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Sample records for bed bug summit

  1. 76 FR 550 - Second National Bed Bug Summit; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and the amendments to both of these major pesticide laws by the Food Quality...-wide bed bug control; propose the next steps in addressing knowledge gaps and eliminating barriers; and... professionals, pesticide industry and trade associations, public health organizations, environmental...

  2. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  3. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  4. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  5. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strap of old box spring covering that is housing adults, skin castings, feces, and eggs. (Photo courtesy ... Bed bugs can survive and remain active at temperatures as low as 7°C (46°F), but they die ...

  6. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  7. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Share Facebook Twitter ... integrated pest management. Preparing for control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or ...

  8. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  9. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  10. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  11. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  12. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bed bugs easier to see. Be sure to purchase a high quality encasement that will resist tearing ... Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on December ...

  13. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling bed bugs is complex. Using an integrated pest management (IPM) approach incorporates both non-chemical and pesticide methods. Success depends on the extent of the infestation, clutter on site, and resident participation.

  14. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  15. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease.

  16. Transcriptomics of the Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna P Rajarapu; Jones, Susan C.; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pestici...

  17. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  18. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Liu; Nannan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptor...

  19. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  20. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug, (hemiptra: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control and their painful bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has a strong need for materials and methods ...

  1. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  2. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-11-02

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control.

  3. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  4. A bioassay for studying behavioural responses of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Gezan, S A; Woodcock, C M; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2011-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. Current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour and physiology modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. However, in order to identify semiochemicals that can be utilised in monitoring or control, a suitable olfactometer is needed that enables the study of the responses of bed bugs to volatile chemicals. Previous studies have used olfactometers that do not separate olfactory responses from responses to physical contact. In this study, a still-air olfactometer was used to measure behavioural responses to different bed bug-derived volatiles presented in an odour pot. Bed bugs were significantly more likely to visit the area above the odour pot first, and more frequently, in the presence of volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper but not in the presence of volatiles from conspecific bed bugs. Bed bug activity was found to be dependent on the presence of the volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper, the time during the scotophase and the sex of the insect being tested. The still-air olfactometer could be used to test putative semiochemicals, which would allow an understanding of their behavioural role in bed bug ecology. Ultimately, this could lead to the identification of new semiochemical tools for bed bug monitoring and control.

  5. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  6. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation.

  7. Alarm Pheromones and Chemical Communication in Nymphs of the Tropical Bed Bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little...

  8. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  9. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  10. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  11. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  13. Host Searching and Aggregation Activity of Recently Fed and Unfed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Reis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. Some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. After the removal of the feeder, bed bugs were observed throughout the scotophase to record their searching and aggregation behavior. Groups of male and female bed bugs that were unable to obtain a blood meal continued to search in the arena for the majority of the scotophase. Bed bugs that were able to obtain a blood meal returned to their shelter to aggregate 30 min after feeding. Overall, the proportion of bed bugs aggregating in shelters during the scotophase was significantly greater for those that had fed successfully than those that had not. However, all bed bugs, regardless of feeding status, began to return to shelters to aggregate 2 h prior to the photophase.

  14. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  15. Tracking bed bugs (Cimex lectularius): a study of the effect of physiological and extrinsic factors on the response to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2013-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, feeds on the blood of mammal and bird hosts, and is a pest of global importance. Semiochemicals are chemicals involved in animal communication that may affect behaviour and/or physiology. Attractive semiochemicals that play a role in mediating bed bug behaviour could be exploited for the development of a highly effective novel monitoring device. Tracking software was used to record the response of bed bugs to volatiles from paper previously exposed to conspecific bugs in a still-air olfactometer illuminated by infrared lights, through a variety of activity variables. The effect of time of day as an extrinsic factor, and sex, stage, mating status and nutritional status as physiological factors on the response of bed bugs to the volatiles was examined. Bed bugs of both sexes and all stages responded to the volatiles from bed bug-exposed papers, showing significant attraction and orientation towards the volatile source whether they were starved or engorged. Confirmation that the physiological factors examined do not affect the response of bed bugs to the volatiles from bed bug-exposed papers provides evidence that these bed bug-derived volatiles contain aggregation cues, as semiochemicals that promote aggregation should by definition be detected by both sexes and all life stages. A device baited with such semiochemicals could play a major role in limiting the impact of the current bed bug resurgence by enabling timely detection of infestations, along with quantitative evaluation of control and effective surveillance of the geographical distribution of the pest species.

  16. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  17. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  18. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Immo A; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Blakely, Brittny N; Hammond, John I; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y; Maio, William A; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  19. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  20. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  1. Moving From the Old to the New: Insecticide Research on Bed Bugs since the Resurgence

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    Alvaro Romero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of bed bugs in many countries over the last 50 years has resulted in a lack of modern research into the toxicology of this pest. Although bed bugs resurged in the late 1990s, published research related to insecticides has lagged behind and only began to appear in 2006. The difficulty in controlling bed bugs triggered the interest of both private and academic sectors to determine the value of currently available insecticides. What follows, is updated information on effectiveness of products, studies on insecticide susceptibility, identification of mechanisms of insecticide resistance and chemical strategies proposed to overcome resistance in modern bed bug populations.

  2. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment.

  3. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  4. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R.; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C.; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T.; Hastie, Alex R.; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J.; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios Orestis; Siddall, Mark E.; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb

  5. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Harrison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius. The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  6. Chemoreception to aggregation pheromones in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xiong, Caixing; Liu, Nannan

    2017-03-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone. We found that the ORNs in the D olfactory sensilla played a predominant role in detecting all the components of aggregation pheromone except for histamine, which was only recognized by the C sensilla. Bed bugs' E sensilla, which include four functionally distinct groups, showed only a very weak but variant sensitivity (both excitatory and inhibitory) to the components of aggregation pheromone. Functional tests of 15 odorant receptors (ORs) in response to the components of aggregation pheromone revealed that most of these components were encoded by multiple ORs with various tuning properties. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of how bed bug aggregation pheromone is perceived and recognized in the peripheral olfactory system and will contribute useful information to support the development of synthetic attractants for bed bug monitoring and control.

  7. Vision in the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): eye morphology and spectral sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behavior to improve management. While few studies have inves...

  8. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  9. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed. As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22% of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4% unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p < 0.0038, and indicates that unfed bed bugs did not move as far as recently fed ones. A mathematical diffusion model was used to quantify bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm2/s to 0.416 cm2/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse.

  10. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. within and between Apartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cooper

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar, adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  11. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  12. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, Benjamin A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2015-05-12

    Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  13. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  14. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced.

  15. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  16. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  17. Blood constituents as phagostimulants for the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Schal, Coby

    2014-02-15

    Many hematophagous arthropods are stimulated by blood constituents to initiate feeding. We used a membrane-based feeding system to identify chemicals that stimulate acceptance and engorgement responses in various life stages of bed bugs. Water was fortified with a variety of compounds (e.g. salts, amino acids, vitamins, nucleotides, cholesterol and fatty acids) in these bioassays. ATP was the most effective phagostimulant in adults and nymphs, resulting in >70% of bed bugs fully engorging. Addition of NaCl to low ATP solutions that alone elicited <50% engorgement significantly enhanced feeding responses of bed bugs. A comparison of feeding responses with solutions of various adenine nucleotides showed that ATP was more stimulatory than ADP, which was more effective than AMP. Feeding assays with physiological levels of other blood constituents such as d-glucose, albumin, globulin, cholesterol and mixtures of vitamins and amino acids did not stimulate engorgement, suggesting that adenine nucleotides are the most important feeding stimulants in bed bugs. Identification of phagostimulants for bed bugs will contribute towards the development of artificial diets for rearing purposes, as well as for the development of alternative methods to eliminate bed bug infestations.

  18. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs. PMID:28383033

  19. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes.

  20. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  1. Insight into the Sialome of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Calvo, Eric; Andersen, John F; Pham, Van M; Favreau, Amanda J; Barbian, Kent D; Romero, Alvaro; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, José M C

    2010-08-06

    The evolution of insects to a blood diet leads to the development of a saliva that antagonizes their hosts' hemostasis and inflammation. Hemostasis and inflammation are redundant processes, and thus a complex salivary potion composed of dozens or near 100 different polypeptides is commonly found by transcriptome or proteome analysis of these organisms. Several insect orders or families evolved independently to hematophagy, creating unique salivary potions in the form of novel pharmacological use of endogenous substances and in the form of unique proteins not matching other known proteins, these probably arriving by fast evolution of salivary proteins as they evade their hosts' immune response. In this work we present a preliminary description of the sialome (from the Greek Sialo = saliva) of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, the first such work from a member of the Cimicidae family. This manuscript is a guide for the supplemental database files http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/C_lectularius/S1/Cimex-S1.zip and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/C_lectularius/S2/Cimex-S2.xls.

  2. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  3. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-11-05

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  4. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

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    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  5. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

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    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats.

  6. Circadian rhythm of spontaneous locomotor activity in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2010-11-01

    Bed bugs must avoid detection when finding hosts and returning to hidden harborages. Their stealthy habits include foraging when hosts are asleep. Characteristics of spontaneous locomotor activity rhythm of bed bugs with different feeding histories were studied. In the absence of host stimuli, adults and nymphs were much more active in the dark than in the light. The onset of activity in the scotophase commenced soon after lights-off. The free-running period (tau) for all stages was longer in continuous darkness (DD) than in continuous light (LL). The lengthening of tau in DD is an exception for the circadian rule that predicts the opposite in nocturnal animals. Activity in all stages was entrained to reverse L:D regimes within four cycles. Short-term starved adults moved more frequently than recently fed adults. While bed bugs can survive for a year or more without a blood meal, we observed a reduction in activity in insects held for five weeks without food. We suggest that bed bugs make a transition to host-stimulus dependent searching when host presence is not predictable. Such a strategy would enable bed bugs to maximize reproduction when resources are abundant and save energy when resources are scarce.

  7. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

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    Jerome Goddard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each, and two different substrates were used. Temprid® (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany, Transport® (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA, Invader® (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA, Cimexa® (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA, and BBT-2000® (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA were the only products which showed any substantial (>40% bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust® (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider® (North Bergen, NJ, USA and Mother Earth D® (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA (diatomaceous earth produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect® (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001.

  8. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Siddall, Mark E; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-02-02

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations.

  9. A High-Performance Vacuum Cleaner for Bed Bug Sampling: A Useful Tool for Medical Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Almeras, Lionel; Leulmi, Hamza; Parola, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Arthropods can be captured by two modes: a passive mode using traps or an active mode mainly based on the use of mouth or powered aspirators. These apparatuses are useful tools for collecting large numbers of crawling, flying, resting, or jumping arthropod specimens, particularly small specimens, such as mosquitoes or sandflies, for laboratory experiments or breeding. Different aspirator models are used to collect various arthropod specimens. However, to our knowledge, no specific system is currently available for the reliable sampling of live bed bugs in the field. Thus, we described a new system based on a classic autonomous house aspirator that requires few modifications for the collecting bed bugs. The low weight and size of this apparatus is advantageous, and it provides for rapid and secure bed bug sampling for medical entomology purposes.

  10. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  11. Molecular characterization of genes encoding inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the bed bug (Cimex lectularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Jones, Susan C; Piermarini, Peter M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-04-01

    The molecular genetics of inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in insects is poorly understood. To date, Kir channel genes have been characterized only from a few representative dipterans (i.e., fruit flies and mosquitoes). The goal of the present study was to characterize Kir channel cDNAs in a hemipteran, the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). Using our previously reported bed bug transcriptome (RNA-seq), we identified two cDNAs that encode putative Kir channels. One was a full-length cDNA that encodes a protein belonging to the insect 'Kir3' clade, which we designate as 'ClKir3'. The other was a partial cDNA that encodes a protein with similarity to both the insect 'Kir1' and 'Kir2' clades, which we designate as 'ClKir1/2'. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ClKir1/2 and ClKir3 exhibited peak expression levels in late-instar nymphs and early-instar nymphs, respectively. Furthermore, ClKir3, but not ClKir1/2, showed tissue-specific expression in Malpighian tubules of adult bed bugs. Lastly, using an improved procedure for delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to male and female bed bugs (via the cervical membrane) we demonstrate rapid and systemic knockdown of ClKir3 transcripts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the bed bug possesses at least two genes encoding Kir channels, and that RNAi is possible for at least Kir3, thereby offering a potential approach for elucidating the roles of Kir channel genes in bed bug physiology.

  12. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  13. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs’ interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  14. Antennal olfactory sensilla responses to insect chemical repellents in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Haynes, Kenneth F; Appel, Arthur G; Liu, Nannan

    2014-06-01

    Populations of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera; Cimicidae), a temporary ectoparasite on both humans and animals, have surged in many developed countries. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, C. lectularius relies on its olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment, including both attractants and repellents. To elucidate the olfactory responses of the common bed bug to commonly used insect chemical repellents, particularly haematophagous repellents, we investigated the neuronal responses of individual olfactory sensilla in C. lectularius' antennae to 52 insect chemical repellents, both synthetic and botanic. Different types of sensilla displayed highly distinctive response profiles. While C sensilla did not respond to any of the insect chemical repellents, Dγ sensilla proved to be the most sensitive in response to terpene-derived insect chemical repellents. Different chemical repellents elicited neuronal responses with differing temporal characteristics, and the responses of the olfactory sensilla to the insect chemical repellents were dose-dependent, with an olfactory response to the terpene-derived chemical repellent, but not to the non-terpene-derived chemical repellents. Overall, this study furnishes a comprehensive map of the olfactory response of bed bugs to commonly used insect chemical repellents, providing useful information for those developing new agents (attractants or repellents) for bed bug control.

  15. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

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    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  16. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

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    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  17. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the last two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce and widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. le...

  18. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Harraca, Vincent; Knudsen, Jette T; Wallin, Erika A; Hedenström, Erik; Ryne, Camilla

    2011-03-30

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  19. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species.

  20. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever.

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    Hamza Leulmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear.Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1 to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3. The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium.The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens.

  1. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

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    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  2. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

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    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  3. Widespread distribution of knockdown resistance mutations in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), populations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Wigginton, John; Romero, Alvaro; Moore, Ali; Ferguson, Kimberly; Palli, Roshan; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F; Palli, Subba R

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported high deltamethrin resistance in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, collected from multiple areas of the United States (Romero et al., 2007). Recently, two mutations, the Valine to Leucine mutation (V419L) and the Leucine to Isoleucine mutation (L925I) in voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, had been identified to be responsible for knockdown resistance (kdr) to deltamethrin in bed bugs collected from New York (Yoon et al., 2008). The current study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of these two kdr mutations in 110 bed bug populations collected in the United States. Out of the 17 bed bug populations that were assayed for deltamethrin susceptibility, two resistant populations collected in the Cincinnati area and three deltamethrin-susceptible lab colonies showed neither of the two reported mutations (haplotype A). The remaining 12 populations contained L925I or both V419L and L925I mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene (haplotypes B&C). In 93 populations that were not assayed for deltamethrin susceptibility, 12 contained neither of the two mutations (haplotype A) and 81 contained L925I or V419L or both mutations (haplotypes B-D). Thus, 88% of the bed bug populations collected showed target-site mutations. These data suggest that deltamethrin resistance conferred by target-site insensitivity of sodium channel is widely spread in bed bug populations across the United States.

  4. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

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    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  5. A Linkage Map and QTL Analysis for Pyrethroid Resistance in the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius

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    Fountain, Toby; Ravinet, Mark; Naylor, Richard; Reinhardt, Klaus; Butlin, Roger K.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides, and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread. Using 334 SNP markers obtained through RAD-sequencing, we constructed the first linkage map for the species, consisting of 14 putative linkage groups (LG), with a length of 407 cM and an average marker spacing of 1.3 cM. The linkage map was used to reassemble the recently published reference genome, facilitating refinement and validation of the current genome assembly. We detected a major QTL on LG12 associated with insecticide resistance, occurring in close proximity (1.2 Mb) to a carboxylesterase encoding candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance. This provides another example of this candidate gene playing a major role in determining survival in a bed bug population following pesticide resistance evolution. The recent availability of the bed bug genome, complete with a full list of potential candidate genes related to insecticide resistance, in addition to the linkage map generated here, provides an excellent resource for future research on the development and spread of insecticide resistance in this resurging pest species. PMID:27733453

  6. A Linkage Map and QTL Analysis for Pyrethroid Resistance in the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Fountain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides, and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread. Using 334 SNP markers obtained through RAD-sequencing, we constructed the first linkage map for the species, consisting of 14 putative linkage groups (LG, with a length of 407 cM and an average marker spacing of 1.3 cM. The linkage map was used to reassemble the recently published reference genome, facilitating refinement and validation of the current genome assembly. We detected a major QTL on LG12 associated with insecticide resistance, occurring in close proximity (1.2 Mb to a carboxylesterase encoding candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance. This provides another example of this candidate gene playing a major role in determining survival in a bed bug population following pesticide resistance evolution. The recent availability of the bed bug genome, complete with a full list of potential candidate genes related to insecticide resistance, in addition to the linkage map generated here, provides an excellent resource for future research on the development and spread of insecticide resistance in this resurging pest species.

  7. Spatial genetic structure and restricted gene flow in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) populations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kengne, Pierre; Cannet, Arnaud; Brengues, Cécile; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Simard, Frederic; Fontenille, Didier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are resurgent blood-sucking ectoparasites that are currently increasing at a rapid rate, particularly in industrialized countries, such as France. Despite the rapid spread of bed bugs, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the population structure and gene flow among C. lectularius populations in France. To fill this gap, a genetic study was conducted using 183 C. lectularius from 14 populations of bed bugs collected in a hotel and in individual apartments in the French Riviera and in the Saint Ouen suburb of Paris. The samples were genotyped using an isolated set of six polymorphic microsatellite loci, including five new loci which were newly isolated and chosen based on prior successful amplification, and one previously described loci (bb15b). The low genetic diversity observed in the samples (of one to five alleles) suggested that most of prospected populations were established by only a few individuals, possibly from a single mated female. The overall genetic differentiation was high and statistically significant (FST=0.556, plectularius populations in France; however, the available information should be expanded in further studies.

  8. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Balvín, Ondřej; Vargo, Edward L; Vilímová, Jitka; Schal, Coby

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e. host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia, it has been speculated that bed bugs extended their host range from bats to humans in their shared cave domiciles throughout Eurasia. C. lectularius that associate with humans have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas those associated with bats occur across Europe, often in human-built structures. We assessed genetic structure and gene flow within and among populations collected in association with each host using mtDNA, microsatellite loci and knock-down resistance gene variants. Both nuclear and mitochondrial data support a lack of significant contemporary gene flow between host-specific populations. Within locations human-associated bed bug populations exhibit limited genetic diversity and elevated levels of inbreeding, likely due to human-mediated movement, infrequent additional introduction events per infestation, and pest control. In contrast, populations within bat roosts exhibit higher genetic diversity and lower levels of relatedness, suggesting populations are stable with temporal fluctuations due to host dispersal and bug mortality. In concert with previously published evidence of morphological and behavioural differentiation, the genetic data presented here suggest C. lectularius is currently undergoing lineage divergence through host association.

  9. Semiochemicals of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), and their potential for use in monitoring and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Emma N I; Birkett, Mike A; Cameron, Mary M; Pickett, John A; Logan, James G

    2011-01-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., has driven an increase in research into the biology and behaviour of this pest. Current control is reliant on the application of insecticides, but, owing to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour- and physiology-modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. The aim of this review was to evaluate studies undertaken in bed bug chemical ecology to date, with particular reference to how the research could be exploited for monitoring and control. Bed bugs, like many other insects, have a complex olfactory system. Recent studies have characterised the olfactory sensilla, located on the terminal segment of the antennae, to functional classes by electrophysiological screening. Behavioural studies have revealed the presence of an alarm pheromone and potential airborne aggregation semiochemicals, but it is not yet understood if bed bugs use a sex pheromone during mating. Host location cues have been investigated, and carbon dioxide has been found to be highly attractive both in laboratory and in field studies. Recent field trials have tested blends of other potential kairomones, which have been shown to have an additive effect when used in a heated bed bug trap with carbon dioxide. The trap, which combines heat and kairomones, is the only trap currently available with proven efficacy in the field. In order for semiochemicals to be useful for bed bug management, an increased knowledge and understanding of the biology, behaviour and chemical ecology of this insect is essential.

  10. Reproduction barrier between two lineages of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrocka, Kamila; Balvín, Ondřej; Bartonička, Tomáš

    2015-08-01

    Populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, have increased in recent years spreading into numerous urban areas across the Western world and making them an increasingly important pest of the twenty-first century. Research into hybridization within and between different lineages of bed bugs can help us to understand processes of micro- and macro-evolution in these ectoparasites and may inform the control of this pest species. Hybridization experiments between two host lineages of bed bug (C. lectularius) from Central Europe (Czech Republic), those associated with humans and those with bats, were conducted under laboratory conditions. Number of eggs and early instars were compared between crosses of mixed host lineages (interspecific mating) with pairs from the same host lineage, those from the same locality and same lineage from different localities (intraspecific mating). While crosses within host lineages resulted in egg production and later instars, crosses between different host lineages were unsuccessful, although of the mated females possessed sperm in their mesospermaleges and/or seminal conceptacles. These crosses did not even result in egg production. Moreover, in the mixed lineage crosses, mortality rates in adults were higher (51 and 50% higher in bat and human lineage, respectively) than in those animals from the same lineage. Survival of adults was in pairs from the same locality slightly higher than in pairs from different localities and differed statistically. These results support the existence of post-mating barriers and show reproductive isolation between two lineages of C. lectularius. Bat and human host adaptations can promote evolving of such barriers and can be product of alloxenic speciation.

  11. Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease results in iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabou, Marcela; Imperiale, Delphine Gallo; Andrès, Emmanuel; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Foeglé, Jacinthe; Lavigne, Thierry; Kaltenbach, Georges; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this was not enough to explain the anemia without macrocytosis. Laboratory tests, endoscopy and a CT scan eliminated a tumor etiology responsible for occult bleeding. The patient had a mild itchy rash which was linked to the massive colonization by the bed bugs. The C. lectularius bite is most often considered benign because it is not a vector of infectious agents. Far from trivial, a massive human colonization by bed bugs may cause such a hematic depletion that severe microcytic anemia may result.

  12. RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Fang Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR plays a central role in cytochrome P450 action. The genes coding for P450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Hence, we decided to clone cDNA and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for CPR which is suggested to be required for the function of all P450s to determine whether or not P450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The full length Cimex lectularius CPR (ClCPR cDNA was isolated from a deltamethrin resistant bed bug population (CIN-1 using a combined PCR strategy. Bioinformatics and in silico modeling were employed to identify three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, NADP, a FAD binding motif, and the catalytic residues. The critical amino acids involved in FMN, FAD, NADP binding and their putative functions were also analyzed. No signal peptide but a membrane anchor domain with 21 amino acids which facilitates the localization of ClCPR on the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in ClCPR protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ClCPR is closer to the CPR from the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis than to the CPRs from the other insect species studied. The ClCPR gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested but showed an increase in expression as immature stages develop into adults. We exploited the traumatic insemination mechanism of bed bugs to inject dsRNA and successfully knockdown the expression of the gene coding for ClCPR. Suppression of the ClCPR expression increased susceptibility to deltamethrin in resistant populations but not in the susceptible population of bed bugs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that P450-mediated metabolic detoxification may serve as one of the resistance mechanisms in bed bugs.

  13. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-15

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  14. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Changlu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin, Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin, Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin, and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin. The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran, Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264, Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid, and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr. Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h. Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure.

  15. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius collected from several localities in France

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    Akhoundi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp, and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40% and 61 out of 166 adults (37% were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius.

  16. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-29

    We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin), Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin), Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin), and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin). The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran), Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264), Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid), and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr). Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h). Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h) on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure.

  17. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) collected from several localities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Cannet, Arnaud; Loubatier, Céline; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40%) and 61 out of 166 adults (37%) were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius. PMID:27492563

  18. Characterization of the antennal olfactory system of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraca, Vincent; Ignell, Rickard; Löfstedt, Christer; Ryne, Camilla

    2010-03-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera; Cimicidae) is a temporary ectoparasite on humans that is currently reinvading the developed countries. Like other haematophagous arthropods, host seeking and orientation in C. lectularius is partially mediated by olfaction. In this study, we reconfirmed the distribution of the 44 olfactory sensilla and identified 3 different sensillum types located at the distal tip of C. lectularius antenna by external morphology mapping. Using a panel of relevant odorants previously reported to be bioactive in various haematophagous arthropods, we correlated the morphological mapping with an electrophysiological characterization of the olfactory receptor neurons housed in each specific sensillum. We found that all 9 grooved peg sensilla responded specifically in a dose-dependent manner to ammonia, whereas (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, dimethyl trisulfide, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, alpha-pinene, indole, and ethyl butyrate evoked dose-dependent responses within the 6 smooth peg sensilla. Based on the pattern of response to the tested compounds, we were able to separate the 6 smooth peg sensilla of the bed bug into 3 distinct functional classes. We compare our results with previous electrophysiological recordings made with these compounds on other haematophagous arthropods.

  19. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  20. Standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius: effects of temperature, mass, and life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic rates provide important information about the biology of organisms. For ectothermic species such as insects, factors such as temperature and mass heavily influence metabolism, but these effects differ considerably between species. In this study we examined the standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We used closed system respirometry and measured both O2 consumption and CO2 production across a range of temperatures (10, 20, 25, 30, 35°C) and life stages, while also accounting for activity. Temperature had a stronger effect on the mass specific .VO2 (mlg(-1)h(-1)) of mated males (Q10=3.29), mated females (Q10=3.19), unmated males (Q10=3.09), and nymphs that hatched (first instars, Q10=3.05) than on unmated females (Q10=2.77) and nymphs that molted (second through fifth instars, Q10=2.78). First instars had significantly lower respiratory quotients (RQ) than all other life stages. RQ of all stages was not affected by temperature. .VO2 (mlh(-1)) scaled more with mass than values previously reported for other arthropods or that would be predicted by the 3/4-power law. The results are used to understand the biology and ecology of the bed bug.

  1. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ

  2. Exposure of bed bugs to metarhizium anisopliae, and the effect of defensive secretions on fungal growth in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs Cimex lectularius were treated with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae by topical, spray, and contact exposure. One week post-exposure, inconsistent mortalities were observed, averaging 30% across all treatment groups and replicates. Microscopic examination of top...

  3. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed.

  4. Establishment of quantitative sequencing and filter contact vial bioassay for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Keon Mook; Lee, Da-Young; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kwon, Deok Ho; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2010-07-01

    Two point mutations (V419L and L925I) in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene have been identified in deltamethrin-resistant bed bugs. A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol was developed to establish a population-based genotyping method as a molecular resistance-monitoring tool based on the frequency of the two mutations. The nucleotide signal ratio at each mutation site was generated from sequencing chromatograms and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequency. Frequency prediction equations were generated from the plots by linear regression, and the signal ratios were shown to highly correlate with resistance allele frequencies (r2 > 0.9928). As determined by QS, neither mutation was found in a bed bug population collected in 1993. Populations collected in recent years (2007-2009), however, exhibited completely or nearly saturating L925I mutation frequencies and highly variable frequencies of the V419L mutation. In addition to QS, the filter contact vial bioassay (FCVB) method was established and used to determine the baseline susceptibility and resistance of bed bugs to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. A pyrethroid-resistant strain showed >9,375- and 6,990-fold resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. Resistance allele frequencies in different bed bug populations predicted by QS correlated well with the FCVB results, confirming the roles of the two mutations in pyrethroid resistance. Taken together, employment of QS in conjunction with FCVB should greatly facilitate the detection and monitoring of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs in the field. The advantages of FCVB as an on-site resistance-monitoring tool are discussed.

  5. Estimating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius: Comparing thermolimit respirometry with traditional visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2016-07-01

    Evaluating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in insects has provided a number of challenges. Visual observations of endpoints (onset of spasms, loss of righting response, etc.) can be difficult to measure consistently, especially with smaller insects. To resolve this problem, Lighton and Turner (2004) developed a new technique: thermolimit respirometry (TLR). TLR combines real time measurements of both metabolism (V·CO2) and activity to provide two independent, objective measures of CTmax. However, several questions still remain regarding the precision of TLR and how accurate it is in relation to traditional methods. Therefore, we evaluated CTmax of bed bugs using both traditional (visual) methods and TLR at three important metabolic periods following feeding (1d, 9d, and 21d). Both methods provided similar estimates of CTmax, although traditional methods produced consistently lower values (0.7-1°C lower than TLR). Despite similar levels of precision, TLR provided a more complete profile of thermal tolerance, describing changes in metabolism and activity leading up to the CTmax, not available through traditional methods. In addition, feeding status had a significant effect on bed bug CTmax, with bed bugs starved 9d (45.19[±0.20]°C) having the greatest thermal tolerance, followed by bed bugs starved 1d (44.64[±0.28]°C), and finally bed bugs starved 21d (44.12[±0.28]°C). Accuracy of traditional visual methods in relation to TLR is highly dependent on the selected endpoint; however, when performed correctly, both methods provide precise, accurate, and reliable estimations of CTmax.

  6. Identification of the airborne aggregation pheromone of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljander, Eric; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    Adults and juveniles of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), return to and aggregate in harborages after foraging for hosts. We tested the hypothesis that the aggregation is mediated, in part, by an airborne aggregation pheromone. Volatiles from experimental C. lectularius harborages were captured on Porapak Q, fractionated by liquid chromatography, and bioassayed in dual-choice, still-air olfactometer experiments. Of 14 compounds with >100 pg abundance in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of two bioactive fractions, 10 compounds [nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, (2E,4E)-octadienal, benzaldehyde, (+)- and (-)-limonene, sulcatone, benzyl alcohol] proved to be essential components of the C. lectularius airborne aggregation pheromone.

  7. Introducing Law Students to Public Health Law through a Bed Bug Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    As the scientific evidence emerges, individuals and institutions faced with bed bug infestations find themselves without the legal protections that are available against legally recognized nuisances and threats to the public's health, such as rats or mosquitos. As a result, they are a good example of how individuals, institutions and municipalities struggle to use the patchwork of public and private legal remedies that are often inadequate to face an emerging threat. This unit is designed to help students gain an awareness that often no one statute or case can be invoked as a complete solution to a legal problem, as well as the inherent limits of legal solutions in addressing public health problems that stem from poverty and powerlessness.

  8. Morphology, ultrastructure and functional role of antennal sensilla in off-host aggregation by the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A; Mesce, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    After blood feeding on a host, bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, assemble in aggregation sites away from the host. Off-host aggregation is mediated by a combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli associated with bug feces. Partial antennectomies indicated removal of flagellomeres did not affect aggregation, but removal of the whole pedicel or its distal half significantly reduced (P Cimex hemipterus F. The existence of both olfactory and gustatory sensilla on the distal half of the pedicel suggests those sensilla may be the sensory basis of off-host aggregation behavior.

  9. Cuticle Thickening in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, David G; Latham, Sharissa L; Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest's resurgence. Overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no morphological analysis of the cuticle has been undertaken in order to confirm a phenotypic link. This paper describes examination of the cuticle thickness of a highly pyrethroid-resistant field strain collected in Sydney, Australia, in response to time-to-knockdown upon forced exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide. Mean cuticle thickness was positively correlated to time-to-knockdown, with significant differences observed between bugs knocked-down at 2 hours, 4 hours, and those still unaffected at 24 hours. Further analysis also demonstrated that the 24 hours survivors possessed a statistically significantly thicker cuticle when compared to a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of C. lectularius. This study demonstrates that cuticle thickening is present within a pyrethroid-resistant strain of C. lectularius and that, even within a stable resistant strain, cuticle thickness will vary according to time-to-knockdown upon exposure to an insecticide. This response should thus be considered in future studies on the cuticle of insecticide-resistant bed bugs and, potentially, other insects.

  10. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http

  11. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  12. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs. These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  13. Using Geomorphic and Geologic Parameters to Identify Optimal Endemic Wēkiu Bug Habitat on the Summit of Maunakea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N. M.; Perroy, R. L.; Eiben, J.; Klasner, F.

    2015-12-01

    The upper summit region 3700-4205 m of the dormant post shield volcano Maunakea, located on the Big Island of Hawai'i, is home to the endemic Wēkiu bug (WB) (Nysius wekiuicola), an arthropod species that lives within the cinder layer and feeds on the hemolymph and organs of aeolian deposited insects. Areas of the summit are undergoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, including accelerated erosion and land modification due to increased foot and vehicle traffic, road maintenance, and large telescope construction, which may be altering WB habitat. Although first studied over 30 years ago, little is known about the optimal habitat or spatial distribution of the WB. Possible environmental characteristics that influence WB persistence include elevation, mineralogy, cinder size, aspect, slope, cinder depth to the ash layer, and surface roughness. The aim of this study is to determine if measurable geomorphic and geologic parameters can be used to identify and differentiate viable WB habitat. For example, cinder depth is thought to be an important variable in WB thermoregulation, but this has never been established. We used a terrestrial lidar scanner to collect high resolution topographic data over 3750 acres at the summit in order to derive slope, aspect, surface roughness and elevation information. These data also provide a topographic baseline that can be used to quantify contemporary erosion rates. 20 m resolution AVIRIS hyperspectral data were used to classify summit surface mineralogy. We collected field data across the study area, including measurements of cinder size, gradation, and depth to the underlying ash layer. We compared the results from these diverse datasets with 15 years of annual arthropod survey data, sampled at over 1000 locations on Maunakea from 2001-2015. Preliminary results show that elevation and mineralogy play significant roles in WB capture rates, although WB sampling efforts were not evenly distributed amongst classes. No apparent

  14. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively.

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera:Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid; Zulaikha Zahran; Abd Hafis Abd Rahim; Nor Azliza Ismail; Wardah Abdul Rahman; Hamady Dieng; Tomomitsu Satho

    2015-01-01

    To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus. Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from field-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCR-based genotyping test. Results: There were noticeable differences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/finely roughened, respectively. These morphological specificities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences. Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural field developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus(Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Hafiz; Ab; Majid; Zulaikha; Zahran; Abd; Hafis; Abd; Rahim; Nor; Azliza; Ismail; Wardah; Abdul; Rahman; Kartiekasari; Syahidda; Mohammad; Zubairi; Hamady; Dieng; Tomomitsu; Satho

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus.Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from i eld-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCRbased genotyping test.Results: There were noticeable dif erences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/i nely roughened, respectively. These morphological specii cities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences.Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural i eld developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  17. Population Growth Potential of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.: A Life Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Andrea M; Brewster, Carlyle C; Miller, Dini M

    2011-04-29

    Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS), a highly resistant field strain (RR), and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR). Egg to adult survival in the RR strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the HS and KR strains, respectively. The RR strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days) than the other two strains (~40 days). Analysis of a survivorship and fecundity life table for the RR strain produced the following results. The average life expectancy for a newly laid egg was ~143 days, and that of a newly molted adult was ~127 days. Females produced an average of 0.64 daughter eggs/day with the highest weekly production during the fifth week of adult life. Analysis of daily reproductive parity showed that females produced 1-3 and 4-6 eggs on 79 and 21% of the days, respectively, when egg laying occurred. The net reproductive rate (R₀) of the RR strain was ~35, which represents a 35-fold increase in the population per generation (~92 days). The intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0.054 indicating that the population multiplies 1.1 times/female/day (λ) and doubles in size every 13 days. The stable age distribution (cx) was dominated by nymphs (54%), followed by eggs (34%) and adults (12%). Reproductive values (vx) for the strain increased from egg to the adult stage.

  18. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  19. Biochemical and toxicological properties of two acetylcholinesterases from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chae Eun; Kim, Young Ho; Kwon, Deok Ho; Seong, Keon Mook; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-03-01

    We examined the molecular and enzymatic properties of two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; ClAChE1 and ClAChE2) from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining and Western blotting revealed that ClAChE1 is the main catalytic enzyme and is abundantly expressed in various tissues. Both ClAChEs existed in dimeric form connected by a disulfide bridge and were attached to the membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. To determine their kinetic and inhibitory properties, both ClAChE1 and ClAChE2 were in vitro expressed in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. ClAChE1 showed higher catalytic efficiency toward acetylcholine, supporting the hypothesis that ClAChE1 plays a major role in postsynaptic transmission. An inhibition assay revealed that ClAChE1 is generally more sensitive to organophosphates and carbamates examined although ClAChE2 was >4000-fold more sensitive to malaoxon than ClAChE1. The relatively higher correlation between the in vitro ClAChE1 inhibition and the in vivo toxicity suggested that ClAChE1 is the more relevant toxicological target for organophosphates and carbamates. Although the physiological function of ClAChE2 remains to be elucidated, ClAChE2 also appears to have neuronal functions, as judged by its tissue distribution and molecular and kinetic properties. Our findings help expand our knowledge on insect AChEs and their toxicological properties.

  20. Population Growth Potential of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.: A Life Table Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini M. Miller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS, a highly resistant field strain (RR, and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR. Egg to adult survival in the RR strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the HS and KR strains, respectively. The RR strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days than the other two strains (~40 days. Analysis of a survivorship and fecundity life table for the RR strain produced the following results. The average life expectancy for a newly laid egg was ~143 days, and that of a newly molted adult was ~127 days. Females produced an average of 0.64 daughter eggs/day with the highest weekly production during the fifth week of adult life. Analysis of daily reproductive parity showed that females produced 1–3 and 4–6 eggs on 79 and 21% of the days, respectively, when egg laying occurred. The net reproductive rate (R0 of the RR strain was ~35, which represents a 35-fold increase in the population per generation (~92 days. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0.054 indicating that the population multiplies 1.1 times/female/day (λ and doubles in size every 13 days. The stable age distribution (cx was dominated by nymphs (54%, followed by eggs (34% and adults (12%. Reproductive values (vx for the strain increased from egg to the adult stage.

  1. Responses of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, to temperature extremes and dehydration: levels of tolerance, rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, J B; Lopez-Martinez, G; Teets, N M; Phillips, S A; Denlinger, D L

    2009-12-01

    This study of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, examines tolerance of adult females to extremes in temperature and loss of body water. Although the supercooling point (SCP) of the bed bugs was approximately -20 degrees C, all were killed by a direct 1 h exposure to -16 degrees C. Thus, this species cannot tolerate freezing and is killed at temperatures well above its SCP. Neither cold acclimation at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks nor dehydration (15% loss of water content) enhanced cold tolerance. However, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. a 1-h exposure to 0 degrees C improved their subsequent tolerance of -14 and -16 degrees C. In response to heat stress, fewer than 20% of the bugs survived a 1-h exposure to 46 degrees C, and nearly all were killed at 48 degrees C. Dehydration, heat acclimation at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks and rapid heat hardening at 37 degrees C for 1 h all failed to improve heat tolerance. Expression of the mRNAs encoding two heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, was elevated in response to heat stress, cold stress and during dehydration and rehydration. The response of Hsp90 was more pronounced than that of Hsp70 during dehydration and rehydration. Our results define the tolerance limits for bed bugs to these commonly encountered stresses of temperature and low humidity and indicate a role for Hsps in responding to these stresses.

  2. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in Lower-Income Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Ronald W; Moore, Julia E; Vargo, Edward L; Rose, Lucy; Raab, Julie; Culbreth, Madeline; Burzumato, Gracie; Koyee, Aurvan; McCarthy, Brittany; Raffaele, Jennifer; Schal, Coby; Vaidyanathan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a) 16/21 (73%) infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b) up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr), from valine to leucine (V419L) and leucine to isoleucine (L925I) that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40%) bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925), and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  3. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. in Lower-Income Housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Raab

    Full Text Available Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a 16/21 (73% infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr, from valine to leucine (V419L and leucine to isoleucine (L925I that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40% bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925, and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  4. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  5. Detection of seminal fluid proteins in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Wong, C H; Georgiou, A S

    2009-03-01

    The global increase of the human parasite, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius, calls for specific pest control target sites. The bed bug is also a model species for sexual conflict theory which suggests that seminal fluids may be highly diverse. The species has a highly unusual sperm biology and seminal proteins may have unique functions. One-dimensional PAGE gels showed 40-50% band sharing between C. lectularius and another cimicid species, Afrocimex constrictus. However, adult, sexually rested C. lectularius males were found to store 5-7 microg of seminal protein and with only 60 microg of protein we obtained informative 2-D PAGE gels. These showed 79% shared protein spots between 2 laboratory populations, and more than half of the shared protein spots were detected in the mated female. Further analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that 26.5% of the proteins had matches among arthropods in databases and 14.5% matched Drosophila proteins. These included ubiquitous proteins but also those more closely associated with reproduction such as moj 29, ubiquitin, the stress-related elongation factor EF-1 alpha, a protein disulfide isomerase and an antioxidant, Peroxiredoxin 6.

  6. Toxicity and potential utility of ivermectin and moxidectin as xenointoxicants against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Ridge, Gale E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. throughout western industrialized nations has been facilitated in part by the insect becoming pesticide-resistant. Novel control strategies, including xenointoxication, should be considered to combat C. lectularius. Ivermectin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for several human parasites, and the antiparasitic drug moxidectin, currently being explored in human clinical trials, were evaluated for efficacy against C. lectularius. Results showed that C. lectularius fed on ivermectin or moxidectin blood concentrations of >25 ng/mL and had significantly higher mortality (50-100 %) than controls (0-6 %) by day 13. Bed bugs that survived a blood meal containing >2.5 ng/mL of ivermectin suffered long-term sequelae including reduced fecundity, feeding difficulty, and incomplete ecdysis. Some insects that survived a blood meal containing ≤75 ng/mL moxidectin were able to feed and reproduce.

  7. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid. No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray.

  8. A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) across an Urban Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriweather, Matthew; Matthews, Sara; Rio, Rita; Baucom, Regina S

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not been performed to date, nor has an assessment of the spatial dynamics of its microbiome. Here we present a survey of internal and external bed bug microbial communities by amplifying the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene region followed by 454 Titanium sequencing using 31 individuals from eight distinct collection locations obtained from residences in Cincinnati, OH. Across all samples, 97% of the microbial community is made up of two dominant OTUs, previously identified as the α-proteobacterium Wolbachia and an unnamed γ-proteobacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae. Microbial communities varied among host locations for measures of community diversity and exhibited structure according to collection location. This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the microbes that associate with bed bugs.

  9. A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius across an Urban Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Meriweather

    Full Text Available Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae, known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not been performed to date, nor has an assessment of the spatial dynamics of its microbiome. Here we present a survey of internal and external bed bug microbial communities by amplifying the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene region followed by 454 Titanium sequencing using 31 individuals from eight distinct collection locations obtained from residences in Cincinnati, OH. Across all samples, 97% of the microbial community is made up of two dominant OTUs, previously identified as the α-proteobacterium Wolbachia and an unnamed γ-proteobacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae. Microbial communities varied among host locations for measures of community diversity and exhibited structure according to collection location. This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the microbes that associate with bed bugs.

  10. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  11. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  12. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  13. Threat and efficacy uncertainty in news coverage about bed bugs as unique predictors of information seeking and avoidance: an extension of the EPPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E; Reed, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted from the perspective of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) investigating readers' responses to print news stories about the issue of bed bugs. Stories containing reference to (a) the threat of bed bugs and (b) efficacy of the solution were manipulated to vary the level of certainty with which the variables were discussed. Results suggest that stories referencing uncertainty regarding presence of the bed-bug threat may be more likely to motivate intention to seek information than stories referencing certainty of the threat. Results also suggest that stories referencing uncertainty regarding feasibility/effectiveness of proposed solutions may be more likely to motivate intention to avoid information than stories referencing certainty of proposed solutions. Given that information avoidance is one of various types of maladaptive responses to fear appeal messages (according to EPPM), results suggest that the presence of uncertainty when discussing solutions to threats in news stories might result in problematic avoidance responses that discourage people from taking protective action.

  14. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  15. 4-Oxo-Aldehydes from the dorsal abdominal glands of the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of the dorsal abdominal glands of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the bed bud Cimex lectularius L. indicated the predominant constituents were (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal with lesser amounts of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The latter two compounds have not previously...

  16. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  17. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kamimura

    Full Text Available During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females. This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus.

  18. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadílek, David; Sťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-10-03

    Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of

  19. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  20. SUMMIT ASCENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The SCO charts a course for the future at landmark meetings marking its fifth anniversary The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Summit on June 15 received extraordinary media coverage in China. Broadcast live on state radio and television and on the Internet, the summit made headlines in

  1. Current research on the resurgence, biology and control of bed bugs%臭虫的再猖獗、生物学及防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 王常禄; 许益镌; 曾玲

    2016-01-01

    由于DDT等现代杀虫剂的问世,臭虫在20世纪40-50年代以后在全球大部分地区尤其是发达国家和地区销声匿迹,但近10多年来臭虫在部分国家和地区重新出现.本文对其再猖獗原因、生物学和行为、饲养、抗药性、监测与防治策略进行了综述,旨在引起国人的重视,对今后臭虫的监测和防治起到抛砖引玉的作用.本文分析了近15年有关温带臭虫Cimex lectulariusL.和热带臭虫C.hemipterus(F.)的研究文献.臭虫再猖獗被认为是因为它对目前使用的杀虫剂例如拟除虫菊酯类等产生抗性以及频繁的地区及国际交往等因素造成的.简单、经济和大规模臭虫种群饲养方法——人工膜饲喂法的研发为我们开展臭虫生物学和生态学研究提供了便利.控制和根除臭虫目前仍较困难,采用害虫综合治理(integrated pest management,IPM)策略,包括臭虫知识宣传、主动监测、非化学防治方法(例如:经常洗涤床上用品、蒸汽熏蒸、热处理、使用床垫罩、在家具腿下放置臭虫拦截装置)、有选择使用杀虫剂以及定期监测及反复防治等措施,可达到很好的防控效果.在我国部分地区,臭虫发生也呈上升趋势,工人宿舍和火车车厢是常见的臭虫为害环境.有必要对我国臭虫发生现状及其抗药性进行调查与监测.还应借鉴国际先进技术,研制出我国适用的、有效的监测工具和防治方法,并根据我国具体国情制定出切实可行的防治标准.同时积极开展臭虫科普宣传,做到早发现、早防治,防止臭虫再猖獗和扩散.%Since the mid-1990s,many developed countries and regions experienced a resurgence of bed bugs.In this article,we reviewed the researches on bed bugs,including the resurgence causes,their biology and behavior,artificial rearing techniques,insecticide resistance,and monitoring and management techniques.We summarized the studies on the common bed bug (Cimex

  2. Teste de susceptibilidade do percevejo, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae ao DDT em Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil Susceptibility tests of the bed-bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae to DDT in Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo L. Nagem

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available O nível de susceptibilidade de percevejos adultos, Cimex lectularius, ao DDT, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brasil, foi determinado durante o período de 1985 a 1986. Os resultados indicaram, para os insetos testados, que uma dose de 4,0% do inseticida não foi suficiente para matar 55% dos insetos. Os dados permitem concluir que existem colonias de percevejos resistentes ao DDT em Belo Horizonte.Susceptibility levels for the adult bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais - Brazil, to DDT, were determined during the period 1985 to 1986. The test results showed that a 4% dosage of DDT is not enough to kill 55% of the insects. The data are sufficient to show that there exists bed-bug resistance to DDT in Belo Horizonte.

  3. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-07-19

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.

  4. Predicting Bugs' Components via Mining Bug Reports

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Deqing; Liu, Rui; Lin, Mengxiang; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Hongping

    2010-01-01

    The number of bug reports in complex software increases dramatically. Now bugs are triaged manually, bug triage or assignment is a labor-intensive and time-consuming task. Without knowledge about the structure of the software, testers often specify the component of a new bug wrongly. Meanwhile, it is difficult for triagers to determine the component of the bug only by its description. We dig out the components of 28,829 bugs in Eclipse bug project have been specified wrongly and modified at least once. It results in these bugs have to be reassigned and delays the process of bug fixing. The average time of fixing wrongly-specified bugs is longer than that of correctly-specified ones. In order to solve the problem automatically, we use historical fixed bug reports as training corpus and build classifiers based on support vector machines and Na\\"ive Bayes to predict the component of a new bug. The best prediction accuracy reaches up to 81.21% on our validation corpus of Eclipse project. Averagely our predictive ...

  5. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  6. Atrial Arrhythmia Summit: Post Summit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael

    2010-01-01

    The Atrial Arrhythmia Summit brought together nationally and internationally recognized experts in cardiology, electrophysiology, exercise physiology, and space medicine in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms, risk factors, and management of atrial arrhythmias in the unique occupational cohort of the U.S. astronaut corps.

  7. Bug Prioritization to Facilitate Bug Report Triage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaweria Kanwal; Onaiza Maqbool

    2012-01-01

    The large number of new bug reports received in bug repositories of software systems makes their management a challenging task.Handling these reports manually is time consuming,and often results in delaying the resolution of important bugs. To address this issue,a recommender may be developed which automatically prioritizes the new bug reports.In this paper,we propose and evaluate a classification based approach to build such a recommender.We use the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers,and present a comparison to evaluate which classifier performs better in terms of accuracy.Since a bug report contains both categorical and text features,another evaluation we perform is to determine the combination of features that better determines the priority of a bug.To evaluate the bug priority recommender,we use precision and recall measures and also propose two new measures,Nearest False Negatives (NFN) and Nearest False Positives (NFP),which provide insight into the results produced by precision and recall.Our findings are that the results of SVM are better than the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes algorithm for text features,whereas for categorical features,Na(ǐ)ve Bayes performance is better than SVM.The highest accurácy is achieved with SVM when categorical and text features are combined for training.

  8. Halter Financial Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The prolonged financial crisis brought about profound changes in international political and economic patterns. With a focus on China’s place in the post-crisis world situation, the Halter Financial Summit,

  9. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  10. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  11. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  12. Climate Summit in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

      Together with the United States, China has moved to centre stage in the running up to the Climate Summit in Copenhagen 7-18 December 2009. To make the Summit a success, the two countries have started signalling positive commitment to formulation of quantitative targets and engage constructively...... in elaborating a reasonably ambitious, yet realistic framework for the implementation of a new global post-Kyoto regime that will have to take effect from 2012. China's leadership has already acknowledged that climate change may exacerbate an exceedingly unsustainable development path over the next decades...... if action is not taken to change its course dramatically. The challenges are formidable, yet the window of opportunity to take action is quite narrow. For these reasons and due to international pressure, China's position on climate change has been made gradually clearer as the climate negotiations have...

  13. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  14. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in some populations to certain types of pesticides, pesticide resistance can only be verified in laboratory tests. Researchers ... effective control strategies. Because of the potential for resistance, it is ... to use pesticides appropriately and according to the label. It is ...

  15. Vienna Summit Declaration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-21

    The leaders of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA) met June 2006 in Vienna to respond to the concerns of their citizens for peace, security, stability and prosperity in an increasingly globalised world. They welcome that over the past year the Transatlantic Partnership has delivered real results as shown by the political and economic Progress Reports issued during the summit (http://www.eu2006.at/en/The{sub C}ouncil{sub P}residency/EU-USSummit/index.html). They remain committed to finding common or complementary lines of action in many areas. Over the last year there have been many examples of how productive the relationship is, in the Middle East, Iran, the Western Balkans, Belarus, on the frozen conflicts, and Sudan, as well as in the efforts to promote transatlantic trade and investment under last Summit's Economic Initiative. They have decided to further strengthen the strategic Partnership by adopting a number of priority actions to support cooperation in the following four areas: Promoting peace, human rights and democracy worldwide; Confronting global challenges, including security; Fostering prosperity and opportunity; and Promoting strategic cooperation on energy and energy security, climate change and sustainable development.

  16. Ebook Summit: Our Ebook Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over 2000 participants made the daylong programming at the "Library Journal"/"School Library Journal" Virtual Ebook Summit, September 29, a robust conversation and not just within the summit interface but also in tweets with the #ebooksummit hashtag (and beyond) and in libraries across the country where participants logged in to take part. The…

  17. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  18. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  19. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  20. Summit Lake landslide and geomorphic history of Summit Lake basin, northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B. Brandon; Melhorn, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Summit Lake landslide, northwestern Nevada, composed of Early Miocene pyroclastic debris, Ashdown Tuff, and basalt and rhyolite of the Black Rock Range, blocked the upper Soldier Creek-Snow Creek drainage and impounded Summit Lake sometimes prior to 7840 yr B.P. The slide covers 8.2 km2 and has geomorphic features characteristic of long run-out landslides, such as lobate form, longitudinal and transverse ridges, low surface gradient (7.1 ??), and preservation of original stratigraphic position of transported blocks. However, estimated debris volume is the smallest reported (2.5 ?? 105 m3) for a landslide of this type. The outflow channel of the Summit Lake basin was a northward-flowing stream valley entrenched by Mahogany Creek. Subsequent negative tectonic adjustment of the basin by about 35 m, accompanied by concommitant progradation of a prominent alluvial fan deposited by Mahogany Creek, argues for a probable diversion of drainage from the Alvord basin southward into the Lahontan basin. The landslide occurred while the creek flowed southward, transferring about 147 km2 of watershed from the Lahontan basin back to the Alvord basin. Overflow northward occurred during high stands of Pluvial Lake Parman in the basin; otherwise, under drier climates, the Summit Lake basin has been closed. Within large depressions on the slide surface, the ca. 6800 yr old Mazama Bed and other sediments have buried a weakly developed soil. Disseminated humus in the soil yields an age of 7840 ?? 310 yr B.P. Absence of older tephra (such as St. Helens M) brackets the slide age between 7840 and 19,000 yr B.P. Projectile points found on the highest strandlines of Pluvial Lake Parman suggest a ca 8700 yr B.P. age by correlation with cultural artifacts and radiocarbon ages from nearby Last Supper Cave, Nevada. Organic matter accumulation in landslide soils suggests ages ranging from 9100 to 16,250 yr B.P. Estimation of the age of the slide from morphologic data for the isolated Summit

  1. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    is a requirement for goal-oriented research, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 40 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We investigate each of the 40 bugs, recording...

  2. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    , serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 42 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. In addition, we...

  3. Beyond the World Food Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, P

    1997-08-01

    While most speakers at the 1996 World Food Summit expressed concern about the injustice that forces more than 800 million people worldwide to live with hunger, some sought solutions through economic and social development while others called for a more liberal marketplace. Among world leaders, only Fidel Castro raised issues and challenges that addressed some of the underlying causes of malnutrition. The Plan of Action that grew out of the Summit has only one measurable commitment, which is to halve the number of undernourished people by 2015. The other six commitments, while diluted, contain important objectives even though they give little emphasis to the underlying causes of poverty or hunger. The Summit process, however, did contribute to the fact that food-related issues are now placed higher on the world agenda because many of these issue were raised by civil service organizations (CSOs) at the Summit's parallel NGO (nongovernmental organization) forum. In fact, one of the most positive outcomes of the Summit may prove to be the increased effectiveness of the CSOs as a result of the creation of improved networks in preparation for the Summit. The CSOs contributed examples of how food security could be improved, published an active site on the World Wide Web, and challenged the statements of governments. In addition to raising trade issues, CSOs also lobbied for sustainable agriculture and agricultural biodiversity. In fact, CSOs may have to set a new action agenda for the formal sector to encourage development of new institutions and new global forums that give NGOs a place at the table.

  4. Fiftieth Anniversary at the summit

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Neither fear of heights nor the cold succeeded in cooling the ardour of four brave climbers from CERN who celebrated CERN's 50th Anniversary at the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 metres). On the way back from the summit, Miguel Cerqueira Bastos (AB/PO), David Collados Polidura (IT/GM), Sandra Sequeira Tavares (PH/CMI) and Daniel Cano Ott (n_TOF) raised the official CERN Jubilee flag at 4750 metres altitude. How long will it be before a CERN flag is planted on the moon?

  5. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  6. Application of agriculture-developed demographic analysis for the conservation of the Hawaiian alpine wekiu bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Jesse; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Insects that should be considered for conservation attention are often overlooked because of a lack of data. The detailed information necessary to assess population growth, decline, and maximum range is particularly difficult to acquire for rare and cryptic species. Many of these difficulties can be overcome with the use of life table analyses and heat energy accumulation models common in agriculture. The wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola), endemic to the summit of one volcanic mountain in Hawaii, is a rare insect living in an environmentally sensitive alpine stone desert, where field-based population assessments would be inefficient or potentially detrimental to natural and cultural resources. We conducted laboratory experiments with the insects by manipulating rearing temperatures of laboratory colonies and made detailed observations of habitat conditions to develop life tables representing population growth parameters and environmental models for wekiu bug phenology and demographic change. Wekiu bugs developed at temperatures only found in its environment on sunny days and required the thermal buffer found on cinder cones for growth and population increase. Wekiu bugs required approximately 3.5 months to complete one generation. The bug developed optimally from 26 to 30 °C, temperatures that are much higher than the air temperature attains in its elevational range. The developmental temperature range of the species confirmed a physiological reason why the wekiu bug is only found on cinder cones. This physiology information can help guide population monitoring and inform habitat restoration and conservation. The wekiu bug was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and the developmental parameters we quantified were used to determine the species would not be listed as endangered or threatened. The use of developmental threshold experiments, life table analyses, and degree day modeling can directly inform otherwise unobservable habitat needs and

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  8. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1996-02-01

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ``on board`` intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ``twisted pair`` standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ``noisy`` environments.

  9. Fixing Two BSD TCP Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This note outlines two bugs found in the BSD 4.4 Lite TCP implementation, as well as the implications of these bugs and possible ways to correct them. The first problem encountered in this particular TCP implementation is the use of a 2 segment initial congestion window, rather than the standard 1 segment initial window. The second problem is that the receiver delays ACKs in violation of the delayed ACK rules,

  10. Sapindaceae, cyanolipids, and bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, J R; Carroll, S P; Lusby, W R; Thompson, M J; Kochansky, J P; Waters, R M

    1990-01-01

    Scentless plant bugs (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae) are so named because adults of the Serinethinae have vestigial metathoracic scent glands. Serinethines are seed predators of Sapindales, especially Sapindaceae that produce toxic cyanolipids. In two serinethine species whose ranges extend into the southern United States,Jadera haematoloma andJ. sanguinolenta, sequestration of host cyanolipids as glucosides renders these gregarious, aposematic insects unpalatable to a variety of predators. The blood glucoside profile and cyanogenesis ofJadera varies depending on the cyanolipid chemistry of hosts, and adults and larvae fed golden rain tree seeds (Koelreuteria paniculata) excrete the volatile lactone, 4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone, to which they are attracted.Jadera fed balloon vine seeds (Cardiospermum spp.) do not excrete the attractive lactone. Loss of the usual heteropteran defensive glands in serinethines may have coevolved with host specificity on toxic plants, and the orientation ofJadera to a volatile excretory product could be an adaptive response to save time.

  11. American Telemedicine Association: Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit, Washington DC - Hyatt Regency on Capitol Hill June 27, 2013 at 1:00 pm and June 28, 2013 at 12:00 pm The ATA Federal Telemedicine Policy Summit is an opportunity to hear and interact with leaders from Congress, key federal agencies and influential policy thinkers about the latest developments affecting telemedicine. The Summit will include participation of key stakeholders including healthcare providers, business interests, medical societies, consumer groups and more. Join the conversation and hear the latest, inside information about the swift changes underway in healthcare delivery, public policy and the opportunities these provide for those involved in telemedicine. The Summit has an exciting line-up of speakers, representing the nation’s top policy leaders in healthcare. For information: http://www.americantelemed.org/ata-federal-telemedicine-policy-summit/summit-overview

  12. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  13. National Farmers Market Summit Proceedings Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tropp, Debra; Barham, James

    2008-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), in partnership with the Farmers Market Consortium, hosted the National Farmers Market Summit November 7–9, 2007, in Baltimore, MD. The Summit assembled key stakeholders from the farmers market community to convene a national conversation on issues and challenges facing today’s farmers markets. The National Farmers Market Summit had three broad objectives: (1) Identify farmers market needs and existing gaps in assistance, (2) Prioritize future res...

  14. Global warming at the summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  15. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  16. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  17. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  19. Model-Based Enterprise Summit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    the “industrial internet ” for tying information together, resulting in better decisions. GE is focusing on data quality for in-process models to...based measurement planning does a number of things well, such as generating collision- free probe paths and facilitating sensor orientation selection...Summit 2012 MBE Summit “It’s Not Safe” “Not for Enterprise” “B2C, not B2B ” Miscommunications about the Cloud 2012 MBE Summit Truth about the Cloud Safe

  20. Given Enough Eyeballs, All Bugs Are Shallow? Revisiting Eric Raymond with Bug Bounty Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Maillart, Thomas; Grossklags, Jens; Chuang, John

    2016-01-01

    Bug bounty programs offer a modern platform for organizations to crowdsource their software security and for security researchers to be fairly rewarded for the vulnerabilities they find. Little is known however on the incentives set by bug bounty programs: How they drive new bug discoveries, and how they supposedly improve security through the progressive exhaustion of discoverable vulnerabilities. Here, we recognize that bug bounty programs create tensions, for organizations running them on the one hand, and for security researchers on the other hand. At the level of one bug bounty program, security researchers face a sort of St-Petersburg paradox: The probability of finding additional bugs decays fast, and thus can hardly be matched with a sufficient increase of monetary rewards. Furthermore, bug bounty program managers have an incentive to gather the largest possible crowd to ensure a larger pool of expertise, which in turn increases competition among security researchers. As a result, we find that researc...

  1. Diagnosis of Subtraction Bugs Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of misconceptions or "bugs" in procedural skills is difficult because of their unstable nature. This study addresses this problem by proposing and evaluating a probability-based approach to the diagnosis of bugs in children's multicolumn subtraction performance using Bayesian networks. This approach assumes a causal network relating…

  2. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  3. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.

  4. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  5. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Employment/jobs Partners Donate Contact Youth Home About News Give Training and events Research Minnesota 4-H YD Intranet Insects Insects home Diagnose a problem What insect is this? What's wrong with my plant? Find an insect Insects A- ...

  6. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  7. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the type...

  8. Geneva summit aims to bridge 'digital divide'

    CERN Multimedia

    Williams, F

    2003-01-01

    "With almost all the political hurdles swept aside in negotiations last weekend, the huge World Summit on the Information Society that opens in Geneva today will be clearly focused on its initial objective - boosting the use of information and communication technologies in the developing world" (1 page).

  9. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  10. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  11. Second World Materials Summit Suzhou Declaration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Suzhou 2009 Declaration Clean energy and sustainability are global issues that require international collaboration.Materials play a critical role in addressing these challenges.The Second World Materials Summit in Suzhou provides an avenue to create international cooperation to address energy related materials solutions.Our priorities track the relevant sections of the Kyoto resolution.

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Global Zero Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to attend the Global Zero Summit in Paris,France from February 2 to 4.The event aimed to promote a new phase in the"Global Zero"movement:working to reach a binding and verifiable agreement on elimination of all nuclear weapons worldwide.More than 200

  13. The existence of a bug chasing subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This study attempted to authenticate the existence of a controversial subculture of gay men, the 'bug chasers', whose main attribute is an active desire to voluntarily contract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and examine the tenacity with which this subculture actually searches for seroconversion. Using a quasi-randomized survey of personal profiles, bug chasers were compared against barebackers, a culture of gay men that practice intentional unprotected anal intercourse. Bug chasers were authenticated as an observable subculture of barebackers where most reported apathy to the serostatus of their partner or an active want of a serodiscordant partner, and a preference towards practicing unprotected anal intercourse. As anticipated, two subgroups with varying tenacities were found within the sample of bug chasers. Apathetic chasers were found only to be in search of partners with sero-ambiguous status. Ardent chasers were found only to be in search of certifiably serodiscordant partners.

  14. A Case of Cardboard Boxes Likely Facilitating the Biting of a Patient by Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Triatomine Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolhun, Eduardo P.; Antes, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the “kissing bug.” Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches. We report the case of a patient living in northern California who presented to a community clinic 6 weeks after being bitten by a positively identified triatomine bug. A local pest control company identified a total of eight adult Triatoma protracta, nine nymphs, and two eggs; all within the patient's bedding. No bugs were found outside of the patient's bedroom. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed one adult female was positive for Trypanosoma cruzi via polymerase chain reaction. The patient's bedroom doubled as an office and regularly received and stored corrugated cardboard shipping boxes. Corrugated cardboard boxes have been used to trap and study the triatomine bug. This is the first documented case that provides circumstantial evidence that corrugated cardboard boxes may be an inadvertent and unrecognized factor in the spread of Chagas disease. PMID:27601526

  15. Global Summit on Regulatory Science 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Paul C; Tong, Weida; Weichold, Frank; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory science has been defined as the science that is used to develop regulatory decisions by government bodies. Regulatory science encompasses many scientific disciplines that oversee many studies producing a wide array of data. These may include fundamental research into the cellular interaction or response to a particular chemical or substance, hazard-assessment and dose-response studies in animal species, neurophysiological or neurobehavioral studies, best practices for the generation and analysis of genomics data, bioinformatics approaches, and mathematical modeling of risk. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science is an international conference with a mission to explore emerging and innovative technologies, and provide a platform to enhance translation of basic science into regulatory applications. The Third Global Summit on Regulatory Science which focused on nanotechnology is discussed.

  16. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  17. 7th International Polyurethane Summit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Tecnon OrbiChem and PUWorld invite you to join us in Xiamen,China for the 7th International Polyurethane Summit on 7-8November 2013.The global polyurethane industry has demonstrated its innovative approach-promoting new applications and technologies and pushing forward bio-based developments.However,the industry still faces huge challenges including a slowdown in the key Chinese PU market,ongoing fragility of the

  18. Pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease: Bug or no bug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta; Maia; Bosca-Watts; Joan; Tosca; Rosario; Anton; Maria; Mora; Miguel; Minguez; Francisco; Mora

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of an infectious origin in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)has been postulated since the first description of Crohn’s disease(CD).Many observations implicate bacteria as a trigger for the development of CD:lesions occur in regions with higher bacterial concentrations;aphthous ulcers occur in Peyer’s patches;inflammation resolves when the fecal stream is diverted and is reactivated following reinfusion ofbowel contents;severity of the disease is correlated with bacterial density in the mucosa;granulomas can contain bacteria;and susceptible mice raised in germfree conditions develop inflammation when bacteria are introduced in the 1990’s,several studies sought to establish a relationship with viral infections and the onset of IBD,finally concluding that no direct link had been demonstrated.In the past fifteen years,evidence relating IBD pathogenesis to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis,salmonella,campylobacter,etc.,has been found.The tendency now under discussion to regard microbiota as the primary catalyst has led to the latest studies on microbiota as pathogens,focusing on Escherichia coli,mainly in ileal CD.The present review discusses the literature available on these"bugs".

  19. CERN's Tree of Science at the Summit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The World Summit on the Information Society held its closing session at Palexpo on 12 December. During the Summit, CERN organised the SIS Forum, the Tree of Science, at Palexpo. Kofi Annan and Tim Berners-Lee, sending a message to 800 schools around the world, from the first Web server will remain one of the abiding images of the Science Stand organised by CERN as part of the World Summit on the Information Society last December. According to its designer, François Fluckiger (IT Department) this stand was not intended purely as an exhibition or as a lecture point but as a forum. Thirty-two scientific institutions throughout the world made their own contributions to the information society over the five days of the exhibition. In all, 42 science projects were exhibited to several thousand visitors under four themes: education and culture; health; environment, development and risks; fundamental sciences and enabling technologies. CERN's stand represented a tree with a trunk in the centre with scre...

  20. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  1. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  2. The global summit on nurse faculty migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia E; Benton, David C; Adams, Elizabeth; Morin, Karen H; Barry, Jean; Prevost, Suzanne S; Vlasich, Cynthia; Oywer, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As global demand for health care workers burgeons, information is scant regarding the migration of faculty who will train new nurses. With dual roles as clinicians and educators, and corresponding dual sets of professional and legal obligations, nurse faculty may confront unique circumstances in migration that can impact nations' ability to secure an adequate, stable nursing workforce. In a seminal effort to address these concerns, the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the International Council of Nurses invited a diverse group of international experts to a summit designed to elucidate forces that drive nurse faculty migration. The primary areas of consideration were the impact on nurse faculty migration of rapid health care workforce scale-up, international trade agreements, and workforce aging. Long-term summit goals included initiating action affecting national, regional, and global supplies of nurse educators and helping to avert catastrophic failure of health care delivery systems caused by an inadequate ability to educate next-generation nurses.

  3. Manor Summit:Chinese diplomacy upgraded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      “This is the 1st state visit without a 21-gun salute and state banquet.”It indicates that the contents of the meeting are more important than the forms.   Between June 7 and 8, Chinese President Xi Jinping and US President Obama had a meeting at Annenberg Estate, the Sunnylands in California. Without neckties, the two leaders made complete and in-depth communications on domestic and foreign policies, major international and regional issues of common concerns and how to build new type of China-US relationship.   From the idea of“laid-back meeting”between both countries’ leaders, to the practice desire of top levels of both countries, intensive negotiations, coordination and settlement of venue, time and formalities and the joint announcement of this unconventional arrangement…The Manor Summit was smoothly completed within five months.   International issue experts believe that the China-US Manor Summit at California is an important step of both countries to jump out of historical absurd circle and build a new type of major power relationship, and the updated Chinese diplomacy takes into shape.

  4. Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

  5. Preparing for the China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On July 3, 2009, liaison of ficers meeting for the Sixth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit hosted by CCPIT was hold in Beijing. The summit liaison officers coming from Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and other countries, the Embassy officials in China of Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and other countries, and the related Chinese officials, attended the meeting.

  6. 78 FR 36683 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, Mississippi AGENCY: Federal Communications... Broadcasting, allots FM Channel 228A ] as a first local service at Summit, Mississippi. To accommodate that... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting....

  7. The Education Summit; A Different Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-05-01

    The last National Education Summit held by the Governors occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1989. That Summit, chaired by then Governor Clinton, produced the national goals for education announced by President Bush. These top-down goals are unfulfilled and are, for all practical purposes, dead. The 1996 Education Summit seems different, although its recommendations may suffer the same fate of those of the 1989 Summit. The 1996 Education Summit was held at IBM's Executive Conference Center in Palisades, New York. The Governors invited 44 executives of major businesses from virtually every state. CEO's from IBM, AT&T, Bell South, Eastman Kodak, Procter & Gamble, and Boeing were a part of the planning committee. Absent, for the most part, were professional educators and their organizations. The constitution of the 1996 Education Summit sent a clear signal, viz., that the "professional educators," whatever their individual talents, as a group have failed the nation's public schools and now its time for someone else to try. The "someone else" is the group of individuals that are the ultimate consumers of the output of the American education system. The collective point of view of the attending CEO's is that companies have undergone radical changes to become globally competitive, now it's time to keep the work force equally competitive. And this can only come through radical changes in the educational system. The CEO's point out that the companies they represent live or die by the (international) standards they establish, some of which are expressed in the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM), which represents a systemic approach to the changes American industry had to undergo to stay competitive. The executives clearly have run out of patience with the current system of public education. Many feel that they are running out of talented people to fill the important jobs that this society will need to fill to keep it moving forward. That talent is not being

  8. 7th International Polyurethane Summit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Tecnon OrbiChem and PUWorld invite you to join us in Xiamen,China for the 7th International Polyurethane Summit on 7-8November 2013.The global polyurethane industry has demonstrated its innovative approach-promoting new applications and technologies and pushing forward bio-based developments.However,the industry still faces huge challenges including a slowdown in the key Chinese PU market,ongoing fragility of the European market as well as oversupply of certain raw materials and feedstock volatility.Bright spots include the recovery of the US market,the increased usage in Europe of PU based insulation,and the new raw material plants under construction in the Middle East.What are the prospects for the industry in 2013 and beyond,and how will the markets shift in response to changing global dynamics?

  9. Host preference of the chinch bug, Blissus occiduus

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhoff, Thomas E.; Baxendale, Frederick P; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.

    2006-01-01

    The chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), is an important pest of buffalograss, Buchloë dactyloides (Nutall) Engelmann and potentially other turfgrass, crop, and non-crop hosts. Choice studies documented the number of B. occiduus present on selected turfgrasses, crops and weeds, and provided important insights into the host preferences of this chinch bug. Grasses with the most chinch bugs present included the warm-season turfgrasses B. dactyloides, zoysiagrass, Zoysia ja...

  10. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  11. A sensor-based motion planner:Situated-Bug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居鹤华; 崔平远; 崔祜涛

    2003-01-01

    Propose a new sensor-based motion planning approach of Situated-Bug, which is composed of goal-oriented behavior, boundary following behavior and goal-oriented obstacle avoidance behavior, which are based on fuzzy control. The situated-Bug selects its behaviors according to robot orientation, instead of positions and hit points like other Bug algorithms, and its convergence proves robust to sensor noise, and it can guide the robots running for long rang traverse. At the same time, the design of the Situated-Bug is presented. Simulation results show that the approach is effective and practical.

  12. Antarctic Treaty Summit to Focus on Global Science Policy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Walton, David W. H.; Weiler, C. Susan

    2008-10-01

    The Antarctic Treaty Summit, which will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the treaty's signing, will be held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D. C., from 30 November to 3 December 2009. The summit will provide an open international forum for scientists, legislators, lawyers, administrators, educators, students, corporate executives, historians, and other members of global civil society to explore science policy achievements from the first 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, the summit will complement official government celebrations of the Antarctic Treaty anniversary that do not include public participation.

  13. Diversity of Wolbachia Endosymbionts in Heteropteran Bugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2003-01-01

    An extensive survey of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Japanese terrestrial heteropteran bugs was performed by PCR detection with universal primers for wsp and ftsZ genes of Wolbachia, cloning of the PCR products, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of infecting Wolbachia types, and molecular phylogenetic characterization of all the detected Wolbachia strains. Of 134 heteropteran species from 19 families examined, Wolbachia infection was detected in 47 species from 13 families. From ...

  14. Women Leaders of New Asia Summit Held in Zhenjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>With women now playing a wider role in world development each passing day, much attention was focused on the 2012 "Women Leaders of New Asia Summit", held in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, April 19-21.

  15. 2009 APEC SME Summit Held in Hangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 11th 2009,2009 APEC SME Summit,themed by "small enterprises,big dreams" was held in Hangzhou,China.Entrepreneur delegates trom 21 Asian-pacltiC countries and regions gathered in Hangzhou,discussing the issues concerning the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and sorting out the experience for the SME to bottom out of the recession.Zhang Wei,Vice Chairman of CCPIT attended and addressed the summit.

  16. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia;

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa...

  17. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  18. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  19. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  20. G8 SUMMIT MEETING AT EVIAN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss and French authorities have informed CERN that plans are in hand for the safety and traffic arrangements associated with the G8 Summit Meeting, which will be held in Evian between 1 and 3 June 2003. Detailed information will be communicated in the coming weeks. However, changes to traffic arrangements on certain sections of the road network in the Canton of Geneva (particularly the left bank) and the neighbouring parts of France (specially Haute-Savoie) from 22 May 2003 can already be predicted. All pertinent information and any recommendations by the authorities concerned will be brought to the attention of the personnel as soon as possible. In the mean time, those concerned can consult the various Web sites devoted to this event, especially: - http://www.g8.fr/evian/english/home.html (French site); - http://www.g8info.ch/accueil.htm (Swiss site). Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  1. Susceptibilities of Tarnished Plant Bug and Stink Bug Nymphs to Various Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the susceptibility of the nymphal stages and adult stage of the tarnished plant bug to a pyrethroid (permethrin), organophasphate (methamidophos), and neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam) insecticide. The susceptibilities of 5th instar and adult stages of th...

  2. The 1992 Earth Summit: background and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, M F

    1992-03-01

    In 1989, the UN General Assembly agreed to sponsor a conference on environment and development and that the Heads of State would attend this 1st ever Earth Summit in June 1992. The planned agenda included making concrete changes to the basis of our economic life, relations between and among nations, and the outlook for the future. This would result in restructuring world priorities. Despite the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the human Environment acknowledging the basic link between environment and development, the environment has deteriorated even further, especially ozone depletion. Yet some governments did set up environmental agencies or ministries, like the US Environmental Protection Agency, but they were not allowed to influence economic policy or the policies and/or practices of major sectoral agencies. These environmental organizations relied too heavily on regulation. The 1992 conference needs to result in a political commitment to place reduction of poverty worldwide as the 1st priority since poverty and underdevelopment are strongly related to destruction of the environment. It is particularly important that developing countries improve their strengths by developing their human resources and institutional capacities (science, technology, management and professional skills) and reduce their vulnerabilities, such as dependence on foreign experts. This can best be achieved if they have access to technology. Moreover they must reduce population growth and reach population stability quickly. The 1992 conference in Brazil should also result in a global partnership based on common interest, mutual need, and shared responsibility. The world ecoindustrial revolution has already begun in some countries, such as Japan which has reduced energy use 40% since 1975. In fact, Japan has proven that environmental improvement can be accomplished with high rates of economic growth.

  3. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  4. Finding Error Handling Bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    OpenSSL is a library providing various functionalities relating to secure network communication.  Detecting and fixing bugs in OpenSSL code is thus essential, particularly when such bugs can lead to malicious attacks.  In previous work, we have proposed a methodology for finding API usage protocols...... in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...

  5. People, poverty and the Earth Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J

    1992-01-01

    UNCED is about human beings managing their affairs so that all can achieve a reasonably good life without destroying the life-supporting environment. Currently human activities are approaching an upset of environmental balance through production of greenhouse gases, depletion of the ozone layer, and reduction of natural resources. Equity is the right to a decent life for the current human population of 5.5 billion and the future 10 billion expected within the next 50 years. A minimum use of environmental space/person is required. The Earth Summit will be a broad statement of environmental policy. Agenda 21 includes 115 action programs within 40 chapters. Separate conventions will be held on climate and biodiversity. The secretariat of UNCED has been working primarily with Agenda 21. Population issues are emphasized in Chapter 5 ("Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability") of the first section in Agenda 21 on Social and Economic Dimensions. The program areas include 1) research on the links between population, the environment, and development; 2) formulation by governments of integrated national policies on environment and development, which account for demographic trends, and promotion of population literacy; and 3) implementation of local level programs to ensure access to education and information and services in order to plan families freely and responsibly. Increases in funding for the population program are anticipated to be US $9 billion by the year 2000 and about US $7 billion/year until then. The year 2000 will bring with it a doubling of urban population in developing countries. There are challenges and opportunities to expand private sector job creation, education, clean water, and family health services. In addition to managing human settlements, there is also management of fragile ecosystems, which means relieving the pressure on these lands through urban migration or relocation to richer agricultural areas. The goal for agriculture is to triple food

  6. Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

  7. Recent warming at Summit, Greenland: Global context and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel; Colgan, William; Bayou, Nicolas; Muto, Atsuhiro; Steffen, Konrad

    2013-05-01

    at Summit, Greenland suggest that the annual mean near-surface air temperature increased at 0.09 ± 0.01°C/a over the 1982-2011 climatology period. This rate of warming, six times the global average, places Summit in the 99th percentile of all globally observed warming trends over this period. The rate of warming at Summit is increasing over time. During the instrumental period (1987-2011), warming has been greatest in the winter season, although the implications of summer warming are more acute. The annual maximum elevation of the equilibrium line and dry snow line has risen at 44 and 35 m/a over the past 15 and 18 years, respectively. Extrapolation of this observed trend now suggests, with 95% confidence intervals, that the dry snow facies of the Greenland Ice Sheet will inevitably transition to percolation facies. There is a 50% probability of this transition occurring by 2025.

  8. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts - Summary of a NASA Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael R.; Watkins, Sharmila D.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Definition: To evaluate NASA s current standards and practices related to atrial arrhythmias in astronauts, Space Medicine s Advanced Projects Section at the Johnson Space Center was tasked with organizing a summit to discuss the approach to atrial arrhythmias in the astronaut cohort. Since 1959, 11 cases of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia have been recorded among active corps crewmembers. Most of the cases were paroxysmal, although a few were sustained. While most of the affected crewmembers were asymptomatic, those slated for long-duration space flight underwent radiofrequency ablation treatment to prevent further episodes of the arrhythmia. The summit was convened to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to propose relevant research initiatives. Summit Meeting Objectives: The Atrial Arrhythmia Summit brought together a panel of six cardiologists, including nationally and internationally renowned leaders in cardiac electrophysiology, exercise physiology, and space flight cardiovascular physiology. The primary objectives of the summit discussions were to evaluate cases of atrial arrhythmia in the astronaut population, to understand the factors that may predispose an individual to this condition, to understand NASA s current capabilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment, to discuss the risks associated with treatment of crewmembers assigned to long-duration missions or extravehicular activities, and to discuss recommendations for prevention or management of future cases. Summary of Recommendations: The summit panel s recommendations were grouped into seven categories: Epidemiology, Screening, Standards and Selection, Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Manifesting Preflight, Atrial Fibrillation during Flight, Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation, and Future Research

  9. NATO’s Wales Summit: Expected Outcomes and Key Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    September 4-5, the leaders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s ( NATO ) 28 member states will meet in Wales for the alliance’s 2014 summit. This...the planned completion by the end of 2014 of NATO’s mission in Afghanistan, the longest and most ambitious operation in NATO history. As such, some...analysts portray the summit as an opportunity to consider a possible strategic shift for NATO , away from the broad, “out of area” focus embodied by

  10. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. How Does the Degree of Variability Affect Bug-Finding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    place. The difficulty in reasoning about several configurations is a likely reason why the variability bugs are actually introduced in configurable programs. We hope that the detailed findings presented here will inspire the creation of programmer support tools addressing the challenges faced......Software projects embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost; however, others blame variability for increasing complexity and making reasoning about programs more difficult. We carry out a controlled experiment to quantify the impact of variability on debugging of preprocessor......-based programs. We measure speed and precision for bug finding tasks defined at three different degrees of variability on several subject programs derived from real systems. The results show that the speed of bug finding decreases linearly with the number of features, while effectiveness of finding bugs...

  12. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood of mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles. Triatomine bugs live in a wide range of environmental settings, generally within close proximity to a blood host. In areas of Latin America where human Chagas disease is an important public ...

  13. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  14. 77 FR 6534 - Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Summit Logan Grazing Authorization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Forest Service Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Summit Logan Grazing Authorization Project AGENCY: Forest... authorize livestock grazing on all or portions of the Lake Creek, Logan Valley, McCoy Creek and Summit... watersheds. The Summit Logan Grazing Authorization Project area is located south and west of Prairie...

  15. Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne-Firl, Bridgetta

    2016-01-01

    How do we reach the summit in terms of supporting the best transition possible for each young deaf or hard of hearing individual in the United States? Should professionals who are hearing work alone to succeed with deaf and hard of hearing students? No matter how good the intention, if we want deaf and hard of hearing students to transition from…

  16. CPAFFC Delegation Attends "Climate& Territories" Summit in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    At the Climate and Territories world summit held in Lyon in July 2015,French President Francois Hollande applauded China’s commitment to reducing carbon intensity in the process of its economic growth.In his speech made after the"Mayor’s Round Table".Hollande said more than 40 countries had made promises

  17. Sourcing USA Summit Engages Global Cotton Industry Leaders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From November 9-12,the"6th Biennial Sourcing USA Summit,"organized by Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated and with the support of the U.S.cotton industry and USDA, took place at Terranea in Rancho Palos Verdes,

  18. World summit urged to make science more available

    CERN Multimedia

    Mantell, K

    2003-01-01

    "Scientific information should be made more easily and freely available, especially to researchers and others in developing countries. That is one of the key messages that the scientific community is sending the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), which opens in Geneva, Switzerland, today" (1 page)

  19. 77 FR 23203 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Summit, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission.... The Commission requests comment on a petition filed by Bowen Broadcasting, proposing to amend the...., Officer, Bowen Broadcasting, 1125 Petrified Forest Road, Flora, Mississippi 39071. FOR FURTHER...

  20. Recommendations from NASA's Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.; Scheuring, R. A.; Walton, M. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Smaka, T.; McCulley, P. A.; Jones, J. A.; Stokes, C. R.; Parker, K. K.; Wear, M.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Continuously evolving medical standards of care, limited crew training time, and the inherent constraints of space flight necessitate regular revisions of the mission medical support infrastructure and methodology. A three-day Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit was held to review NASA s current strategy for preflight health maintenance and injury screening, risk mitigation for musculoskeletal injuries or syndromes, treatment methods during flight, and research topics to mitigate risks to astronaut health. The Summit also undertook consideration of the best evidence-based terrestrial musculoskeletal practices to recommend their adaptation for use in space. Methods: The types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by short- and long-duration astronauts were obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. The Summit panel was comprised of experts from the clinical and research communities, as well as representatives from NASA Headquarters, the Astronaut corps, and the offices of JSC Medical Operations, JSC Human Adaptation and Countermeasures, Glenn Research Center Human Research, and Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation. Before the summit, panelists participated in a Web-based review of NASA s Space Medical Conditions List (SMCL). Results: The Summit generated seventy-five operational and research recommendations to the NASA Office of Space Medicine, including changes to the SMCL and to the musculoskeletal section of the ISS debrief questionnaire. From these recommendations, seven were assigned highest value and priority, and could be immediately adopted for the exploration architecture. Discussion: Optimized exercise and conditioning to improve performance and forestall musculoskeletal damage on orbit were the primary area of focus. Special attention was paid to exercise timing and muscle group specificity. The panel s recommendations are currently in various stages of consideration or integration

  1. Categorizing Bugs with Social Networks: A Case Study on Four Open Source Software Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bug triaging procedures are an important precondition for successful collaborative software engineering projects. Triaging bugs can become a laborious task particularly in open source software (OSS) projects with a large base of comparably inexperienced part-time contributors. In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical method to identify valid bug reports which a) refer to an actual software bug, b) are not duplicates and c) contain enough information to be processed right away. Our classification is based on nine measures to quantify the social embeddedness of bug reporters in the collaboration network. We demonstrate its applicability in a case study, using a comprehensive data set of more than 700,000 bug reports obtained from the Bugzilla installation of four major OSS communities, for a period of more than ten years. For those projects that exhibit the lowest fraction of valid bug reports, we find that the bug reporters' position in the collaboration network is a strong indicator for ...

  2. Monitoring of stage and velocity, for computation of discharge in the Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin K.; Goodwin, Greg E.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan diversion accounting is the process used by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to quantify the amount of water that is diverted from the Lake Michigan watershed into the Illinois and Mississippi River Basins. A network of streamgages within the Chicago area waterway system monitor tributary river flows and the major river flow on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont as one of the instrumental tools used for Lake Michigan diversion accounting. The mean annual discharges recorded by these streamgages are used as additions or deductions to the mean annual discharge recorded by the main stream gaging station currently used in the Lake Michigan diversion accounting process, which is the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois (station number 05536890). A new stream gaging station, Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois (station number 414757087490401), was installed on September 23, 2010, for the purpose of monitoring stage, velocity, and discharge through the Summit Conduit for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in accordance with Lake Michigan diversion accounting. Summit Conduit conveys flow from a small part of the lower Des Plaines River watershed underneath the Des Plaines River directly into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. Because the Summit Conduit discharges into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal upstream from the stream gaging station at Lemont, Illinois, but does not contain flow diverted from the Lake Michigan watershed, it is considered a flow deduction to the discharge measured by the Lemont stream gaging station in the Lake Michigan diversion accounting process. This report offers a technical summary of the techniques and methods used for the collection and computation of the stage, velocity, and discharge data at the Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois stream gaging station for the 2011 and 2012 Water Years. The stream gaging station Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois (station number 414757087490401) is an

  3. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  4. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... your daily activities. Why Do I Need Bed Rest? Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  5. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  6. Waveform library for chinch bugs (Heteroptera: Blissidae): Characterization of EPG waveforms at multiple input impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinch bugs, Blissus spp. (Heteroptera: Blissidae), are among the most serious pests of grasses in North America. Southern chinch bug, B. insularis Barber, is the most economically important pest on St. Augustinegrass, the primary lawn grass in Florida. Western chinch bug, B. occiduus Barber, is ...

  7. Holistic Evaluation Framework for Automated Bug Triage Systems: Integration of Developer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. V. Akila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bug Triage is an important aspect of Open Source Software Development. Automated Bug Triage system is essential to reduce the cost and effort incurred by manual Bug Triage. At present, the metrics that are available in the literature to evaluate the Automated Bug Triage System are only recommendation centric. These metrics address only the correctness and coverage of the Automated Bug Triage System. Thus, there is a need for user-centric evaluation of the Bug Triage System. The two types of metrics to evaluate the Automated Bug Triage System include Recommendation Metrics and User Metrics. There is a need to corroborate the results produced by the Recommendation Metrics with User Metrics. To this end, this paper furnishes a Holistic Evaluation Framework for Bug Triage System by integrating the developer performance into the evaluation framework. The Automated Bug Triage System is also to retrieve a set of developers for resolving a bug. Hence, this paper proposes Key Performance Indicators (KPI for appraising a developer’s effectiveness in contribution towards the resolution of the bug. By applying the KPIs on the retrieved set of developers, the Bug Triage System can be evaluated quantitatively.

  8. [The Washington summit: orange light for genome editing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    The summit organised in early December 2015 considered in depth the various issues (technical, scientific, societal and ethical) raised by the prospect of genome editing using the extremely effective CRISPR system. Germline editing (for therapeutic or "enhancement" purposes) was stated to be irresponsible under current conditions, but the possibility that this could be considered in the future was not excluded; a mechanism for monitoring progress and possibly revising recommendations was proposed.

  9. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2008-01-01

    a syntax that is close to that of ordinary C code. Search specifications, called semantic matches, can be easily tailored so as to either eliminate false positives or catch more potential bugs. We introduce our approach by describing three case studies which have allowed us to find 395 bugs....... the tools to be able to find specific kinds of bugs. In this paper, we propose a declarative approach based on a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer is able to express specifications for protocol and bug finding using...

  10. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  11. The First National Pain Medicine Summit--final summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippe, Philipp M; Brock, Charles; David, Jose; Crossno, Ronald; Gitlow, Stuart

    2010-10-01

    Pain is ubiquitous. At some point in time it affects everyone. For many millions pain becomes chronic, a scourge that impacts every facet of life-work, hobbies, family relations, social fabric, finances, happiness, mood, and even the very essence of identity. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), pain is one of our most important national public health problems, a silent epidemic. In 1998, NIH reported that the annual amount spent on health care, compensation, and litigation related to pain had reached one hundred billion dollars ($100,000,000,000). Considering that health care costs have doubled since then, it is not unreasonable to assume that the costs related to pain care have doubled as well. Millions of patients suffer needlessly with acute pain, with cancer pain, and with chronic pain. The ineffective management of pain results in an escalating cascade of health care issues. Acute pain that is not treated adequately and promptly results in persistent pain that eventually causes irreversible changes in the nervous system. This translates into progressive bio-psycho-social epiphenomena resulting in further pain and disability. It creates a vicious cycle transforming a functional human being into an invalid who becomes a burden to family, to society, and to oneself. In the face of adequate medical science, adequate technical skills, and adequate resources the reality of delayed and inadequate pain care is paradoxical. This dilemma deserves close scrutiny and effective remediation. The American Medical Association (AMA), long dedicated to the need to improve pain care in this country, has been faced with this reality. It was from this vision that the idea of holding a Pain Medicine Summit was conceived. Resolution 321 (A-08) set in motion a process that would bring together a diverse group of stakeholders for the purpose of discussing the present and future status of pain care; a process that culminated in a broad-based coalition of physicians

  12. Sex pheromone of the mirid bug, Adelphocoris suturalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous insect pests that damage many types of economically significant field crops. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the species, Adelphocoris suturalis, because of it outbreaks in Bt cotton. Our previous work showed that virgin A....

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified dermatologist immediately. Make sure you tell the doctor about your recent ...

  14. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  15. A SAS Interface for Bayesian Analysis with WinBUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Wang, Lijuan; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian methods are becoming very popular despite some practical difficulties in implementation. To assist in the practical application of Bayesian methods, we show how to implement Bayesian analysis with WinBUGS as part of a standard set of SAS routines. This implementation procedure is first illustrated by fitting a multiple regression model…

  16. Coordination and Convening of the 2016 Arctic Science Summit Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2016-11-13

    The Arctic Science Summit Week, Arctic Observing Summit, Arctic Council Senior Arctic Officials, Model Arctic Council, and International Arctic Assembly were convened on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks with great productivity and satisfaction of the participants. We were pleased to welcome over 1000 participants from 30 different nations and over 130 different institutions. The organization and execution of these meetings was extensive and complex involving more than 250 coordinators, volunteers and contributors from across Alaska. The participants were enthusiastic in their praise of the content and accomplishments of the meeting, but they were equally happy about the genuine welcome offered to our guests by the people of Alaska. Hosting a complex event such as this summit required an army of supporting services and we were blessed to have volunteers from Fairbanks, North Pole, Anchorage and other communities throughout Alaska helping us meet these needs. This truly was an event hosted by the people of Alaska. The significance of these events cannot be overstated. The US and global communities are finally coming to the realization of the important role that the Arctic plays in international politics, economics, and science. The Arctic has experienced tremendous changes in recent years, offering new opportunities that may be addressed through international collaborations, and serious challenges that must be addressed through active investment, adaptation and national and international coordination. Over 10% of the meeting participants were indigenous peoples, from indigenous organizations or hailed from small remote communities. This is still lower than we had hoped, but it is greater participation than similar meetings have experienced in the past. It is through such engagement that we can attack problems related to the changing environment, stagnant economies, and social ills.

  17. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed.

  18. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  19. Protein self-marking by ectoparasites: a case study using bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The ability to mark individuals is a critical feature of many ecological and evolutionary investigations, including dispersal studies. Insect dispersal is generally investigated using mark-release-recapture techniques, whereby marked individuals are released at a known location and then captured ...

  20. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  1. Proceedings of the clean air and climate change summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Clean Air Partnership was established in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) over 10 years ago to work on issues related to air pollution and climate change. This summit presented details of the partnership's municipal activities and provided an outline of various projects conducted to reduce air pollution, increase the use of green energy, and encourage residents to reduce their ecological footprint. Climate change was discussed in relation to the recent economic crisis and recently discovered problems related to ocean acidification. The International Energy Agency (IEA) annual report was discussed in relation to peak oil and future economic crises. Advancements in green energy policy in Ontario were outlined. Sustainable housing and renewable energy projects in Germany were presented along with successful urban designs in Melbourne, New York City, and Denver. The GTA-CAC inter-governmental declaration on clean air was discussed, and an interim progress report was presented. The summit concluded with a video presentation of a collaborative artistic piece about climate change and the Arctic. 11 figs.

  2. Hydrothermal activity on the summit of Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, H.; Tsubota, H.; Nakai, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Akagi, T.; Gamo, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Igarashi, G.; Kodera, M.; Shitashima, K.

    1987-01-01

    Loihi Seamount is located about 30km southeast of the Island of Hawaii; it rises from the sea floor at a depth of 4000m and reaches a maximum elevation of 1000m blow sea level. Oceanographic studies including CTD survey of warm sites and bottom photography confirmed several hydrothermal fields on the summit of the seamount. The summit is covered with hydrothermal plumes which are extremely rich in methane, helium, carbon dioxide, iron and manganese; the maximum concentration of helium is 91.8 n1/1, the highest so far reported for open-ocean water. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio of helium injected into seawater is 14 times the atmospheric level. The 3He/heat and CO/sub 2//heat ratios in the plumes are one to two orders of magnitude greater than those at oceanic spreading centers, implying a more primitive source region for hotspot volcanism. The plumes also show negative pH anomalies up to half a pH unit from ambient owing to the high injection rate of CO/sub 2/. (4 figs, 3 photos, 1 tab, 31 refs)

  3. It's Not a Matter of Time: Highlights from the 2011 Competency-Based Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Chris; Patrick, Susan; Pittenger, Linda

    2011-01-01

    From Anchorage, Alaska, to Orlando, Florida, and from Gray, Maine, to Yuma, Arizona, one hundred competency-based innovators gathered at the Competency-Based Learning Summit in March 2011. Sponsored by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL), the Summit was developed in…

  4. Primative components, crustal assimilation, and magmatic degassing of the 2008 Kilauea summit eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Orr, Tim R.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous summit and rift zone eruptions at Kīlauea starting in 2008 reflect a shallow eruptive plumbing system inundated by a bourgeoning supply of new magma from depth. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions, host glass, and bulk lava compositions of magma erupted at both the summit and east rift zone demonstrate chemical continuity at both ends of a well-worn summit-to-rift pipeline. Analysis of glass within dense-cored lapilli erupted from the summit in March – August 2008 show these are not samplings of compositionally distinct magmas stored in the shallow summit magma reservoir, but instead result from remelting and assimilation of fragments from conduit wall and vent blocks. Summit pyroclasts show the predominant and most primitive component erupted to be a homogenous, relatively trace-element-depleted melt that is a compositionally indistinguishable from east rift lava. Based on a “top-down” model for the geochemical variation in east rift zone lava over the past 30 years, we suggest that the apparent absence of a 1982 enriched component in melt inclusions, as well as the proposed summit-rift zone connectivity based on sulfur and mineral chemistry, indicate that the last of the pre-1983 magma has been flushed out of the summit reservoir during the surge of mantle-derived magma from 2003-2007.

  5. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit... River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment. DATES... explained that it expects the NATO conference to have [[Page 25893

  6. 78 FR 18611 - Summit on Color in Medical Imaging; Cosponsored Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Summit on Color in Medical Imaging; Cosponsored Public... International Color Consortium (ICC) are announcing the following public workshop entitled ``Summit on Color in... Approaches for Dealing with Color in Medical Images.'' The purpose of the workshop is to bring together...

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.

  8. The first Research Consensus Summit of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare: conduction and a synthesis of the results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Phero, James C; Issenberg, S Barry

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe the preparation and execution of the first Research Consensus Summit (Summit) of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH) held in January 2011 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The goals of the Summit were to provide guidance for better simulation-related research, to ...

  9. The first Research Consensus Summit of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare: conduction and a synthesis of the results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Phero, James C; Issenberg, S Barry

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe the preparation and execution of the first Research Consensus Summit (Summit) of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH) held in January 2011 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The goals of the Summit were to provide guidance for better simulation-related research...

  10. 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Wade; Perros, Manos

    2004-08-01

    The 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit provided an up-to-date snapshot of the ongoing developments in the area. The topics covered ranged from updates on recently launched drugs (Kaletra), Fuzeon) and new investigational inhibitors (T-1249, Reverset, UK-427857, L-870810, PA-457, remofovir, VX-950), to the discovery of new antiviral targets and advances in technologies that may provide the substrate for the next generation of therapeutics. It is apparent from the range of presentations that much of today's efforts are focused on developing new classes of HIV inhibitors (gp41, integrase), while there is also considerable progress in hepatitis C, where a number of inhibitors have or should reach proof-of-concept studies in the coming months. Here we provide the highlights of this meeting, with particular emphasis on the new developments in HIV and hepatitis C virus.

  11. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  12. Attraction of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to male-produced pheromone and host plants in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug is a serious stink bug pest of cruciferous vegetables. New tools are needed for vegetable growers to manage this pest with reduced or no pesticide inputs. We investigated attractants for harlequin bugs as part of a larger project to develop new traps or trap crops to manage this ...

  13. Comparison of UV irradiance measurements at Summit, Greenland; Barrow, Alaska; and South Pole, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An SUV-150B spectroradiometer for measuring solar ultraviolet (UV irradiance was installed at Summit, Greenland, in August 2004. Here we compare the initial data from this new location with similar measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and South Pole. Measurements of irradiance at 345 nm performed at equivalent solar zenith angles (SZAs are almost identical at Summit and South Pole. The good agreement can be explained with the similar location of the two sites on high-altitude ice caps with high surface albedo. Clouds attenuate irradiance at 345 nm at both sites by less than 6% on average, but can reduce irradiance at Barrow by more than 75%. Clear-sky measurements at Barrow are smaller than at Summit by 14% in spring and 36% in summer, mostly due to differences in surface albedo and altitude. Comparisons with model calculations indicate that aerosols can reduce clear-sky irradiance at Summit by 4–6%; aerosol influence is largest in April. Differences in total ozone at the three sites have a large influence on the UV Index. At South Pole, the UV Index is on average 20–80% larger during the ozone hole period than between January and March. At Summit, total ozone peaks in April and UV Indices in spring are on average 10–25% smaller than in the summer. Maximum UV Indices ever observed at Summit, Barrow, and South Pole are 6.7, 5.0, and 4.0, respectively. The larger value at Summit is due to the site's lower latitude. For comparable SZAs, average UV Indices measured during October and November at South Pole are 1.9–2.4 times larger than measurements during March and April at Summit. Average UV Indices at Summit are over 50% greater than at Barrow because of the larger cloud influence at Barrow.

  14. Diversity Summit 2008: challenges in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Razani, Jill; Suarez, Paola; Lafosse, Jose M; Manly, Jennifer; Attix, Deborah K

    2010-11-01

    The 2008 Diversity Summit recognized the many advantages of increasing the number of neuropsychologists from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Summit addressed the aspiration of creating a more ethnically diverse body of neuropsychologists by increasing the recruitment of ethnic minority students to neuropsychology training programs. Challenges to successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students were discussion points at the Summit. This paper summarizes and expands these points and also suggests solutions to these challenges with the aim of stimulating innovative approaches to increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

  15. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  16. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  17. Factors affecting captures of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in baited pyramid traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapping experiments targeting brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal,) addressed the effects of; 1) a modification to the trap container of a commercial trap, 2) the age of methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate lures, and 3) the age of dichlorvos-impregnated kill strips on bug captures. In ...

  18. Stink bugs (Hemitera: Pentatomidae) in pheromone-baited traps near crop field edges in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton. Our specific objective for this 3-yr study was to use traps baited with Euschistus spp. pheromone to monitor stink bugs in habitats near cotton and peanut field edges before, during, and after crop growth and development. Plant-feedi...

  19. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  20. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren

    2015-06-01

    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance.

  1. Do counts of salivary sheath flanges predict food consumption in herbivorous stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Pentatomid stink bug agricultural pests, the number of salivary sheaths and sheath flanges—the portion of the sheath visible on the exterior surface of a food item—are good predictors of the loss of crop yield or quality from stink bug feeding. As the often assumed relationship between salivary ...

  2. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the manipulation of the resource spans multiple functions, efficiently finding these bugs is a challenge. We present a shape-and-effect inference system for C, that enables efficient and scalable inter-procedural reasoning about resource manipulation. The inference system is used to build a program abstraction...

  3. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  4. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  5. Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.; Noone, David; Persson, P. Ola G.; Steffen, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet surface temperatures are controlled by an exchange of energy at the surface, which includes radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes. Data collected by multiple projects are leveraged to calculate all surface energy budget (SEB) terms at Summit, Greenland, for the full annual cycle from July 2013 to June 2014 and extend to longer periods for the radiative and turbulent SEB terms. Radiative fluxes are measured directly by a suite of broadband radiometers. Turbulent sensible heat flux is estimated via the bulk aerodynamic and eddy correlation methods, and the turbulent latent heat flux is calculated via a two-level approach using measurements at 10 and 2 m. The subsurface heat flux is calculated using a string of thermistors buried in the snow pack. Extensive quality-control data processing produced a data set in which all terms of the SEB are present 75 % of the full annual cycle, despite the harsh conditions. By including a storage term for a near-surface layer, the SEB is balanced in this data set to within the aggregated uncertainties for the individual terms. November and August case studies illustrate that surface radiative forcing is driven by synoptically forced cloud characteristics, especially by low-level, liquid-bearing clouds. The annual cycle and seasonal diurnal cycles of all SEB components indicate that the non-radiative terms are anticorrelated to changes in the total radiative flux and are hence responding to cloud radiative forcing. Generally, the non-radiative SEB terms and the upwelling longwave radiation component compensate for changes in downwelling radiation, although exact partitioning of energy in the response terms varies with season and near-surface characteristics such as stability and moisture availability. Substantial surface warming from low-level clouds typically leads to a change from a very stable to a weakly stable near-surface regime with no solar radiation or from a weakly stable to neutral

  6. World Summit on the Information Society finding the best use of a global asset

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The first global summit on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor countries - the first meeting of its kind - convened in Geneva last week as governments struggled to agree on what they wanted to achieve" (2 pages)

  7. China-Japan-Korean Summit:New Barometer for East Asian Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ On December 13, 2008, China Japan-Korean Summit was held in Fukuoka, Japan. The summit, which was greatly different from the previously eight summits held in the framework of ASEAN plus China,Japan and South Korean, that is 10+3, was confined to only these three countries and it's the first time for them to do so. It happened to be China's first foreign activity after the opening of the Central Economic Working Conference in the same month and explained its new economic policy and measures in 2009. In addition, it's the first time for three main economic entities to meet after the breakout of the global financial crisis. Thus financial and economic affairs were the core issues of the summit.

  8. Soviet-U.S. Summit: Science Accords Open the Way to Joint Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the agreements between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on cooperation in a number of scientific and technical fields signed during the 1972 Moscow summit meetings. (AL)

  9. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Delegation to Local Government Climate Change Leadership Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>From June 1 to 10, a CPAFFC delegation led by its president Chen Haosu attended the Local Government Climate Change Leadership Summit and the UCLG World Council Meeting in Copenhagen, Demark. The Local

  10. Proceedings of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 2015 Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Joseph E; Basi, David; Peacock, Zachary; Aghaloo, Tara; Bouloux, Gary; Dodson, Thomas; Edwards, Sean P; Kademani, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    The Fifth Biennial Research Summit of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and its Committee on Research Planning and Technology Assessment was held in Rosemont, Illinois on May 6 and 7, 2015. The goal of the symposium is to provide a forum for the most recent clinical and scientific advances to be brought to the specialty. The proceedings of the events of that summit are presented in this report.

  11. Doing bayesian data analysis a tutorial with R and BUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruschke, John K

    2011-01-01

    There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis obtainable to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS provides an accessible approach to Bayesian data analysis, as material is explained clearly with concrete examples. The book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling, and gradually progresses to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text delivers comprehensive coverage of all

  12. The bugs book a practical introduction to Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lunn, David; Best, Nicky; Thomas, Andrew; Spiegelhalter, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Probability and ParametersProbabilityProbability distributionsCalculating properties of probability distributionsMonte Carlo integrationMonte Carlo Simulations Using BUGSIntroduction to BUGSDoodleBUGSUsing BUGS to simulate from distributionsTransformations of random variablesComplex calculations using Monte CarloMultivariate Monte Carlo analysisPredictions with unknown parametersIntroduction to Bayesian InferenceBayesian learningPosterior predictive distributionsConjugate Bayesian inferenceInference about a discrete parameterCombinations of conjugate analysesBayesian and classica

  13. The millennium bug--do we have the right antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, K W

    1999-03-01

    This article introduces readers to the scope of the Year 2000 (Y2K) issue. In addition to describing how this problem came to be, the author examines the extent of the problem as defined by professionals in information technology. The author also explores what the cost of fixing the problem may be and what industry is doing to mitigate the effects the Y2K bug will have on patient care, supplies, and financial operations. The author expresses the need for caregivers to have a greater interest in the problem and to ask questions about what is being done at individual institutions.

  14. 2012 Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS-2012)--modernizing toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret A; Tong, Weida; Fan, Xiaohui; Slikker, William

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory science encompasses the tools, models, techniques, and studies needed to assess and evaluate product safety, efficacy, quality, and performance. Several recent publications have emphasized the role of regulatory science in improving global health, supporting economic development and fostering innovation. As for other scientific disciplines, research in regulatory science is the critical element underpinning the development and advancement of regulatory science as a modern scientific discipline. As a regulatory agency in the 21st century, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has an international component that underpins its domestic mission; foods, drugs, and devices are developed and imported to the United States from across the world. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science, an international conference for discussing innovative technologies, approaches, and partnerships that enhance the translation of basic science into regulatory applications, is providing leadership for the advancement of regulatory sciences within the global context. Held annually, this international conference provides a platform where regulators, policy makers, and bench scientists from various countries can exchange views on how to develop, apply, and implement innovative methodologies into regulatory assessments in their respective countries, as well as developing a harmonized strategy to improve global public health through global collaboration.

  15. Proposal of a system of function-discovery using a bug type of artificial life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikawa, S.; Shimomura, T. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The effectiveness of artificial life is investigated from an engineering point of view. A system (named S-system) of function-discovery using a bug type of artificial life is proposed in this study. Some functions are extracted by the system. The chromosome of a bug consists of functions, constants and variables. A tree structure is used for the expression of the chromosome. Some observation data are provided for the bugs. After obtaining the data, they reproduce. The concept of sexual / asexual reproduction is introduced in this study. The number of homogeneous bugs is limited for a variety of species. These ideas are very effective for a function-search. A part of the chromosome changes by mutation. As the generation proceeds, the bugs with the function in agreement with the observation data survive selectively, and finally determine the true function. For the validity of this system, some data which obey the known laws have been given for the bugs. The bugs have evolved and discovered some functions in agreement with the laws. As for an unknown function, observation data on glossiness have been provided. They have also discovered the function. In addition, they have determined the multiple curves included in the image data. The S-system has the characteristics that the solution tends to converge and stabilizes in comparison with Genetic Programming. Moreover, the form of the function is relatively simple. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species. PMID:27293778

  17. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  18. A key for identifying faecal smears to detect domestic infestations of triatomine bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Schofield

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of residual populations of domestic triatomine bugs that survive insecticide treatment is a key component of successful evaluation and vigilance for Chagas disease control. We have recently demonstrated that sheets of paper, tacked on to the walls of infested houses, can become streaked with the faeces of triatomine bugs and thus reveal thepresence of an infestation. In thispaper, wepresent a simple key to differentiate the faecal streaks of triatomine bugs from those of other domestic arthropods such as cockroaches, ticks and cimicid bedbugs.

  19. Interannual Variations of Shallow Firn Temperature at Greenland Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Wang, W. L.; Zwally, H. J.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Firn-temperature profiles are calculated in a thermal model using continuous surface temperatures derived from Automatic Weather Station (AWS) data and passive microwave data in the Greenland Summit region during the period 1987-1999. The results show that significant interannual variations of mean summer (June to August) and annual temperatures occur in the top 15 m, in addition to the normal seasonal cycle of firn temperature. At 5 m depth, the seasonal cycle is damped to 13% of the surface seasonal amplitude, but even at 15 m about 1% or 0.6 C of the seasonal cycle persists. Both summer and mean annual temperatures decrease from 1987 to 1992, followed by a general increasing trend. Interannual variability is 5 C at the surface, but only is only dampened to 3.2 C at 10 m depth and 0.7 C at 15 m depth. Dampening of the interannual variability with depth is slower than dampening of the seasonal cycle, because of the longer time constant of the interannual variation. The warmer spring and summer temperatures experienced in the top 5 m, due to both the seasonal cycle and interannual variations, affect the rate of firn densification, which is non-linearly dependent on temperature. During the 12 year period 1987-1999, the mean annual surface temperature is -29.2 C, and the mean annual 15 m temperature is -30. 1 C, which is more than 1 C warmer than a 15-m borehole temperature representing the period of about 1959 and warmer than the best-fit temperature history by Alley and Koci back to 1500 A.D..

  20. Florida TeleHealth Summit: “Telemedicine –It’s Here, It’s Now”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wainright Haas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Southeastern Telehealth Resource Center, Florida State University College of Medicine, and the Florida Partnership for TeleHealth invites participation in the 2nd Annual Florida TeleHealth Summit. The Summit will be held December 3-4, 2015 at the Alfond Inn, Winter Park, Florida. For further information about the Southeastern Telehealth Resource Center and the Summit, visit: http://www.setrc.us/

  1. The meta-leadership summit for preparedness initiative: an innovative model to advance public health preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C; Marcus, Leonard J; Dorn, Barry C; Neslund, Verla S; McNulty, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the design, evaluation framework, and results from the Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness was a 5-year initiative based on the premise that national preparedness and emergency response is not solely the responsibility of government. From 2006 to 2011, 36 Meta-Leadership Summits were delivered in communities across the country. Summits were customized, 10-hour leadership development, networking, and community action planning events. They included participation from targeted federal, state, local, nonprofit/philanthropic, and private sector leaders who are directly involved in decision making during a major community or state-wide emergency. A total of 4,971 government, nonprofit, and business leaders attended Meta-Leadership Summits; distribution of attendees by sector was balanced. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported the summit was a valuable use of time, 91% reported the overall quality as "good" or "outstanding," and 91% would recommend the summit to their colleagues. In addition, approximately 6 months after attending a summit, 80% of respondents reported that they had used meta-leadership concepts or principles. Of these, 93% reported that using meta-leadership concepts or principles had made a positive difference for them and their organizations. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative was a value-added opportunity for communities, providing the venue for learning the concepts and practice of meta-leadership, multisector collaboration, and resource sharing with the intent of substantively improving preparedness, response, and recovery efforts.

  2. Development and evaluation of a regional, large-scale interprofessional collaborative care summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Edward F; Clarke, Virginia; Szarek, John L; Waters, Sharon K; Walline, Vera; Shea, Diane; Goss, Sheryl; Farrell, Marian; Easton, Diana; Dunleavy, Erin; Arscott, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Northeastern/Central Pennsylvania Interprofessional Education Coalition (NECPA IPEC) is a coalition of faculty from multiple smaller academic institutions with a mission to promote interprofessional education. An interprofessional learning program was organized, which involved 676 learners from 10 different institutions representing 16 unique professions, and took place at seven different institutions simultaneously. The program was a 3-hour long summit which focused on the management of a patient with ischemic stroke. A questionnaire consisting of the Interprofessional Education Perception Scale (IEPS) questionnaire (pre-post summit), Likert-type questions, and open comment questions explored the learners' perceptions of the session and their attitudes toward interprofessional learning. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests for difference and qualitative thematic coding. The attitude of learners toward interprofessional education (as measured by the IEPS) was quite high even prior to the summit, so there were no significant changes after the summit. However, a high percentage of learners and facilitators agreed that the summit met its objective and was effective. In addition, the thematic analysis of the open-ended questions confirmed that students learned from the experience with a sense of the core competencies of interprofessional education and practice. A collaborative approach to delivering interprofessional learning is time and work intensive but beneficial to learners.

  3. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Peiffer; Felton, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our re...

  4. Oviposition preference of the neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros on artificial substrates of different colors

    OpenAIRE

    Diones Krinski; Bruna Magda Favetti; Adielson Gonçalves de Lima; Tatiane Regina Brum

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the oviposition preference of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) on artificial substrates of different colors (felt woven). For this, ten pairs of stink bugs were transferred into plastic pots. Each pot contained seven felts of 6x20 cm (100% polyester-atoxic) of different colors (white, black, blue, green, red, yellow and brown). The pots were evaluated daily for three weeks (21 days) being counted the number of eggs, clutches and eggs per clut...

  5. Morphological and behavioral convergence in extinct and extant bugs: the systematics and biology of a new unusual fossil lace bug from the eocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Wappler

    Full Text Available The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae, and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well.

  6. Sexual coevolution in the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, G

    2010-06-01

    Sexual conflict has recently been proposed as a driving force behind the rapid diversification of genitalia among sexually reproducing organisms. In traumatically inseminating insects, males stab females in the side of the body with needle-like genitalia, ejaculating into their body cavity. Such mating is costly to females and has led to the evolution of cost-reducing 'paragenitalia' in some species. Whereas some consider this evidence of sexually antagonistic coevolution, others remain unconvinced. Variation in the reproductive morphology of both sexes - particularly males - is alleged to be negligible, contradicting the expectations of a coevolutionary arms race. Here, we use a phylogeny of the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius to show that external female paragenitalia have evolved multiply across the genus and are correlated with changes in male genital shape. This pattern is characteristic of an evolutionary arms race driven by sexual conflict.

  7. An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland

    CERN Document Server

    Avva, J; Miki, C; Saltzberg, D; Vieregg, A G

    2014-01-01

    We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be 947 +92/-85 meters at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for the detection of ultra-high energy (UHE) astrophysical particles via their radio emission in dielectric media such as ice. The measured attenuation length at Summit Station is comparable to previously measured radio-frequency attenuation lengths at candidate particle detector sites around the world, and strengthens the case for Summit Station as the most promising northern site for UHE neutrino detection.

  8. The "Ethics Rupture" Summit, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, October 25-28, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoonaard, Will C

    2013-02-01

    This report explains the background of the "Ethics Rupture" Summit held in New Brunswick, Canada, October 2012, focusing on the disconnect between research-ethics policies and the nature and purpose of social-science research-an unintended "rupture" in ethics governance. Ethics is about human relationships, and the governance of ethics must reflect that fact rather than function as a bureaucratic, self-legitimating system of control. The themes that emerged from the Summit point to: structural problems with the current system; an undermining of the original, historical mission of some social-science disciplines; a discomfort with new methodologies; ethics committees and the well-being and education of social-science students; the possibilities of reform and renewal; and the next steps. Finally, the report refers in broad outlines to a "New Brunswick Declaration," which is currently being considered by participants of the Summit.

  9. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation and unsustainable development were addressed on a global scale at the UN Summits in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002. This article presents analyses of Danish television coverage of these two summits and related topics viewing the media stories as exemplary...... cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...... development towards post-environmentalism. Already ecological modernisation can be perceived as post-environmentalist, but this article wants to suggest a downfall also for ecological modernisation as a prominent discourse and a more direct challenge to the legitimacy of environmental concern and thus...

  10. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  11. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Virtual Test Bed 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Virtual Test Bed Donald T. Resio U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Phone...into three parts: 1) assembly of field and laboratory data sets for testing ; 2) set-up of a benchmark system; and 3) exercising the benchmark system

  12. The study to understand mortality and morbidity in COPD (SUMMIT) study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D;

    2013-01-01

    medications on CVD in patients with both diseases.The "Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol combination (FF/VI), and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD...... or at increased risk for CVD.SUMMIT is a multi-center, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 16,000 patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatment with FF/VI (100/25 ;mcg), Fluticasone Furoate (100 ;mcg), Vilanterol (25 ;mcg) or matched placebo; mortality...

  13. An introduction to the 2011 National Multicultural Conference & Summit keynote addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Kawahara, Debra; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Worthington, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This article provides and introduction to the 2011 National Multicultural Conference & Summit Keynote Addresses. The authors explain that they chose to focus on the tension and possibilities within multicultural psychology at the seventh biennial National Multicultural Conference & Summit (NMCS), which was held on January 27-28, 2011, at The Westin-Seattle Hotel. During the 2-day conference, nearly 900 attendees engaged with one another and heard from experts in the field as we focused on the theme, "Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science & Practice in the Public Interest. Two key sets of presentations are highlighted.

  14. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  15. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  16. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  17. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  18. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Doukas, M.P.

    2002-01-01

     We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d−1) for the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Kīlauea's total CO2 output (∼9000 t d−1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2emission and magma supply rate data is ∼0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

  19. World Attention Focuses on China Tourism——The First World Summit of Tourism Promotion to be Held in Nanjing Grandly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The Press Conference of the First World Summit of Tourism Promo tion was held in Nanjing on July 28. The summit would be a major event in tourism development in our country. It is known that initiated by World Trade University of UN and intended to promote the globalization of tourism, the UN Global Partnership Program, - the First World Summit of Tourism Promotion is to be held in Nanjing, China, in November, 2004.The World Summit of Tourism Pro-

  20. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  1. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  2. Toxicity of indoxacarb to the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera:Miridae), and the big-eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of Steward, a formulation of indoxacarb, was studied for the tarnished plant bug [Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)], a pest of cotton, and the big-eyed insect [Geocoris punctipes (Say)], a predator of pests in cotton. Both insects responded similarly to Steward in topical, tarsal ...

  3. Improved Algorithm Based on the Parallel Main Line of BUG Theory%基于 BUG 理论的平行主线改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓辉; 丁洪伟; 王梦瑶; 赵一帆

    2016-01-01

    基于 Pioneer3机器人平台提出一种未知环境中的机器人路径规划的改进算法。在 BUG 理论的基础上,通过先锋机器人实时读取机器人角度偏差的能力,即时重新规划机器人到达目标点的路线。改进算法缩短了 BUG 理论中的运动路径,提高了机器人避障的效率。%One of the improved algorithms for robot path planning in an unknown environment is proposed in this paper under the background in Pioneer3 robot platform.Based on the BUG theory and using the ability to read real time deviation of robot angle by pio-neer robot,the robot plans a rode to reach the goal point immediately.The improved algorithm reduces the motion path in the BUG theory and improves the efficiency of the robot obstacle avoidance.

  4. Sino-EU Business Summit:Both Sides Jointly Promote the Mutual Market Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Minister Bo Xilai gave his speech with his unique humour: "Cate culture has a long history in China. Our Chinese people always say that 'Please take the dinner while it is hot!'" hinting that the hot discussion in the summit will result in an OK'd fruit.

  5. Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

    2013-12-16

    On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together.

  6. Using Film Clips to Teach Teen Pregnancy Prevention: "The Gloucester 18" at a Teen Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…

  7. Participants to the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit, 6-7 May 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    Fermilab, Photo Service

    2009-01-01

    The broad theme of the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit was "Collaboration between Information Services." As HEP increasingly borders fields such as instrumentation and astrophysics, it was discussed what potential interrelationships and communication this group have to serve this broader research community seamlessly.

  8. Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Samples from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Summit Eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall; Höskuldsson, Á.; Steinthorsson, S.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption (Iceland) produced large amounts of fine ash, disturbing air traffic across the North-Atlantic and within Europe. Mössbauer spectroscopy of ash-samples and a lava-bomb has been performed to study the material properties and to gain insight into why the vo...

  9. Ancient tepui summits harbor young rather than old lineages of endemic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Patricia E; Ron, Santiago R; Señaris, J Celsa; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Noonan, Brice P; Cannatella, David C

    2012-10-01

    The flattop mountains (tepuis) of South America are ancient remnants of the Precambrian Guiana Shield plateau. The tepui summits, isolated by their surrounding cliffs that can be up to 1000 m tall, are thought of as "islands in the sky," harboring relict flora and fauna that underwent vicariant speciation due to plateau fragmentation. High endemicity atop tepui summits support the idea of an ancient "Lost World" biota. However, recent work suggests that dispersal between lowlands and summits has occurred long after tepui formation indicating that tepui summits may not be as isolated from the lowlands as researchers have long suggested. Neither view of the origin of the tepui biota (i.e., ancient vicariance vs. recent dispersal) has strong empirical support owing to a lack of studies. We test diversification hypotheses of the Guiana Shield highlands by estimating divergence times of an endemic group of treefrogs, Tepuihyla. We find that diversification of this group does not support an ancient origin for this taxon; instead, divergence times among the highland species are 2-5 Ma. Our data indicate that most highland speciation occurred during the Pliocene. Thus, this unparalleled landscape known as "The Lost World" is inhabited, in part, not by Early Tertiary relicts but neoendemics.

  10. Constraints on the delta H-2 diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, L. G.; Been, H. A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed detailed H-2 isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3m of firn at Summit, Greenland. Using a small snow gun, a thin snow layer was formed from H-2-enriched water over a 6 x 6 m(2) area. We followed the diffusion process, quantified as the increase of the delta H-2 diffusion length,

  11. Common Glory & Sustainable Development——Convening of the fourth EU-China Business Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On November 28, the fourth EU-China Business Summit was convened in the Great Hall of the People, sponsored by China Ministry of Commerce, Commission of European Union, and Portugal, the rotating chairman of EU, hosted by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade and European Union Chamber of Commerce in China.

  12. Attending 22nd General Assembly of CONGO and World Summit on Information Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation headed by its vice presi-dent Li Xiaolin attended the 22nd General Assembly of the Conference of NGOs (CONGO) and the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva from December 4 to 12, 2003.CONGO, founded in

  13. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May 24... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  14. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.;

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...

  15. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  16. Can we predict brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) abundance in corn using previous pheromone trap capture and early season weather data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southern US. Scouting stink bugs in corn is time consuming and could be improved if scouts were aware of conditions that favored imminent stink bug infestations. Changes in seas...

  17. Vilnius eastern partnership summit: milestone in EU-Russia relations – not just for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlik Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit on 28-29th November 2013 represents a milestone in EU relations not just with respect to the six Eastern Partnership countries (EaP Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and particularly Ukraine, but also with the EU’s ‘strategic partner’ Russia. The turbulence and numerous speculations regarding expectations about the signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement (comprising a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement - AA/DCFTA, as well as progress in initialling similar future agreements with Georgia and Moldova, have been escalating before the summit. The association agreementswould bring EaP signatory countries closer to the EU not really closer to EU membership, but closer to the application of various EU norms and standards (takeover of the ‘acquis communautaire’ and - significantly - out of the Russian orbit, for the beginning at least symbolically. The last minute postponement of the EU-Ukraine AA/DCFTA signature announced by Ukraine’s government just one week before the summit represents a serious setback for the EU. Though the EU has no ‘Plan B’ and was stunned after Ukraine’s announcement, life will continue after the summit and new initiatives will have to be started. What are the relevant issues and challenges and what is at stake? This note attempts to evaluate the consequences (economic and otherwise of alternate decisions following the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit, reviews some of the disputed arguments and discusses selected relevant economic issues.

  18. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  19. A Tool for Testing of Inheritance Related Bugs in Object Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Object oriented software development different from traditional development products. In object oriented software polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding are the important features. An inheritance property is the main feature. The compilers usually detect the syntax oriented errors only. Some of the property errors may be located in the product. Data flow testing is an appropriate testing method for testing program futures. This test analysis structure of the software and gives the flow of property. This study is designed to detect the hidden errors with reference to the inheritance property. Inputs of the tool are set of classes and packages. Outputs of the tools are hierarchies of the classes, methods, attributes and a set of inheritance related bugs like naked access, spaghetti inheritance bugs are automatically detected by the tool. The tool is developed as three major modules. They are code analysis, knowledge base preparation and bugs analysis. The code analysis module is designed to parse extract details from the code. The knowledge base preparation module is designed to prepare the knowledge base about the program details. The bug's analysis module is designed to extract bugs related information from the database. It is a static testing. This study focused on Java programs.

  20. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  1. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with pre-service and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  2. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  3. Multifunctional strategies for management of stink bugs based on the ecology and biology of these pests and their natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economically important pests in orchard, row, vegetable, and grain crops worldwide. Stink bugs move between closely associated hosts throughout the growing season in response to the deteriorating suitability of their current hosts, and an edge ef...

  4. OpenSSL vulnerabilities: the Heartbleed Bug and Cupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Sorin Jerca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we expose the importance of information security in today's context of fast technological evolution. Our main objective is to study one of the most recent security issue, discovered in the well-known OpenSSL cryptographic software library, named “the Heartbleed Bug”. This is a serious vulnerability of the Heartbeat Extension for the transport layer security protocols (TLS/DTLS implementation in OpenSSL. This weakness allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information (secret keys used for X.509 certificates, user credentials, instant messages, emails and other critical documents and communication for applications such as web, email, instant messaging and some virtual private networks, which should be protected, under normal conditions, by the SSL/TLS encryption. Further, “Cupid”, shows that the bug can be used, with the same effect, against any device which implies Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP authentication mechanisms and a vulnerable version of OpenSSL. In addition we present guidelines, fixes and methods for preventing and managing possible attacks against vulnerable systems.

  5. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season.

  6. Irritant contact dermatitis to the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bryan E; Miller, Jeffrey J; Adams, David R

    2012-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is native to Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Korean peninsula). It was first found in Allentown, Pa, in 1996 and has since spread across wide areas of the Eastern United States. As of October 2010, at least 26 states have reported the presence of the brown marmorated stink bug. It is considered an invasive species, and to the best of scientific knowledge, it was accidently introduced into the United States through transportation of goods from Asia. To date, no reports of human disease have been published in the literature. Fruit crop workers have complained of a slight allergic reaction to the chemicals released by the bug.

  7. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  8. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  9. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  10. Evaluating the online activity of users of the e-Bug web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quincey, Ed; Kostkova, Patty; Jawaheer, Gawesh; Farrell, David; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Weinberg, Julius

    2011-06-01

    Web server log analysis is being increasingly used to evaluate the user behaviour on healthcare resource web sites due to the detailed record of activity that they contain. This study aimed to use this information to evaluate the e-Bug web site, a healthcare resource that provides a range of educational resources about microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene, and antibiotics. This evaluation was conducted by analysing the web server logs of the e-Bug web site for the period January 2008 to November 2009, using a proprietary application named Sawmill. The e-Bug web site has had >900,000 page views generated from >88,000 users, with an increase in May 2009 during the swine flu epidemic and a further increase in September 2009 following the official launch of e-Bug. The majority of visitors were from the UK, but visits were recorded from 190 different countries. Word(®) document resources were downloaded >169,000 times, with the most popular being a swine flu factsheet. PowerPoint(®) document resources were downloaded >36,000 times, with the most popular relating to the 'chain of infection'. The majority of visitor referrals originated from search engines, with the most popular referral keywords being variations on the e-Bug name. The most common non-search engine referrals were from other healthcare resources and agencies. Use of the site has increased markedly since the official launch of e-Bug, with average page views of >200,000 per month, from a range of countries, illustrating the international demand for a teaching resource for microbes, hygiene and antibiotics.

  11. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  13. Bayesian Analysis Made Simple An Excel GUI for WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Philip

    2011-01-01

    From simple NLMs to complex GLMMs, this book describes how to use the GUI for WinBUGS - BugsXLA - an Excel add-in written by the author that allows a range of Bayesian models to be easily specified. With case studies throughout, the text shows how to routinely apply even the more complex aspects of model specification, such as GLMMs, outlier robust models, random effects Emax models, auto-regressive errors, and Bayesian variable selection. It provides brief, up-to-date discussions of current issues in the practical application of Bayesian methods. The author also explains how to obtain free so

  14. Landscape preservation under ice? In-situ 10Be and 26Al from summit surfaces along Sognefjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    then be used to determine the total Quaternary bedrock erosion between the summits. However, the amount of Quaternary erosion of these summit flats remains debated (e.g. Steer, 2012) Here, we present an extensive new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from high...... and flat summits along a 200 km long transect from the coast to the inner parts of Sognefjorden. Our results indicate substantial glacial modification of the summits within the last 50 ka. Close to the coast, at an elevation of around 700 meters, the cosmogenic nuclide signal was reset around the Younger...... et al. Landscape preservation under Fennoscandian ice sheets determined from in situ produced 10 Be and 26 Al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 201(2), 397-406, 2002. Gjermundsen et al. Minimal erosion of Arctic alpine topography during late Quaternary glaciation. Nature Geoscience 8(10), 789...

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, West Summit Frontage, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'West Summit Frontage'. The extent of...

  16. Road and Street Centerlines, North Summit Frontage, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'North Summit Frontage'. The extent of...

  17. 77 FR 36549 - Nursing Workforce Diversity Invitational Summit-“Nursing in 3D: Workforce Diversity, Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Nursing Workforce Diversity Invitational Summit--``Nursing in 3D: Workforce Diversity, Health Disparities, and Social Determinants of Health...). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: HRSA's Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Nursing, will...

  18. El único hotel asociado con summit hotels & resorts en Colombia - Hotel Bogotá Plaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Rojas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer acerca de la historia del Hotel Bogotá Plaza. Este es el primer hotel del norte de Bogotá. La misión del hotel es permanecer en el corazón de los huéspedes y visitantes, al satisfacer sus deseos con amor, calidez, amabilidad, seguridad y servicio de excelente calidad. Desde 1996 el Bogotá Plaza Hotel ha pertenecido a Summit Hotels & Resorts. Esta es una firma que proporciona al hotel un sistema de reservas por Internet, esta alianza ha generado que el hotel sea reconocido en muchos países del mundo. Summit además se ha establecido como una organización líder en ventas, mercadeo y reservas hoteleras del mundo. Es importante asociarse con compañías destacadas así como lo hizo el Hotel Bogotá Plaza.

  19. On sustainable development problems, also according to the world summit in Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Moncada lo Giudice

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In the intervention at the Environment Commission of the Senate on the problems of the sustainable development, following the recent World Summit in Johannesburg, some fundamental points are underpinned: the question is summed up and an exam is made about the results of the Summit and on the meaning of the commitments taken for the future. Indeed, it is universally accepted that, to be considered sustainable, the development must reach a compromise between economical, social and environmental goals, to maximize the present well-being, without challenging the right of future generations to satisfy their own needs. It is also accepted that this cannot be realised without defence for our eco-system and without a simultaneous and well coordinated intervention of all Countries and the participation of all productive and social categories; probably, this should be the true finality of the so much acclaimed “globalisation”.

  20. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  1. From the Earth Summit to Rio+20: integration of health and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Alleyne, George; Kickbusch, Ilona; Dora, Carlos

    2012-06-09

    In 2012, world leaders will meet at the Rio+20 conference to advance sustainable development--20 years after the Earth Summit that resulted in agreement on important principles but insufficient action. Many of the development goals have not been achieved partly because social (including health), economic, and environmental priorities have not been addressed in an integrated manner. Adverse trends have been reported in many key environmental indicators that have worsened since the Earth Summit. Substantial economic growth has occurred in many regions but nevertheless has not benefited many populations of low income and those that have been marginalised, and has resulted in growing inequities. Variable progress in health has been made, and inequities are persistent. Improved health contributes to development and is underpinned by ecosystem stability and equitable economic progress. Implementation of policies that both improve health and promote sustainable development is urgently needed.

  2. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  3. Travel Daily China Travel Innovation Summit to Be Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Guangzhou,China,April 7th- TravelDaily (www.traveldaily.cn), China’s leading online publisher and event organizer with emphasis on trends in the distribution,marketing and technology of the travel and tourism industries,today announced it will partner with PhoCusWright to host the 2009 China Travel Innovation Summit in Beijing from May 12 to 13,2009.

  4. The EU-Ukraine Association Agreement prior to the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastore Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore how the EU policy on Ukraine evolved in the run-up to the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in November 2013. In particular, it looks into the preparations leading to the signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement. Thereby it contributes to better understanding of the EU policy debate related to the associated negotiations with the Eastern Partnership countries.

  5. Fouffeen Mountain Summits:the Dreams and Glory of Chinese Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORJE; DRADUL

    2007-01-01

    As the first mountaineering team to challenge the fourteen world's highest mountain summits,these Chinese mountaineers have finally realized their dream.They are all ethnic Tibetans and have gone through hardship and dangers over the years;some of them have even contributed their lives to the realization of the project.Finally,three of them have accomplished it and set a marvelous record in world mountaineering that is unprecedented.

  6. Romania's Iliescu to attend World Summit on Information Society organized by UN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Romanian President Ion Iliescu will be in Geneva, December 9-11, to attend a world summit on information society, organized by the United Nations Department of Public Information. On this occasion, Iliescu will visit on Tuesday the Geneva-based European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), where he will meet CERN General Director Luciano Maiani, as well as young Romanian researchers working there and will participate in a scientific session called The Role of Science in the Information Society" (1 page).

  7. Energy summit Hessen. Implementation concept of the state government Hessen; Hessischer Energiegipfel. Umsetzungskonzept der Hessischen Landesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    By means of the concept under consideration, the state government of Hessen (Federal Republic of Germany) has pursued the possible and realistic course for the implementation of the targets of the energy summit. The main aspects of this contribution are the implementation of the energy policy of Hessen into the European and national framework; Status quo of the energy consumption in Hessen; Areas of action and measures of the state government of Hessen; Actors of the energy policy turnaround; Monitoring.

  8. "we cannot Wait to ACT!" Simulating Global Climate Summits with Gifted and Talented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, T.; Vesperman, D.; Alrivy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Students simulated the 2011 Durban Climate Summit in order to experience two roles: global diplomats attempting to solve a significant global problem and scientists as contributors of knowledge. Together, they worked to develop a framework to provide global solutions as world leaders. This project demonstrated [highlighted?] student work from the climate summit, describing how students promoted dialogue and provided climate science information to their diplomatic peers, who then used this information in diplomatic negotiations. By focusing on increasing student climate literacy, students engaged in both climate science and global diplomacy through meaningful simulations to understand the global and political issues surrounding Climate Change mitigation. Three classes of international middle school students attending Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth summer programs enacted the 2011 Durban Model United Nations meeting. One class developed a deep understanding of climate and climate science by working with computer models and data to represent members of the IPCC. Members of this class collaborated with climate scientists, conducted experiments, and developed a well-rounded understanding of paleoclimate, current climatic trends, carbon cycling, and modeling future outcomes. Two additional classes took on the roles of UN diplomats, researched their respective nations, engaged in practice UN simulations, and developed a working understanding of the diplomatic process. Students representing the IPCC assisted their diplomatic peers in developing and proposing possible UN resolutions. All three classes worked together to enact the Durban Climate Summit with the underlying focus of developing diplomatic Climate Change mitigation strategies and ultimately resolutions for member nations.

  9. Methane anomalies in seawater above the Loihi submarine summit area, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Ishibashi, Junichiro; Sakai, Hitoshi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Tilbrook, B. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA))

    1987-10-01

    Hydrothermal activity above Loihi submarine volcano was characterized by water column distributions of methane, pH and helium-3. It was found that the southern Loihi summit is almost covered with hydrothermal plumes, which have anomalously high concentrations of methane (maximum: 569 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3} kg{sup {minus}}1) accompanied by high concentrations of helium-3 and low pH values (minimum: 7.18). The plumes consist of two layers: a shallow plume (about 200 m above the summit) and a deep plume (about 100 m above the summit), probably derived from different hydrothermal vents. The shallow and deep plumes showed different CH{sub 4}/{sup 3}He and CH{sub 4}/pH ratios with the same {sup 3}He/pH ratio, which implies that methane concentrations differ between the hydrothermal end members for the two plumes. The variation of methane between the end members is suggested to result from inter-vent inhomogeneity of bacterial activities that consume or produce methane within the vents. Comparison of the CH{sub 4}/{sup 3}He ratios of the two plumes with the previous data for Loihi and other submarine hydrothermal areas confirms that the Loihi hotspot has one to two orders of magnitude smaller CH{sub 4}/{sup 3}He value than those of the East Pacific Rise and the Galapagos spreading centers.

  10. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  11. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs.

  12. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  13. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  14. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  15. Determination of the stereochemistry of the aggregation pheromone of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparation of a complete stereoisomeric library of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ols and selected 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ols was earlier pivotal for the identification of the aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys. Herein, we describe syntheses of remaining10,11-epoxy-1...

  16. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  17. A Bioassay for Determining Resistance Levels in Tarnished Plant Bug Populations to Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed and used to test field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for resistance development to the neonicitinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Trimax®) and thiamethoxam (Centric®). The bioassay determined LC50 values by feeding...

  18. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  19. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  20. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  1. Exocrine secretion of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp): clarification and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in the genus Arilus are among the largest of the New World reduviids, and can inflect extremely painful bites. The most common North American species, A. cristatus (the “wheel bug”), possesses eversible osmeterial glands that reportedly produce an obnoxious od...

  2. Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal), is a highly polyphagous invasive species attacking both cultivated and wild plants. This increases its threat to ecosystems as a global pest. However, dispersal biology of this invasive species is not well understood. This study evaluated the f...

  3. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as termin

  4. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  5. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  6. Responses of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) to high levels of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feir, D.; Hale, R.

    1983-01-01

    Milkweed bugs were exposed to either 300 ppm CO, 5-10 ppm SO/sub 2/, 5-10 ppm NO/sub 2/, or compressed air (controls) for two hours a day throughout their life cycle and until 50% of the adults had died. The apparent stimulation of growth and reproduction by gaseous pollutants is difficult to explain.

  7. Analysis of tarnished plant bug movement using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the primary pest of cotton across the Midsouth of the United States. Movement into cotton fields occurs during the summer from other host plants, both cultivated and wild. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has been used in other studies to ...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  9. Daily rhythm of aggregation in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Minoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bugs show a temporal modulation of many activities. Here, we analyse the daily modulation of the aggregation behaviour of Triatoma infestans larvae and its chronobiological basis. In the laboratory, groups of six bugs were released over an experimental arena during six consecutive days, where their aggregation behaviour was quantified every hour. When submitted to a 12/12 h photoperiod (L/D, the larvae of T. infestans exhibited a cyclic pattern of aggregation with a 24 h period, evincing the existence of a daily rhythm of aggregation in this species. Bugs exhibited the maximum aggregation tendency at the end of the scotophase (7:00 h, moment in which they naturally search for refuges. The minimum aggregation (i.e. maximal dispersion was observed during the last part of the photophase and beginning of the scotophase (15:00 to 1:00 h. This cyclic pattern disappeared when constant conditions of illumination (L/L or darkness (D/D were imposed to the bugs, suggesting the absence of an endogenous circadian control of this behaviour. Insects submitted to L/L and D/D photoperiods presented lower global levels of aggregation than those submitted to L/D conditions. The lack of an endogenous control and the relevance of light cycles as a synchronization signal are discussed as the temporal modulation of this behaviour might play an important role in the nocturnal habits of this species.

  10. Cloning and expression profiling of odorant-binding proteins in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    In insects, the perception and discrimination of odorants requires the involvement of odorant binding proteins (OBPs). To gain a better molecular understanding of olfaction in the agronomic pest, Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug), we used a transcriptomics-based approach to identify potential ...

  11. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  12. 3.5 Year Monitoring of 225 GHz Opacity at the Summit of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asada, Keiichi; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Koch, Patrick M.; Paine, Scott N.; Turner, David D.

    2017-02-01

    We present the 3.5 years monitoring results of 225 GHz opacity at the summit of the Greenland ice sheet (Greenland Summit Camp) at an altitude of 3200 m using a tipping radiometer. We chose this site as our submillimeter telescope (Greenland Telescope) site, because conditions are expected to have low submillimeter opacity and because its location offers favorable baselines to existing submillimeter telescopes for global-scale Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The site shows a clear seasonal variation with the average opacity lower by a factor of two during winter. The 25%, 50%, and 75% quartiles of the 225 GHz opacity during the winter months of November through April are 0.046, 0.060, and 0.080, respectively. For the winter quartiles of 25% and 50%, the Greenland site is about 10%-30% worse than the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) or the South Pole sites. Estimated atmospheric transmission spectra in winter season are similar to the ALMA site at lower frequencies (\\lt 450 GHz), which are transparent enough to perform astronomical observations almost all of the winter time with opacities \\lt 0.5, but 10%-25% higher opacities at higher frequencies (\\gt 450 GHz) than those at the ALMA site. This is due to the lower altitude of the Greenland site and the resulting higher line wing opacity from pressure-broadened saturated water lines in addition to higher dry air continuum absorption at higher frequencies. Nevertheless, half of the winter time at the Greenland Summit Camp can be used for astronomical observations at frequencies between 450 GHz and 1000 GHz with opacities \\lt 1.2, and 10% of the time show \\gt 10 % transmittance in the THz (1035 GHz, 1350 GHz, and 1500 GHz) windows. Summer season is good for observations at frequencies lower than 380 GHz. One major advantage of the Greenland Summit Camp site in winter is that there is no diurnal variation due to the polar night condition, and therefore the durations of low-opacity conditions

  13. Two magma bodies beneath the summit of Kilauea Volcano unveiled by isotopically distinct melt deliveries from the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszka, Aaron J; Heaton, Daniel E.; Marske, Jared P.; Garcia, Michael O.

    2015-01-01

    The summit magma storage reservoir of Kīlauea Volcano is one of the most important components of the magmatic plumbing system of this frequently active basaltic shield-building volcano. Here we use new high-precision Pb isotopic analyses of Kīlauea summit lavas—from 1959 to the active Halema‘uma‘u lava lake—to infer the number, size, and interconnectedness of magma bodies within the volcano's summit reservoir. From 1971 to 1982, the 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the lavas define two separate magma mixing trends that correlate with differences in vent location and/or pre-eruptive magma temperature. These relationships, which contrast with a single magma mixing trend for lavas from 1959 to 1968, indicate that Kīlauea summit eruptions since at least 1971 were supplied from two distinct magma bodies. The locations of these magma bodies are inferred to coincide with two major deformation centers identified by geodetic monitoring of the volcano's summit region: (1) the main locus of the summit reservoir ∼2–4 km below the southern rim of Kīlauea Caldera and (2) a shallower magma body 4 km3 of lava erupted), must therefore be sustained by a nearly continuous supply of new melt from the mantle. The model results show that a minimum of four compositionally distinct, mantle-derived magma batches were delivered to the volcano (at least three directly to the summit reservoir) since 1959. These melt inputs correlate with the initiation of energetic (1959 Kīlauea Iki) and/or sustained (1969–1974 Mauna Ulu, 1983-present Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and 2008-present Halema‘uma‘u) eruptions. Thus, Kīlauea's eruptive behavior is partly tied to the delivery of new magma batches from the volcano's source region within the Hawaiian mantle plume.

  14. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  15. Serial heart rate changes in rats inoculated by conjunctival instillation of Trypanosoma cruzi obtained from bug faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Ollarves,Adalinda; Diego F. Dávila; GOTTBERG,Carlos F.; Ramoni-Perazzi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    The cardiac effects of experimentally induced myocarditis, when the parasite is obtained from mouse blood, are well known. However, the consequences of the infection when the parasites are obtained from bug faeces are less well defined. In the present investigation, we have used the "Y" strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, which was maintained in Rhodnius prolixus by repeated passages in mice. The faeces of 30 infected bugs were collected, the number of parasites counted and 4,000 parasites inoculate...

  16. Evaluating the Impact of the Summit Station, Greenland Radiosonde Program on Data Modelers and Forecast Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. J.; Starkweather, S.; Cox, C. J.; Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiosondes are balloon-borne meteorological sensors used to acquire profiles of temperature and humidity. Radiosonde data are essential inputs for numerical weather prediction models and are used for climate research, particularly in the creation of reanalysis products. However, radiosonde programs are costly to maintain, in particular in the remote regions of the Arctic (e.g., $440,000/yr at Summit, Greenland), where only 40 of approximately 1000 routine global launches are made. The climate of this data-sparse region is poorly understood and forecast data assimilation procedures are designed for global applications. Thus, observations may be rejected from the data assimilation because they are too far from the model expectations. For the most cost-efficient deployment of resources and to improve forecasting methods, analyses of the effectiveness of individual radiosonde programs are necessary. Here, we evaluate how radiosondes launched twice daily (0 and 12 UTC) from Summit Station, Greenland, (72.58⁰N, 38.48⁰W, 3210 masl) influence the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational forecasts from June 2013 through May of 2015. A statistical analysis is conducted to determine the impact of the observations on the forecast model and the meteorological regimes that the model fails to reproduce are identified. Assimilation rates in the inversion layer are lower than any other part of the troposphere. Above the inversion, assimilation rates range from 85%-100%, 60%-98%, and > 99% for temperature, humidity, and wind, respectively. The lowest assimilation rates are found near the surface, possibly associated with biases in the representation of the temperature inversion by the ECMWF model at Summit. Consequently, assimilation rates are lower near the surface during winter when strong temperature inversions are frequently observed. Our findings benefit the scientific community who uses this information for climatological analysis of the

  17. Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-lit snow is increasingly recognized as a chemical reactor that plays an active role in uptake, transformation, and release of atmospheric trace gases. Snow is known to influence boundary layer air on a local scale, and given the large global surface coverage of snow may also be significant on regional and global scales.

    We present a new detailed one-dimensional snow chemistry module that has been coupled to the 1-D atmospheric boundary layer model MISTRA, we refer to the coupled model as MISTRA-SNOW. The new 1-D snow module, which is dynamically coupled to the overlaying atmospheric model, includes heat transport in the snowpack, molecular diffusion, and wind pumping of gases in the interstitial air. The model includes gas phase photochemistry and chemical reactions both in the interstitial air and the atmosphere. Heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry on atmospheric aerosol is considered explicitly. The chemical interaction of interstitial air with snow grains is simulated assuming chemistry in a liquid (aqueous layer on the grain surface. The model was used to investigate snow as the source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and gas phase reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer in the remote snow covered Arctic (over the Greenland ice sheet as well as to investigate the link between halogen cycling and ozone depletion that has been observed in interstitial air. The model is validated using data taken 10 June–13 June, 2008 as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx experiment (GSHOX. The model predicts that reactions involving bromide and nitrate impurities in the surface snow at Summit can sustain atmospheric NO and BrO mixing ratios measured at Summit during this period.

  18. Semiochemicals from the predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff): components of metathoracic gland, dorsal abdominal gland, and sternal gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsaio-Yung; Kou, Rong; Tseng, Hsin-Kuang

    2003-09-01

    Volatile compounds from the metathoracic glands (MTG), dorsal abdominal glands (DAG), and sternal setae of the generalist predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MTGs of both male and female bugs contained (E)-2-decenal as the major component, with lesser amounts of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, (E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2,9-decadienal. The relative amount of (E)-2,9-decadienal in the MTGs of female bugs was higher than in male bugs. There was no dimorphism in the morphology of the DAGs of adults. However, the DAG contents of adult bugs were different between the sexes. Geraniol was found only in the DAGs of males, and limonene and alpha-terpineol were found only in the DAGs of females, whereas linalool oxide isomers, linalool, neral, and geranial were found in DAGs of both sexes. The DAG contents of nymphs were also analyzed, with 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal, tridecane, and tetradecanal being major components. Male bugs but not females possess sternal setae, and 6,10,13-trimethyltetradecyl isovalerate was detected from extracts of the sternal setae of males. The possible biological significance of dimorphism in the contents of the glands in adults is discussed.

  19. Rime Mushrooms - Extreme Rime Ice Buildup on Mountain Summits of Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are known among mountain climbers for a meteorological phenomenon that occurs there but is unknown in many other mountain areas. The phenomenon is the buildup of rime ice in large bulbous or mushroom-shaped accretions on the windward side of projecting mountain summits, ridges and exposed near-vertical rock faces. These "ice mushrooms" have never been investigated scientifically. This talk will introduce the audience to ice mushrooms, describe where they are found, consider the meteorological factors leading to their formation, and illustrate how they are negotiated by mountain climbers using photographs and descriptions from Southern Patagonia.

  20. Local anthropogenic impact on particulate elemental carbon concentrations at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. W. Hagler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Summit, Greenland is a remote Arctic research station allowing for field measurements at the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Due to the current reliance on diesel generators for electricity at Summit, unavoidable local emissions are a potential contamination threat to the measurement of combustion-related species in the air and snow. The effect of fossil-fuel combustion on particulate elemental carbon (EC is assessed by a combination of ambient measurements (~1 km from the main camp, a series of snow pits, and Gaussian plume modeling. Ambient measurements indicate that the air directly downwind of the research station generators experiences particulate absorption coefficient (closely related to EC values that are up to a factor of 200 higher than the summer 2006 non-camp-impacted ambient average. Local anthropogenic influence on snow EC content is also evident. The average EC concentration in 1-m snow pits in the "clean air" sector of Summit Camp are a factor of 1.8–2.4 higher than in snow pits located 10 km and 20 km to the north ("downwind" and south ("upwind" of the research site. Gaussian plume modeling performed using meteorological data from years 2003–2006 suggests a strong angular dependence of anthropogenic impact, with highest risk to the northwest of Summit Camp and lowest to the southeast. Along a transect to the southeast (5 degree angle bin, the modeled frequency of significant camp contribution to atmospheric EC (i.e. camp-produced EC>summer 2006 average EC at a distance of 0.5 km, 10 km, and 20 km is 1%, 0.2%, and 0.05%, respectively. According to both the snow pit and model results, a distance exceeding 10 km towards the southeast is expected to minimize risk of contamination. These results also suggest that other remote Arctic monitoring stations powered by local fuel combustion may need to account for local air and snow contamination in field sampling design and data interpretation.

  1. Adding Value through Innovation——Woolmark's first China Australia Merino Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shimiao

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a renewable,sustainable natural fiber to live with,Australian Merino wool has been showcased at World Expo 2010 Shanghai.The Woolmark's first China Australia Merino Summit,supported by Australian Wool Innovation(AWI),was held on June 29 at Australian Pavilion.At the forum,leading Chinese wool companies(such as Jiangsu Sunshine,Shandong Ruyi and Zhejiang Xinao),Australian Superfine Woolgrowers Association and designers were brought together to outline their thoughts on current trends impacting wool business,and discussed the strategies and visions these leaders were adopting to ensure their profitability into the future.

  2. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  3. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  4. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  5. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  6. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  7. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  8. An Efficient Technique for Bayesian Modelling of Family Data Using the BUGS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.

  9. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  10. Characteristics of the summit lakes of Ambae volcano and their potential for generating lahars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions through crater lakes often generate lahars, causing loss of life and property. On Ambae volcano, recent eruptive activities have rather tended to reduce the water volume in the crater lake (Lake Voui, in turn, reducing the chances for outburst floods. Lake Voui occupies a central position in the summit caldera and is well enclosed by the caldera relief. Eruptions with significantly higher magnitude than that of 1995 and 2005 are required for an outburst. A more probable scenario for lahar events is the overflow from Lake Manaro Lakua bounded on the eastern side by the caldera wall. Morphology and bathymetry analysis have been used to identify the weakest point of the caldera rim from which water from Lake Manaro Lakua may overflow to initiate lahars. The 1916 disaster described on south-east Ambae was possibly triggered by such an outburst from Lake Manaro Lakua. Taking into account the current level of Lake Manaro Lakua well below a critical overflow point, and the apparently low potential of Lake Voui eruptions to trigger lahars, the Ambae summit lakes may not be directly responsible for numerous lahar deposits identified around the Island.

  11. An Autonomous Polarized Raman Lidar System Designed for Summit Camp, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stillwell Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dearth of high-spatial and temporal resolution measurements of atmospheric state variables in the Arctic directly inhibits scientific understanding of radiative and precipitation impacts on the changing surface environment. More reliable and frequent measurements are needed to better understand Arctic weather processes and constrain model predictions. To partially address the lack of Artic observations, a new autonomous Raman lidar system, which will measure water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, extinction, and cloud phase profiles through the troposphere, is designed for deployment to Summit Camp, Greenland (72° 36’ N, 38° 25’ W, 3250 [m]. This high-altitude Arctic field site has co-located ancillary equipment such as a Doppler millimeter cloud radar, microwave radiometers, depolarization lidars, ceiliometer, an infrared interferometer and twice-daily radiosondes. The current suite of instruments allows for a near comprehensive picture of the atmospheric state above Summit but increased spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor and temperature will reveal detailed microphysical information. A system description will be provided with an emphasis on the Monte Carlo safety analysis done to ensure eye safety in all relevant weather conditions.

  12. The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jedediah K; Bischof, John C; Braslavsky, Ido; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Fahy, Gregory M; Fuller, Barry J; Rabin, Yoed; Tocchio, Alessandro; Woods, Erik J; Wowk, Brian G; Acker, Jason P; Giwa, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents.

  13. The first geodetic investigation at the summit of Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shengkai; E Dongchen; Li Yuansheng; Wang Zemin; Zhou Chunxia; SHEN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Dome A is the highest ice feature in the Antarctica,up to now,little is known about surface topography at Dome A.The first Chinese ITASE expedition was carried out from Zhongshan station to Dome A during the 1996/1997 austral summer.During the 2004/2005 austral summer,the traverse was extended to the summit of Dome A which is 1228 km from Zhongshan Station by 21st Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE).The real time kinematic (RTK) GPS surveywas carried out in the summit of Dome A during 2004/05 austral summer.The surface topography of Dome A was drawn up using the kinematic double frequency GPS data covering an area of about 70 km2.The accuracy of the kinematic survey is in the range of 0.20 m.Precise surface topography,bedrock morphology and internallayering geometry are important for the future selection of the best site for deep drilling at Dome A.

  14. Human traces in the bryophyte flora of the summit region of Karkonosze Mts (Polish side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on results of the bryofloristic investigations carried out in 2006 along tourist roads and around mountain chalets the problem of bryophyte response to the tourist utilization of the summit region of Karkonosze Mts is discussed here. The hypothesis that introduction of cement as building material might have caused the income and spread of subneutral or basiphilous ruderal species in that naturally acidic region was formulated and tested. In result 45 species were found, of which the majority do not occur in natural sites in the Karkonosze Mts. Among them 20 species are convinced to be highly hemerophilous. Most of the found species were eurytopic, only 14 prefered subneutral or basic substrata. Many of them produced sporogonia, what indicates high reproduction potential. It seems that the phenomenon of synanthropisation is limited mainly to places in which cement (as mortar or concrete has been used. The list of bryophytes found around all the anthropogenic sites and along the tourist roads in the summit region of Polish part of the massif with brief characteristics of their ecological preferences has been included.

  15. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-08

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  16. Patient safety in emergency medical services: executive summary and recommendations from the Niagara Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair L; Bull, Ellen; Morrison, Merideth; Burgess, Rob; Maher, Janet; Brooks, Steven C; Morrison, Laurie J

    2011-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel care for patients in challenging and dynamic environments that may contribute to an increased risk for adverse events. However, little is known about the risks to patient safety in the EMS setting. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, including nonrandomized, noncontrolled studies, conducted qualitative interviews of key informants, and, with the assistance of a pan-Canadian advisory board, hosted a 1-day summit of 52 experts in the field of EMS patient safety. The intent of the summit was to review available research, discuss the issues affecting prehospital patient safety, and discuss interventions that might improve the safety of the EMS industry. The primary objective was to define the strategic goals for improving patient safety in EMS. Participants represented all geographic regions of Canada and included administrators, educators, physicians, researchers, and patient safety experts. Data were collected through electronic voting and qualitative analysis of the discussions. The group reached consensus on nine recommendations to increase awareness, reduce adverse events, and suggest research and educational directions in EMS patient safety: increasing awareness of patient safety principles, improving adverse event reporting through creating nonpunitive reporting systems, supporting paramedic clinical decision making through improved research and education, policy changes, using flexible algorithms, adopting patient safety strategies from other disciplines, increasing funding for research in patient safety, salary support for paramedic researchers, and access to graduate training in prehospital research.

  17. Consensus recommendations from the strategic planning summit for pain and palliative care pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Christopher M; Strassels, Scott A; Strickland, Jennifer M; Kral, Lee A; Craig, David S; Nesbit, Suzanne Amato; Finley, Rebecca S; McPherson, Mary Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Pain and symptoms related to palliative care (pain and palliative care [PPC]) are often undertreated. This is largely owing to the complexity in the provision of care and the potential discrepancy in education among the various health care professionals required to deliver care. Pharmacists are frequently involved in the care of PPC patients, although pharmacy education currently does not offer or require a strong curriculum commitment to this area of practice. The Strategic Planning Summit for the Advancement of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacy was convened to address opportunities to improve the education of pharmacists and pharmacy students on PPC. Six working groups were charged with objectives to address barriers and opportunities in the areas of student and professional assessment, model curricula, postgraduate training, professional education, and credentialing. Consensus was reached among the working groups and presented to the Summit Advisory Board for adoption. These recommendations will provide guidance on improving the care provided to PPC patients by pharmacists through integrating education at all points along the professional education continuum.

  18. 3.5-Year Monitoring of 225 GHz Opacity at the Summit of Greenland

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T P; Inoue, Makoto; Koch, Patrick M; Paine, Scott N; Turner, David D

    2016-01-01

    We present the 3.5-yr monitoring results of 225 GHz opacity at the summit of the Greenland ice sheet (Greenland Summit Camp) at an altitude of 3200 m using a tipping radiometer. We chose this site as our submillimeter telescope (Greenland Telescope; GLT) site, because its location offers favorable baselines to existing submillimeter telescopes for global-scale VLBI. The site shows a clear seasonal variation with the average opacity lower by a factor of two during winter. For the winter quartiles of 25% and 50%, the Greenland site is about 10%-30% worse than the ALMA or the South Pole sites. Estimated atmospheric transmission spectra in winter season are similar to the ALMA site at lower frequencies (450 GHz) than those at the ALMA site. This is due to the lower altitude of the Greenland site. Nevertheless, half of the winter time at the Greenland site can be used for astronomical observations at frequencies between 450 GHz and 1000 GHz with opacities 10% transmittance in the THz (1035 GHz, 1350 GHz, and 1500 ...

  19. INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THE ENLARGED G8 SUMMIT MEETING AT EVIAN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Despite the difficulties that CERN might encounter, the Organization will pursue its activities for the duration of the G8 Summit Meeting. The Management and Division leaders will take the necessary steps to ensure the proper functioning of the Organization, while taking account of the aforementioned difficulties. The Swiss and French authorities have informed CERN of the following general security and traffic arrangements associated with the enlarged G8 summit: a) Road traffic Between 22 May and 6 June traffic on certain roads in the Canton of Geneva (notably on the left bank) and in neighbouring France (mainly Haute-Savoie) will be disrupted and, in some cases, roads closed. As far as border crossings between 22 May and 4 June are concerned, the frontier posts will be divided into three categories (see map): - posts closed to all traffic (diversion signs will be in place), - posts open at certain times, - posts open at all times. N.B. : the road from Prévessin to Mategnin will be closed and traffic div...

  20. An Autonomous Polarized Raman Lidar System Designed for Summit Camp, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Robert A.; Neely, Ryan R.; Pilewskie, Peter; O'Neill, Michael; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Hayman, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A dearth of high-spatial and temporal resolution measurements of atmospheric state variables in the Arctic directly inhibits scientific understanding of radiative and precipitation impacts on the changing surface environment. More reliable and frequent measurements are needed to better understand Arctic weather processes and constrain model predictions. To partially address the lack of Artic observations, a new autonomous Raman lidar system, which will measure water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, extinction, and cloud phase profiles through the troposphere, is designed for deployment to Summit Camp, Greenland (72° 36' N, 38° 25' W, 3250 [m]). This high-altitude Arctic field site has co-located ancillary equipment such as a Doppler millimeter cloud radar, microwave radiometers, depolarization lidars, ceiliometer, an infrared interferometer and twice-daily radiosondes. The current suite of instruments allows for a near comprehensive picture of the atmospheric state above Summit but increased spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor and temperature will reveal detailed microphysical information. A system description will be provided with an emphasis on the Monte Carlo safety analysis done to ensure eye safety in all relevant weather conditions.

  1. Seismic detection of increased degassing before Kīlauea's 2008 summit explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica H.; Poland, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 explosion that started a new eruption at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, was not preceded by a dramatic increase in earthquakes nor inflation, but was associated with increases in SO2 emissions and seismic tremor. Here we perform shear wave splitting analysis on local earthquakes spanning the onset of the eruption. Shear wave splitting measures seismic anisotropy and is traditionally used to infer changes in crustal stress over time. We show that shear wave splitting may also vary due to changes in volcanic degassing. The orientation of fast shear waves at Kīlauea is usually controlled by structure, but in 2008 showed changes with increased SO2 emissions preceding the start of the summit eruption. This interpretation for changing anisotropy is supported by corresponding decreases in Vp/Vs ratio. Our result demonstrates a novel method for detecting changes in gas flux using seismic observations and provides a new tool for monitoring under-instrumented volcanoes.

  2. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  3. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  4. Bug Hill: Excavation of a Multicomponent Midden Mound in the Jackfork Valley, Pushmataha County, Southeast Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-25

    settlements. 15 i. MIDDEN MOUND ARCHAEOLOGY AND BUG HILL Throughout this section, there has been one recurrent theme: the inability to "see" within a...processes can be involved. For instance, sites experiencing recurrent seasonal flooding often have alluvial soils forming a main component of the mound...0 1944 Dental abnormalities as found in the American Indian. American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery 30(9):474-486. 1959 The Belcher Mound

  5. Trophic eggs compensate for poor offspring feeding capacity in a subsocial burrower bug

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Narumi; Hironaka, Mantaro; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Mukai, Hiromi; Nomakuchi, Shintaro; Ueno, Takatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Various animals produce inviable eggs or egg-like structures called trophic eggs, which are presumed to be an extended maternal investment for the offspring. However, there is little knowledge about the ecological or physiological constraints associated with their evolutionary origin. Trophic eggs of the seminivorous subsocial burrower bug (Canthophorus niveimarginatus) have some unique characteristics. Trophic eggs are obligate for nymphal survival, and first-instar nymphs die without them. ...

  6. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens, and in particular bromine oxide (BrO, have frequently been observed in regions with large halide reservoirs, for example during bromine catalyzed coastal polar ozone depletion events. Much less is known about the presence and impact of reactive halogens in areas without obvious halide reservoirs, such as the polar ice sheets or continental snow.

    We report the first LP-DOAS measurements of BrO at Summit research station in the center of the Greenland ice sheet at an altitude of 3200 m. BrO mixing ratios in May 2007 and June 2008 were typically between 1–3 pmol mol−1, with maxima of up to 5 pmol mol−1. These measurements unequivocally show that halogen chemistry is occurring in the remote Arctic, far from known bromine reservoirs, such as the ocean. During periods when FLEXPART retroplumes show that airmasses resided on the Greenland ice sheet for 3 or more days, BrO exhibits a clear diurnal variation, with peak mixing ratios of up to 3 pmol mol−1 in the morning and at night. The diurnal cycle of BrO can be explained by a changing boundary layer height combined with photochemical formation of reactive bromine driven by solar radiation at the snow surface. The shallow stable boundary layer in the morning and night leads to an accumulation of BrO at the surface, leading to elevated BrO despite the expected smaller release from the snowpack during these times of low solar radiation. During the day when photolytic formation of reactive bromine is expected to be highest, efficient mixing into a deeper neutral boundary layer leads to lower BrO mixing ratios than during mornings and nights.

    The extended period of contact with the Greenland snowpack combined with the diurnal profile of BrO, modulated by boundary layer height, suggests that photochemistry in the snow is a significant source of BrO measured at Summit during the 2008 experiment. In addition, a rapid transport event

  7. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens, and in particular bromine oxide (BrO, have frequently been observed in regions with large halide reservoirs, for example during bromine catalyzed coastal polar ozone depletion events. Much less is known about the presence and impact of reactive halogens in areas without obvious halide reservoirs, such as the polar ice sheets or continental snow.

    We report the first LP-DOAS measurements of BrO at Summit research station in the center of the Greenland ice sheet at an altitude of 3200 m. BrO mixing ratios in May 2007 and June 2008 were typically between 1–3 pmol mol−1, with maxima of up to 5 pmol mol−1. These measurements unequivocally show that halogen chemistry is occurring in the remote Arctic, far from known bromine reservoirs, such as the ocean. During periods when FLEXPART retroplumes show that airmasses resided on the Greenland ice sheet for 3 or more days, BrO exhibits a clear diurnal variation, with peak mixing ratios of up to 3 pmol mol−1 in the morning and at night. The diurnal cycle of BrO can be explained by a changing boundary layer height combined with photochemical formation of reactive bromine driven by solar radiation at the snow surface. The shallow stable boundary in the morning and night leads to an accumulation of BrO at the surface, leading to elevated BrO despite the expected smaller release from the snowpack during these times of low solar radiation. During the day when photolytic formation of reactive bromine is expected to be highest, efficient mixing into a deeper neutral boundary layer leads to lower BrO mixing ratios than during mornings and nights.

    The extended period of contact with the Greenland snowpack combined with the diurnal profile of BrO, modulated by boundary layer height, suggests that photochemistry in the snow is a significant source of BrO measured at Summit during the 2008 experiment. In addition, a rapid transport event on 4

  8. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  9. Ectoparasites and host energetics: house martin bugs and house martin nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; de Lope, F; Moreno, J; González, G; Pérez, J J

    1994-08-01

    We measured the energy cost of ectoparasitism in an experimental study of the house martin bug Oeciacus hirundinis and its main host, nestlings of the house martin Delichon urbica. Nests were randomly assigned to inoculation with 0 (control) 10, or 100 bugs during egg laying, and this resulted in statistically significant differences in parasite loads following fledging of nestlings. Parasite loads negatively affected house martin nestlings as estimated from their body mass at age 16 days and from mass loss estimated over 1 day late in the nestling period. Daily energy expenditure (KJ/d), average daily metabolic rate (ml CO2/g h), and mass independent daily energy expenditure (kJ/mass(0.67)d) did not differ significantly between experimental treatments. However, average daily metabolic rate increased with increasing intensities of ectoparasitism. Mass independent daily energy expenditure also increased with higher levels of parasite infestation. These results demonstrate that the bug imposes an energy cost on its host by elevating the level of metabolism.

  10. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  11. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  12. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  13. A Vision for a Summit: CELT Recently Brought Together School Districts, Vendors and Professional Organizations for a National Summit on "Leadership, Learning and Technology for the 21st Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Priscilla; Milton, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    A lunch-time discussion among CELT (Center for Education Leadership and Technology) Corporation staff about how to positively impact the 2004 presidential campaign quickly evolved into a vision for bringing together top executive-level practitioners in education for a national summit on "Leadership, Learning and Technology for the 21st Century."…

  14. Fiftieth Anniversary at the summit : neither fear of heights nor the cold succeeded in cooling the ardour of four brave climbers from CERN who celebrated CERN's 50th Anniversary at the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 metres).

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On the way back from the summit, Miguel Cerqueira Bastos (AB/PO), David Collados Polidura (IT/GM), Sandra Sequeira Tavares (PH/CMI) and Daniel Cano Ott (n_TOF) raised the official CERN Jubilee flag at 4750 metres altitude.

  15. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  16. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  17. No Longer Calling the Shots The G8 Summit is unlikely to make a significant impact on pressing global issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XIANGYANG

    2011-01-01

    This year's Group of Eight (G8) Summit was held from May 26 to 27 in Deauville,France.Topics included the ongoing war in Libya,Japan's nuclear disaster and bumps in the road to economic recovery.Given the rise of emerging economies,Western nations stressed their common interests and values,intending to maintain their dominance over international affairs.

  18. Epicardial and endocardial mapping determine most successful site of ablation for ventricular tachyarrhythmias originating from left ventricular summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kenichi; Chinushi, Masaomi; Furushima, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with idiopathic premature ventricular complex (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the area called the left ventricular summit. Radiofrequency (RF) application both through the coronary sinus and to the epicardial surface transiently suppressed the VT/PVC. Radiofrequency with sufficient energy was only applicable from the endocardial site, and the VT/PVC was successfully eliminated.

  19. Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World. International Summit on the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    If the quality of an education system can never exceed the quality of its teachers, then countries need to do all they can to build a high-quality teaching force. "Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World," the background report to the sixth International Summit on the Teaching…

  20. 76 FR 49764 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit and Entegry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5...

  1. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  2. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-01-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of…

  3. The national summit on preconception care: a summary of concepts and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Samuel F; Johnson, Kay; Parker, Christopher; Atrash, Hani; Biermann, Janis

    2006-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 35 partner organizations have engaged in developing an agenda for Preconception Health. A summit was held in June 2005 to discuss the current state of knowledge regarding preconception care and convene a select panel to develop recommendations and action steps for improving the health of women, children, and families through advances in clinical care, public health, and community action. A Select Panel on Preconception Care, convened by CDC, deliberated critical related issues and created refined definition of preconception care. The panel also developed a strategic plan with goals, recommendations, and action steps for improving preconception health. The recommendations and action steps are specific to the implementation of health behavior, access, consumer demand, research, and surveillance activities for monitoring and improving the health of women, children and families. The outcome of the deliberations is the CDC publication of detailed recommendations and action steps in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report series, Recommendations and Reports.

  4. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  5. Constraints on the δ2H diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. van der Wel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed detailed 2H isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3 m of firn at Summit, Greenland. Using a small snow gun, a thin snow layer was formed from 2H-enriched water over a 6 m × 6 m area. We followed the diffusion process, quantified as the increase of the δ2H diffusion length, over a four years period, by retrieving the layer once per year by drilling a firn core and slicing it into 1 cm layers and measuring the δ2H-signal of these layers. We compared our experimental findings to calculations based on the model by Johnsen et al. (2000, and found substantial differences. The diffusion length in our experiments increased much less over the years than in the model. We discuss the possible causes for this discrepancy, and conclude that several aspects of the diffusion process in firn are still poorly constrained, in particular the tortuosity.

  6. Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

  7. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  8. An Intercultural Approach to Textbook Evaluation: A Case of Top Notch and Summit Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Homayounzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the representation of sociocultural identities in six textbooks selected from Top Notch and Summit series, to assess their potential to promote intercultural communicative competence in the learners. Ting-Toomey’s identity negotiation theory and Scollon and Scollon’s (2001 discourse system structure were used to assess the identity representations and the structure of discourses in the books. Identity representations were analyzed in terms of the four primary elements of cultural, ethnic, gender and personal identities, to determine the extent to which the books could foster communication between members of various identity groups. In the analysis of discourse structures, the study investigated primarily the politeness and face strategies used in the conversations and further the particular ideology they perpetuated, as a clue to their potential to promote the learners’ pragmatic competence for intercultural communication. Concerning identity representations in the books, different results were found for the two series. Top Notch, addressing beginner to intermediate level students, proved considerate of diversity in the sociocultural identities it presented and providing information about the values of different cultures and the customs and traditions of various nations it tried to set the bases of interculturality within its audience. Summit, on the other hand, addressing higher intermediate and advanced learners, had a unilateral approach in its identity presentations, depicting principally European and American nationalities and the cultural values of individualism typically associated with them. Nevertheless, where the discourse structures in the books were concerned, both the two series were identical in their exclusive focus upon the utilitarian ideology of discourse and its related politeness and face strategies. This was found as a pitfall in the books, limiting the students’ range of discursive resources

  9. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zielhofer

    Full Text Available The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  10. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pettersen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive datasets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliments past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland from 2010–2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 g m−2 or less, the cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. This measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the four years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.

  11. The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) Meeting: observations and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigin, Colleen M; Rodgers, Mary M; Wolf, Steven L

    2010-11-01

    The construct of delivering high-quality and cost-effective health care is in flux, and the profession must strategically plan how to meet the needs of society. In 2006, the House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association passed a motion to convene a summit on "how physical therapists can meet current, evolving, and future societal health care needs." The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting on February 27-28, 2009, in Leesburg, Virginia, sent a clear message that for physical therapists to be effective and thrive in the health care environment of the future, a paradigm shift is required. During the PASS meeting, participants reframed our traditional focus on the physical therapist and the patient/client (consumer) to one in which physical therapists are an integral part of a collaborative, multidisciplinary health care team with the health care consumer as its focus. The PASS Steering Committee recognized that some of the opportunities that surfaced during the PASS meeting may be disruptive or may not be within the profession's present strategic or tactical plans. Thus, adopting a framework that helps to establish the need for change that is provocative and potentially disruptive to our present care delivery, yet prioritizes opportunities, is a critical and essential step. Each of us in the physical therapy profession must take on post-PASS roles and responsibilities to accomplish the systemic change that is so intimately intertwined with our destiny. This article offers a perspective of the dynamic dialogue and suggestions that emerged from the PASS event, providing further opportunities for discussion and action within our profession.

  12. LSST summit facility construction progress report: reacting to design refinements and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeffrey D.; Gressler, William; Sebag, Jacques; Seriche, Jaime; Serrano, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    The civil work, site infrastructure and buildings for the summit facility of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are among the first major elements that need to be designed, bid and constructed to support the subsequent integration of the dome, telescope, optics, camera and supporting systems. As the contracts for those other major subsystems now move forward under the management of the LSST Telescope and Site (T and S) team, there has been inevitable and beneficial evolution in their designs, which has resulted in significant modifications to the facility and infrastructure. The earliest design requirements for the LSST summit facility were first documented in 2005, its contracted full design was initiated in 2010, and construction began in January, 2015. During that entire development period, and extending now roughly halfway through construction, there continue to be necessary modifications to the facility design resulting from the refinement of interfaces to other major elements of the LSST project and now, during construction, due to unanticipated field conditions. Changes from evolving interfaces have principally involved the telescope mount, the dome and mirror handling/coating facilities which have included significant variations in mass, dimensions, heat loads and anchorage conditions. Modifications related to field conditions have included specifying and testing alternative methods of excavation and contending with the lack of competent rock substrate where it was predicted to be. While these and other necessary changes are somewhat specific to the LSST project and site, they also exemplify inherent challenges related to the typical timeline for the design and construction of astronomical observatory support facilities relative to the overall development of the project.

  13. Proceedings from the Ice Hockey Summit on concussion: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Stuart, M; Greenwald, R; Benson, B; Dodick, D; Emery, C; Finnoff, J; Mihalik, J; Roberts, W; Sullivan, C A; Meeuwisse, W

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this proceedings is to integrate the concussion in sport literature and sport science research on safety in ice hockey to develop an action plan to reduce the risk, incidence, severity, and consequences of concussion in ice hockey. A rationale paper outlining a collaborative action plan to address concussions in hockey was posted for review two months prior to the Ice Hockey Summit: Action on Concussion. Focused presentations devoted specifically to concussion in ice hockey were presented during the Summit and breakout sessions were used to develop strategies to reduce concussion in the sport. This proceedings and a detailed scientific review (a matrix of solutions) were written to disseminate the evidence-based information and resulting concussion reduction strategies. The manuscripts were reviewed by the authors, advisors and contributors to ensure that the opinions and recommendations reflect the current level of knowledge on concussion in hockey. Six components of a potential solution were articulated in the Rationale paper and became the topics for breakout groups that followed the professional, scientific lectures. Topics that formed the core of the action plan were: metrics and databases; recognizing, managing and return to play; hockey equipment and ice arenas; prevention and education; rules and regulations; and expedient communication of the outcomes. The attendees in breakout sessions identified action items for each section. The most highly ranked action items were brought to a vote in the open assembly, using an Audience Response System (ARS). The strategic planning process was conducted to assess: Where are we at?; Where must we get to?; and What strategies are necessary to make progress on the prioritized action items? Three prioritized action items for each component of the solution and the percentage of the votes received are listed in the body of this proceedings.

  14. Diffuse volcanic gas emission and thermal energy release from the summit crater of Pico do Fogo, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, Samara M.; Melián, Gladys; Rodríguez, Fátima; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, Jose; Padilla, Germán; Sumino, Hirochika; Fernandes, Paulo; Bandomo, Zuleyka; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José M.; Semedo, Hélio

    2015-02-01

    We report the first detailed study of diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), helium (He), and hydrogen (H2) from the summit crater of Pico do Fogo volcano, Cape Verde. Diffuse CO2, H2S, He, and H2 gas fluxes were measured at 57 sampling sites and ranged up to 12,800, 13, 1, and 6 g m-2 day-1, respectively. Soil temperature measurements at each sampling site were used to evaluate the heat flux. Most of the summit crater shows relatively high CO2 efflux, with highest values close to the fumarolic area, suggesting a structural control of the degassing process. In contrast, H2S effluxes were negligible or very low at the summit crater, except close to the fumarolic area where anomalously high CO2 efflux and soil temperatures were also measured. We estimate total CO2, H2S, He, and H2 diffuse gas fluxes of 219 t day-1, 25, 4, and 33 kg day-1, respectively. Based on a H2O/CO2 mass ratio of 1.52 measured at the fumaroles, we estimate a diffuse steam flux from the summit crater of approximately 330 t day-1. The enthalpy of this steam is equivalent to a heat flux of about 10.3 MW. The diffuse gas emission and thermal energy released from the summit crater of Pico do Fogo volcano are comparable to those observed at other volcanoes. Sustained surveillance of Pico do Fogo using these methods will be valuable for monitoring the activity of one of the most active volcanoes in the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  16. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  17. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  20. Predation Potential of the Water Bugs Sphaerodema rusticum on the Sewage Snails Physa acuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Aditya

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The sewage snail Physa acuta is a serious threat to certain economic plants and to the purification plant of sewage works by rendering the biofilters ineffective. Various attempts are being made to control it. The efficacy of the predacious water bugs Sphaerodema rusticum was judged experimentally, in the laboratory in the potential control of P. acuta. It is revealed that, when supplied separately, the first, second and third instar and the adult S. rusticum did not attack P. acuta belonging to 3.1-8 mm, 5.1-8 mm, 7.1-8 mm and <= 3 mm size classes respectively. In the remaining trials predation rate varied from zero to eight (average 2.3 individuals per predator per day. In experiments with P. acuta belonging to all the size classes supplied together, none, except the first instar S. rusticum, attacked the prey individuals belonging to the lowest (<= 3 mm size class. The first and second instar S. rusticum, in both trials did not attack P. acuta larger than 4 mm and 5 mm in shell length respectively. The water bugs belonging to the third, fourth, fifth instar and adult stages though preyed upon P. acuta with 3.1-8 mm shell length. The average rate of predation by a single S. rusticum varied from 0.14-3.08 individuals per day depending upon the size of P. acuta and the stage of S. rusticum. A single S. rusticum, irrespective of instar and adult stages, destroyed on average 4.16 P. acuta daily irrespective of sizes. It is estimated that one S. rusticum could destroy 1,360 P. acuta in its life time. The results clearly indicate that the water bug S. rusticum may be used to control the snails P. acuta.

  1. Identification of Soybean Resistance to Pod Sucking Bug (Riptortus linearis by No-Choice Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Krisnawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean pod damaged by pod sucking bug (Riptortus linearis is one of the constraint within soybean yield improvement in Indonesia. The research aimed was to identify the resistance of soybean genotypes to pod sucking pest. The experiment was conducted in Iletri’s screen house from March to June 2015. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design using 10 soybean genotypes with three replicates. The soybean resistance was evaluated using no-choice test. Data collected on number of pod/plant, number of seed/plant, seed weight per plant, number of attacked pod/plant, and number of attacked seed/plant. The result showed that the lowest percentage both of pod and seed damage was G511H/Anjasmoro//Anjasmoro-2-8, that was 25.83 % and 19.12 %, respectively. Based on the value of the percentage of seed damage, there were five susceptible genotypes, three moderately resistant, and two resistant genotypes. Based on the value of the percentage of pod damage, showed four susceptible genotypes, five moderately resistant, and a resistant genotype. G511H/Anjasmoro//Anjasmoro-2-8 was the only resistant genotype, and it could be used as a genetic source in the improvement of soybean resistance to pod sucking bug.How to CiteKrisnawati, A., Bayu, M. S. Y. I. & Adie, M. M. (2016. Identification of Soybean Resistance to Pod Sucking Bug (Riptortus linearis by No-Choice Test. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 407-414. 

  2. An energetic analysis of host plant selection by the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Stephen J

    1980-01-01

    The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, is a specialized seed feeder that has been observed completing nymphal development in the field on only a small proportion of its potential host species within the genus Asclepias. In central Missouri only two of the six milkweed species studied, A. syriaca and A. verticillata, commonly supported nymphal O. fasciatus growth in the field. The seed of all six species, however, was equally suitable food for bugs reared in the laboratory. In laboratory preference tests, adult bugs chose to feed on the largest seeds, A. hirtella, but such a preference could not explain the observed field feeding patterns.One explanation to account for the observed host plant selection is based upon an energetic analysis. Only A. syriaca provided enough seed biomass for a clutch of O. fasciatus nymphs to develop on a single plant, and only A. verticillata grew in high enough density that a clutch could find sufficient food within the limited range of nymphal movement. These results illustrate a corollary of the resource concentration hypothesis: within a plant group whose members share similar secondary plant chemistries, the only species that will be viable hosts for a specialized herbivore are those that provide the minimal resource density necessary for the completion of nymphal development.In central Missouri, O. fasciatus has specialized on a critical resource density, not traits of individual Asclepias species. The appearance of host selection within the potential host plant spectrum is the result of a characteristic growth form, seed output, and dispersion pattern for each milkweed species that makes some species much more likely than others to produce sufficient seed resources.

  3. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  4. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae: insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song Hwang

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp. and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies to date based on molecular data (5 markers. This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma, but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma. The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of

  5. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  6. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  7. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  8. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, R.; L. Almeida; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception handling code that may lead to a decrease in application robustness. Overall 6,005 exception stack traces were extracted, and subjected to source code and bytecode analysis. The outcomes of this s...

  9. The central projection of cephalic mechanosensory axons in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insausti Teresita C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The projections of mechanosensory hairs located on the dorsal and lateral head of the adult haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans were analyzed by means of cobalt filling. Axons run into the anterior and posterior tegumentary nerve and project through the brain to the ventral nerve cord. The fibres are small in diameter and run as a fascicle. Some branches run into suboesophageal and prothoracic centres; others run as far as to the mesothoracic ganglion. These sensory projections resemble that of wind-sensitive head hairs of the locust. The functional role of this sensory system in this species is discussed.

  10. New Jurassic Fossil True Bugs of the Pachymeridiidae (Hemiptera:Pentatomomorpha) from Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yunzhi; CAI Wanzhi; REN Dong

    2008-01-01

    Four new fossil genera and species of true bugs from the family Pachymeridiidae,Beipiaocoris multifurcus, Bellicoris mirabilis, Nitoculus regillus, and Viriosinervis stolidus, are described. New specimens were collected from the Middle and Upper Jurassic non-marine sedimentary strata from the Jiulongshan and Yixian Formations of northeast China. The species Karatavocoris asiatica Becker-Migdisova, 1963, which was considered to be a member of the family Coreidae is transferred to the Pachymeridiidae. A new map of all known and newly discovered fossil pachymeridiid localities is given. The diagnosis of the family is modified.

  11. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  12. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  14. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, Summit Mountain (Sugarloaf Mountain), Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Summit Mountain (Sugarloaf Mountain)'....

  16. New directions in cellular therapy of cancer: a summary of the summit on cellular therapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A summit on cellular therapy for cancer discussed and presented advances related to the use of adoptive cellular therapy for melanoma and other cancers. The summit revealed that this field is advancing rapidly. Conventional cellular therapies, such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL, are becoming more effective and more available. Gene therapy is becoming an important tool in adoptive cell therapy. Lymphocytes are being engineered to express high affinity T cell receptors (TCRs, chimeric antibody-T cell receptors (CARs and cytokines. T cell subsets with more naïve and stem cell-like characteristics have been shown in pre-clinical models to be more effective than unselected populations and it is now possible to reprogram T cells and to produce T cells with stem cell characteristics. In the future, combinations of adoptive transfer of T cells and specific vaccination against the cognate antigen can be envisaged to further enhance the effectiveness of these therapies.

  17. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  18. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M; Cameron, Tom C

    2012-10-23

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity.

  19. Oviposition preference of the neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros on artificial substrates of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the oviposition preference of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F. on artificial substrates of different colors (felt woven. For this, ten pairs of stink bugs were transferred into plastic pots. Each pot contained seven felts of 6x20 cm (100% polyester-atoxic of different colors (white, black, blue, green, red, yellow and brown. The pots were evaluated daily for three weeks (21 days being counted the number of eggs, clutches and eggs per clutch for each color of felt. The choice test was set in a completely randomized design. Data obtained was submitted to the analysis of variance and means were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. During the evaluation were produced 7074 eggs distributed in 977 clutches, accounting a mean of 7.06±0.67 eggs per clutch. Results indicated that females laid a significantly greater number of eggs (2380 and 1686 and a greater number of clutches (319 and 233 on the yellow and white felts, respectively, than on the remaining substrates. The substrates in color red, black and brown were the least preferred, and the colors blue and green were intermediate when compared with others. Therefore, the substrates colored yellow and white are suggested to be used in rearing E. heros in the laboratory.

  20. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  1. Endosymbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Mealy Bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerag, Ravikumar Sreekala; Jayaprakas, C A; Ragesh, L; Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth

    2014-01-01

    The mealy bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli, is a menace to the aroid farmers due to the intensive infestation on stored tubers. Spraying of pesticides was able to control this pest but it always left a chance for fungal growth. Bacterial endosymbionts associated with the insects provide several benefits to their host. Since such endosymbionts play a vital role even in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this noxious pest. The present study is the first to identify bacterial endosymbionts associated with R. amorphophalli employing phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing. Three culturable bacteria, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, were isolated from R. amorphophalli. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility tests against the isolated bacteria showed that all the isolates were susceptible to the three antibiotics tested, except cephalexin. Recently, endosymbionts are used as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) and the present study will stand as a connecting link in identification and effective utilization of these endosymbionts as BCAs for management of R. amorphophalli.

  2. Comparative bio-ecological studies among two species of Urentius lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the prevalent lace bugs in Sudan, Urentius hystricellus and Urentius euonymus are important pests of eggplant and pigeon pea, respectively. They attack alternative hosts, but some plants were reported as common hosts for both species. In fact, the identity of these pests and their actual host plants seems to be confusing. Therefore, the main objectives of this work were to; differentiate between such pest species based on certain morpho-biological investigations, verify their hosts’ ranges and study their intra-host distributions and seasonal trends through field surveys and experiments. The results showed clear morphological and biological differences among the two lace bug species. The durations of pre-imaginal stages of U. hystricellus were shorter than those of U. euonymus, while each pest took shorter durations in autumn as compared with winter season. Each pest has its own host range, and no shared hosts were detected, as believed. Hence, the mistaken hosts were corrected and new hosts were added. Such new records included Solanum incanum for U. hystricellus, and two hosts (Chrozophora plicata and Rhynchosia memnonia for U. euonymus. Counts of insects on either leaf sides have revealed variable distributions in different hosts. The seasonal trends of the two pests showed peak populations during autumn and summer seasons. In conclusion, the study made clear distinctions between U. hystricellus and U. euonymus, and gave supportive findings for ecological management.

  3. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials. PMID:27656692

  4. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  5. The Second Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health: developing an action plan to promote health in daily practice and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Dean,, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Based on indicators that emerged from The First Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health (2007), the Second Summit (2011) identified themes to inform a global physical therapy action plan to integrate health promotion into practice across the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) regions....... Working questions were: (1) how well is health promotion implemented within physical therapy practice; and (2) how might this be improved across five target audiences (i.e. physical therapist practitioners, educators, researchers, professional body representatives, and government liaisons...

  6. The Dubai 2015 Global Islamic Economy Summit - and what it will take to become a heavyweight champion

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    I just attended the 2015 Global Islamic Economy Summit, in Dubai and it was a fantastic experience. The hospitality was first class and only surpassed by the energy, passion, sincerity and friendship selflessly handed out to everyone attending.\\ud \\ud However, two things that I think need addressing are the understanding, articulation, and execution of two key areas, which were weak in terms of intelligence and insight: Consumer Behaviour and Branding.

  7. Evidence acquisition and evaluation for evidence summit on enhancing provision and use of maternal health services through financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Elizabeth S; Stammer, Emily; Roth, Rebecca; Balster, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the need for evidence to inform US Government and governments of the low- and middle-income countries on efficient, effective maternal health policies, strategies, and programmes, the US Government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives in April 2012 in Washington, DC, USA. This paper summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used for achieving the goals of the Summit. The goal of the Summit was to obtain multidisciplinary expert review of literature to inform both US Government and governments of the low- and middle-income countries on evidence-informed practice, policies, and strategies for financial incentives. Several steps were undertaken to define the tasks for the Summit and identify the appropriate evidence for review. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform governments of the low-and middle-income countries and the US Government about the efficacy of supply- and demand-side financial incentives for enhanced provision and use of quality maternal health services. Experts were selected representing the research and programme communities, academia, relevant non-governmental organizations, and government agencies and were assembled into Evidence Review Teams. This was followed by a systematic process to gather relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the Evidence Review Teams were invited to add relevant papers not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliography. The Evidence Review Teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy based on both expert opinion and the quality of the data. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described.

  8. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    , indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005......., and Raymo, M. E. "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records." Paleoceanography 20.1 (2005)....

  9. Holocene block-and-ash flows from summit dome activity of Citlaltépetl volcano, Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo

    1999-01-01

    A major eruption produced several block-and-ash flows about 4,100 years B.P. at Citlaltépetl volcano (Pico de Orizaba), an ice-capped, 5670-m-high, andesitic, active stratovolcano located at the eastern end of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Repetitive gravitational collapse of a dacitic dome at the summit crater produced a series of block-and-ash flows, lahars, and floods, which were channeled through two main river-valleys on the west and south flanks of the volcano. The total erupted volume is estimated to be at least 0.27 km 3. The deposits in both areas are similar in composition, and size, but they differ in the area covered, distribution, and structure. The western deposits form a large fan, cover a larger area, and include numerous laharic and fluviatile deposits. In contrast, the southern deposits form prominent terraces where confined in narrow channels, and have associated laharic units in distal areas, where the flows reach a maximum distance of 30 km from the vent. Directed disruptions of a central summit dome occurred, possibly first to the west and then to the southeast, perhaps due to minor modifications of the summit dome morphology, producing the voluminous block-and-ash flow deposits documented here. The flows were strongly controlled by topography, influencing the deposition of the moving particles. Grain-size variations along the flow paths are hardly detectable suggesting no evident lateral downstream transformations. Because sudden changes in dome morphology may cause significant variations in the direction of future dome collapse, specific areas of potential affectation cannot be predicted. Therefore, about 350,000 inhabitants living within a radius of 35-km from the vent could be potentially impacted if catastrophic block-and-ash flows were to recur in the future from similar summit dome activity. Recognition of these deposits is therefore important for hazard assessment because some seemingly safe areas may be at high risk.

  10. 华盛顿核安全峰会工作计划%Work Plan of Washington Nuclear Security Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This Work Plan supports the Communiqué of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit.It constitutes a political commitlnent bv the participating states to catty out,on a voluntary basis,applicable portions of this Work Plan,consistent with respective national laws and intemational obligations,in all aspects of the storage,use,transportation and disposal of uclear materials and in preventing non-state actors from obtaining the information required to use such materials for malicious purposes.

  11. Regulatory roles of biogenic amines and juvenile hormone in the reproductive behavior of the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating induces behavioral and physiological changes in the plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae). Males enter a post-mating refractory period, lasting 24 hrs, during which they replenish the contents of their accessory glands and seminal vesicles. Females experience a similar loss of ...

  12. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  13. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted with the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), using AC-DC electropenetrography (EPG) to record feeding behaviors on vegetative (stem and leaflet) and reproductive (pod) tissues of soybean, Glycine max (L.). P. guildinii is a major pest of soybean in the Americ...

  14. Elevated metabolic dextoxification associated with multiple/cross resistance to defferent insecticide classes in tarnished plant bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bugs (TPB, Lygus lineolaris) were collected from multiple locations in the Delta regions of Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana (covering 200 miles in E-W and N-S directions), and were subjected to bioassays to acephate, imidacloprid, dicrotophos, thiamethoxam, and sulfoxaflor (repr...

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of three polygalacturonase cDNAs from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three unique cDNAs encoding putative polygalacturonase enzymes were isolated from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The three nucleotide sequences were dissimilar to one another, but the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to each other and ...

  16. Structural Dynamics of Management Zones for the Site-Specific Control of Tarnished Plant Bugs in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision-based agricultural application of insecticide relies on a non-random distribution of pests; tarnished plant bugs (Lygus lineolaris) are known to prefer vigorously growing patches of cotton. Management zones for various crops have been readily defined using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vege...

  17. Impact of Bug-in-Ear Professional Development on Early Childhood Co-Teachers' Use of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Grygas Coogle, Christan; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…

  18. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  19. Population growth of three mirid predatory bugs feeding on eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta on tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Diego B.; Bueno, Vanda H.P.; Montes, Flavio C.; Lenteren, van Joop C.

    2016-01-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick quickly developed into a significant pest of tomatoes worldwide. While the mirid bugs Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) prey on this tomato borer, their biology have not been well characterized. Using a mixtu

  20. Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilović, Jasna S; Pojić, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing.