Potential Capability of SFS, SPS and HVSFS for the Production of Photocatalytic Titania Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B.; Tabecki, A.; Paul, S.; Shi, G.; Mills, A.; Parkin, I. P.; Darr, J. A.; de Villiers Lovelock, H. L.

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic capabilities of titanium dioxide are widely published. Reported applications of titania coatings include air purification, water purification and self-cleaning. Suspension spray has been highlighted as a possible route for the deposition of highly active nanostructured TiO2 coatings. Published work has demonstrated the capabilities of suspension plasma spray and high-velocity suspension flame spray; however, little work exists for suspension flame spray (SFS). Herein, these three suspension spray processes are compared as regards their capability to produce photocatalytic TiO2 coatings and their potential for industrial scale-up. A range of coatings were produced using each process, manipulating coating parameters in order to vary phase composition and other coating characteristics to modify the activity. The coatings produced varied significantly between the processes with SFS being the most effective technique as regards future scale-up and coating photoactivity. SFS coatings were found to be up to nine times more active than analogous coating produced by CVD.

  11. Fluidized bed spray granulation: analysis of heat and mass transfers and dynamic particle populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heinrich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A model was developed taking into consideration the heat and mass transfer processes in liquid-sprayed fluidized beds. Such fluidized beds (FB are used for granulation, coating and agglomeration. Conclusions are drawn on the relevance of particle dispersion, spraying and drying to temperature and concentrations distributions. In extension, the model was coupled with a population balance model to describe the particle size distribution and the seeds formation for continuous external FBSG (fluidized bed spray granulation with non-classifying product discharge and a screening and milling unit in the seeds recycle. The effects of seeds formation on the stability of the process is discussed.

  12. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... that graphene can still be a relevant candidate for thin coatings....

  13. A New Mathematical Model for Description of the Liquid Discrete Flow Within a Packed Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-shan; MU Xiao-jing; ZHENG Shao-bo; JIANG Guo-chang; XIAO Xing-guo; WANG Wen-zhong

    2008-01-01

    The molten liquid discrete flow inside a packed bed is a typical transport phenomenon in the blast furnace.As for the reportcd mathematieal models presenting the liquid discrete flow within the packed bed,there are some barriers for their application to an engineering scale-up,or some imperfections in model descriptions. To overcome these deficieneies,the effects of the packed bed on the liquid discrete flow have been divided into reststance action and dispcrsal action,and appropriate descriptions have been given for thc two actions,respectively.Consequently,a new mathematical model has been built to present the liquid discrete flow inside a coke bed in the blast furnace. The mathcmatical model can predict the distribution of liquid flux and the liquid flowing range inside the packed bed at any time.The prediction of this model accords well with the experimental data.The model will be much better for the simulation of the ironmaking process,compared with the existent model.

  14. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  15. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  16. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  17. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Clare; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Sinyangwe, Chomba; Mubiru, Denis; Ssekitooleko, James; Meier, Joslyn; Gbanya, Miatta; Tibenderana, James K; Counihan, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) over the last five years. All key in-country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions), and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre-agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This qualitative study is a

  18. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuete M

    2016-10-01

    abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001. However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT significantly increased after the educational counseling interventions (P=0.001.Conclusion: Scaling up the FPS by incorporating routine PMTCT services into reproductive health care should contribute to preventing both horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. Keywords: contraception, HIV infected women, transmission, interventions, education

  19. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    significantly increased after the educational counseling interventions (P=0.001). Conclusion Scaling up the FPS by incorporating routine PMTCT services into reproductive health care should contribute to preventing both horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:27757019

  20. Costing of scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment in Mexico Costos del tratamiento de VIH/SIDA en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the net effect of introducing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART in Mexico on total annual per-patient costs for HIV/AIDS care, taking into account potential savings from treatment of opportunistic infections and hospitalizations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective patient chart review and collection of unit cost data were performed to describe the utilization of services and estimate costs of care for 1003 adult HIV+ patients in the public sector. RESULTS: HAART is not cost-saving and the average annual cost per patient increases after initiation of HAART due to antiretrovirals, accounting for 90% of total costs. Hospitalizations do decrease post-HAART, but not enough to offset the increased cost. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up access to HAART is feasible in middle income settings. Since antiretrovirals are so costly, optimizing efficiency in procurement and prescribing is paramount. The observed adherence was low, suggesting that a proportion of these high drug costs translated into limited health benefits.OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto neto de la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TARAA en México sobre los costos anuales totales por paciente en el tratamiento de VIH/SIDA, tomando en cuenta el posible ahorro en el tratamiento de infecciones oportunistas y hospitalización. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico, mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los pacientes y la recolección de datos de costos unitarios para describir la utilización de los servicios y calcular los costos de la atención de 1 003 pacientes adultos VIH positivos en el sector público. RESULTADOS: La TARAA no ahorra costos y el costo promedio anual por paciente aumenta después de su inicio debido a los antirretrovirales, que representan 90% del costo total. Las hospitalizaciones disminuyen después de iniciada la TARAA, pero no lo suficiente como para compensar el

  1. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  2. Scale-up of NaA zeolite membranes onα-Al2O3 hollow fibers by a secondary growth method with vacuum seeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanmei Liu; Xuerui Wang; Yuting Zhang; Yong He; Xuehong Gu

    2015-01-01

    NaA zeolite membranes were prepared by secondary growth method on the outer surface ofα-Al2O3 hollow fiber supports. Vacuum seeding method was used for planting zeolite seeds on the support surfaces. Hydrother-mal crystallization was then carried out in a synthesis solution with molar ratio of Al2O3:SiO2:Na2O:H2O=1:2:2:120 at 100 °C for 4 h. Effects of seeding conditions on preparation of hollow fiber NaA zeolite membranes were extensively investigated. Moreover, hollow fiber membrane modules with packing membrane areas of ca. 0.1 and 0.2 m2 were fabricated to separate ethanol/water mixture. It is found that the thickness of seed layer is obviously affected by seed suspension concentration, coating time and vacuum degree. Close-packing seed layer is required to obtain high-quality membranes. The optimized seeding conditions (seed suspension mass concentration of 0.5%–0.7%, coating time of 5 s and vacuum degree of 10 kPa) lead to dense NaA zeolite layer with a thickness of 6–8μm. Typically, an as-synthesized hollow fiber NaA zeolite membrane exhibits good pervaporation performance with a permeation flux of 7.02 kg·m−2·h−1 and separation factor N 10000 for sepa-ration of 90%(by mass) ethanol/water mixture at 75 °C. High reproducibility has been achieved for batch-scale production of hollow fiber NaA zeolite membranes by the hydrothermal synthesis approach.

  3. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strap of old box spring covering that is housing adults, skin castings, feces, and eggs. (Photo courtesy ... Bed bugs can survive and remain active at temperatures as low as 7°C (46°F), but they die ...

  4. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  5. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  6. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Share Facebook Twitter ... integrated pest management. Preparing for control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or ...

  7. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  8. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  9. Fixed bed reactor for solid-phase surface derivatization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, Benedikt; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Finka, Andrija; O'Neil, Conlin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2007-01-01

    The functionalization of nanoparticles is conditio sine qua non in studies of specific interaction with a biological target. Often, their biological functionality is achieved by covalent binding of bioactive molecules on a preexisting single surface coating. The yield and quality of the resulting coated and functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can be significantly improved and reaction times reduced by using solid-phase synthesis strategies. In this study, a fixed bed reactor with a quadrupole repulsive arrangement of permanent magnets was assayed for SPION surface derivatization. The magnet array around the fixed bed reactor creates very high magnetic field gradients that enables the immobilization of SPIONs with a diameter as low as 9 nm. The functionalization on the surface of immobilized 25 nm 3-(aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane-coated SPIONs (APS-SPIONs) was performed using fluorescein-isothiocyanate directly, and by the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal peptide (PKKKRKVGC) conjugated to acryloylpoly(ethylene glycol)-N-hydroxysuccinimide, where the PEG reagent is conjugated first to create a functionalized nanoparticle and the peptide is added to the acryloyl group. We show that the yield of reactant grafted on the surface of the APS-coated SPIONs was higher in solid-phase within the fixed bed reactor compared to conventional liquid-phase chemistry. In summary, the functionalization of SPIONs using a magnetically fixed bed reactor was superior to the liquid-phase reaction in terms of the yield, reaction times required for derivatization, size distribution, and scalability.

  10. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  11. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  12. Scale-up from shake flasks to bioreactor, based on power input and Streptomyces lividans morphology, for the production of recombinant APA (45/47 kDa protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Espitia, Clara; Servín-González, Luis; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2013-08-01

    Culture conditions in shake flasks affect filamentous Streptomyces lividans morphology, as well the productivity and O-mannosylation of recombinant Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein (known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to scale up from previous reported shake flasks to bioreactor, data from the literature on the effect of agitation on morphology of Streptomyces strains were used to obtain gassed volumetric power input values that can be used to obtain a morphology of S. lividans in bioreactor similar to the morphology previously reported in coiled/baffled shake flasks by our group. Morphology of S. lividans was successfully scaled-up, obtaining similar mycelial sizes in both scales with diameters of 0.21 ± 0.09 mm in baffled and coiled shake flasks, and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in the bioreactor. Moreover, the specific growth rate was successfully scaled up (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 h(-1), for bioreactors and flasks, respectively), and the recombinant protein productivity measured by densitometry, as well. More interestingly, the quality of the recombinant glycoprotein measured as the amount of mannoses attached to the C-terminal of APA was also scaled- up; with up to five mannose residues in cultures carried out in shake flasks; and six in the bioreactor. However, final biomass concentration was not similar, indicating that although the process can be scaled-up using the power input, others factors like oxygen transfer rate, tip speed or energy dissipation/circulation function can be an influence on bacterial metabolism.

  13. A Review of Techniques for the Process Intensification of Fluidized Bed Reactors%流化床反应器过程强化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维

    2009-01-01

    Fluidized beds enable good solids mixing, high rates of heat and mass transfer, and large throughputs, but there remain issues related to fluidization quality and scale-up. In this work I review modification techniques for fluidized beds from the perspective of the principles of process intensification (PI), that is, effective bubbling sup-pression and elutriation control. These techniques are further refined into (Ⅰ) design factors, e.g. modifying the bed configuration, or the application of internal and external forces, and (2) operational factors, including altering the particle properties (e.g. size, density, surface area) and fluidizing gas properties (e.g. density, viscosity, or velocity). As far as two proposed PI principles are concerned, our review suggests that it ought to be possible to gain improve-ments of between 2 and 4 times over conventional fluidized bed designs by the application of these techniques.

  14. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  15. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  16. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Jessica; ter Kuile, Feiko; Cairns, Matt

    2017-01-01

    efficacy (>99%) based on the most recent estimates of resistance. Forty-four percent of these pregnancies (23% of all pregnancies) were not receiving any IPTp-SP despite making ≥3 ANC visits, representing 160,000 (94,000–236,000 95% crI) preventable low birthweight (LBW) deliveries. Only 4% (1.4 million) of pregnancies occurred in settings with >10% prevalence of the sextuple haplotype associated with compromised SP effectiveness. Forty-two percent of all pregnancies occurred in settings where the quintuple dhfr/dhps haplotype had become established but where in vivo efficacy data suggest SP maintains the majority of its effectiveness in clearing infections. Not accounting for protection from the use of ITNs during pregnancy, expanding IPTp-SP to all women with ≥3 ANC visits in Africa could prevent an additional 215,000 (128,000–318,000 95% crI) LBW deliveries. In 26 countries with sufficient recent data to estimate ITN impact (population-based ITN usage data that can be stratified by gravidity), we estimate that, due primarily to low ITN use by primigravidae, only 16.5% of the potential LBW births prevented by scaling up IPTp-SP would in fact have already have been prevented through ITN use. Our analysis also highlights the difficulties associated with estimating the relationship between the effectiveness of interventions against parasitological endpoints such as placental infection at delivery and health outcomes including birthweight, which is also determined by a wide range of unrelated factors. We also did not capture other aspects of malaria burden such as clinical malaria, maternal and neonatal anaemia, and miscarriage, all of which increase the overall importance of effective preventative strategies but have their own relationship with transmission intensity, parity, and SP resistance. Conclusions Despite recent declines in malaria transmission in Africa, the burden of MiP in the absence of adequate prevention remains substantial. Even accounting for SP

  17. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osiecki

    Full Text Available Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2 with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  18. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic analysis techniques for axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor cores. [PEBBLE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    The pebble bed reactor's cylindrical core volume contains a random bed of small, spherical fuel-moderator elements. These graphite spheres, containing a central region of dispersed coated-particle fissile and fertile material, are cooled by high pressure helium flowing through the connected interstitial voids. A mathematical model and numerical solution technique have been developed which allow calculation of macroscopic values of thermal-hydraulic variables in an axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor core. The computer program PEBBLE is based on a mathematical model which treats the bed macroscopically as a generating, conducting porous medium. The steady-state model uses a nonlinear Forchheimer-type relation between the coolant pressure gradient and mass flux, with newly derived coefficients for the linear and quadratic resistance terms. The remaining equations in the model make use of mass continuity, and thermal energy balances for the solid and fluid phases.

  20. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  1. Corrosion resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  2. Simulation and Scale-up of Barium Sulphate Precipitation Process Using CFD Modeling%应用CFD技术对工业结晶过程进行模拟和放大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俊波; 卫宏远; 王静康; John Garside

    2005-01-01

    Some empirical mixing models were used to describe the imperfect mixing in precipitation process.However, the models can not, in general, reflect the details of interactions between mixing and crystallization in a vessel. In this study, CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technique were developed by simulating the precipitation of barium sulphate in stirred tanks by integration of population balance equations with a CFD solver. Two typical impellers, Rushton and pitched blade turbines, were employed for agitation. The influence of feed concentration and position on crystal product properties was investigated by CFD simulation. The scale-up of these precipitators was systematically studied. Significant effect on the crystal properties was found for the scale-up under some conditions.

  3. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  4. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  5. Production of Carbon Nanotubes over Pre-reduced LaCoO3 by Using Fluidized-bed Catalytic Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝春; 唐水花; 梁奇; 高利珍; 张伯兰; 瞿美臻; 于作龙

    2001-01-01

    A technique has been developed to grow carbon nanotubes by flowing acetylene over pre-reduced LaCoO3 catalyst in a fluidized- bed catalytic reactor. Carbon nanotubes were characterized by means of SEM and TEM. The pre-reduced LaCoO3catalyst was found to be effective in producing carbon nanotubes with even diameter. The effects of reduction temperature of LaCoO3 on the growth of carbon nanotubes were investigated. This process can easily be scaled up.

  6. Modeling of structural effects in biomedical elements after titanium oxidation in fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendzik K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation is one of the most employed methods to improve titanium and its alloys properties especially due to medical application. This process like most of the thermochemical treatment processes substantially influences on the characteristic of surface layers and the same on its mechanical and useful properties. Oxide coatings produced during titanium oxidation were examined due to their composition identification. Titanium was oxidized in fluidized bed in temperature range between 500÷700°C. Microstructures of titanium with a visible oxide coating on its surface after thermochemical treatment and changes of grain size in core of titanium samples are described. Moreover Xray phase analysis of obtained oxides coatings was made as well as microhardness measurements of titanium surface layers after oxidation process. Finally, the surfaces of titanium after oxidation in fluidized bed were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. All research results are used to built numerical model of oxidation process in fluidized. Titanium oxidation process in fluidized bed is very complicated, because changes of parameters are non linear characteristics. This fact and lack of mathematical algorithms describing this process makes modeling properties of titanium elements by traditional numerical methods difficult or even impossible. In this case it is possible to try using artificial neural network. Using neural networks for modeling oxidizing in fluidized bed is caused by several nets' features: non linear character, ability to generalize the results of calculations for data out of training set, no need for mathematical algorithms describing influence changes input parameters on modeling materials properties.

  7. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  8. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  9. Pneumatic jet-control valve for dual circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haibo; Dong, Pengfei; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yukui; Lu, Qinggang

    2015-11-01

    With the rapid development of circulating fluidized bed<