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  1. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

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    Benoit, Audrey; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Bherer, Louis; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (r s = -0.48; p cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  2. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  3. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

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    Lu Chien-Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be

  4. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Audrey; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Bherer, Louis; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of comput...

  5. Cognitive Therapist: A Dialogue with Aaron Beck.

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    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Presents interview with cognitive therapist Aaron Beck in which Beck describes cognitive therapy; the contributions of Freud, Maslow, Rogers, and Ellis; cultural, class, and gender issues; training of cognitive-behavior therapists; and the future direction of treatment of anxiety and depression. (ABL)

  6. Beck's Cognitive Therapy: An Overview for Rehabilitation Counselors.

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    Bowers, Wayne A.

    1988-01-01

    This article introduces Beck's Cognitive Therapy as a counseling model for rehabilitation counselors. The structured approach and success in treating anxiety and depression contribute to its validity as a tool in rehabilitation. (DB)

  7. Integrating Beck's cognitive model and the response style theory in an adolescent sample.

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    Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Pössel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9% female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine if and how these cognitive vulnerabilities begin to intertwine in adolescence. Of the integrative models tested-all with structural equation modeling in AMOS 21-the best-fitting integrative model was a moderation model wherein schemata influenced rumination, and rumination then influenced other cognitive variables in Beck's model. Findings revealed that this integrated model fit the data better than the response style theory and explained 1.2% more variance in depressive symptoms. Additionally, multigroup analyses comparing the fit of the best-fitting integrated model across adolescents with clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms revealed that the model was not stable between these two subsamples. However, of the hypotheses relevant to the integrative model, only 1 of the 18 associations was significantly different between the clinical and subclinical samples. Regardless, the integrated model was not superior to the more parsimonious model from Beck's cognitive theory. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. Testing three different sequential mediational interpretations of Beck's cognitive model of the development of depression.

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    Pössel, Patrick; Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn

    2014-01-01

    This study tested and compared three sequential interpretations of Beck's cognitive model of the development of depression (1996). The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive distortions, the cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms. By contrast, the symptom model reverses the causal chain with negative automatic thoughts as the most proximal consequence and dysfunctional attitudes as the most distal consequence of depression. The bidirectional model merges both interpretations into one model. Previous studies on sequential interpretations of Beck's model have not included cognitive distortions or the cognitive triad and did not test the bidirectional model finding contradictory empirical evidence for the sequential order. In the 3-wave longitudinal study, 308 German university students without clinically significant depressive symptoms (245 female, average age: 23.69 years) completed self-report questionnaires measuring their dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive distortions, cognitive triad, negative automatic thoughts, and depressive symptoms. The bidirectional model with partial mediation fit the data best and cognitive distortions mediated the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts and vice versa. The findings have important consequences for the prevention of depression. Prevention programs may want to focus on cognitive distortions, the only construct in Beck's model that influences every other construct in the model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Aaron T. Beck's drawings and the psychoanalytic origin story of cognitive therapy.

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    Rosner, Rachael I

    2012-02-01

    In this essay the author challenges the standard origin story of cognitive therapy, namely, that its founder Aaron T. Beck broke with psychoanalysis to pursue a more pragmatic, parsimonious, and experimentalist cognitive model. It is true that Beck broke with psychoanalysis in large measure as a result of his experimental disconfirmation of key psychoanalytic ideas. His new school of cognitive therapy brought the experimental ethos into every corner of psychological life, extending outward into the largest multisite randomized controlled studies of psychotherapy ever attempted and inward into the deepest recesses of our private worlds. But newly discovered hand-sketched drawings from 1964 of the schema, a conceptual centerpiece of cognitive therapy, as well as unpublished personal correspondence show that Beck continued to think psychoanalytically even after he broke with psychoanalysis. The drawings urge us to consider an origin story much more complex than the one of inherited tradition. This new, multifaceted origin story of cognitive therapy reaches beyond sectarian disagreements and speaks to a broader understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive therapy.

  10. The Beck Initiative: A Partnership to Implement Cognitive Therapy in a Community Behavioral Health System

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    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J. Bryce; Evans, Arthur C.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers. PMID:19797367

  11. The role of psychological inflexibility in Beck's cognitive model of depression in a sample of undergraduates

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    Francisco J. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.

  12. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability

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    Weeland, M.M.; Nijhof, K.S.; Otten, R.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study tests the validity of Beck’s cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. Methods: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in

  13. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between insight, cognitive insight, positive symptoms and violence in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Ekinci, Okan; Ekinci, Asli

    2013-04-01

    Violence is a significant clinical and public concern and is a frequent occurrence in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between insight and violence remains controversial. In addition, there is a lack of research on insight, cognitive insight, demographic and psychopathologic variables in violent versus nonviolent schizophrenia patients. We aimed to compare insight, cognitive insight, psychopathological and demographic variables in violent and nonviolent subjects suffering from schizophrenia. In addition, we aimed to determine the demographic and clinical predictors of violent behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 133 schizophrenic patients without concomitant substance abuse or axis II disorder. Diagnoses were based on the SCID-I and SCID-II. Violent behaviours were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Insight and cognitive insight were assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively. We compared 47 patients with violent schizophrenia with 86 nonviolent patients. Non-violent patients had more severe depression, lower scores on positive symptoms, better clinical insight, more self-reflectivity and higher R-C index scores than did violent patients. In addition, history of violence, lower self-reflectiveness, worse clinical insight and delusion severity were significant predictors of violence in schizophrenia. The present study suggests that the inclusion of insight and cognitive insight may increase the prediction of violence in this population. In addition, clinicians should consider using non-pharmacological techniques that are based on cognitive behaviour therapy and enhance insight, particularly cognitive insight, among patients with schizophrenia who exhibit violent behaviour.

  15. Do scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II predict outcome in cognitive processing therapy?

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    Asamsama, Octaviana Hemmy; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-09-01

    Current treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recognize that severe depression may limit the effectiveness of trauma-focused interventions, making it necessary to address depression symptomatology first. However, there is a paucity of research providing specific treatment recommendations using a common depression measure like the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Accordingly, we examined the utility of using BDI-II cutoff scores for predicting response to cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Our sample was 757 military veterans receiving outpatient therapy at a Department of Veterans Affairs specialty clinic. At baseline, the majority of participants (58.9%) reported BDI-II scores suggestive of severe depression, and 459 (60.7%) met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite this high level of depression severity, most participants who completed therapy experienced a clinically significant reduction in symptoms (75.1%). No differences were observed across BDI-II groups on rates of clinically significant change in PTSD symptoms or on rates of treatment completion. Taken together, results suggest that CPT is an effective treatment, even in cases of severe co-occurring depression. Limitations and implications for treatment guidelines are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

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    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

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    Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Otten, R; Vermaes, Ignace P R; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-10-01

    This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence. This was the only negative cognitive error that predicted depressive symptoms. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of the three response styles. In line with the theory, ruminating was positively and problem-solving was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Distractive response styles were not related to depressive symptoms. The relationship between response styles, cognitive errors and depressive symptoms were similar for both groups. The main premises of both theories of depression are equally applicable to adolescents with and without MBID. The cognitive error 'Underestimation of the ability to cope' poses a specific risk factor for developing a depression for adolescents with MBID and requires special attention in treatment and prevention of depression. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescents with MBID, little is known about the etiology and cognitive processes that play a role in the development of depression in this group. The current paper fills this gap in research by examining the core tenets of two important theories on the etiology of depression (Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory) in a clinical sample of adolescents with and without MBID. This paper demonstrated that the theories are equally applicable to adolescents with MBID, as to adolescents with average intellectual ability. However, the cognitive bias 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was the only cognitive error

  18. Public-academic partnerships: the Beck Initiative: a partnership to implement cognitive therapy in a community behavioral health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J Bryce; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T

    2009-10-01

    The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers.

  19. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: resting state functional connectivity.

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    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n=20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left hemisphere dominance. Increased connectivity in

  20. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  1. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

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    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  2. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level.

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    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid

    2016-01-01

    According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight.

  3. The Beck Initiative: Training School-Based Mental Health Staff in Cognitive Therapy

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    Creed, Torrey A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Pontoski, Kristin; Feinberg, Betsy; Rosenberg, Zachary; Evans, Arthur; Hurford, Matthew O.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT) as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1) to examine the development of therapists' knowledge and skills in CT, an…

  4. The Effect of Beck's Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Sociotropic and Autonomous Personality Styles in Patients With Depression.

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    Abolghasemi, Abbas; Gholami, Hossin; Narimani, Mohammad; Gamji, Masood

    2015-12-01

    Depression is characterized by a great risk of relapse and recurrence. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and cognitive therapy are efficacious psychosocial interventions for recurrent depression. The aim of the present research was to compare the effect of Beck's cognitive therapy (BCT) and MBCT on reduction of depression and sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in Iranian depressed patients. The study sample consisted of 30 subjects randomly selected from patients with depression in Mashhad city, Iran. The subjects were assigned randomly to experimental groups. The 2 techniques used for treatment were BCT and MBCT. The data collection instruments used in the research consisted of psychological interview, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the revised Personal Style Inventory (RPSI). The research data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). BCT and MBCT were effective in reducing depression, but BCT and MBCT did not cause any change in the sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in patients with depression. The results provide support for the role of BCT and MBCT plays in reducing depression. However, the results did not approve their role in changing sociotropic and autonomous personality styles in patients with depression.

  5. Implementation of transdiagnostic cognitive therapy in community behavioral health: The Beck Community Initiative.

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    Creed, Torrey A; Frankel, Sarah A; German, Ramaris E; Green, Kelly L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Taylor, Kristin P; Adler, Abby D; Wolk, Courtney B; Stirman, Shannon W; Waltman, Scott H; Williston, Michael A; Sherrill, Rachel; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T

    2016-12-01

    Progress bringing evidence-based practice (EBP) to community behavioral health (CBH) has been slow. This study investigated feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity outcomes of a program to implement transdiagnostic cognitive therapy (CT) across diverse CBH settings, in response to a policy shift toward EBP. Clinicians (n = 348) from 30 CBH programs participated in workshops and 6 months of consultation. Clinician retention was examined to assess feasibility, and clinician feedback and attitudes were evaluated to assess implementation acceptability. Experts rated clinicians' work samples at baseline, mid-, and end-of-consultation with the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS) to assess fidelity. Feasibility was demonstrated through high program retention (i.e., only 4.9% of clinicians withdrew). Turnover of clinicians who participated was low (13.5%) compared to typical CBH turnover rates, even during the high-demand training period. Clinicians reported high acceptability of EBP and CT, and self-reported comfort using CT improved significantly over time. Most clinicians (79.6%) reached established benchmarks of CT competency by the final assessment point. Mixed-effects hierarchical linear models indicated that CTRS scores increased significantly from baseline to the competency assessment (p case-conceptualization driven EBP with high levels of competency and acceptability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Beck Initiative: Training School-Based Mental Health Staff in Cognitive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrey A. Creed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1 to examine the development of therapists’ knowledge and skills in CT, an evidence-based approach to promoting student well-being, and 2 to examine patterns of narrative feedback provided to therapists participating in the program. As expected, school therapists trained in CT demonstrated significant gains in their knowledge of CT theory and in their demonstration of CT skills, with the majority of therapists surpassing the accepted threshold of competency in CT. In addition, an examination of feedback content suggested that narrative feedback provided to therapists most frequently consisted of positive feedback and instructions for future sessions. Suggestions for future research regarding dissemination of CT are discussed in light of increasing broad access to evidence based practices.

  7. Clinical and Cognitive Insight in a Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention

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    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of limited insight is a crucial consideration in the treatment of individuals with psychiatric illness. In the context of psychosis, both clinical and cognitive insight have been described. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between clinical and cognitive insight and neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptom severity, and everyday functioning in patients with a primary psychotic disorder participating in a compensatory cognitive training (CT) intervention. Sixty-nine individuals diagnosed with a primary psychotic disorder were randomized to a 3-month CT intervention or to standard pharmacotherapy, and they completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, clinical, and functional battery at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The CT intervention focused on habit formation and compensatory strategy learning in four domains: prospective memory, attention and vigilance, learning and memory, and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility. At baseline, better clinical insight was significantly related to better executive functioning and less severe negative symptoms. There was no significant association between cognitive insight and cognitive functioning, symptom severity, or everyday functioning ability. The CT intervention did not have an effect on clinical or cognitive insight, but better cognitive insight prior to participation in CT significantly predicted decreased positive and depressive symptom severity posttreatment, and better clinical insight predicted improved self-reported quality of life. Although clinical insight is related to executive functioning, the correlates of cognitive insight remain elusive. Intact insight appears to be beneficial in ameliorating clinical symptomatology like positive symptoms and depression, rather than augmenting cognition. It may be valuable to develop brief interventions aimed at improving clinical and cognitive insight prior to other psychosocial rehabilitation in order to maximize the benefit of

  8. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

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    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  9. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  10. Relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Seul; Han, Ah-Young; Kim, Kyungwook; Lee, Jinyoung

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive insight refers to the cognitive processes involved in patients' re-evaluation of their anomalous experiences and of their misinterpretations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia to further shed light on the nature of cognitive insight and its functional correlates in schizophrenia. Seventy-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated for cognitive insight and subjective quality of life using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4). The symptoms of schizophrenia were also assessed. Pearson's correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis that controlled for the severity of symptoms were performed to adjust for the possible effects of symptoms. The self-reflectiveness subscale score of the BCIS had significant positive correlations with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain and total SQLS-R4 scores, indicating that the higher the level of cognitive insight, the lower the subjective quality of life. In partial correlation analysis controlling for symptoms, the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale score still had a significant correlation with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain score. The correlation coefficient between the BCIS self-reflectiveness and total SQLS-R4 scores was reduced to a nonsignificant statistical tendency. The results of our study suggest that cognitive insight, particularly the level of self-reflectiveness, is negatively associated with the level of subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia and that this relationship is not wholly due to the confounding effect of symptoms. Future studies are necessary to explore possible mediating and moderating factors and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions on the relationship.

  11. Cognitive insight and objective quality of life in people with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Ruchika; Luhrmann, Tanya M; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Poor cognitive insight in schizophrenia has been linked to delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms as well as to depressive/anxiety symptoms. Its impact on quality of life has been less studied, especially in schizophrenia subjects with ongoing auditory hallucinations. The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were administered to subjects who met DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia after due translation and validation. All subjects reported ongoing auditory hallucinations at recruitment. Mean composite cognitive insight scores from participants (N = 60) (2.97 ± 2.649) were in the lower range as compared to published literature. Cognitive insight scores as well as self-reflectiveness subscale scores, but not self-certainty scores, correlated significantly with the QLS scores p insight, especially self-reflectiveness, may be linked to better quality of life. Self-reflectiveness could be a useful construct to address in psychotherapy to improve rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921- Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fatih Yavuz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available he American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.

  13. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between cognitive insight and depression in psychosis and schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emma C; Gilleen, James; David, Anthony S

    2015-08-01

    Lack of insight is a commonly observed problem in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Clinical insight in patients has been associated with low mood. Cognitive insight is a recently defined concept, relating to the ability to self-reflect and the degree to which patients are over-confident regarding their interpretations of illness-related experiences, and is related to clinical insight. We therefore sought to investigate whether there is a positive relationship between cognitive insight and mood. A literature search identified 17 relevant papers published between 2004 and 2014. Our analysis indicated that there was a small but significant positive correlation between the composite index (CI) of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and depression scores, but this was driven by a significant positive relationship between depression and the BCIS self-reflection (SR) sub-scale, where low mood was related to higher SR scores. There was no significant relationship between the self-certainty sub-scale and depression. Post-hoc analysis indicated that different depression scales did not significantly affect the relationship with SR. Our results support the idea that cognitive insight is significantly related to mood in schizophrenia, and the effect size is similar to that between clinical insight and mood. Potential applications of this knowledge into treatment and rehabilitation are discussed and a model of cognitive insight is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Right Frontotemporal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Cognitive Insight and Subjective Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Ohtachi, Hiroaki; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Although prior studies identified a relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia, the brain regions mediating this relationship remain unknown. Recent studies have shown that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may be particularly important for cognitive insight in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we examined whether frontotemporal function mediates the relationship between cognitive insight and QOL in 64 participants, including 32 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), while participants' subjective QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey. Frontotemporal function was evaluated during a verbal fluency task using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. Consistent with previous findings, we found that frontotemporal function was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, our data also revealed that the right ventrolateral PFC and the right anterior part of the temporal cortex significantly mediated the relationship between the self-reflectiveness (SR) subscale of the BCIS and subjective QOL. These findings suggest that cognitive insight, particularly SR, is associated with subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia via right frontotemporal function. The findings of this study provide important insight into a QOL model of schizophrenia, which may guide the development of cost-effective interventions that target frontotemporal function in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Hoon Kim,1 Seul Lee,1 Ah-Young Han,1 Kyungwook Kim,2 Jinyoung Lee1 1Neuroscience Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Medicine, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The concept of cognitive insight refers to the cognitive processes involved in patients’ re-evaluation of their anomalous experiences and of their misinterpretations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia to further shed light on the nature of cognitive insight and its functional correlates in schizophrenia.Methods: Seventy-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated for cognitive insight and subjective quality of life using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4. The symptoms of schizophrenia were also assessed. Pearson’s correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis that controlled for the severity of symptoms were performed to adjust for the possible effects of symptoms.Results: The self-reflectiveness subscale score of the BCIS had significant positive correlations with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain and total SQLS-R4 scores, indicating that the higher the level of cognitive insight, the lower the subjective quality of life. In partial correlation analysis controlling for symptoms, the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale score still had a significant correlation with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain score. The correlation coefficient between the BCIS self-reflectiveness and total SQLS-R4 scores was reduced to a nonsignificant statistical tendency.Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that cognitive insight, particularly the level of self-reflectiveness, is negatively associated with

  17. The "Splendid Isolation" of Aaron T. Beck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Rachael I

    2014-12-01

    Aaron T. Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a school of psychotherapy, conceived in the 1960s, that is celebrated by many clinicians for having provided the scientific antidote to all that was wrong with psychoanalysis. This essay situates the origins of CT in the crisis of legitimacy in psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s, when, among many charges, psycho- analysts had to face the accusation that analysis was not adequately scientific. Beck actually began his career as both a psychoanalyst and an experimentalist. Contrary to common triumphalist accounts, Beck created CT to be a neutral space, not a partisan one, in turbulent times. Other notable psychoanalysts also sought compromise, rather than partisanship, to bridge the transition to biomedical science. The biographical approach of this essay to the origins of Beck's CT both situates him historiographically and articulates the complex experiences of a generation of psychoanalysts otherwise opaque to standard narratives.

  18. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic

  19. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of external source memory and its relation to cognitive insight in non-clinical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Hawco, Colin; Bodnar, Michael; Izadi, Sarah; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Messina, Katrina; Lepage, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has linked cognitive insight (a measure of self-reflectiveness and self-certainty) in psychosis with neurocognitive and neuroanatomical disturbances in the fronto-hippocampal neural network. The authors' goal was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive insight during an external source memory paradigm in non-clinical subjects. At encoding, 24 non-clinical subjects travelled through a virtual city where they came across 20 separate people, each paired with a unique object in a distinct location. fMRI data were then acquired while participants viewed images of the city, and completed source recognition memory judgments of where and with whom objects were seen, which is known to involve prefrontal cortex. Cognitive insight was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. External source memory was associated with neural activity in a widespread network consisting of frontal cortex, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporal and occipital cortices. Activation in VLPFC correlated with higher self-reflectiveness and activation in midbrain correlated with lower self-certainty during source memory attributions. Neither self-reflectiveness nor self-certainty significantly correlated with source memory accuracy. By means of virtual reality and in the context of an external source memory paradigm, the study identified a preliminary functional neural basis for cognitive insight in the VLPFC in healthy people that accords with our fronto-hippocampal theoretical model as well as recent neuroimaging data in people with psychosis. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of neural mechanisms in psychotic disorders associated with cognitive insight distortions. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Posterior Beta and Anterior Gamma Oscillations Predict Cognitive Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Sandkuhler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Pioneering neuroimaging studies on insight have revealed neural correlates of the emotional "Aha!" component of the insight process, but neural substrates of the cognitive component, such as problem restructuring (a key to transformative reasoning), remain a mystery. Here, multivariate electroencephalogram signals were recorded from human…

  1. Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods. Ethological and experimental evidence has added significantly to our understanding of nonhuman brains and cognition, especially those of nonhuman primates. Studies of fossil brains through endocasts and sophisticated imaging techniques have revealed evolutionary changes in gross neural anatomy. Psychologists have also gotten into the game through application of reverse engineering to experimentally based descriptions of cognitive functions. For hominin evolution, there is another rich source of evidence of cognition, the archeological record. Using the methods of Paleolithic archeology and the theories and models of cognitive science, evolutionary cognitive archeology documents developments in the hominin mind that would otherwise be inaccessible. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Associations of suicidality with cognitive ability and cognitive insight in outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Jennifer; Choi, Jennifer; Kangas, Julie L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Harvey, Philip D; Depp, Colin A

    2018-02-01

    Previous literature suggests that better cognitive ability and insight are associated with greater lifetime risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia, counter to the direction of association in the general population. However, the conjoint association between distinct cognitive domains, insight, and suicidality has not been assessed. In a cross-sectional study, 162 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed cognitive testing via the MATRICS battery, symptom and cognitive insight assessments, along with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. We then contrasted participants based on history of suicidality by cognitive domains and insight measures and conducted multivariate analyses. Although a history of any passive ideation was not associated with cognitive ability or insight, verbal learning was positively associated with a greater history of suicidal attempt and prior ideation with a plan and intent. Higher cognitive insight, and the self-reflectiveness subscale insight, was also associated with history of passive or active suicidal ideation. Cognitive insight and cognitive ability were independent from each other, and there were no moderating influences of insight on the effect of cognitive ability on suicide related history. Exploratory analyses revealed that history of planned attempts were associated with greater verbal learning, whereas histories of aborted attempts were associated with poorer reasoning and problem-solving. Although cross-sectional and retrospective, this study provides support that greater cognitive ability, specifically verbal learning, along with self-reflectiveness, may confer elevated risk for more severe suicidal ideation and behavior in an independent fashion. Interestingly, poorer problem-solving was associated with aborted suicide attempts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. How self-reflection and self-certainty are related to neurocognitive functioning: an examination of cognitive insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Oldenburg, J F E; Sabbe, B G C

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of associations between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and neurocognitive functioning was assessed in bipolar disorder patients. Data from 42 bipolar disorder patients were examined. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). The BCIS is a 15-item self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Clinical insight was measured by the use of the item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the International Society for Bipolar Disorders-Battery for Assessment of Neurocognition. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive associations between self-reflectiveness and speed of processing, attention, working memory, visual learning, and reasoning and problem solving. The subscale self-certainty was negatively correlated to working memory, however, this correlation disappeared when we controlled for confounding variables. No correlations between clinical insight and neurocognition were found. In addition, there was no association between cognitive insight and clinical insight. Better neurocognitive functioning was more related to higher levels of self-reflectiveness than to diminished self-certainty.

  4. Corvid caching : insights from a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Elske; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    Caching and recovery of food by corvids is well-studied, but some ambiguous results remain. To help clarify these, we built a computational cognitive model. It is inspired by similar models built for humans, and it assumes that memory strength depends on frequency and recency of use. We compared our

  5. Dynamic statistical models of biological cognition: insights from communications theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2014-10-01

    Maturana's cognitive perspective on the living state, Dretske's insight on how information theory constrains cognition, the Atlan/Cohen cognitive paradigm, and models of intelligence without representation, permit construction of a spectrum of dynamic necessary conditions statistical models of signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism at and across the many scales and levels of organisation of an organism and its context. Nonequilibrium critical phenomena analogous to physical phase transitions, driven by crosstalk, will be ubiquitous, representing not only signal switching, but the recruitment of underlying cognitive modules into tunable dynamic coalitions that address changing patterns of need and opportunity at all scales and levels of organisation. The models proposed here, while certainly providing much conceptual insight, should be most useful in the analysis of empirical data, much as are fitted regression equations.

  6. Learning Science: Some Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.

    Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.

  7. The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ugurlu, Görkem Karakas; Albayrak, Yakup; Arslan, Murat; Caykoylu, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Despite comorbid depression being relatively common even in subjects with schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge, there is, to date, no report in the literature specifically and detailed examining the cognitive and clinical insight in subjects with schizophrenia and a comorbid depressive syndrome. Hence, in this study, we sought to compare the cognitive and clinical insight in our subjects with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid depressive syndrome. We found that participants in the depressive group scored significantly higher on self-reflectiveness and the reflectiveness-certainty (R-C) index scores than those in the nondepressive group. There was no significant difference among groups on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and clinical insight scores assessed by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. In addition, self-reflectiveness scores significantly correlated with depression, observed depression, hopelessness, and suicidality subscores of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with comorbid depression may contribute to develop more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patient outcome. However, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of exacerbating a sense of hopelessness and suicide risk during the interventions that improve cognitive insight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kontrollmestringsteori og Becks kognitve teori. En sammenlignende undersøkelse av teoriene med henblikk på forståelse og behandling av depresjon

    OpenAIRE

    Brabrand, Kristin; Søvik, Ellen; Blomdal, Ane Jostedt

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy theories differ in how they understand and approach depression (Nordahl et al., 2012). In this paper we compare the control-mastery theory and Beck`s cognitive theory, with the aim to identify similarities and differences between the theories. In this comparison, similarities in conceptualization appeared. Both the control- mastery theory and Beck`s cognitive theory describe depression as developed on the basis of maladaptive cognitions (Beck, 1970; Weiss, 1993). At the same tim...

  9. Cognitive insight in first-episode schizophrenia: further evidence for a role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Hawco, Colin; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Lepage, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In people with psychoses, Self-Reflectiveness may rely on the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a novel virtual reality paradigm to evaluate the role of the VLPFC for Self-Reflectiveness in 25 first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) participants and 24 controls. Participants first viewed 20 characters each paired with a unique object/location, and later completed source memory judgements during fMRI scanning. Self-Reflectiveness, measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, was significantly and positively correlated to activation in bilateral VLPFC in FES, but not in controls, providing further evidence that the VLPFC supports Self-Reflectiveness in FES. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The face and person perception: insights from social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kimberly A; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-11-01

    Social-cognitive investigations of face perception have tended to be motivated by different goals than cognitive and neuropsychological studies-namely, to understand the dynamics of social categorization rather than identity recognition-and the result has been a lack of cross-pollination of insights and ideas between the disciplines. We review the evidence from social cognition, with an eye to discussing how this work aligns with the Bruce and Young (1986) model of face recognition. Acknowledging the invaluable impact the model has exerted on our understanding of face recognition, we suggest that considering the bottom-up constraints of visual processing and the top-down influences of semantic knowledge will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of face perception. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Insight change in psychosis : relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four

  12. Insight change in psychosis: relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; Van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four

  13. Buddhist Ritual from Syntax to Cognition: Insight Meditation and Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “ritual syntax” is developed by relating it to cognitive studies of ritual, providing a fuller theoretical basis. Developing theoretical grounding requires differentiating between the members of five pairs of concepts: production is not the same as analysis, syntax is not the same as semantics, ritual is not the same as the mental, cognition is not the same as the mental, and syntax is not the same as language. These distinctions help avoid overly strong interpretations of the analogy between ritual and language. A discussion of “ritual” suggests that it is best conceptualized in terms of multiple scalar characteristics with degrees of ritualization. Two Buddhist practices, insight meditation and homa, are introduced as instances for the cognitive study of ritual. Syntax involves not simply ordering of elements, but also hierarchical organization of those elements. While syntax allows sentential elements to move within a sentence, ritual tends toward invariance. Invariance seems to contradict the claim that ritual is syntactically organized. However, rituals are often modeled on ordinary activities, producing a kind of “semantic” motivation for invariance.

  14. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  15. The relative contributions of social cognition and self-reflectiveness to clinical insight in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Sophie; Lepage, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Poor clinical insight represents a major barrier to recovery in schizophrenia. Research suggests that higher-order social cognitive abilities such as theory of mind (TOM) and metacognition contribute to levels of clinical insight. However, few studies have examined whether social cognitive abilities other than TOM are related to clinical insight. Moreover, to date, no investigation has attempted to determine whether the contribution of metacognitive ability to clinical insight can be differentiated from the contribution of higher-order social cognition, despite their conceptual similarity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative contribution of different social cognitive abilities, as well as metacognition, to clinical insight in a large sample of 139 enduring schizophrenia patients, and controlling for established predictors of clinical insight. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate the portion of variance explained by 3 social cognitive abilities: emotion recognition, TOM, and affective empathy, and the metacognitive ability of self-reflectiveness. Clinical insight levels were assessed using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded version. Results indicated that affective empathy and self-reflectiveness are the strongest predictors of clinical insight. These results provide insights on the development of targeted interventions for improving clinical insight in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921- Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fatih Yavuz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. Then he attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an M.D. in 1946. After his graduation, he served a rotating internship, followed by a residency in pathology at the Rhode Island Hospital. Although initially not interested in psychiatry, a residency in neurology at the Cushing Veterans Administration Hospital in Framingham, MA, required rotation in psychiatry intrigued him with some of the more recent developments in the field. He spent two years as a fellow at Austin Riggs Center at Stockbridge where he acquired substantial experience in conducting longterm psychotherapy. The Korean War shifted Beck’s area of work to the Valley Forge Army Hospital where he was Assistant Chief of Neuropsychiatry. Dr. Beck joined the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Pennsylvania in 1954. He initially conducted research into the psychoanalytic theories of depression. He developed a different theoretical-clinical approach that he labelled cognitive therapy. Since 1959 he has directed funded research investigations of the psychopathology of depression, suicide, anxiety disorders, panic disorders, alcoholism, drug abuse, personality disorders, and schizophrenia and of cognitive therapy of these disorders. Currently Aaron T. Beck, M.D., is the President Emeritus of the non-profit Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research, and University Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania and the director of the Psychopathology Research Unit (PRU, which is the parent organization of the Center for the treatment and Prevention of Suicide. He has published more than 550 scholarly articles and 18 books and has developed widely used assessment scales. He has received many prestigious awards including the 2006 Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award for

  17. Adolf Beck: A forgotten pioneer in electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Fine, E.; Zayachkivska, O.

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Beck, born in 1863 at Cracow (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1880 to work directly under the supervision of the prominent physiology professor, Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started experimental studies on the electrical brain

  18. Thinking in Action: Some Insights from Cognitive Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport…

  19. Metacognition and Reflection by Interdisciplinary Experts: Insights from Cognitive Science and Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary understanding requires integration of insights from different perspectives, yet it appears questionable whether disciplinary expertsare well prepared for this. Indeed, psychological and cognitive scientific studies suggest that expertise can be disadvantageous because experts are

  20. Kuu plaat : Beck "Guero". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Beck "Guero", Common "Be", Stupid F ja Hash "Koodeks: R.L.V.", Kulo "Onarhia", Natalie Imbruglia "Counting Down the Days", New Order "Waiting for the Sirens' Call", Human Ground "Human Ground"

  1. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: Insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Violet Troller-Renfree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, highly socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  2. Unraveling interrelationships among psychopathology symptoms, cognitive domains and insight dimensions in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Pan, Wei; Dungan, Jennifer R; Keefe, Richard S E; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2018-03-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and cognition. However, very few studies have examined models that explain these interrelationships. In a large sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for potential causal pathways using structural equation modeling. Using the NIMH consensus model, latent variables were constructed for psychopathology symptom dimensions, including positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressed from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items. Neurocognitive variables were created from five predefined domains of working memory, verbal memory, reasoning, vigilance and processing speed. Illness insight and treatment insight were tested using latent variables constructed from the Illness and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ). Disorganized symptoms had the strongest effect on insight. Illness insight mediated the relationship of positive, depressed, and disorganized symptoms with treatment insight. Neurocognition mediated the relationship between disorganized and treatment insight and depressed symptoms and treatment insight. There was no effect of negative symptoms on either illness insight or treatment insight. Taken together, our results indicate overlapping and unique relational paths for illness and treatment insight dimensions, which could suggest differences in causal mechanisms and potential interventions to improve insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight: its relationship with cognitive function, brain volume and symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, S L; Coakes, J; Shapleske, J; Woodruff, P W R; David, A S

    2003-01-01

    Lack of insight is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Relationships have been noted between poor insight, clinical symptoms and cognitive impairments but the findings are inconsistent. There have been some recent attempts to relate poor insight to neuro-anatomical measures. We assessed insight, positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, cognitive performance, and whole brain volumes in a sample of 78 DSM-IV male schizophrenics and 36 normal male comparison subjects matched for age and IQ. Subjects underwent a dual-echo MRI brain scan to establish grey, white and whole brain volumes. Poor Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance inversely correlated with insight in schizophrenic patients, as did the symptoms alogia, anhedonia, avolition/apathy, affective flattening, inappropriate affect, thought disorder and delusions. The presence of inappropriate affect, delusions and thought disorder, showed the most significant impact on insight levels. There were no significant correlations between whole brain, white and grey matter volume and degree of insight. The results suggest that poor insight is significantly related to schizophrenic psychopathology, and confirm that there is a relationship between insight and executive performance. Awareness of illness is not related to any global brain measures, suggesting future investigations should pay attention to more specific cortical regions such as the frontal cortex.

  5. What Captures Gaze in Visual Design - Insights from Cognitive Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and factors that have been experimentally shown to capture attention, as well as those factors that modulate the capture and direction of attention. We do so by drawing on the large body of evidence provided by cognitive psychology, as we believe this research area could potentially provide a source...

  6. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people’s awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people’s awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people’s cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  7. Analogical Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Richland, Lindsey E.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Applying knowledge from one context to another is a notoriously difficult problem, both for children and adults, but lies at the heart of educational endeavors. Analogical reasoning is a cognitive underpinning of the ability to notice and draw similarities across contexts. Reasoning by analogy is especially challenging for students, who must…

  8. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Han, Tianlin; Dai, Xingyun

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people's awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people's awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people's cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  9. Grounded and embodied mathematical cognition: Promoting mathematical insight and proof using action and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Mitchell J; Walkington, Candace

    2017-01-01

    We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities. Our focus here is on pre-college geometry proof production. GEMC suggests that action alone can foster insight but is insufficient for valid proof production if action is not coordinated with language systems for propositionalizing general properties of objects and space. GEMC guides the design of a video game-based learning environment intended to promote students' mathematical insights and informal proofs by eliciting dynamic gestures through in-game directed actions. GEMC generates several hypotheses that contribute to theories of embodied cognition and to the design of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education interventions. Pilot study results with a prototype video game tentatively support theory-based predictions regarding the role of dynamic gestures for fostering insight and proof-with-insight, and for the role of action coupled with language to promote proof-with-insight. But the pilot yields mixed results for deriving in-game interventions intended to elicit dynamic gesture production. Although our central purpose is an explication of GEMC theory and the role of action-cognition transduction, the theory-based video game design reveals the potential of GEMC to improve STEM education, and highlights the complex challenges of connecting embodiment research to education practices and learning environment design.

  10. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack...... using a fast-track methodology. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors. Potential prophylactic intervention may include...... minimal invasive surgery, multi-modal non-opioid pain management and pharmacological manipulation of the inflammatory response and sleep architecture....

  12. The attentive brain: insights from developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Visual attention functions as a filter to select environmental information for learning and memory, making it the first step in the eventual cascade of thought and action systems. Here, we review studies of typical and atypical visual attention development and explain how they offer insights into the mechanisms of adult visual attention. We detail interactions between visual processing and visual attention, as well as the contribution of visual attention to memory. Finally, we discuss genetic mechanisms underlying attention disorders and how attention may be modified by training.

  13. The impact of cognitive insight, self-stigma, and medication compliance on the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Impaired quality of life (QoL) is a common and clinically relevant feature of schizophrenia. In the present study, we attempted to formulate a model of QoL in the chronic stage of schizophrenia by including key variables-namely cognitive insight, self-stigma, insight into treatment, and medication compliance-that were proposed as its significant predictors in previous studies. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously test the associations between these variables. A total of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. Cognitive insight, self-stigma, insight into treatment, medication compliance, and QoL were assessed through self-reporting. Symptoms were rated by interviewers. The influences of cognitive insight, stigma, insight into treatment, and medication compliance on QoL were supported using SEM. Our findings indicated that cognitive insight had a significant, positive, and direct effect on both self-stigma and insight into treatment; in contrast, it had a negative and direct effect on medication compliance. Notably, no evidence indicated a direct effect of cognitive insight on QoL. Thus, individuals with high cognitive insight reported low QoL because of stigma, low medication compliance, and their increased insight into treatment. In contrast, cognitive insight might indirectly ameliorate QoL mediated by the effect of insight into treatment on medication compliance. The findings provide additional support of the links between cognitive and clinical insight, self-stigma, medication compliance, and QoL in those with schizophrenia and suggest the need for screening and intervention services appropriate for this high-risk population.

  14. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  15. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  16. Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas; Cacioppo, John T

    2010-02-01

    People conceive of wrathful gods, fickle computers, and selfish genes, attributing human characteristics to a variety of supernatural, technological, and biological agents. This tendency to anthropomorphize nonhuman agents figures prominently in domains ranging from religion to marketing to computer science. Perceiving an agent to be humanlike has important implications for whether the agent is capable of social influence, accountable for its actions, and worthy of moral care and consideration. Three primary factors-elicited agent knowledge, sociality motivation, and effectance motivation-appear to account for a significant amount of variability in anthropomorphism. Identifying these factors that lead people to see nonhuman agents as humanlike also sheds light on the inverse process of dehumanization, whereby people treat human agents as animals or objects. Understanding anthropomorphism can contribute to a more expansive view of social cognition that applies social psychological theory to a wide variety of both human and nonhuman agents.

  17. Personality dynamics: insights from the personality social cognitive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2011-03-01

    Psychodynamic and social cognitive approaches to personality assessment converge now more so than at any time in the history of experimental psychology. This contribution seeks to make this point. First, the trait of neuroticism predisposes one to multiple adverse outcomes, a point not sufficiently captured by the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Second, though, self-reported levels of neuroticism are insufficient in understanding problematic outcomes for multiple reasons. Third, there are ways of experimentally modeling the many processes of interest to psychodynamic theorists such as unconscious affective biases, implicit representations of self and other, and underlying deficits in self- and emotion regulation. Implicit approaches to assessment also provide clues to interventions targeting the processes of interest, a point that will be made as well.

  18. Insight in Psychosis : Relationship With Neurocognition, Social Cognition and Clinical Symptoms Depends on Phase of Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; van der Meer, L.; Bruggeman, R.; de Haan, L.; Krabbendam, L.; Cahn, W.; Mulder, N.C.; Wiersma, D.; Aleman, A.

    Reduced insight has been reported in a majority of patients with a psychotic disorder. Most studies have focused on associations with neurocognition, neglecting relations with social cognition. Two hundred seventy patients with nonaffective psychosis participated in this study, which was part of the

  19. Insight in Psychosis: Relationship With Neurocognition, Social Cognition and Clinical Symptoms Depends on Phase of Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J.; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Cahn, Wiepke; Mulder, Niels C. L.; Wiersma, Durk; Aleman, André

    2011-01-01

    Reduced insight has been reported in a majority of patients with a psychotic disorder. Most studies have focused on associations with neurocognition, neglecting relations with social cognition. Two hundred seventy patients with nonaffective psychosis participated in this study, which was part of the

  20. The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, S.W.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Crone, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal;

  1. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  2. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  3. Implicit and explicit self-related processing in relation to insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Annerieke E; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Aleman, André; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback is incorporated in the self-image and subsequently influences behaviour. Second, we hypothesised that impaired insight is related to the way patients handle explicit feedback and use it to guide subsequent behaviour, therefore we expected to find a positive relationship between level of insight and the explicit self-related processing task. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy controls participated in the study. Patients were assessed with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. ISRP was measured using a working memory two-back priming task. ESRP was measured with an adapted version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task where patients received explicit feedback on their performance. Cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, was positively associated with ISRP after implicit positive cues. Both clinical and cognitive insight were positively associated with the ability to adjust performance upon receiving explicit feedback, though cognitive insight was more strongly associated with overall task performance. Priming with positive cues improved performance on a working memory task in patients with good cognitive insight, but worsened performance in patients with impaired cognitive insight. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the ability to adequately use feedback may be a specific capacity that is related to insight.

  4. Insight in the Brain: The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Eureka Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, Mark [Northwestern University

    2013-04-03

    Where do new ideas come from? Although all new ideas build on old, this can happen in different ways. Some new ideas, or solutions to old problems, are achieved through methodical, analytical processing. Other new ideas come about in a sudden burst of insight, often based on or generating a restructured view of the problem itself. Behavioral, brain imaging, and eye-tracking results all reveal distinct cortical networks contributing to insight solving, as contrasted with analytic solving. Consistently, the way in which people solve problems appears to relate to the way they engage attention and cognitive control: across time, across moods, and across individuals. Insight is favored when people can disengage from strong stimuli and associations - figuratively and literally looking "outside the box" of the problem to suddenly solve with a new idea.

  5. Beck's Song Reader: An Unbound Music Book

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...

  6. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DÝNÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 70-76

  7. Relationship of depression with cognitive insight and socio-occupational outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Nehra, Ritu; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression using different measures in patients with schizophrenia and to study the relationship of depression in schizophrenia with cognitive insight and clinical insight, disability and socio-occupational functioning. A total of 136 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated for depression, cognitive insight and socio-occupational functioning. Of the 136 patients included in the study, one-fourth ( N = 34; 25%) were found to have depression as per the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The prevalence of depression as assessed by Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Depressive Subscale of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-D) was 23.5%, 19.9% and 91.9%, respectively. Among the different scales, CDSS has highest concordance with clinician's diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for CDSS was also higher than that noted for HDRS and PANSS-D. When those with and without depression as per clinician's diagnosis were compared, those with depression were found to have significantly higher scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive and general psychopathology subscales, PANSS total score, participation restriction as assessed by P-scale and had lower level of functioning as assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). No significant difference was noted on negative symptom subscale of PANSS, clinical insight as assessed on G-12 item of PANSS, disability as assessed by Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) and socio-occupational functioning as assessed by Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFS). In terms of cognitive insight, those with depression had significantly higher score for both the subscales, that is, self-reflective and self-certainty subscales as well as the mean composite index score. Our results suggest that one-fourth of

  8. A prospective study of the trajectories of clinical insight, affective symptoms, and cognitive ability in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Savla, Gauri N.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical insight in bipolar disorder is associated with treatment adherence and psychosocial outcome. The short-term dynamics of clinical insight in relationship to symptoms and cognitive abilities are unknown. Methods In a prospective observational study, a total of 106 outpatients with bipolar disorder I or II were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks. Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, clinical ratings of manic and depressive symptom severity, and self-reported clinical insight. Lagged correlations and linear mixed-effects models were used to determine the temporal associations between symptoms and insight, as well as the moderating influence of global cognitive abilities. Results At baseline, insight was modestly correlated with severity of manic symptoms, but not with depressive symptoms or cognitive abilities. Insight and depressive symptoms fluctuated to approximately the same extent over time. Both lagged correlations and mixed effects models with lagged effects indicated that the severity of manic symptoms predicted worse insight at later assessments, whereas the converse was not significant. There were no direct or moderating influences of global cognitive abilities. Limitations Our sample size was modest, and included relatively psychiatrically stable outpatients, followed for a six month period. Our results may not generalize to acutely symptomatic patients followed over a longer period. Conclusions Clinical insight varies substantially over time within patients with bipolar disorder. Impaired insight in bipolar disorder is more likely to follow than to precede manic symptoms. PMID:24200153

  9. Anatomical insights into the interaction of emotion and cognition in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rebecca; Zald, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Ray, R. and D. Zald. Anatomical insights into the interaction of emotion and cognition in the prefrontal cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 36(X) XXX-XXX, 2011. -Psychological research increasingly indicates that emotional processes interact with other aspects of cognition. Studies have demonstrated both the ability of emotional stimuli to influence a broad range of cognitive operations, and the ability of humans to use top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses. Portions of the prefrontal cortex appear to play a significant role in these interactions. However, the manner in which these interactions are implemented remains only partially elucidated. In the present review we describe the anatomical connections between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas as well as their connections with limbic regions. Only a subset of prefrontal areas are likely to directly influence amygdalar processing, and as such models of prefrontal control of emotions and models of emotional regulation should be constrained to plausible pathways of influence. We also focus on how the specific pattern of feedforward and feedback connections between these regions may dictate the nature of information flow between ventral and dorsal prefrontal areas and the amygdala. These patterns of connections are inconsistent with several commonly expressed assumptions about the nature of communications between emotion and cognition. PMID:21889953

  10. Parental insightfulness and parenting behavior: a two-dimensional analysis of parent contributions to child cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jessie A; Carter, Alice S; Forbes, Danielle; Gray, Sarah A O

    2018-06-01

    Utilizing a two-dimensional model of parenting emphasizing both (1) proximity seeking and (2) exploration, consistent with a conceptual framework rooted in attachment theory, the relations between parental insightfulness, observed parenting, and child cognitive outcomes were investigated in a low-income sample of 64 of caregivers and their young 3-5-year-old children. Specifically, observed parental sensitivity (proximity seeking) and intrusiveness (exploration) and parental insightfulness assessed dimensionally to capture Positive Insight and Focus on Child were examined in relation to child cognitive outcomes. Parental intrusiveness was negatively correlated with cognitive performance; however, parental sensitivity was not associated with child cognitive outcomes. Parents' capacity to remain child-focused during the Insightfulness Assessment was negatively correlated with observed intrusiveness and was associated with child cognitive performance. These results suggest unique contributions of dimensions of parental insightfulness and parenting behaviors to child cognitive outcomes - specifically, parents' capacity to remain focused on children's experience during the Insightfulness Assessment and nonintrusive parenting behavior, which may reflect strategies to support children's exploration.

  11. Effects of sub-clinical psychosis and cognitive insight on psychological well-being: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Marc J; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2015-03-30

    Psychological well-being has been widely researched along the psychosis spectrum, and increased psychotic symptoms are generally associated with worse well-being. Additionally, the construct of insight has been extensively studied in schizophrenia. While having greater insight has many benefits for those with schizophrenia, a paradox exists in which greater insight is also associated with poorer psychological well-being. However, it is unclear whether the link between insight and poor well-being occurs only once serious psychopathology has been established, or whether this is a more universal process seen even at lower levels on the psychosis spectrum. We used a structural modeling approach in an ethnically diverse, non-clinical sample of 420 undergraduates to evaluate the association between sub-clinical psychosis, cognitive insight and psychological well-being. As hypothesized, results indicated that sub-clinical psychotic symptoms were negatively associated with psychological well-being. The insight paradox was also substantiated, as greater cognitive insight was associated with worse psychological well-being. However, cognitive insight did not moderate the association between symptoms and well-being. The link between sub-clinical psychotic symptoms and psychological well-being as well as the insight paradox appears to emerge even before reaching threshold for a psychotic disorder. Research and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bringing explicit insight into cognitive psychology features during clinical reasoning seminars: a prospective, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendaz, Mathieu R; Gut, Anne M; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Perrier, Arnaud; Vu, Nu V

    2011-04-01

    Facets of reasoning competence influenced by an explicit insight into cognitive psychology features during clinical reasoning seminars have not been specifically explored. This prospective, controlled study, conducted at the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, Switzerland, assessed the impact on sixth-year medical students' patient work-up of case-based reasoning seminars, bringing them explicit insight into cognitive aspects of their reasoning. Volunteer students registered for our three-month Internal Medicine elective were assigned to one of two training conditions: standard (control) or modified (intervention) case-based reasoning seminars. These seminars start with the patient's presenting complaint and the students must ask the tutor for additional clinical information to progress through case resolution. For this intervention, the tutors made each step explicit to students and encouraged self-reflection on their reasoning processes. At the end of their elective, students' performances were assessed through encounters with two standardized patients and chart write-ups. Twenty-nine students participated, providing a total of 58 encounters. The overall differences in accuracy of the final diagnosis given to the patient at the end of the encounter (control 63% vs intervention 74%, p = 0.53) and of the final diagnosis mentioned in the patient chart (61% vs 70%, p = 0.58) were not statistically significant. The students in the intervention group significantly more often listed the correct diagnosis among the differential diagnoses in their charts (75% vs 97%, p = 0.02). This case-based clinical reasoning seminar intervention, designed to bring students insight into cognitive features of their reasoning, improved aspects of diagnostic competence.

  13. Social cognition and self-other distinctions in neuropsychiatry: Insights from schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M

    2018-03-02

    Impairments in social cognition may reflect dysfunction of disorder specific or disorder general mechanisms. Although cross-disorder comparison may prove insightful, few studies have compared social cognition in different neuropsychiatric disorders. Parallel investigation of schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome (TS) is encouraged by similarities including the presence of problematic social behavior, echophenomena, emotional dysregulation and dopamine dysfunction. Focusing on tests of social cognition administered in both disorders, this review aims to summarize behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings, before exploring how these may contribute to clinical symptoms. Studies investigating social cognition (imitation, emotion recognition, and understanding of beliefs or intentions) in patients with schizophrenia or TS were identified through Web of Science and PubMed searches. Although findings indicate that social cognitive deficits are more apparent in schizophrenia, adults with TS can exhibit similar task performance to patients with paranoia. In both disorders, behavioral and neuroimaging findings raise the possibility of increased internal simulation of others' actions and emotions, in combination with a relative under-application of mentalizing. More specifically, dysfunction in neurobiological substrates such as temporo-parietal junction and inferior frontal gyrus may underlie problems with self-other distinctions in both schizophrenia and TS. Difficulties in distinguishing between actions and mental states linked to the self and other may contribute to a range of psychiatric symptoms, including emotional dysregulation, paranoia, social anhedonia and socially disruptive urges. Comparing different patient populations could therefore reveal common neuro-cognitive risk factors for the development of problematic social behaviors, in addition to markers of resilience, coping strategies and potential neuro-compensation mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  14. El legado psicoanalítico en la terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Pablo Korman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychodynamic model in which Beck was formed tried to include psychoanalysis into the scientific model. This was consistent with the aims of many clinical researchers in the 1950-1960 decades in the United States. This will take him, years later, to develop the cognitive therapy. In this paper we will focus on Beck psychoanalytic training and his firsts publications as a specialist in psychiatry during his hospital practice (at the Austen Riggs Clinic and in the Valley Forge Army Hospital. We will analyze his first hypotheses, trying to trace the evidence of his mode of action as a psychoanalyst. This formation will subsequently lead him to rethink the psychoanalytic theory, a fact that will be the key to explain the features that will adopt cognitive therapy.

  15. Cognitive Enhancers for Facilitating Drug Cue Extinction: Insights from Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered. PMID:21295059

  16. Insights into the origins of knowledge from the cognitive neuroscience of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Children learn about the world through senses such as touch, smell, vision, and audition, but they conceive of the world in terms of objects, events, agents, and their mental states. A fundamental question in cognitive science is how nature and nurture contribute to the development of such conceptual categories. What innate mechanisms do children bring to the learning problem? How does experience contribute to development? In this article we discuss insights into these longstanding questions from cognitive neuroscience studies of blindness. Despite drastically different sensory experiences, behavioural and neuroscientific work suggests that blind children acquire typical concepts of objects, actions, and mental states. Blind people think and talk about these categories in ways that are similar to sighted people. Neuroimaging reveals that blind people make such judgements relying on the same neural mechanisms as sighted people. One way to interpret these findings is that neurocognitive development is largely hardwired, and so differences in experience have little consequence. Contrary to this interpretation, neuroimaging studies also show that blindness profoundly reorganizes the visual system. Most strikingly, developmental blindness enables "visual" circuits to participate in high-level cognitive functions, including language processing. Thus, blindness qualitatively changes sensory representations, but leaves conceptual representations largely unchanged. The effect of sensory experience on concepts is modest, despite the brain's potential for neuroplasticity.

  17. Genetic contributions to visuospatial cognition in Williams syndrome: insights from two contrasting partial deletion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Hannah; Farran, Emily K; Chin, Esther; Metcalfe, Kay; Tassabehji, May; Turnpenny, Peter; Sansbury, Francis; Meaburn, Emma; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. WE REPORT ON VISUOSPATIAL COGNITION IN TWO INDIVIDUALS WITH CONTRASTING PARTIAL DELETIONS IN THE WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB's atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed.

  18. Insights into Working Memory from The Perspective of The EPIC Architecture for Modeling Skilled Perceptual-Motor and Cognitive Human Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kieras, David

    1998-01-01

    Computational modeling of human perceptual-motor and cognitive performance based on a comprehensive detailed information- processing architecture leads to new insights about the components of working memory...

  19. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  20. Effects on cognitive and clinical insight with the use of Guided Self-Determination in outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Licht, R W; Lysaker, P H

    2015-01-01

    with schizophrenia. The design was an open randomized trial. The primary hypothesis was cognitive insight would improve in those patients who received GSD-SZ+TAU as assessed by the BCIS. We additionally explored whether the intervention led to changes in clinical insight, self-perceived recovery, self-esteem, social...... their illness management, Guided Self-Determination (GSD), has been adapted for use in patients with schizophrenia (GSD-SZ). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on insight of GSD-SZ as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) as compared to TAU alone in outpatients diagnosed...

  1. Depression and insight in schizophrenia: comparisons of levels of deficits in social cognition and metacognition and internalized stigma across three profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Vohs, Jen; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Wierwille, Jena; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2013-08-01

    While research has paradoxically linked insight to greater emotional distress and depression in schizophrenia, little is known why and for whom insight can result in depression. One possibility is that internalized stigma and deficits in social cognition and metacognition are risk factors for insight to convert to depression. To explore this possibility we assessed insight, depression, internalized stigma, social cognition and metacognition for sixty five persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We then performed a cluster analysis based on insight and depression scores. Three groups were produced by the cluster analysis: Good insight/Mild depression (n=22); Fair insight/Moderate depression (n=26) and Poor insight/Minimal depression (n=17). As predicted, ANOVA comparing groups revealed the three groups differed in social cognition, and the metacognitive mastery aspect of metacognition. Those with fair insight and moderate depression reported more internalized stigma than those with poor insight and minimal depression. Persons with good insight and mild depression had higher levels of social cognition and metacognitive mastery than the other two groups. These differences persisted when controlling for neurocognition and symptom severity. These findings point to the possibility that future research should examine whether bolstering metacognitive and social cognitive capacities may have a protective effect as persons are assisted to achieve insight. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A Comparison of Three Cognitive Treatments in Alleviating Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Amy

    After nearly a decade of empirical studies on the effectiveness of various types of psychotherapy, Beck's cognitive/behavioral therapy apparently remains the most effective psychotherapy for depression. However, because of the complexity and the mixture of cognitive and behavioral modification in Beck's therapy it is impossible to test Beck's…

  3. Behavioral and cognitive impact of early life stress: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Salvi, Ankita; Salim, Samina

    2017-08-01

    Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages. We utilized the single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD, to study the effects of early life stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS on post-natal day (PND) 25. Tests to assess anxiety- and depression-like behavior, as well as learning and memory function were performed at PND32, 60 and 90. Rats exposed to SPS exhibited both anxiety- and depression-like behavior at PND32. And, short-term (STM) but not long-term memory (LTM) was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND60 exhibited anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. STM but not LTM was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND90 exhibited fearful (as indicated by elevated plus maze test) but not an overall anxiety-like behavior (in light and dark test). These rats also displayed significant depression-like behavior with no changes in STM or LTM. Interestingly, when data was further analyzed, two subsets of PND90 rats exposed to SPS were identified, "susceptible": with depression-like behavior and "resilient": without depression-like behavior. Importantly, while resilient group expressed early signs of anxiety- (at PND32 and PND60) and depression-like behavior (at PND32), these behavioral deficits were absent at PND90. On the other hand, susceptible PND90 rats exposed to SPS expressed later onset of anxiety-like behavior (at PND60), while depression

  4. Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Priya; Wei, Annan; Welter, Elisabeth; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Bukach, Ashley; Sajatovic, Martha; Sahoo, Satya S

    2015-11-01

    Insight is a Semantic Web technology-based platform to support large-scale secondary analysis of healthcare data for neurology clinical research. Insight features the novel use of: (1) provenance metadata, which describes the history or origin of patient data, in clinical research analysis, and (2) support for patient cohort queries across multiple institutions conducting research in epilepsy, which is the one of the most common neurological disorders affecting 50 million persons worldwide. Insight is being developed as a healthcare informatics infrastructure to support a national network of eight epilepsy research centers across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper describes the use of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PROV recommendation for provenance metadata that allows researchers to create patient cohorts based on the provenance of the research studies. In addition, the paper describes the use of descriptive logic-based OWL2 epilepsy ontology for cohort queries with "expansion of query expression" using ontology reasoning. Finally, the evaluation results for the data integration and query performance are described using data from three research studies with 180 epilepsy patients. The experiment results demonstrate that Insight is a scalable approach to use Semantic provenance metadata for context-based data analysis in healthcare informatics.

  5. Kashin-Beck disease and drinking water in Central Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    La Grange, M.; Mathieu, F.; Begaux, F.; Suetens, C.; Durand, M.-Cl.

    2001-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in order to study the relationship between Kashin-Beck disease and drinking water. The average volume of the water containers was larger in families unaffected by the disease. Organic material was measured by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The UV absorbency was significantly lower in drinking water of unaffected families. Thus, the organic material in drinking water may play a role in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease.

  6. Exercise benefits for the aging brain depend on the accompanying cognitive load: insights from sleep electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2013-11-01

    Although exercise clearly offsets aging effects on the body, its benefits for the aging brain are likely to depend on the extent that physical activity (especially locomotion) facilitates multisensory encounters, curiosity, and interactions with novel environments; this is especially true for exploratory activity, which occupies much of wakefulness for most mammals in the wild. Cognition is inseparable from physical activity, with both interlinked to promote neuroplasticity and more successful brain aging. In these respects and for humans, exercising in a static, featureless, artificially lit indoor setting contrasts with exploratory outdoor walking within a novel environment during daylight. However, little is known about the comparative benefits for the aging brain of longer-term daily regimens of this latter nature including the role of sleep, to the extent that sleep enhances neuroplasticity as shown in short-term laboratory studies. More discerning analyses of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity especially 0.5-2-Hz activity would provide greater insights into use-dependent recovery processes during longer-term tracking of these regimens and complement slower changing waking neuropsychologic and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures, including those of the brain's default mode network. Although the limited research only points to ephemeral small sleep EEG effects of pure exercise, more enduring effects seem apparent when physical activity incorporates cognitive challenges. In terms of "use it or lose it," curiosity-driven "getting out and about," encountering, interacting with, and enjoying novel situations may well provide the brain with its real exercise, further reflected in changes to the dynamics of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Insight, grey matter and cognitive function in first-onset psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Kevin D

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that neuropsychological and structural brain deficits are implicated in poor insight. Few insight studies however have combined neurocognitive and structural neuroanatomical measures.

  8. The Predictive Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory Suicide Item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelly L; Brown, Gregory K; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cha, Jason; Steer, Robert A; Beck, Aaron T

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines the predictive validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) suicide item for death by suicide and suicide attempts. The study included 2 samples: (1) 5,200 psychiatric outpatients who were evaluated between 1975 and 1995 and followed prospectively for up to 20 years (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-III and DSM-III-R), and (2) 119 patients who, between 2000 and 2004, participated in a randomized controlled trial of outpatient Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention after a suicide attempt and were followed for 18 months (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-IV-TR). All patients completed structured diagnostic interviews, as well as the BDI and Scale for Suicide Ideation. Cox regression models demonstrated that the BDI suicide item significantly predicted both deaths by suicide (Wald χ(2)1 = 35.67; P < .001 [N = 5,200]) and repeat suicide attempts (Wald χ(2)1 = 8.82; P < .01 [N = 119]), with each successive rating on the item conferring greater risk. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, optimal cutoff scores of 1 and above for suicide and 2 and above for suicide attempts were identified as providing the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. The BDI suicide item is associated with both risk of repeat suicide attempts and death by suicide. The use of the item as a brief, efficient screen for suicide risk in routine clinical care is recommended. Clinicians would then conduct a comprehensive suicide risk assessment in response to a positive screen. Future research examining the item's performance in other at-risk groups (ie, older adults, adolescents, inpatients, etc) is encouraged. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. REFLEX, a social-cognitive group treatment to improve insight in schizophrenia: study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijnenborg GHM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting point of the development of REFLEX: a brief psychosocial intervention to improve insight in schizophrenia. REFLEX is a 12-sessions group training, consisting of three modules of four sessions each. Modules in this intervention are: "coping with stigma", "you and your personal narrative", and "you in the present". Methods/Design REFLEX is currently evaluated in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eight mental health institutions in the Netherlands participate in this evaluation. Patients are randomly assigned to either REFLEX or an active control condition, existing of cognitive remediation exercises in a group. In a subgroup of patients, fMRI scans are made before and after training in order to assess potential haemodynamic changes associated with the effects of the training. Discussion REFLEX is one of the few interventions aiming specifically to improving insight in schizophrenia and has potential value for improving insight. Targeting insight in schizophrenia is a complex task, that comes with several methodological issues. These issues are addressed in the discussion of this paper. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN50247539

  10. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eTaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using EEG biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  11. Emotion and Cognition in Students Who Struggle to Read: New Insights and Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Brem, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    As educators, we need to change the way we think about cognition and emotion, especially for children who struggle to read. Emotion and cognition work in parallel in subtle and powerful ways. In this article, we explore the relationship between emotion and cognition in a group of children with reading disabilities in grades five through nine. We…

  12. Band gap calculations with Becke-Johnson exchange potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter; Schwarz, Karlheinz

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a simple analytical form for the exchange potential was proposed by Becke and Johnson. This potential, which depends on the kinetic-energy density, was shown to reproduce very well the shape of the exact exchange potential (obtained with the optimized effective potential method) for atoms. Calculations on solids show that the Becke-Johnson potential leads to a better description of band gaps of semiconductors and insulators with respect to the standard local density and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof approximations for the exchange-correlation potential. Comparison is also made with the values obtained with the Engel-Vosko exchange potential which was also developed using the exact exchange potential

  13. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DİNÇ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works.

  14. Brief Report Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective — This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale for epidemiological investigations of adolescents' symptoms. Method — Self-report questionnaires were administered on two occasions to 104 students in four private high schools in Cape Town ...

  15. Insight in Schizophrenia: Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one’s traits and characteristics. The current study aims to investigate the neural correlates of self-reflective processing and its relationship with insight in schizophrenia. Methods: Forty-seven schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls performed a self-reflection task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. The tasks comprised a self-reflection, close other-reflection, and a semantic (baseline) condition. Insight scores were obtained with the Schedule of Assessment of Insight Expanded. In addition, cognitive insight scores were obtained (Beck Cognitive Insight Scale [BCIS]). Results: Schizophrenia patients demonstrated less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex in the self- and other-reflection conditions and less activation in the precuneus in the other-reflection condition compared with healthy controls. Better insight was associated with greater response in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, and inferior parietal lobule during self-reflection. In addition, better cognitive insight was associated with higher activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-reflection. Conclusion: In the current study, evidence for a relationship between self-reflection and insight in patients with schizophrenia was found in brain areas related to self-reflection, self/other distinction and source attribution. The findings support the rationale for a treatment that is currently under evaluation, which attempts to increase insight by enhancing self-reflection. PMID:23104865

  16. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  17. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning. PMID:28824508

  18. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning.

  19. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umegaki H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Umegaki Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. Keywords: insulin resistance, dementia, blood glucose, amyloid ß, tau, small vascular disease

  20. Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS): Adaptation and psychometric characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaga Tovar, Jaime; Rodríguez de los Ríos, Luis; Ponce Díaz, Carlos; Frisancho León, Augusto; Enríquez Vereau, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we presented the adaptation and psychometric study of the Beck Hopelesness Scale (BHS). The sample consisted of 782 subjects (372 males and 445 females) The median age was 19 years. The sample this conformated by suicide attempters (n=26); recurrent-episode major depression and bipolar disorder patients (n=23); hipertensives, asmathics and tuberculosius patients (n=68); paranoid schizophrenics and affective disorders patients (n=22); PBC addicts (n= 25); 6th.grade primary stude...

  1. Cognitiva (TC de Beck en una muestra costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannia Cabezas Pizarro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se explora una posible relación empírica entre la terapia racional emotivoconductual (TREC de Ellis y la terapia cognitiva (TC de Beck, dos de los modelos más conspicuos en el campo de la psicoterapia cognitiva actual. Si bien este modelo utiliza el término “cognitivo” en forma tal que se encuentra asociado con el afecto, la fisiología y la conducta (Dobson, 1986, sostiene que las perturbaciones emocionales, en esencia, son causadas por el proceso cognitivo del individuo. En esta investigación, se trabajó con una muestra de 200 estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica de diferentes áreas a quienes se les aplicaron las escalas de: Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI [Escala de Actitudes y Creencias], y el Beck Depression Inventory, 2ª edición (BDI-II [Inventario de Depresión de Beck], escalas que fueron adaptadas al español. El análisis estadístico de los datos confirma empíricamente la relación entre ambos modelos.

  2. Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Jessica; Watters, Carolyn A; Yu, Stephanie Chee-Min; Bagby, R Michael; Ryder, Andrew G; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-03-01

    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI-II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI-II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Embracing Psychosis: A Cognitive Insight Intervention Improves Personal Narratives and Meaning-Making in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Mahlke, Candelaria I; Westermann, Stefan; Ruppelt, Friederike; Lysaker, Paul H; Bock, Thomas; Andreou, Christina

    2018-02-15

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with unknown and presumably heterogeneous etiology. While the disorder can have various outcomes, research is predominantly "deficit-oriented" emphasizing the hardship that the disorder inflicts on sufferers as well as their families and society. Beyond symptom reduction, imparting patients with hope and meaning in life is increasingly considered an important treatment target, which may raise self-esteem, and reduce self-stigma and suicidal ideation. The present study compared a psychotherapeutic treatment aimed at improving cognitive insight, individualized metacognitive intervention (MCT+), with an active control in order to elucidate if personal meaning-making and hope can be improved in patients with psychosis across time. A total of 92 patients were randomized to either individualized metacognitive therapy (MCT+) or CogPack (neuropsychological training) and followed up for up to 6 months. The "Subjective Sense in Psychosis Questionnaire" (SUSE) was administered which covers different salutogenetic vs pathogenetic views of the disorder, valence of symptom experiences and the consequences of psychosis. Patients in the MCT+ group showed a significant positive shift in attitudes towards the consequences of their illness over time relative to patients in the active control condition. There was some evidence that MCT+ also enhanced meaning-making. The perceived negative consequences of psychosis were highly correlated with depression and low self-esteem, as well as suicidality. The study shows that a cognitive insight training can improve meaning-making in patients and help them come to terms with their diagnosis.

  4. Violence and compassion: a bioethical insight into their cognitive bases and social manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Arias, Nallely A

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the social problem of violence and the alternative of resolution through cooperation and compassion from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. Violence is a social problem, the manifestations of which have a biological basis reflected in the development of aggression and the neural mechanisms that regulate it. Cooperation and compassion are two forms of behaviour with similar developmental, cognitive and cerebral regulatory bases to the mechanisms activated in violence, even though they result in radically different forms of behaviour. The article examines violence and compassion as two mechanisms that lead to moral action that depends on whether sociocultural contexts are adverse or favourable to human well-being. It concludes that the neuro-cognitive system is a flexible and adaptable mechanism that regulates behaviour directly, according to the sociocultural context in which individuals live. Against that background, the UNESCO Declarations on the culture of peace refer to concepts relating to cognition or the human mind. Cognitive neuroscience therefore provides tools for creating and changing mental concepts that could eventually enable human beings to live together in peace.

  5. Dimensions of insight in schizophrenia: Exploratory factor analysis of items from multiple self- and interviewer-rated measures of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsztowicz, Susanna; Schmitz, Norbert; Lepage, Martin

    2018-03-10

    Insight in schizophrenia is regarded as a multidimensional construct that comprises aspects such as awareness of the disorder and recognition of the need for treatment. The proposed number of underlying dimensions of insight is variable in the literature. In an effort to identify a range of existing dimensions of insight, we conducted a factor analysis on combined items from multiple measures of insight. We recruited 165 participants with enduring schizophrenia (treated for >3years). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on itemized scores from two interviewer-rated measures of insight: the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded and the abbreviated Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder; and two self-report measures: the Birchwood Insight Scale and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. A five-factor solution was selected as the best-fitting model, with the following dimensions of insight: 1) awareness of illness and the need for treatment; 2) awareness and attribution of symptoms and consequences; 3) self-certainty; 4) self-reflectiveness for objectivity and fallibility; and 5) self-reflectiveness for errors in reasoning and openness to feedback. Insight in schizophrenia is a multidimensional construct comprised of distinct clinical and cognitive domains of awareness. Multiple measures of insight, both clinician- and self-rated, are needed to capture all of the existing dimensions of insight. Future exploration of associations between the various dimensions and their potential determinants will facilitate the development of clinically useful models of insight and effective interventions to improve outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Is autism a different kind of intelligence? New insights from cognitive neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    After being considered a mental disorder for years, then a neurodevelopmental handicap, autism is increasingly being considered a human variant that sometimes involves extreme adaptive advantages and disadvantages. This point of view partly emerges from the fact that autistics perform certain human tasks at the same level, and in some cases even better than neurotypical persons. Furthermore, they perform these tasks using cognitive strategies and cerebral allocations that are different from the majority of humans. We will present some empirical and theoretical cognitive neuroscience studies from our group that support this school of thought.

  7. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: Insights from typical and atypical development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg - Paz, Ora; Riviére, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor

  8. Violence and Compassion: A Bioethical Insight into Their Cognitive Bases and Social Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Arias, Nallely A.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the social problem of violence and the alternative of resolution through cooperation and compassion from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. Violence is a social problem, the manifestations of which have a biological basis reflected in the development of aggression and the neural mechanisms that regulate it.…

  9. Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…

  10. Analogical reasoning: An incremental or insightful process? What cognitive and cortical evidence suggests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Alessandro; Balconi, Michela

    2010-06-01

    Abstract The step-by-step, incremental nature of analogical reasoning can be questioned, since analogy making appears to be an insight-like process. This alternative view of analogical thinking can be integrated in Speed's model, even though the alleged role played by dopaminergic subcortical circuits needs further supporting evidence.

  11. The Importance of Emotional Insight in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Adolescent Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…

  12. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Cornwell, Brian R.; Letkiewicz, Allison M.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Grillon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM) experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock) has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function) devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back) while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion–cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated with anxiety

  13. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: Insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Vytal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion-cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated

  14. Functional neuroimaging insights into how sleep and sleep deprivation affect memory and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Michael W L; Chuah, Lisa Y M

    2008-08-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge about what fMRI has revealed regarding the neurobehavioral correlates of sleep deprivation and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Functional imaging studies of sleep deprivation have characterized its effects on a number of cognitive domains, the best studied of these being working memory. There is a growing appreciation that it is important to consider interindividual differences in vulnerability to sleep deprivation, task and task difficulty when interpreting imaging results. Our understanding of the role of sleep and the dynamic evolution of offline memory consolidation has benefited greatly from human imaging studies. Both hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory systems have been studied. Functional imaging studies contrasting sleep-deprived and well-rested brains provide substantial evidence that sleep is highly important for optimal cognitive function and learning. The experimental paradigms developed to date merit evaluation in clinical settings to determine the impact of sleep disruption in sleep disorders.

  15. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Polikliniek 7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  16. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi; Audenaert, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  17. The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L

    1999-03-01

    Though often reliable, human memory is also fallible. This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic "sins": transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. The first three sins involve different types of forgetting, the next three refer to different types of distortions, and the final sin concerns intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget. Evidence is reviewed concerning each of the 7 sins from relevant sectors of psychology (cognitive, social, and clinical) and from cognitive neuroscience studies that include patients with focal brain damage or make use of recently developed neuroimaging techniques. Although the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, it is argued instead that they are by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.

  18. Piperine restores streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairments: Insights into oxidative balance in cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Azizi, Mohammad Golparvar; Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Gol, Mohammad; Kazemi, Sohrab; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Hosseinzadeh, Soheila

    2018-01-30

    Piperine has been shown to have antioxidant activity and a cognitive-enhancing effect following long-term oral administration. In a comparative study of memantine, the current investigation threw light on the cognitive benefits of piperine. Lipid peroxidation and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hippocampus in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of the Alzheimer's type was measured. After reaching a criterion in a memory test, STZ-induced rats received piperine [2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], vehicle, and memantine (10mg/kg, i.p.) for two weeks after the first STZ administration, or two weeks before and one week after, as a preventive approach. After the behavioral studies, samples were taken for biochemical and histological assays. An appropriate concentration of piperine (2.5mg/kg), on a daily basis, effectively increased the number of correct (non-repeated) arm entries and repressed reentry to a previously visited arm, in terms of reference errors as well as memantine (10mg/kg, i.p.), irrespective of the dose administered. The cognitive-enhancing effect induced by piperine at a relevant dose was simultaneous with CSF and hippocampal malonaldehyde decrement, and the redox balance was established to some extent by maintaining the FRAP levels of CSF near to those of the control. Similarly, the neuroprotective properties of piperine are in accordance with histopathological outcomes, which have shown an increased number of live cresyl violet (CV)-positive neurons in a dentate gyrus (DG) subregion. Therefore, the effects of piperine on the redox balance of CSF and hippocampal neurons may certainly contribute to the cognitive-enhancing activity of the drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inferences about food location in three cercopithecine species: an insight into the socioecological cognition of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Odile; Dufour, Valérie; Herrenschmidt, Marie; De Marco, Arianna; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Call, Josep

    2015-07-01

    Many animal species use a variety of cognitive strategies to locate food resources. One strategy is to make inferences by exclusion, i.e., perceiving the absence of reward as a cue that another location should be investigated. The use of such advanced cognitive strategies may be more prominent in species that are known to frequently solve social challenges, and inferential reasoning has mainly been investigated in social species such as corvids, dogs, dolphins and non-human primates. In this paper, we investigate how far social intricacy may explain the disparity of reasoning performances observed in three cercopithecine species that differ in the density of their social network and the diversity of their social partners. We used standard reasoning tasks, testing the volume concept and inference by exclusion using visual and auditory modalities. We showed that Old World monkeys can infer the location of invisible food by exclusion. In addition, Tonkean macaques and olive baboons had greater performances in most tasks compared to rhesus macaques. These responses are consistent with the social complexity displayed by these three species. We suggest that the cognitive strategies required to navigate through a demanding social world are involved in the understanding of the physical domain.

  20. On the validity of the Beck Depression Inventory. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P; Werner, J; Heerlein, A; Kraus, A; Sauer, H

    1998-01-01

    The present review discusses validity aspects of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) on the basis of meta-analyses of studies on the psychometric properties. Shortcomings of the BDI are its high item difficulty, lack of representative norms, and thus doubtful objectivity of interpretation, controversial factorial validity, instability of scores over short time intervals (over the course of 1 day), and poor discriminant validity against anxiety. Advantages of the inventory are its high internal consistency, high content validity, validity in differentiating between depressed and nondepressed subjects, sensitivity to change, and international propagation. The present paper outlines agreements and contradictions between the various studies on the BDI and discusses the potential factors (composition of the subject sample, statistical procedures, point in time of measurement) accounting for the variance in their results. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is world-wide among the most used self-rating scales for measuring depression. Since the test construction in 1961, the test has been employed in numerous (more than 2,000) empirical studies. The present review will only consider those investigations which are primarily concerned with the validity or the psychometric properties of the BDI. Since most studies are oriented along the criteria of the classical test theory, our review will discuss to what extent the BDI meets these criteria.

  1. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  2. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p60 This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  3. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  4. A novel approach to minimize error in the medical domain: cognitive neuroscientific insights into training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel

    2011-01-01

    Medical errors are an inevitable outcome of the human cognitive system working within the environment and demands of practicing medicine. Training can play a pivotal role in minimizing error, but the prevailing training is not as effective because it directly focuses on error reduction. Based on an understanding of cognitive architecture and how the brain processes information, a new approach is suggested: focusing training on error recovery. This entails specific training in error detection and error mitigation. Such training will not only enable better responses when errors occur, but it is also a more effective way to achieve error reduction. The suggested design for error recovery training is to begin with detecting errors in others. Starting off with highly visible and even exaggerated errors, and advancing to more challenging detections and finally requiring to detect errors within oneself rather than in others. The error mitigation training starts with providing the learners with the correct remedial actions (after they have detected the error). With training, the learners are required to select the appropriate actions within multiple choice alternatives, and eventually are required to generate the appropriate remedial responses themselves. These can be used for instruction as well as for assessment purposes. Time pressure, distractions, competitions and other elements are included so as to make the training more challenging and interactive.

  5. Combining network analysis with Cognitive Work Analysis: insights into social organisational and cooperation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Robert J; Baber, Chris; Stanton, Neville A; Jenkins, Daniel P; Revell, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) allows complex, sociotechnical systems to be explored in terms of their potential configurations. However, CWA does not explicitly analyse the manner in which person-to-person communication is performed in these configurations. Consequently, the combination of CWA with Social Network Analysis provides a means by which CWA output can be analysed to consider communication structure. The approach is illustrated through a case study of a military planning team. The case study shows how actor-to-actor and actor-to-function mapping can be analysed, in terms of centrality, to produce metrics of system structure under different operating conditions. In this paper, a technique for building social network diagrams from CWA is demonstrated.The approach allows analysts to appreciate the potential impact of organisational structure on a command system.

  6. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsinger SW

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarah W Kinsinger Behavioral Medicine for Digestive Health, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic gastrointestinal (GI condition associated with significant health care utilization and quality-of-life impairment. Latest research indicates that the brain–gut axis plays a key role in the disorder, and the presence of psychological factors and central processing deficits contribute to symptom severity and disability. Psychological therapies as a whole have demonstrated good efficacy in reducing the severity of IBS symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has been tested most rigorously in multiple randomized controlled trials and consistently demonstrates significant and durable effects on IBS symptoms and quality of life. Various protocols for treating IBS have been developed, and most recent advances in the field include exposure-based treatments to target symptom-specific anxiety as well as modified delivery methods, including internet-based treatment models. Despite the well-documented advantages of CBT for IBS, it has been poorly disseminated and few patients have access to this treatment. The primary barrier to dissemination is the limited number of therapists with adequate training in GI psychology to provide this evidence-based intervention. Future developments in the field need to focus on training opportunities to equip more therapists to competently provide CBT for this population. Further efforts to develop telemedicine platforms for delivering this intervention will also improve accessibility for patients. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, cognitive-behavioral therapy

  7. Gaining insight into adolescent vulnerability for social anxiety from developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Justin D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2014-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers' opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Gaining Insight into Adolescent Vulnerability for Social Anxiety from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Justin D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. PMID:24239049

  9. Canonical failure modes of real-time control systems: insights from cognitive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-04-01

    Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes.

  10. Gaining insight into adolescent vulnerability for social anxiety from developmental cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Caouette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex, recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach.

  11. A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how primates understand the behavior of others. One open question concerns whether nonhuman primates think about others' behavior in psychological terms, that is, whether they have a theory of mind. Over the last ten years, experiments conducted on the free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living on Cayo Santiago have provided important insights into this question. In this review, we highlight what we think are some of the most exciting results of this body of work. Specifically we describe experiments suggesting that rhesus monkeys may understand some psychological states, such as what others see, hear, and know, but that they fail to demonstrate an understanding of others' beliefs. Thus, while some aspects of theory of mind may be shared between humans and other primates, others capacities are likely to be uniquely human. We also discuss some of the broader debates surrounding comparative theory of mind research, as well as what we think may be productive lines for future research with the rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Socio-cognitive Elaborations and Reactions to Economic Crisis: Insights from Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamos Papastamou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue dedicated to the social psychological study of the economic crisis in four European Union countries along the Mediterranean includes six empirical papers discussing different aspects of the phenomenon. Four papers are part of a larger project that started in 2011, aiming to compare the social representations of the economic crisis in France, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. Starting from the study of the social representations of the causes of the crisis and the measures to overcome it, various social psychological parameters that interfere are examined. Thus, the political, ideological, and social positioning, and the axiological universe of the participants are considered as important predictors and mediators in the different papers. Additionally, possible political participatory activities in reaction to the crisis are considered. The presentation of the outcome of this research project is completed by a paper analyzing the way the crisis was depicted in the Italian press and a paper looking at the impact of the financial threat to political participation in France. The research presented here reveals the ways social subjects give meaning to a situation of crisis and thus provides social and political insights into social thinking and behavior with important policy implications for individual nations as well as Europe at large. In this paper, we present the general framework of the studies carried out and we introduce the collection of empirical papers of the special issue.

  13. Effects on cognitive and clinical insight with the use of Guided Self-Determination in outpatients with schizophrenia: A randomized open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, R; Licht, R W; Lysaker, P H; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Buck, K D; Jensen, S O W; Hansson, L; Zoffmann, V

    2015-07-01

    Poor insight has a negative impact on the outcome in schizophrenia; consequently, poor insight is a logical target for treatment. However, neither medication nor psychosocial interventions have been demonstrated to improve poor insight. A method originally designed for diabetes patients to improve their illness management, Guided Self-Determination (GSD), has been adapted for use in patients with schizophrenia (GSD-SZ). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on insight of GSD-SZ as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) as compared to TAU alone in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The design was an open randomized trial. The primary hypothesis was cognitive insight would improve in those patients who received GSD-SZ+TAU as assessed by the BCIS. We additionally explored whether the intervention led to changes in clinical insight, self-perceived recovery, self-esteem, social functioning and symptom severity. Assessments were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Analysis was based on the principles of intention to treat and potential confounders were taken into account through applying a multivariate approach. A total of 101 participants were randomized to GSD-SZ+TAU (n=50) or to TAU alone (n=51). No statistically significant differences were found on the cognitive insight. However, at 12-month follow-up, clinical insight (measured by G12 from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), symptom severity, and social functioning had statistically significantly improved in the intervention group as compared to the control group. "Improving insight in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia", NCT01282307, http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy in pharmacoresistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Sipek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to drug therapy may improve their condition using intensive, systematic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) lasting for 6 weeks, and whether it is possible to predict the therapeutic effect using demographic, clinical, and selected psychological characteristics at baseline. Sixty-six OCD patients were included in the study, of which 57 completed the program. The diagnosis was confirmed using the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients were rated using the objective and subjective forms of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective forms of the Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale before their treatment, and with subjective Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory at the end of the treatment. Patients were treated with antidepressants and daily intensive group CBT for the 6-week period. During the 6-week intensive CBT program in combination with pharmacotherapy, there was a significant improvement in patients suffering from OCD resistant to drug treatment. There were statistically significantly decrease in the scores assessing the severity of OCD symptoms, anxiety, and depressive feelings. A lower treatment effect was achieved specifically in patients who 1) showed fewer OCD themes in symptomatology, 2) showed a higher level of somatoform dissociation, 3) had poor insight, and 4) had a higher initial level of overall severity of the disorder. Remission of the disorder was more likely in patients who had 1) good insight, 2) a lower initial level of anxiety, and 3) no comorbid depressive disorder.

  15. Sociological and Biological Insights on How to Prevent the Reduction in Cognitive Activity that Stems from Robots Assuming Workloads in Human–Robot Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Compagna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of cognitive tasks brought about by new developments in service-robots’ collaboration with humans in working environments has given rise to new challenges as to how to address safety issues. This paper presents insights from biology, cognitive/neural sciences and sociology that can conquer these new challenges. The main focus lies in sociological variables that ensure safe human–robot interaction in working environments rather than addressing biological ones (avoiding bodily harm or purely cognitive ones (avoiding any signals that are outside the human’s sensory comfort zones. We will present an approach on how to integrate behavioral patterns into the robotic system in order to prevent the problem of reduced cognition in relation to essential features, which are necessary for carrying out this pattern in the context of a human–robot interaction with non-humanoid robots (which is the most typical design of robots used in work environments.

  16. Ulrich Beck : ostmine võib olla sama mõjus poliitiline osalusvorm kui valimaskäimine / Ulrich Beck ; interv. Indrek Ibrus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Sotsioloog on seisukohal, et tänapäeval, kus teadusest ja majandusest on kujunenud poliitika, saab erasektorit ja teadlasi mõjutada tarbijakäitumise ning riikidevahelise koostöö suurendamisega. Lisa: Ulrich Beck

  17. Cognition, affection and interpersonal relationship of women with bipolar disorder / Cognição, afeto e relacionamento interpessoal de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luciano Codani Hisatugo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The bipolar affective disorder induces incapacitation and social isolation, and might lead to suicide. It was a clinical study of multiple cases using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Suicide Inventory (BSI, Hamilton Scale of Depression (HAM-D and the Rorschach, by Exner's Comprehensive System (CS. The objective was to analyze the affective, cognitive and interpersonal aspects of the patients. Four female out-patients who were previously diagnosed as bipolar depressive, by the Psychiatry Interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCIDI/CV-DSM-IV criteria were studied. Results had indicated undervalued feelings about themselves, euphoric contents and lack of insight about the self-tolerance related to stress controls. Emotional and cognitive aspects have influenced the interpersonal context leading to increased suffering. Other qualitative and clinic data have been observed and commented.

  18. Interview with Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim – family structures and family life in second modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine; Sørensen, Mads P.

    2013-01-01

    In this interview with Tine Ravn and Mads P. Sørensen, Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim discusses family structures, reproductive technologies and individualization in second modernity.......In this interview with Tine Ravn and Mads P. Sørensen, Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim discusses family structures, reproductive technologies and individualization in second modernity....

  19. Do cognitive training strategies improve motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer players? Insights from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Tod, David; Dellal, Alexandre; Hue, Olivier; Cheour, Foued; Taylor, Lee; Chamari, Karim

    2016-12-01

    Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players. The review is based on 18 studies, employing 584 soccer players aged 7-39 years. Cognitive strategies, particularly imagery, appear to improve sports performance in soccer players. Regarding imagery, the combination of two different types of cognitive imagery training (i.e., cognitive general and cognitive specific) has a positive influence on soccer performance during training, whereas motivational imagery (i.e., motivational general-arousal, motivational general-mastery and motivational specific) enhance competition performance. Younger soccer players employ cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery techniques to a greater extent than older soccer players. Combined cognitive training strategies were more beneficial than a single cognitive strategy relative to motor skills enhancement in elite (particularly midfielders) and amateur (i.e., when practising complex and specific soccer skills in precompetitive period) soccer players. In conclusion, it appears that there are differences in cognitive/psychological training interventions, and their efficacy, according to whether they are directed towards training or competition, and the age, standard and playing position of the players.

  20. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Factor Structures of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung; Chen, Jyun-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Two meta-analyses examined the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Study 1, which meta-analyzed 51 studies comprising 62 samples (N = 20,475) providing pattern matrices, determined that the two-factor solution comprising Cognitive and Somatic-Affective factors was supported for the full sample. The two-factor solution was also supported for subgroups of studies. As the factor structure varied somewhat between subgroups of studies, the strength of relationships between scale items and their underlying depressive symptoms varied. Hence, comparisons of mean BDI-II scores across subgroups can be misleading. Study 2 meta-analyzed 13 studies consisting of 16 samples (N = 5,128) providing covariance matrices among the 21 BDI-II items. The two-factor solution was again supported in Study 2. Nevertheless, the existence of a general depression factor was supported by the good fit of the one-factor model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory for a Portuguese-speaking Chinese community in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-P. Wang

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI among ethnic Chinese living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study was conducted on 208 community individuals. Reliability and discriminant analysis were used to test the psychometric properties and validity of the BDI. Principal component analysis was performed to assess the BDI's factor structure for the total sample and by gender. The mean BDI score was lower (6.74, SD = 5.98 than observed in Western counterparts and showed no gender difference, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82, and high discrimination of depressive symptoms (75-100%. Factor analysis extracted two factors for the total sample and each gender: cognitive-affective dimension and somatic dimension. We conclude that depressive symptoms can be reliably assessed by the BDI in the Brazilian Chinese population, with a validity comparable to that for international studies. Indeed, cultural and measurement biases might have influenced the response of Chinese subjects.

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse models for speech and socio-cognitive disorders: insights into the evolution of vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2011-02-01

    Comparative analyses used to reconstruct the evolution of traits associated with the human language faculty, including its socio-cognitive underpinnings, highlight the importance of evolutionary constraints limiting vocal learning in non-human primates. After a brief overview of this field of research and the neural basis of primate vocalizations, we review studies that have addressed the genetic basis of usage and structure of ultrasonic communication in mice, with a focus on the gene FOXP2 involved in specific language impairments and neuroligin genes (NL-3 and NL-4) involved in autism spectrum disorders. Knockout of FoxP2 leads to reduced vocal behavior and eventually premature death. Introducing the human variant of FoxP2 protein into mice, in contrast, results in shifts in frequency and modulation of pup ultrasonic vocalizations. Knockout of NL-3 and NL-4 in mice diminishes social behavior and vocalizations. Although such studies may provide insights into the molecular and neural basis of social and communicative behavior, the structure of mouse vocalizations is largely innate, limiting the suitability of the mouse model to study human speech, a learned mode of production. Although knockout or replacement of single genes has perceptible effects on behavior, these genes are part of larger networks whose functions remain poorly understood. In humans, for instance, deficiencies in NL-4 can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders, suggesting that further factors (experiential and/or genetic) contribute to the variation in clinical symptoms. The precise nature as well as the interaction of these factors is yet to be determined. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  5. REFLEX, a social-cognitive group treatment to improve insight in schizophrenia : Study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Van der Gaag, Mark; Bockting, Claudi L H; Van der Meer, Lisette; Aleman, André

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting

  6. Brief Report: Is Cognitive Rehabilitation Needed in Verbal Adults with Autism? Insights from Initial Enrollment in a Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is an emerging set of potentially effective interventions for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder, yet the applicability of these approaches for "high functioning" adults who have normative levels of intelligence remains unexplored. This study examined the initial cognitive performance characteristics of 40…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  8. [Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449. (Verhöffentlichungen zur Geschichte der Hansestadt Lübeck. B. 48). (Lübeck, 2010)

  9. Relationship between social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits, insight level and schizotypal traits in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mısır, Emre; Bora, Emre; Akdede, Berna Binnur

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants were given a neuropsychological battery including tasks measuring ToM-reasoning, ToM-decoding and other neurocognitive functions. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Yale Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (YBOC-S) and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were also administered to the participants. Patients with OCD showed significant deficits in both aspects of ToM. ToM performances of patients showed a significant positive correlation with neurocognitive functions. When controlled for general cognition factor, patient-control difference for ToM-reasoning (F = 3,917; p = 0,05), but not ToM-decoding, remained statistically significant. ToM-reasoning impairment of patients was significantly related to the severity of OCD symptoms and poor insight (p = 0,026 and p = 0,045, respectively). On the other hand, general cognitive factor (β = 0,778; t = 3,146; p = 0,04) was found to be the only significant predictor of ToM-reasoning in OCD patients in the multiple linear regression model. OCD is associated with ToM impairment, which is related to schizotypal traits, disease severity and poor insight, yet neurocognitive deficits also significantly contribute to this finding. However, ToM-reasoning impairment could be considered as a relatively distinct feature of OCD, which is partly separate from general cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Does the cognitive therapy of depression rest on a mistake?

    OpenAIRE

    Gipps, Richard G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive therapy for depression is common practice in today's National Health Service, yet it does not work well. Aaron Beck developed it after becoming disillusioned with the psychoanalytic theory and therapy he espoused and practised. But Beck's understanding of psychoanalysis appears to have been seriously flawed. Understood rightly, the psychoanalytic approach offers a cogent theory and therapy for depression which, unlike the cognitive approach, takes us to its emotional-motivational ro...

  11. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  12. Cognitive Mechanisms of Insight: The Role of Heuristics and Representational Change in Solving the Eight-Coin Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H.; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further…

  13. Cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy are common in veterans presenting with acute coronary syndrome: insights from the MEDICATION study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzec LN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lucas N Marzec,1 Evan P Carey,1 Anne C Lambert-Kerzner,1 Eric J Del Giacco,2 Stephanie D Melnyk,3 Chris L Bryson,4 Ibrahim E Fahdi,2 Hayden B Bosworth,3 Fran Fiocchi,5 P Michael Ho11Division of Cardiology, Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Little Rock VA Medical Center, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 5American College of Cardiology, Washington, DC, USABackground: Patient nonadherence to cardiac medications following acute coronary syndrome (ACS is associated with increased risk of recurrent events. However, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy among ACS patients and their association with medication nonadherence are poorly understood.Methods: We assessed rates of cognitive dysfunction and poor health literacy among participants of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of an intervention to improve medication adherence in patients hospitalized with ACS. Of 254 patients, 249 completed the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R survey, an assessment of risk for poor literacy, and the St Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS exam, a tool assessing for neurocognitive deficits, during ACS hospitalization. We assessed if SLUMS or REALM-R scores were associated with medication adherence.Results: Based on SLUMS score, 14% of patients were categorized as having dementia, and 52% with mild neurocognitive disorder (MNCD. Based on REALM-R score of ≤6, 34% of patients were categorized as at risk for poor health literacy. There was no association between poor health literacy and medication nonadherence. Of those with MNCD, 35.5% were nonadherent, compared to 17.5% with normal cognitive function and 6.7% with dementia. In multivariable analysis, cognitive dysfunction was associated with medication nonadherence (P=0.007, mainly due to

  14. The role of simulations in consumer experiences and behavior: insights from the grounded cognition theory of desire

    OpenAIRE

    Papies, Esther K.; Best, Maisy; Gelibter, Elena; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2017-01-01

    What are the mechanisms by which extrinsic and environmental cues affect consumer experiences, desires, and choices? Based on the recent grounded cognition theory of desire, we argue that consumption and reward simulations constitute a central mechanism in these phenomena. Specifically, we argue that appetitive stimuli, such as specific product cues, can activate simulations of consuming and enjoying the respective products, based on previous learning experiences. These consumption and reward...

  15. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  16. Meta-Analysis of the English Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Johnson, Erin; Bardoshi, Gerta

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 144 studies from 1996 to 2013 using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Internal consistency was 0.89 and test-retest reliability 0.75. Convergent comparisons were robust across 43 depression instruments. Structural validity supported both one- and two-factor solutions and diagnostic accuracy varied according…

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  18. Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report. Z Erkol, N Canturk, H Oguz, H Ince, B Buken, G Gorucu. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ya-xu; Dong, Wei; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine on adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD). A total of 80 patients, aged over 40 years, were randomized into two groups receiving either 1,600 mg oral mixture of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine or placebo ...

  20. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  1. Process of Change in Pain-Related Fear: Clinical Insights From a Single Case Report of Persistent Back Pain Managed With Cognitive Functional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneiro, J P; Smith, Anne; Rabey, Martin; Moseley, G Lorimer; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Study Design Single case report with repeated measures over 18 months. Background Management of persistent low back pain (PLBP) associated with high pain-related fear is complex. This case report aims to provide clinicians with insight into the process of change in a person with PLBP and high bending-related fear, who was managed with an individualized behavioral approach of cognitive functional therapy. Case Description A retired manual worker with PLBP believed that his spine was degenerating, that bending would hurt him, and that avoidance was the only form of pain control. At baseline, he presented high levels of pain-related fear on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (score, 47/68) and a high-risk profile on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (score, 61/100). Unhelpful beliefs and behaviors led to a vicious cycle of fear and disengagement from valued life activities. Guided behavioral experiments were used to challenge his thoughts and protective responses, indicating that his behavior was modifiable and the pain controllable. Using a multidimensional clinical-reasoning framework, cognitive functional therapy management was tailored to target key drivers of PLBP and delivered over 6 sessions in a 3-month period. Outcomes Over an 18-month clinical journey, he demonstrated improvements in bending-related fear, pain expectancy, and pain experience, and substantial changes in pain-related fear (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: 33/68; change, -14 points) and risk profile (Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire: 36/100; change, -25 points). Clinical interviews at 6 and 18 months revealed positive changes in mindset, understanding of pain, perceived pain control, and behavioral responses to pain. Discussion This case report provides clinicians with an insight to using a multidimensional clinical-reasoning framework to identify and target the key drivers of the disorder, and to using cognitive functional therapy to address unhelpful psychological and

  2. Cognitive, Emotive, and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Sylvia Y.C.L.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component), social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component), emotional competence (emotive component), and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was...

  3. Orobanche tunetana G. Beck (Orobanchaceae, especie nueva para el continente europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas, Antonio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Orobanche tunetana G. Beck in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Península is noted. An original ilhistrabon, the chorology and the description of the Iberian specimens are given. The differences are also analysed between this species and O. caesia Rchb.. with which it shows certain similarities.Se indica la presencia de Orobanche tunetana G. Beck en el sudeste de la Península Ibérica. Aportamos un icono original, la corología y la descripción de los ejemplares ibéricos. Se analizan las diferencias con O. caesia Rchb., con el que presenta ciertas semejanzas.

  4. Application of the Beck model to stock markets: Value-at-Risk and portfolio risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, M.; Sato, A.-H.

    2008-02-01

    We apply the Beck model, developed for turbulent systems that exhibit scaling properties, to stock markets. Our study reveals that the Beck model elucidates the properties of stock market returns and is applicable to practical use such as the Value-at-Risk estimation and the portfolio analysis. We perform empirical analysis with daily/intraday data of the S&P500 index return and find that the volatility fluctuation of real markets is well-consistent with the assumptions of the Beck model: The volatility fluctuates at a much larger time scale than the return itself and the inverse of variance, or “inverse temperature”, β obeys Γ-distribution. As predicted by the Beck model, the distribution of returns is well-fitted by q-Gaussian distribution of Tsallis statistics. The evaluation method of Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most significant indicators in risk management, is studied for q-Gaussian distribution. Our proposed method enables the VaR evaluation in consideration of tail risk, which is underestimated by the variance-covariance method. A framework of portfolio risk assessment under the existence of tail risk is considered. We propose a multi-asset model with a single volatility fluctuation shared by all assets, named the single β model, and empirically examine the agreement between the model and an imaginary portfolio with Dow Jones indices. It turns out that the single β model gives good approximation to portfolios composed of the assets with non-Gaussian and correlated returns.

  5. Reflections on family in the writings o f Józef Beck. Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNIESZKA SUSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Issues connected with the families of the Second Republic are discussed in the article. The problem is addressed form the perspective of the writings of Józef Beck, a prominent politician and respected local official. There is a rich legacy of the opinions and aspirations of Józef Beck contained in newspapers, brochures and books. Issues conceming family are often addressed in these writings on diverse subjects. The views can be divided into two groups, with those in the first one directly addressing family issues and those in the second one implying indirect relation to family issues. The picture of the family to be found in the publications of Józef Alojzy Beck is a collection of issues and problems crucial to the family which may be greatly influenced by local govemment. Initiative in the areas of public healthcare, school education and combating illiteracy are but a few of the problems that need to be solved in order to improve the ąuality of life of village families

  6. Sequence of improvement in depressive symptoms across cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil S; Gelfand, Lois A; Schmid, Sabine P; Gallop, Robert; DeRubeis, Robert J; Hollon, Steven D; Amsterdam, Jay D; Shelton, Richard C; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the patterns of improvement in cognitive and vegetative symptoms of major depression in individuals treated with cognitive therapy (CT) or pharmacotherapy (PT). Outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n=180) were randomized to receive either CT or PT. Cognitive and vegetative symptoms of major depression were measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II at baseline and regularly throughout 16 weeks of treatment. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated the same patterns of change over time for cognitive and vegetative symptoms within CT and within PT. Self-report measures may not be sufficiently specific to capture subtle differences in improvements between vegetative and cognitive symptoms. These results are consistent with Beck's [Beck, A.T., 1984, November. Cognition and theory [Letter to the editor]. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 41, 1112-1114.] hypothesis that CT and PT have a similar site of action, which when targeted, results in changes in both cognitive and vegetative features.

  7. Cognitive hypnotherapy for depression: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Alibhai, Alisha

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a "probably efficacious" treatment for depression.

  8. Evolutionary cognitive therapy versus standard cognitive therapy for depression: a protocol for a blinded, randomized, superiority clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Cezar; Cobeanu, Oana; Mogoase, Cristina; Muresan, Vlad; Malta, Loretta S; Wyka, Katarzyna; Szentagotai, Aurora

    2014-03-19

    Depression is estimated to become the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Despite existing efficacious treatments (both medical and psychotherapeutic), a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. Recent insights from evolutionary psychology suggest that, in addition to targeting the proximal causes of depression (for example, targeting dysfunctional beliefs by cognitive behavioral therapy), the distal or evolutionary causes (for example, inclusive fitness) should also be addressed. A randomized superiority trial is conducted to develop and test an evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy protocol for depression, and to compare its efficacy against standard cognitive therapy for depression. Romanian-speaking adults (18 years or older) with elevated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>13), current diagnosis of major depressive disorder or major depressive episode (MDD or MDE), and MDD with comorbid dysthymia, as evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), are included in the study. Participants are randomized to one of two conditions: 1) evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy (ED-CT) or 2) cognitive therapy (CT). Both groups undergo 12 psychotherapy sessions, and data are collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and the 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology and a categorical diagnosis of depression post-treatment. This randomized trial compares the newly proposed ED-CT with a classic CT protocol for depression. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate insights from evolutionary theories of depression into the treatment of this condition in a controlled manner. This study can thus add substantially to the body of knowledge on validated treatments for depression. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64664414The trial was registered in June 2013. The first participant was enrolled on October 3, 2012.

  9. Cognição, afeto e relacionamento interpessoal de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar Cognition, affection and interpersonal relationship of women with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luciano Codani Hisatugo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno afetivo bipolar causa incapacitação e isolamento social, podendo levar ao suicídio. Tratou-se de estudo clínico de casos múltipos com uso de: Inventário de Depressão (BDI e Suicídio (BSI de Beck, Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HAM-D e Rorschach, Sistema Compreensivo. O objetivo foi analisar os aspectos afetivos, cognitivos e interpessoais das pacientes. Quatro pacientes foram estudadas. Foram atendidas em ambulatório público e préviamente diagnosticadas com depressão bipolar, segundo Entrevista Psiquiátrica (SCID-I/CV-DSM-IV. Resultados indicaram sentimentos depreciativos na autoimagem, conteúdos eufóricos e falta de insight sobre a auto-tolerância ao estresse. Aspectos emocionais e cognitivos influenciaram no contexto interpessoal, acentuando o sofrimento. Outros dados qualitativos clínicos foram observados e comentados.The bipolar affective disorder induces incapacitation and social isolation, and might lead to suicide. It was a clinical study of multiple cases using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Suicide Inventory (BSI, Hamilton Scale of Depression (HAM-D and the Rorschach, by Exner's Comprehensive System (CS. The objective was to analyze the affective, cognitive and interpersonal aspects of the patients. Four female out-patients who were previously diagnosed as bipolar depressive, by the Psychiatry Interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCIDI/CV-DSM-IV criteria were studied. Results had indicated undervalued feelings about themselves, euphoric contents and lack of insight about the self-tolerance related to stress controls. Emotional and cognitive aspects have influenced the interpersonal context leading to increased suffering. Other qualitative and clinic data have been observed and commented.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Nature and Relation to Non-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Cognitive Roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes And Automatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cognitive Roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes And Automatic Thoughts In Depression: A Study Of African-American College Students. ... This study examined the diathesis- stress model of Beck's cognitive theory of depression. This model postulates that dysfunctional attitudes will interact with negative life events in the ...

  12. Association of Beck Depression Inventory score and Temperament and Character Inventory-125 in patients with eating disorders and severe malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keizo; Katayama, Hiroto; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Kawano, Naoko; Imaeda, Miho; Kato, Saki; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Nishioka, Kazuo; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between personality and physical/mental status in malnourished patients with eating disorders. A total of 45 patients with anorexia nervosa, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders were included and compared with 39 healthy controls. Personality characteristics and severity of depression were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 and Beck?s Depression Inventory. Depression correlat...

  13. Validation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in patients with suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Jaimes, German Eduardo; Castro-Rueda, Vanessa Alexandra; Rangel-Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; Moreno-Quijano, Catalina; Martinez-Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Camacho, Paul Anthony

    2016-11-30

    Only a few scales have been validated in Spanish for the assessment of suicide risk, and none of them have achieved predictive validity. To determine the validity and reliability of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in patients with suicide risk attending the specialist clinic. The Beck Hopelessness Scale, reasons for living inventory, and the suicide behaviour questionnaire were applied in patients with suicide risk attending the psychiatric clinic and the emergency department. A new assessment was made 30 days later to determine the predictive validity of suicide or suicide attempt. The evaluation included a total of 244 patients, with a mean age of 30.7±13.2 years, and the majority were women. The internal consistency was .9 (Kuder-Richardson formula 20). Four dimensions were found which accounted for 50% of the variance. It was positively correlated with the suicidal behaviour questionnaire (Spearman .48, P<.001), number of suicide attempts (Spearman .25, P<.001), severity of suicide risk (Spearman .23, P<.001). The correlation with the reasons for living inventory was negative (Spearman -.52, P<.001). With a cut-off ≥12, the negative predictive value was 98.4% (95% CI: 94.2-99.8), and the positive predictive value was 14.8% (95% CI: 6.6-27.1). The Beck Hopelessness Scale in Colombian patients with suicidality shows results similar to the original version, with adequate reliability and moderate concurrent and predictive validity. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory – Short Form.

    OpenAIRE

    Cangussu, Renata de Oliveira; Soares, Thiago Barbabela de Castro; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida; Nicolato, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck – Short Form (BDI-SF), para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos da...

  15. Cognitive and neuroimaging features and brain β-amyloidosis in individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (INSIGHT-preAD): a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Epelbaum, Stephane; Nyasse, Francis; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Gagliardi, Geoffroy; Uspenskaya, Olga; Houot, Marion; Lista, Simone; Cacciamani, Federica; Potier, Marie-Claude; Bertrand, Anne; Lamari, Foudil; Benali, Habib; Mangin, Jean-François; Colliot, Olivier; Genthon, Remy; Habert, Marie-Odile; Hampel, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41). We stratified participants by brain amyloid β deposition on 18 F-florbetapir PET (positive or negative) at baseline. All patients underwent baseline assessments of demographic, cognitive, and psychobehavioural, characteristics, APOE ε4 allele carrier status, brain structure and function on MRI, brain glucose-metabolism on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET, and event-related potentials on electroencephalograms (EEGs). Actigraphy and CSF investigations were optional. Participants were followed up with clinical, cognitive, and psychobehavioural assessments every 6 months, neuropsychological assessments, EEG, and actigraphy every 12 months, and MRI, and 18 F-FDG and 18 F-florbetapir PET every 24 months. We assessed associations of amyloid β deposition status with test outcomes at baseline and 24 months, and with clinical status at 30 months. Progression to prodromal Alzheimer's disease was defined as an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type. From May 25, 2013, to Jan 20, 2015, we enrolled 318 participants with a mean age of 76·0 years (SD 3·5). The mean baseline MMSE score was 28·67 (SD 0·96), and the mean level of education was high (score >6 [SD 2] on a scale of 1-8, where 1=infant school and 8=higher education). 88 (28%) of 318 participants showed amyloid

  16. Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Brian F.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluates therapeutic efficacy of Beck's cognitive treatment and Lewinsohn's behavioral treatment of depression. Results indicated the cognitive modification group was the most effective in alleviating depression as measured by self-report and objective clinical ratings. Cognitive modification resulted in significantly fewer depressive symptoms…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Cognitive Therapy for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith S.

    1989-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 28 studies was conducted to review the effectiveness of Beck's cognitive therapy for depression, and to compare cognitive therapy with other modes of therapy. Results documented a greater degree of change for cognitive therapy compared with a waiting list or no-treatment control, pharmacotherapy, behavior therapy, and other…

  18. Beck Self-Esteem Scale-Short Form: Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale for the assessment of self-concept in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth C; Murakami-Brundage, Jessica; Bertolami, Nina; Beck, Aaron T; Grant, Paul M

    2018-05-01

    A requisite step for testing cognitive theories regarding the role of self-concept in schizophrenia is the development of measures that follow a cognitive conceptualization and better capture the multifaceted nature of this construct. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties a new self-concept measure, the Beck Self-Esteem Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), based on a sample of 204 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We evaluated the BSES-SF's dimensionality, internal consistency reliability, and construct and divergent validity using confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations, independent samples t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance. Findings indicate that the 10-item BSES-SF is a reliable and valid measure of self-concept that is appropriate for a broad group of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Following cognitive theory, the scale demonstrated significant relationships with delusion severity, motivation, and depression, further signifying its utility for research and practice efforts that are designed to address psychopathology in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reut and Beck columns: effects of end gravity force, translational and rotational inertias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Arboleda Monsalve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la estabilidad de las colunmas de Reut y Beck sometidas a cualquier combinación de fuerzas compresivas axiales de gravedad y no conservativas (fuerza fija a lo largo de una línea o seguidora utilizando la formulación dinámica. El método propuesto es general y captura el pandeo estático (o divergencia y la inestabilidad dinámica ("flameo" de columnas en voladizo. Los efectos de la fuerza de gravedad y las inercias traslacionales y rotacionales a lo largo del elemento se analizan cuidadosamente. También se presentan resultados analíticos que capturan el límite del rango de aplicabilidad del método estático o de Euler en el análisis de estabilidad de columnas esbeltas en voladizo y la transición de inestabilidad estática (con frecuencia cero a inestabilidad dinámica (Tlameo". Finalmente se presenta la comparación entre las ecuaciones características de estabilidad de columnas esbeltas de Reut y Beck.

  20. El legado psicoanalítico en la terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Pablo Korman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El psicoanálisis en el que Beck se formó tenía como objetivo incluir al psicoanálisis dentro del modelo científico. Esto era consistente con los intereses de un gran número de investigadores clínicos en los Estados Unidos durante las décadas de 1950 y 1960. Este trayecto intelectual lo llevará, años después, a desarrollar la terapia cognitiva. En este trabajo nos enfocaremos en el entrenamiento psicoanalítico de Beck así como en las primeras publicaciones de éste como especialista en psiquiatría durante su práctica hospitalaria en la Clínica de Austen Riggs y en el Hospital Valley Forge Army. Analizaremos sus primeras hipótesis, intentando rastrear los indicios de su modo de actuar como psicoanalista. Esta misma formación posteriormente lo llevará a un replanteo del modelo psicoanalítico, hecho que será clave para explicar las características que adoptará la terapia cognitiva.

  1. Cognitive psychopathology: The role of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of emotion in the understanding of psychopathology. The influential Cognitive Therapy model of Beck is briefly reviewed and a number of limitations are considered. Two particular weaknesses are highlighted in the understanding of cognitive psychopathology; namely, the importance of multi-level processing systems and the importance of emotion. The Power and Dalgleish (1997, 2008) SPAARS model is presented to show the advantages that arise...

  2. Teoria da resposta ao item aplicada ao Inventário de Depressão Beck Item response theory applied to the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, uma escala que mede o traço latente de intensidade de sintomas depressivos, pode ser avaliado através da Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI. Este estudo utilizou o modelo TRI de Resposta Gradual na avaliação da intensidade de sintomas depressivos de 4.025 indivíduos que responderam ao BDI, de modo a explorar eficientemente a informação disponível nos diferentes aspectos possibilitados pelo uso desta metodologia. O ajuste foi efetuado no software PARSCALE. Foram identificados 13 itens do BDI nos quais pelo menos uma categoria de resposta não tinha chance maior que as demais de ser escolhida, de modo que estes itens tiveram de ser recategorizados. Os itens com maior capacidade de discriminação são relativos à tristeza, pessimismo, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfação, auto-aversão, indecisão e dificuldade para trabalhar. Os itens mais graves são aqueles relacionados com perda de peso, retraimento social e idéias suicidas. O grupo dos 202 indivíduos com as maiores intensidades de sintomas depressivos foi composto por 74% de mulheres, e praticamente 84% possuíam diagnóstico de algum transtorno psiquiátrico. Os resultados evidenciam alguns dos inúmeros ganhos advindos da utilização da TRI na análise de traços latentes.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, a scale that measures the latent trait intensity of depression symptoms, can be assessed by the Item Response Theory (IRT. This study used the Graded-Response model (GRM to assess the intensity of depressive symptoms in 4,025 individuals who responded to the BDI, in order to efficiently use the information available on different aspects enabled by the use of this methodology. The fit of this model was done in PARSCALE software. We identified 13 items of the BDI in which at least one response category was not more likely than others to be chosen, so that these items had to be categorized again. The items with greater power of

  3. A terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como reflexividade na alta modernidade: uma sociologia do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uma sociologia do conhecimento interpreta a produção do conhecimento como vinculada a situações sociais. Partindo dessa premissa epistemológica, nosso artigo objetivou interpretar a terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como conhecimento construído e construtor do fenômeno de reflexividade da alta modernidade, conforme interpretada por Anthony Giddens. Nossa hipótese é que a reorientação do sistema de crenças do cliente, proposta pela terapia cognitiva, é uma forma de reconstrução reflexiva da autoidentidade, visando superar conflitos típicos da instabilidade da alta modernidade. Assinalamos aspectos na terapia cognitiva que a identificam com a reflexividade, sobretudo a ideia de que a construção da autoidentidade é uma tarefa na qual o indivíduo se engaja reflexivamente.

  4. Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis for Treating Osteoarthritis in a Patient with Kashin-Beck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Iwasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease (KBD is an endemic degenerative osteoarthritis. Death of cartilage and growth plate is the pathologic feature; therefore, KBD involves skeletal deformity and often results in osteoarthritis. Deficiency of selenium, high humic acid levels in water, and fungi on storage gains are considered the cause of KBD. The most frequently involved joints are ankles, knees, wrists, and elbows and symptoms are pain and limited motions of those joints. The main treatments for KBD are rehabilitation and osteotomy to correct the deformities because preventive treatment has not been established. In this report, we present a case of ankle osteoarthritis due to KBD and first describe arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis for treating osteoarthritis of KBD.

  5. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  6. [Change on the rate of children's finger metaphysics in the non-Kaschin-Beck disease areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhou, Lingwang; Liu, Hui; Deng, Qing; Song, Jiucheng; Yu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    36 non-Kaschin-Beck disease villages in five provinces including Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia in the severe endemic areas of Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) were selected. The aim of this project was to provide the basis showing these KBD villages had already eliminated the KBD. Fully digital versatile X-ray radiography systems(DR) was used to shoot children's right hand X-ray, in accordance with the "Kashin-Beck Disease Diagnosis Standard" (WS/T 207-2010) for diagnosis. Results indicated that children showing metaphyseal changes only appeared in 13 of the 36 villages, where the rate of change on metaphyseal was less than or equal to three percent. When KBD had been eliminated in a village, the rate of change on aged 7 to 12 children's metaphyseal would have been less than three percent.

  7. Use of the Beck Scale for suicide ideation with psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, N; Steer, R A; Rissmiller, D J; Nelson, S; Beck, A T

    2002-09-01

    To ascertain how useful the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI; Beck & Steer, Manual for Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (1991)) would be for assessing the severity of suicidal ideation in patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders, 142 inpatients were asked to complete the BSI. Eight (6%) patients refused, and four patients (3%) were unable to complete the BSI because they were unable to concentrate. Of the 130 patients who completed the BSI, 53 (41%) had schizoaffective, 37 (28%) had paranoid schizophrenia, 30 (23%) had manic bipolar, and 10 (8%) had depressed bipolar disorders. The coefficient alpha for the BSI was .96, and its one-week test-retest reliability for a subsample of 15 inpatients was 0.88, p suicide, r = 0.46, p suicide ideators. The results were discussed as supporting the use of the BSI with inpatients who are diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders.

  8. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    faced with risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this latter stream of research by examining how individuals differ in their cognition and behaviors in situations of risk and uncertainty in a controlled environment. More specifically, the dissertation explores how...... and final essay, I test individuals’ sensitivity to a lack of predictive information when making choices under uncertainty. In sum, the dissertation contributes to a more nuanced understanding of entrepreneurial cognition in situations of risk and uncertainty by illustrating the direct link between...... cognition and behavior. Since the dissertation focuses on individuals with limited entrepreneurial experience, it makes important practical contributions with respect to novice entrepreneurs and their cognition in cases of risk and uncertainty. As a result, it provides important insights into how...

  9. Insights into Working Memory from The Perspective of The EPIC Architecture for Modeling Skilled Perceptual-Motor and Cognitive Human Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kieras, David

    1998-01-01

    .... To illustrate how such insights can be achieved a precise production system model that uses verbal working memory for performing a serial memory-span task through a strategic phonological loop...

  10. Cognitive deficits in obstructive sleep apnea: Insights from a meta-review and comparison with deficits observed in COPD, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Bucks, Romola S; Hillman, David R; Eastwood, Peter R

    2018-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a nocturnal breathing disorder that is associated with cognitive impairment. The primary determinants of cognitive deficits in OSA are thought to be sleep disruption and blood gas abnormalities. Cognitive impairment is also seen in other disorders that are characterised primarily by sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep restriction/deprivation, insomnia) or hypoxia/hypercarbia (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Assessment of the cognitive deficits observed in these other disorders could help better define the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in OSA. This study utilised meta-review methodology to examine the findings from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effects of untreated OSA, COPD, insomnia, and sleep deprivation on cognitive function in adults, compared with norms or controls. Eighteen papers met inclusion criteria: seven in OSA, two in insomnia, five in COPD, and four in sleep deprivation. OSA and COPD were both accompanied by deficits in attention, memory, executive function, psychomotor function, and language abilities, suggesting that hypoxia/hypercarbia may be an important determinant of deficits in these domains in OSA. Both OSA and sleep deprivation studies were accompanied by deficits in attention and memory, suggesting that short-term sleep disturbance in OSA may contribute to deficits in these domains. Visuospatial deficits were unique to OSA, suggesting the contribution of a mechanism other than sleep disturbance and hypoxia/hypercarbia to this problem. Our findings suggest that the cognitive deficits associated with untreated OSA are multidimensional, with different physiological disturbances responsible for differing cognitive problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of dominant hemisphere association cortex during naming as a function of cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury: Insights into mechanisms of lexical access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Popescu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and objective cognitive deficits frequently experience word finding difficulties in normal conversation. We sought to improve our understanding of this phenomenon by determining if the scores on standardized cognitive testing are correlated with measures of brain activity evoked in a word retrieval task (confrontational picture naming. The study participants (n = 57 were military service members with a history of mTBI. The General Memory Index (GMI determined after administration of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Third Edition, was used to assign subjects to three groups: low cognitive performance (Group 1: GMI ≤ 87, n = 18, intermediate cognitive performance (Group 2: 88 ≤ GMI ≤ 99, n = 18, and high cognitive performance (Group 3: GMI ≥ 100, n = 21. Magnetoencephalography data were recorded while participants named eighty pictures of common objects. Group differences in evoked cortical activity were observed relatively early (within 200 ms from picture onset over a distributed network of left hemisphere cortical regions including the fusiform gyrus, the entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, the supramarginal gyrus and posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior frontal and rostral middle frontal gyri. Differences were also present in bilateral cingulate cortex and paracentral lobule, and in the right fusiform gyrus. All differences reflected a lower amplitude of the evoked responses for Group 1 relative to Groups 2 and 3. These findings may indicate weak afferent inputs to and within an extended cortical network including association cortex of the dominant hemisphere in patients with low cognitive performance. The association between word finding difficulties and low cognitive performance may therefore be the result of a diffuse pathophysiological process affecting distributed neuronal networks serving a wide range of cognitive

  12. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  13. Sleep inspires insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Haider, Hilde; Verleger, Rolf; Born, Jan

    2004-01-22

    Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here we show a facilitating role of sleep in a process of insight. Subjects performed a cognitive task requiring the learning of stimulus-response sequences, in which they improved gradually by increasing response speed across task blocks. However, they could also improve abruptly after gaining insight into a hidden abstract rule underlying all sequences. Initial training establishing a task representation was followed by 8 h of nocturnal sleep, nocturnal wakefulness, or daytime wakefulness. At subsequent retesting, more than twice as many subjects gained insight into the hidden rule after sleep as after wakefulness, regardless of time of day. Sleep did not enhance insight in the absence of initial training. A characteristic antecedent of sleep-related insight was revealed in a slowing of reaction times across sleep. We conclude that sleep, by restructuring new memory representations, facilitates extraction of explicit knowledge and insightful behaviour.

  14. Beck Depression Inventory is a useful screening tool for major depressive disorder in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Robertson, M.M.; Orth, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). How a simple self-report instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), correlates with clinical assessment of comorbid MDD in this

  15. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  16. Impact on electroencephalography of Adolf Beck, a prominent Polish scientist and founder of the Lviv School of Physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachkivska, O.; Gzhegotsky, M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolf Beck (1863–1942) can be regarded as the co-founder of electroencephalography. His studies on the cerebral cortex of animals have facilitated the introduction of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a main tool for studying the brain. The localization of senses on the cortex with evoked potentials

  17. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  18. Exploratory factor analytical study of depressive symptomatology: an Arab experience with a sample comprising college students, using the revised Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turkait, Fawziyah A; Ohaeri, Jude U

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the domains of depressive symptomatology could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objective of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in an Arab sample comprising college students, in comparison to the international data. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Arab college students in their classrooms over a 1-year period. Participants (n=624) who completed the questionnaire, which had been translated into Arabic, during the 2007-2008 academic session. Exploratory factor analysis was done by principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Factor 1 consisted of psychological symptoms. Factor 2 mainly comprised somatic symptoms, but with some affective symptoms (loss of interest, irritability). Factor 3 also belonged to a purely psychological domain, whereas factor 4 was another mixture of somatic and psychological symptoms (41.8% of variance explained). Thus the four domains were as follows: cognitive I, somatic-affective I, cognitive II, and somatic-affective II. These domains were similar in construct to the original subscales on which the BDI-II was validated for students in North America. Our four-factor solution fulfilled the recommended criteria, namely, a strong first factor, simple structure (parsimony), and stable factors with construct meanings that are in line with theory. Our factor structure defined depression in a manner consistent with theory, in that sadness, self-dislike, and guilt feelings defined the cognitive domain. whereas irritability and changes in sleep pattern and appetite mostly defined the somatic-affective domain. The BDI-II has construct validity across cultures.

  19. Prevalence of depression in patients with β-thalassemia as assessed by the Beck's Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Akbar; Nazari, Shiva; Jorjani, Soudeh; Bahraminia, Emad; Sadeghi-Koupaei, Mohammadtaghi

    2014-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is a frequent, chronic hereditary disease, and a plausible cause for psychological disorders. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify the rate and severity of depression among Iranian patients with β-thal using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). β-Thalassemic patients aged 13-20 years [median age 17.2 years; 27 males (48.2%), 29 females (51.8%)], who presented to the Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, for blood transfusions within a 1-year period, were asked to complete the BDI questionnaire. Based on the BDI score, patients were classified as normal or mild-to-severe depression groups, and the collected data were then analyzed according to age and sex. A total of 56 subjects completed the BDI form. Mean score for BDI was 14.27 ± 12.79. Based on the BDI results, 35 (62.5%) had a BDI score below 16 and were therefore not classified as being depressed, while seven (12.5%) patients suffered from severe depression (BDI > 47). Age and gender did not have any significant association with the BDI results (p = 0.52 and p = 0.67, respectively). The total prevalence of various degrees of depression was 30.8% in this study. We concluded that the noticeable rate of depression in thalassemic patients signifies the necessity for improving psychosocial care in this specific group of patients.

  20. Béatrix Beck: The “Barny Cycle”: Writing to Inform and Heal the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Bell Rochester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the traumatic reality of World War II, French society repressed its memories, resulting in a false collective memory. Today, a more truthful history can be restored with the study of wartime and post-war texts. We examine the first six books (1948-67 of Belgian-French writer Béatrix Beck (1914-2008, alongside the theories of psychiatrist Judith Lewis Herman, who wrote that “traumatic reactions occur when action is of no avail.” Beck’s semi-autobiographical protagonist, Barny, goes through Herman’s stages of forgetting and remembering, healing and recovery. Her emergence as a writer also follows that trajectory: Barny, like Occupied France, was isolated. Helpless to act or react, she was traumatized—by her father’s death, a dysfunctional childhood, her mother’s suicide, and, in Occupied France, her husband’s death, single motherhood, poverty, menial jobs, and fear of arrest. In the first stage of recovery, Barny reaches safety. In the second, she begins to remember, to probe the issues and articulate them, in their painful ambiguity. For Herman, the ultimate goal is to put the story, with its imagery, into words. In the third stage, Barny, against fierce odds, becomes a writer.

  1. Normative Data on the Beck Depression Inventory--Second Edition (BDI-II) in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Richardson, Emily D

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to provide normative data on the Beck Depression Inventory--Second Edition (BDI-II) in college students. Data were obtained from 15,233 college students drawn from 17 universities in the United States, weighted to match the gender and race/ethnicity of enrollment in degree-granting institutions. Descriptive statistics, point prevalence of individuals exceeding cutoff scores, and mean differences by gender and race/ethnicity were provided. Because the distribution of BDI-II scores was not normal, percentile ranks for raw scores were provided for the total sample and separately by gender and race/ethnicity for the total sample and by race/ethnicity for men and women. Normative data were used to calculate the Reliable Change Index on the BDI-II for college students. Because the distribution of BDI-II scores demonstrated significant skewness and non-normal kurtosis, percentile ranks are important to consider in interpreting scores on the measure, in addition to descriptive statistics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential: improved modeling of lead halides for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi A. Jishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report first-principles calculations, within density functional theory, on the lead halide compounds PbCl2, PbBr2, and CH3NH3PbBr3−xClx, taking into account spin-orbit coupling. We show that, when the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is used with a suitable choice of defining parameters, excellent agreement between calculations and experiment is obtained. The computational model is then used to study the effect of replacing the methylammonium cation in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 with either N2H5+or N2H3+, which have slightly smaller ionic radii than methylammonium. We predict that a considerable downshift in the values of the band gaps occurs with this replacement. The resulting compounds would extend optical absorption down to the near-infrared region, creating excellent light harvesters for solar cells.

  3. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  4. Zinc: the Other Suspected Environmental Factor in Kashin-Beck Disease in Addition to Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Yang, Lei; Yu, Fangfang; Guo, Xiong

    2017-10-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic chronic osteochondral disease characterized by high prevalence, disability, and morbidity and is distributed from the northeast to the southwest in China, in some regions of Eastern Siberia in Russia, and in North Korea. Although the selenium deficiency etiological hypothesis for KBD has been proposed by scientists for decades, the idea that selenium deficiency is one of the most important environmental factors but not the primary and sole pathogenic factor for KBD has been widely accepted. Zn 2+ , which is closely involved in the synthesis of enzymes, nucleic acids, and proteins, is an essential microelement in vivo. A conundrum still exists in research on the relationship between Zn 2+ and KBD due to inconsistent results, but it has been confirmed that Zn 2+ can help repair metaphyseal lesions in patients with KBD, indicating that Zn 2+ might play a key role in the pathogenesis of KBD, although the mechanism is unknown. The zinc-ZIP8-MTF1 axis in chondrocytes forms a catabolic cascade that promotes upregulation of the crucial effector matrix-degrading enzymes MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS5, thereby leading to osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage destruction. Zinc finger protein-related genes, the ZNT family, and the ZIP family of Zn 2+ transporter genes have been found to be differentially expressed in KBD by high-throughput screening. Therefore, Zn 2+ could play a key role in the pathogenesis of KBD.

  5. Beck x Roberts: Comparativos do Diagrama do Metrô de Londres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Redig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi originalmente dirigido à disciplina Design e Visualização da Informação, ministrada pelo Prof. André Monat no curso de Doutorado em Design da ESDI-UERJ, Escola Superior de Desenho Industrial da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 2013, a partir da proposta do professor de se examinar a pertinência da estrutura radial proposta por Maxwell J. Roberts para o design de mapas de redes de transporte. No artigo, procuro demonstrar que, por ser uma forma padrão pré-convencionada e abstrata, não valorizando a relação visual analógica com o objeto representado – a rede geo-espacial do sistema de transporte, variável para cada cidade – a estrutura radial não facilita a compreensão e o uso da rede, relativamente ao sistema ortogonal/diagonal projetado por Harry Beck para o assim chamado Diagrama do metrô londrino, que, partindo do código mais universal e ancestral de orientação que é a Rosa dos Ventos, se baseia nos eixos dos percursos. Por isso, este sistema se tornou um paradigma mundial no campo do Design de Informação, ainda não superado.

  6. Is the Mediterranean diet a feasible approach to preserving cognitive function and reducing risk of dementia for older adults in Western countries? New insights and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The rise in the ageing population has resulted in increased incident rates of cognitive impairment and dementia. The subsequent financial and societal burden placed on an already strained public health care system is of increasing concern. Evidence from recent studies has revealed modification of lifestyle and dietary behaviours is, at present, the best means of prevention. Some of the most important findings, in relation to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the contemporary Western diet, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these two diets on age-related cognitive function, are discussed in this review. A major aim of this review was to discuss whether or not a MedDiet intervention would be a feasible preventative approach against cognitive decline for older adults living in Western countries. Critical appraisal of the literature does somewhat support this idea. Demonstrated evidence highlights the MedDiet as a potential strategy to reduce cognitive decline in older age, and suggests the Western diet may play a role in the aetiology of cognitive decline. However, strong intrinsic Western socio-cultural values, traditions and norms may impede on the feasibility of this notion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest) in a Sample of Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Seixas, Camila; Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; de Abreu, José Neander; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Pidgeon, Aileen; Sudak, Donna; Wenzel, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the initial psychometric properties of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest) in its Brazilian Portuguese version tested in adult undergraduate students. Brazilian undergraduate medical and psychology students comprising the sample (n=184) completed the following measures: Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. These self-report instruments were administered collectively in classrooms. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.85) and concurrent validity with Beck Depression Inventory (r=0.65, pCognitive Distortions Questionnaire is adequate for use in the context of national undergraduate students and is able to separate different cognitive distortions. However, further studies using clinical samples are needed.

  8. Attending to Experimental Construct Validity in the Evaluation of Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen; Horan, John J.

    Two current approaches to the conceptualization and treatment of depression have received considerable attention from the scientific community. The cognitive approach (Beck) posits that depression derives from negatively distorted beliefs that must be challenged in the context of cognitive therapy until they are replaced with positive and…

  9. Experimental Construct Validity in the Evaluation of Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen; Horan, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Distilled versions of Beck's cognitive and Lewinsohn's behavioral treatments for depression were crossed in a 2 x 2 design that included combined and high-demand control treatments. The obtained pattern of convergent and divergent outcomes indicates considerable construct-valid strength for cognitive therapy applied to a moderately depressed…

  10. Changes in Depressive Self-Schemata and Depressive Symptoms Following Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Terry M.; Dixon, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of 6-8 sessions of Beck's cognitive therapy on mildly and moderately depressed college students' (n=31) depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata compared to no-treatment controls (n=43). Results supported efficacy of cognitive therapy in reducing depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata, as measured by…

  11. Cognitive therapy and exposure in-vivo in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppen, P. van; Dehaan, E.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, K.; Dyck, R. van

    1995-01-01

    The present study is the first controlled study that evaluates the effects of cognitive therapy along the lines of Beck (1976) [Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International University Press] and Salkovskis (1985) [Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 571-583] in obsessive

  12. Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Depression: Mediation by Negative Self-Cognition and Moderation by Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Min; Deng, Xue-Li; Du, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Ming-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Guided by Beck's cognitive model of depression, this study examined the mediating role of negative self-cognition in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent depression and whether peer acceptance moderated this indirect relationship. Eight hundred and fifty-nine seventh to ninth graders (379 girls and 480 boys, mean age = 13.58…

  13. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eOker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  14. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  15. Insights into the Feelings, Thoughts, and Behaviors of Children with Visual Impairments: A Focus Group Study Prior to Adapting a Cognitive Behavior Therapy-Based Anxiety Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Stallard, Paul; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is the most common psychological problem reported among children with visual impairments. Although cognitive behavior therapy interventions have proven successful in treating childhood anxiety, it is unclear whether they are suitable and accessible for children who have visual impairments. This study aimed to determine if and…

  16. Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Modulations of Visual-Spatial Attention and Working Memory: Insights from Molecular Genetic Research and Implications for Adult Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Viola S.; Passow, Susanne; Biesenack, Julia; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Attention and working memory are fundamental for selecting and maintaining behaviorally relevant information. Not only do both processes closely intertwine at the cognitive level, but they implicate similar functional brain circuitries, namely the frontoparietal and the frontostriatal networks, which are innervated by cholinergic and dopaminergic…

  17. Cognitive-behavioural therapy v. usual care in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, H.J.; de Jonge, P.; Ormel, J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined in a primary care sample whether acute-phase cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) would be more effective than usual care for patients with multiple prior episodes of depression. Depression outcome was based on a 3-monthly administered Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during a 2-year

  18. Effectiveness of a nurse facilitated cognitive group intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of a nurse facilitated cognitive group intervention among mild to moderately-depressed-women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... the participants were randomly allocated to the control and the intervention groups. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).

  19. A Component Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested Beck's theory explaining efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CT) for depression. Involved randomly assigning 150 outpatients with major depression to a treatment focused on the behavioral activation (BA) component of CT, a treatment including BA and teaching skills to modify automatic thoughts, but excluding the components of CT…

  20. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory applied to college students: factor analysis and relation to the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T and its relation to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were evaluated in a large Brazilian college student sample containing 845 women and 235 men. STAI-T scores tended to be higher for women, singles, those who work, and subjects under 30 years. Factor analysis of the STAI-T for total sample and by gender yielded two factors: the first representing a mood dimension and the second being related to worrying or cognitive aspects of anxiety. In order to study the relation between anxiety and depression measures, factor analysis of the combination of the 21 BDI items and the 20 STAI-T items was also carried out. The analysis resulted in two factors that were analyzed according to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Most of the BDI items (measuring positive affectivity and nonspecific symptoms of depression were loaded on the first factor and four STAI-T items that measure positive affectivity. The remaining STAI-T items, all of them measuring negative affect, remained in the second factor. Thus, factor 1 represents a depression dimension and factor 2 measures a mood-worrying dimension. The findings of this study suggest that, although widely used as an anxiety scale, the STAI-T in fact measures mainly a general negative affect.

  1. Whole-exome sequencing for the identification of susceptibility genes of Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and investigate the susceptibility genes of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD in Chinese population. METHODS: Whole-exome capturing and sequencing technology was used for the detection of genetic variations in 19 individuals from six families with high incidence of KBD. A total of 44 polymorphisms from 41 genes were genotyped from a total of 144 cases and 144 controls by using MassARRAY under the standard protocol from Sequenom. Association was applied on the data by using PLINK1.07. RESULTS: In the sequencing stage, each sample showed approximately 70-fold coverage, thus covering more than 99% of the target regions. Among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs used in the transmission disequilibrium test, 108 had a p-value of <0.01, whereas 1056 had a p-value of <0.05. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG pathway analysis indicates that these SNPs focus on three major pathways: regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and metabolic pathways. In the validation stage, single locus effects revealed that two of these polymorphisms (rs7745040 and rs9275295 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DRB1 gene and one polymorphism (rs9473132 in CD2-associated protein (CD2AP gene have a significant statistical association with KBD. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DRB1 and CD2AP gene were identified to be among the susceptibility genes of KBD, thus supporting the role of the autoimmune response in KBD and the possibility of shared etiology between osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and KBD.

  2. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cuiyan, E-mail: xj.cy.69@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lei, Ronghui, E-mail: leirh@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Tiainen, Mika, E-mail: mika.tiainen@uef.fi [School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Wu, Shixun, E-mail: wushixun313@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wdrr@163.com [Department of Kashin–Beck Disease, Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, Qinghai 811602 (China); Pei, Fuxing, E-mail: peifuxing@vip.163.com [Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Guo, Xiong, E-mail: guox@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC–PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-α expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. - Highlights: • Disordered glycometabolism in KBD was demonstrated by combining serum metabolomics and chondrocyte studies. • Glucose and TNF-α were key molecules linked to altered metabolism and inflammation in the pathophysiology of KBD. • The glycometabolism disorder was linked to expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, ROS and apoptosis of KBD chondrocytes.

  3. Evaluation of the relationship and genetic overlap between Kashin-Beck disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Hao, J; Xiao, X; Guo, X; Wang, W; Yang, T; Shen, H; Tian, Q; Tan, L; Deng, H-W; Zhang, F

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is one of the major factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis (OA) but there is currently no information available regarding the relationship between BMI and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship and genetic overlap between BMI and KBD. A total of 2050 Han Chinese subjects participated in this study. Using a cohort of 333 grade I KBD patients, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between BMI and KBD. Another independent sample of 1717 subjects was genotyped for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 Arrays. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis (SECA) was applied to the GWAS summaries of KBD and BMI for pleiotropy analysis. Genome-wide bivariate association analysis (GWBAA) of KBD and BMI was carried out to identify the genes with pleiotropic effects on KBD and BMI. The relevance of identified genes with KBD was validated by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. BMI correlated positively with knee movement disorder in KBD (coefficient β = 0.068, p = 0.045). SECA identified a significant pleiotropic effect (empirical p = 0.021) between KBD and BMI. In the GWBAA, the rs1893577 of the ADAMTS1 gene achieved the most significant association signal (p = 7.38 × 10 -9 ). ADAMTS1 was also up-regulated in KBD vs. normal (ratio = 2.64 ± 2.80) and KBD vs. OA (ratio = 2.31 ± 2.01). The rate of ADAMTS1-positive chondrocytes in KBD was significantly higher than that in OA (p < 0.05) and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that ADAMTS1 is a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.

  4. Band gaps from the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson approach: A systematic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha (TB-mBJ) have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators. In this work, we have investigated the performance of the TB-mBJ potential for the description of electronic band structures in a comprehensive set of semiconductors and insulators. We point out that a perturbative use of the TB-mBJ potential can give overall better results. By investigating a set of IIB-VI and III-V semiconductors, we point out that although the TB-mBJ approach can describe the band gap of these materials quite well, the binding energies of semi-core d-states in these materials deviate strongly from experiment. The difficulty of the TB-mBJ potential to describe the localized states is likely the cause for the fact that the electronic band structures of Cu2O and La2O3 are still poorly described. Based on these observations, we propose to combine the TB-mBJ approach with the Hubbard U correction for localized d/f states, which is able to provide overall good descriptions for both the band gaps and semi-core states binding energies. We further apply the approach to calculate the band gaps of a set of Ti(IV)-oxides, many of which have complicated structures so that the more advanced methods like GW are expensive to treat directly. An overall good agreement with experiment is obtained, which is remarkable considering its little computational efforts compared to GW.

  5. [Depression in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Application of the Beck Depression Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jimmy J; Soto, Karen A; Caamaño, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and also appears to increase the risk of death from coronary artery disease. The presence of depression after the occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its relationship with socioeconomic factors has not been studied in Colombia. To describe the frequency of depression and associated factors in patients hospitalized with an ACS. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and May 2008 in three coronary care units in Santa Marta, Colombia. The presence of depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Depression was considered to be present if BDI was equal or greater than 10. The relationship between the presence of depression and demographic, clinic and laboratory characteristics was analyzed. A BDI score ≥10 (any degree of depression) was seen in 21 (63.64%) of the patients. In 9 out of 10 (91.66%) patients without stable income had depression in contrast to 12 out of 23 (57.14%) with stable income (P=.037). Depression was found in in 8 of the 8 (100%) patients with electrocardiographic pathological T wave inversion, in contrast to 13 out of the 25 (52%) without changes in T wave (P=.014). Depression was detected in 17 of 22 (77.27%) patients who smoked cigarettes versus 4 of 11 (36.36%) of patients who have never smoked (P=.021). Depressive symptoms are significantly present in patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Unemployment, pathological T wave inversion, and smoking seem to be associated with the presence of depressive symptoms after an acute coronary event. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Funcionamento Diferencial do Item no Inventário de Depressão Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos mostram o Funcionamento Diferencial do Item (DIF em itens do Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, ao compararem homens e mulheres. A presença de um grande número de itens com DIF no BDI é uma severa ameaça à validade da medida da intensidade de sintomas depressivos obtida pela Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI e às conclusões baseadas nos escores derivados dos itens com e sem DIF. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar esses itens do BDI, ajustar o modelo de TRI para itens constrangedores (modelo 2, o qual acomoda itens com a presença de DIF, e comparar esses resultados com os do ajuste do modelo logístico de dois parâmetros tradicional da TRI (modelo 1. MÉTODOS: Os resultados obtidos com ambos os modelos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Os itens que apresentaram DIF foram: tristeza, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfações, culpa, punição, choro, fatigabilidade e perda da libido. Os resultados do ajuste dos dois modelos são similares quanto à discriminação, gravidade (à exceção dos itens com DIF e no cálculo de escores para os indivíduos. Apesar disso, o modelo 2 é vantajoso, pois mostra as diferenças em gravidade do sintoma depressivo para os grupos avaliados, trazendo, dessa forma, mais informação ao pesquisador sobre a população estudada. CONCLUSÃO: Esse modelo, que tem um alcance mais amplo em termos de população-alvo, pode ser uma ótima alternativa na identificação e acompanhamento de indivíduos com potencial depressivo.

  7. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory in African American and European American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Sarah R; Mast, Benjamin T; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-04-01

    The anxiety literature is particularly sparse as it relates to African Americans, and there are few studies to date that have examined the factor structure of anxiety assessment tools within this population. The current study investigated the original two-factor structure of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in addition to two extant factor structures of the BAI in a non-clinical sample of African American and European American young adults. One hundred twenty one European American and 100 African American young adults completed the BAI. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the previous factor structures of the Beck Anxiety Inventory do not provide the best fit for either the African American or the European American sample. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that an alternative, two-factor model provided the best fit for the sample, particularly for the African American sample. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. Beck Depression Inventory is a useful screening tool for major depressive disorder in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, A H; Robertson, M M; Orth, M

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). How a simple self‐report instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), correlates with clinical assessment of comorbid MDD in this population was assessed. In a continuous sample of 114 adult patients with GTS, assessed clinically using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders‐IV criteria, 26 (23%) patients met...

  9. La evaluación de creencias y actitudes disfuncionales en los modelos de Ellis y Beck: similitudes y diferencias

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, José; Fusté Escolano, Adela

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio es el análisis comparativo del 'Inventario de Actitudes y Creencias' (ABI) y la 'Escala de Actitudes Disfuncionales' (DAS) elaborados, respectivamente, desde las perspectivas de la Terapia Racional Emotivo Conductual (TREC) de Albert Ellis y la Terapia Cognitiva (TC) de Aaron Beck. Administramos sendos cuestionarios a una muestra de 156 estudiantes universitarios y verificamos la correspondencia y covariancia entre escalas mediante análisis de correlación de S...

  10. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ganesh S.; Jain, Animesh; Hegde, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Depression among medical students is an area of increasing concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sample of 400 students was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory by investigators. Associations between depression and class of studying, social factors like alcohol use, drug addiction, family problems, family history of depression, and st...

  11. Are semantic and phonological fluency based on the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes? Insights from factor analyses in healthy adults and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Schumacher, Lena V; Römer, Pia; Leonhart, Rainer; Beume, Lena; Martin, Markus; Dressing, Andrea; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2017-05-01

    Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively. This evidence for differential cognitive and neural contributions is, however, strongly challenged by findings from factor analyses, which have consistently yielded only one explanatory factor. As all previous factor-analytical approaches were based on very small item sets, this apparent discrepancy may be due to methodological limitations. In this study, we therefore applied a German version of the verbal fluency task with 8 semantic (i.e. categories) and 8 phonological items (i.e. letters). An exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in N=69 healthy young adults indeed revealed a two-factor solution with markedly different loadings for semantic and phonological items. This pattern was corroborated by a confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of N=174 stroke patients. As results from both samples also revealed a substantial portion of common variance between the semantic and phonological factor, the present data further demonstrate that semantic and phonological verbal fluency are based on clearly distinct but also on shared sets of cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insight and psychosocial treatment compliance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, P; Bell, M; Milstein, R; Bryson, G; Beam-Goulet, J

    1994-11-01

    Research has suggested that poor insight in patients with schizophrenia is associated with poorer medication compliance and heightened levels of psychopathology. This study examined the relationship of insight to compliance with a work rehabilitation program and with levels of psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. Poor insight was found to be positively associated with fewer weeks of participation and with poorer social skills and personal presentation in the fifth week of work. Poor insight was also associated with cognitive disorganization and a lower intelligence quotient, but not with heightened levels of psychopathology. Results suggest that poor insight may predict noncompliance with psychosocial treatment and may be related to a constellation of cognitive deficits.

  13. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  14. CENTEC: Center for Excellence in Neuroergonomics, Technology, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A. Kirlik (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Engineering. Volume 1: Foundations, Perspectives and Cognitive Issues. New York: Oxford University...Peterson, M.S., & Beck, M.R. (in press). Eye movements and memory. In I. Gilchrist & S. Everling (Eds.) Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements. Oxford, U.K... Television Surveillance Feed. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 58, 27 October-31 October. Miller, W. D. & Boehm

  15. Fiction and fictions: On Ricoeur on the route to the self | Beck | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In reaching his narrative view of the self in Oneself as Another, Paul Ricoeur argues that, while literature offers revealing insights into the nature of the self, the sort of fictions involving brain transplants, fission, and so on, that philosophers often take seriously do not (and cannot). My paper is a response to Ricoeur's charge ...

  16. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  17. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  18. Does the way we read others' mind change over the lifespan? Insights from a massive web poll of cognitive skills from childhood to late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindt, David; Devaine, Marie; Daunizeau, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to recognize what people think or feel, is a crucial component of human social intelligence. It has been recently proposed that ToM can be decomposed into automatic and controlled neurocognitive components, where only the latter engage executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control and task switching). Critical here is the notion that such dual processes are expected to follow different developmental dynamics. In this work, we provide novel experimental evidence for this notion. We report data gathered from about thirty thousand participants of a massive web poll of people's cognitive skills, which included ToM and executive functions. We show that although the maturation of executive functions occurs in synchrony (around 20 years of age), this is not the case for different mentalizing competences, which either mature before (for elementary ToM constituents) or after (for higher-level ToM). In addition, we show that inter-individual differences in executive functions predict variability in higher-level ToM skills from the onset of adulthood onwards, i.e., after the complete maturation of executive functions. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative contribution of ToM's controlled component significantly changes with age. In particular, this implies that, over the lifespan, people may rely upon distinct cognitive architectures when reading others' minds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  20. [Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paulo; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-10-01

    There is growing interest in the cognitive model of psychotherapy stimulated by an extensive body of research findings demonstrating its effectiveness for a varied set of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. This review article aims to give an overview of the historical and philosophical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, pointing out similarities across and differences between them. A presentation of the cognitive model as designed by Aaron Beck, and some of the cognitive and behavioral techniques used in emotional disorders will be discussed. Outcome studies and meta-analyses contemplating the efficacy of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies in various psychological and medical conditions will be briefly depicted. Through review of articles and textbooks, especially the works of Aaron Beck from which this review article has heavily borrowed, the origins and foundations of the cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of psychiatric and medical conditions are described. Through Medline, the search of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has pointed out the evidence-based efficacy of this psychotherapeutic approach. Cognitive-behavioral therapies in general and Beckian cognitive therapy in particular hold a theoretical foundation and a varied set of techniques, whose evidence-based efficacy was demonstrated for the treatment of diverse mental and physical conditions.

  1. Negative Cognitive Errors in Children: Questionnaire Development, Normative Data, and Comparisons between Children with and without Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression, Low Self-Esteem, and Evaluation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Harold; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire was constructed to measure in children four types of negative cognitive errors derived from Beck's cognitive theory of adult depression. Children with self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety endorsed each type of negative cognitive error significantly more than did their lower…

  2. Organization, Evolution, Cognition and Dynamic Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    Using insights from 'embodied cognition' and a resulting 'cognitive theory of the firm', I aim to contribute to the further development of evolutionary theory of organizations, in the specification of organizations as 'interactors' that carry organizational competencies as 'replicators', within

  3. Beliefs about illness and their relationship with hopelessness, depression, insight and suicide attempts in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Francisco J; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Cejas, Maria R; Gracia, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Although the negative appraisals of the illness may be related to suicidal thinking and behaviours in schizophrenia, this has been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between schizophrenic patients' cognitions about their illness and past suicidal behaviours. The relationship between patients' beliefs about their illness with potential mediators of suicidal behaviours such as depressive symptoms, hopelessness and insight was also investigated. A group of 60 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria belonging to a follow-up study were assessed one year after their last psychiatric admission. Psychopathological variables were assessed by the Calgary Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and the first three items of the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. The appraisals of the illness were assessed by the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire. Negative appraisals were associated with hopelessness and depressive symptoms. Negative expectations and stigma showed the strongest associations. Contrary to our expectations, this scale was not able to differentiate between patients with and without past suicidal behaviour. Negative appraisals of the illness in patients with schizophrenia seem to have psychopathological consequences such as greater hopelessness and depression. Since these psychopathological features are linked to suicidal risk, the psychotherapeutic approach counteracting negative beliefs about the illness may reduce the risk of suicide.

  4. Cognition, affection and interpersonal relationship of women with bipolar disorder / Cognição, afeto e relacionamento interpessoal de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Luciano Codani Hisatugo; Latife Yazigi; José Alberto Del Porto

    2009-01-01

    The bipolar affective disorder induces incapacitation and social isolation, and might lead to suicide. It was a clinical study of multiple cases using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Suicide Inventory (BSI), Hamilton Scale of Depression (HAM-D) and the Rorschach, by Exner's Comprehensive System (CS). The objective was to analyze the affective, cognitive and interpersonal aspects of the patients. Four female out-patients who were previously diagnosed as bipolar...

  5. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in cognitive theory and therapy: the generic cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Aaron T; Haigh, Emily A P

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, Beck's cognitive model has provided an evidence-based way to conceptualize and treat psychological disorders. The generic cognitive model represents a set of common principles that can be applied across the spectrum of psychological disorders. The updated theoretical model provides a framework for addressing significant questions regarding the phenomenology of disorders not explained in previous iterations of the original model. New additions to the theory include continuity of adaptive and maladaptive function, dual information processing, energizing of schemas, and attentional focus. The model includes a theory of modes, an organization of schemas relevant to expectancies, self-evaluations, rules, and memories. A description of the new theoretical model is followed by a presentation of the corresponding applied model, which provides a template for conceptualizing a specific disorder and formulating a case. The focus on beliefs differentiates disorders and provides a target for treatment. A variety of interventions are described.

  7. Reciprocal Relations Between Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Models: Opposites Attract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Birte U.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Eichele, Tom; Brown, Scott; Serences, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists study how the brain implements particular cognitive processes such as perception, learning, and decision-making. Traditional approaches in which experiments are designed to target a specific cognitive process have been supplemented by two recent innovations. First, formal models of cognition can decompose observed behavioral data into multiple latent cognitive processes, allowing brain measurements to be associated with a particular cognitive process more precisely and more confidently. Second, cognitive neuroscience can provide additional data to inform the development of cognitive models, providing greater constraint than behavioral data alone. We argue that these fields are mutually dependent: not only can models guide neuroscientific endeavors, but understanding neural mechanisms can provide critical insights into formal models of cognition. PMID:21612972

  8. Escala de Desesperanza BHS (A. Beck, 1974: estudio de las propiedades psicométricas y baremización de la Adaptación Argentina Beck Hopelessness Scale BHS (A. Beck, 1974: psychometric study and standardization of Argentinian Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel María Mikulic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propone presentar los resultados obtenidos en la adaptación, validación y estandarización de la Escala de Desesperanza-BHS (A. Beck, 1974; Adaptación Argentina: I.M. Mikulic, 1998. La adaptación se realizó mediante la técnica de "back translation" y en el proceso de validación participaron 377 participantes de Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires, entre las edades de 18 y 50 años (M: 28; SD: 7,9. Se analizó la consistencia interna de la escala, así como su validez concurrente, predictiva, diferencial y factorial. El coeficiente alpha de confiabilidad del instrumento fue aceptable. Los coeficientes de correlación de la BHS con la adaptación argentina del Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II demuestran ser significativos, sobre todo con aquellos ítems del BDI que evalúan pesimismo. El análisis de regresión realizado advierte que el 16% de la variabilidad en los puntajes de la prueba BDI pueden ser atribuidos a la variable desesperanza. El análisis factorial realizado con la técnica de Componentes Principales y rotación Varimax identificó tres factores que explican el 54,8 % de la varianza. Al considerar la validez diferencial de la BHS, se evidencia que no existe asociación entre desesperanza y género, y que las correlaciones con nivel educativo y edad son muy bajas. Con el fin de disponer de normas locales, se han elaborado las tablas de equivalencia para Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio permiten concluir que la Escala BHS adaptada evalúa un constructo psicológicamente significativo en nuestro medio y puede ser usada con propósitos de "screening" en diversos contextos.Present study aims to show adaptation process, validation procedures and standardization norms for Beck Hopelessness Scale BHS (A. Beck, 1974; Argentinian Version: I.M. Mikulic, 1998. Argentinian Adaptation underwent a "back translation" process and it has been validated in an

  9. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  10. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  11. Dreaming and insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Edwards

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years. Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996 therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams. The need to distinguish ‘aha’ experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from ‘aha’ experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  12. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  13. Researcher Allegiance and Meta-analysis: The Case of Cognitive Therapy for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, E. A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines the studies of K. S. Dobson regarding metaanalysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory as an outcome measure. Confirms Dobson's conclusions but shows that about half the difference between CT and other treatments was predictable from researcher allegiance. Comparable analysis of a later set…

  14. Cognitive and Behavioral Group Therapy with Puerto Rican Women: A Comparison of Content Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1985-01-01

    Empirically observes psychotherapeutic content themes in two distinct group psychotherapies (cognitive treatment following Beck's theory and behavioral treatment following Lewinsohn's model) conducted with 16 Puerto Rican women. Reveals no significant differences in findings between treatment groups. Discusses content themes in context of Puerto…

  15. Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A Comparison of Individual Psychotherapy and Bibliotherapy for Depressed Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Mark; Scogin, Forrest; McKendree-Smith, Nancy L.; Floyd, Donna L.; Rokke, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one community-residing older adults age 60 or over either received 16 sessions of individual cognitive psychotherapy (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) or read Feeling Good (Burns, 1980) for bibliotherapy. Posttreatment comparisons with the delayed-treatment control indicated that both treatments were superior to a delayed-treatment control.…

  16. Beck Depression Inventory is a useful screening tool for major depressive disorder in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, A H; Robertson, M M; Orth, M

    2006-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). How a simple self-report instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), correlates with clinical assessment of comorbid MDD in this population was assessed. In a continuous sample of 114 adult patients with GTS, assessed clinically using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, 26 (23%) patients met criteria for MDD; more severe tics as measured with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, conduct disorder in childhood or higher age at the time of assessment were associated with MDD. The BDI score had a high negative predictive value for diagnosis of MDD, but a low positive predictive value. Using the BDI as a screening tool for comorbid MDD in patients with GTS is suggested.

  17. What does the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory measure in Chinese students--general psychopathology or depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1991-05-01

    The Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (C-BDI) was administered to 2,150 Chinese secondary-school students, along with other measures of psychological well-being. While C-BDI scores were found to correlate significantly with all other measures of psychological well-being for the various samples, the results showed that they correlated most strongly with the Depression factor of the Chinese General Health Questionnaire. The Depression factor of the Chinese GHQ was observed to be most predictive of C-BDI scores. These data are generally consistent with the empirical data on the relationship between the BDI and other measures of psychological well-being; the claim that the BDI is more a measure of "general psychopathology" is not supported by the present findings.

  18. O velho mundo novo do trabalho: concepção e abordagem em Ulrick Beck e Zygmunt Bauman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chaves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por finalidade apresentar considerações delineadas por Beck e Bauman sobre o mundo do trabalho, problematizando as concepções e possibilidades apontadas por ambos. A hipótese de partida centra-se no argumento de que as constantes mudanças percebidas no mundo do trabalho, neste momento, ocorrem em decorrência de processos societais pretéritos e não propriamente em decorrência da vontade dos indivíduos. Entretanto, para se pensar a relação entre o mundo do trabalho e o indivíduo, na pós-modernidade, é imprescindível a leitura histórica dos aspectos sociais, psicológicos e fisiológicos do trabalho.

  19. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  20. A meta-analytic comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as measures of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B C; Lambert, M J; Moran, P W; McCully, T; Smith, K C; Ellingson, A G

    1984-05-01

    Some clinicians have considered the Beck Depression Inventory, a self-rating scale, too reactive to patient halo effects and, therefore, a liberal measure of treatment outcome. On the other hand, interviewer-rating scales, like the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression have been viewed as more conservative measures of treatment gain. Studies which compared the Beck Depression Inventory to the Hamilton Rating Scale, as dependent measures, were reviewed for the purpose of determining if the scales provided comparable data for assessing treatment effects. The use of meta-analysis techniques resulted in a comparison of effect sizes which indicated that the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly less liberal than the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The implications of these results for selecting outcome measures and the application of meta-analysis techniques for comparing dependent measures are discussed.

  1. A inteligência do mundo : sobre a cognição de processos globais em Octavio Ianni e Ulrich Beck

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Arnaut Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Esta dissertação materializa um conjunto de reflexões a respeito dos trabalhos de Octavio Ianni e Ulrich Beck sobre os processos de globalização. Trata-se de uma sociologia dessas sociologias que objetiva investigar a própria cognoscibilidade desses processos através dos elementos que orientam a criação sociológica desses autores. Abstract: This dissertation is based on a set of analyses of the works of Octavio Ianni, and Ulrich Beck on the processes of globalization. It constitut...

  2. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  3. The relationship between theory of mind and insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulacı, Rıza Gökçer; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Özdel, Kadir; Öztürk, Nefise; Kuru, Erkan; Özdemir, İlker

    2018-02-09

    It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. To assess ToM skills, first- and second-order false-belief tests, a hinting test, a faux pas test, a reading the mind in the eyes test, and a double-bluff test were administered. Patients with OCD had poorer ToM abilities than healthy controls. All ToM scores were significantly lower in the poor insight group than in the good insight group (p insight than in OCD with good insight may contribute to the idea of OCD with poor insight being a subtype with different clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.

  4. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  5. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  6. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  7. Validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory for use in end-stage renal disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosman, W.L.; Siegert, C.E.H.; Korzec, A.; Honig, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for use in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the outcome of both screening measures with each other. Design. Cross-sectional and between-subjects design. The

  8. Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, A.; Kalu, Raphael Birya; Katana, Khamis; Kabunda, Beatrice; Hassan, Amin S.; Newton, Charles R.; Van de Vijver, Fons

    2016-01-01

    Objective We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure. Methods In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II

  9. [Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe]/ Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe. In: Leder ist Brot. Beiträge zur norddeutschen Landes- und Archivgeseten. Schwerin 2011. S. 125-135

  10. Insight in schizophrenia: from conceptualization to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzir, Mounir; Azorin, Jean Michel; Adida, Marc; Boussaoud, Driss; Battas, Omar

    2012-04-01

    Lack of insight into illness is a prevalent and distinguishing feature of schizophrenia, which has a complex history and has been given a variety of definitions. Currently, insight is measured and treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, because it is believed to result from psychological, neuropsychological and organic factors. Thus, schizophrenia patients may display dramatic disorders including demoralization, depression and a higher risk of suicide, all of which are directly or indirectly related to a lack of insight into their illness, and make the treatment difficult. To improve the treatment of people with schizophrenia, it is thus crucial to advance research on insight into their illness. Insight is studied in a variety of ways. Studies may focus on the relationship between insight and psychopathology, may view behavioral outcomes or look discretely at the cognitive dysfunction versus anatomy level of insight. All have merit but they are dispersed across a wide body of literature and rarely are the findings integrated and synthesized in a meaningful way. The aim of this study was to synthesize findings across the large body of literature dealing with insight, to highlight its multidimensional nature, measurement, neuropsychology and social impact in schizophrenia. The extensive literature on the cognitive consequences of lack of insight and the contribution of neuroimaging techniques to elucidating neurological etiology of insight deficits, is also reviewed. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. The effect of measurement quality on targeted structural model fit indices: A comment on Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Hancock, Gregory R

    2018-03-01

    Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016) recently advanced 6 new fit indices and associated cutoff values for assessing data-model fit in the structural portion of traditional latent variable path models. The authors appropriately argued that, although most researchers' theoretical interest rests with the latent structure, they still rely on indices of global model fit that simultaneously assess both the measurement and structural portions of the model. As such, Lance et al. proposed indices intended to assess the structural portion of the model in isolation of the measurement model. Unfortunately, although these strategies separate the assessment of the structure from the fit of the measurement model, they do not isolate the structure's assessment from the quality of the measurement model. That is, even with a perfectly fitting measurement model, poorer quality (i.e., less reliable) measurements will yield a more favorable verdict regarding structural fit, whereas better quality (i.e., more reliable) measurements will yield a less favorable structural assessment. This phenomenon, referred to by Hancock and Mueller (2011) as the reliability paradox, affects not only traditional global fit indices but also those structural indices proposed by Lance et al. as well. Fortunately, as this comment will clarify, indices proposed by Hancock and Mueller help to mitigate this problem and allow the structural portion of the model to be assessed independently of both the fit of the measurement model as well as the quality of indicator variables contained therein. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Psychometric Adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a Self-Rated Suicide Risk Screening Instrument Among Nigerian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope

    2018-03-01

    Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.

  13. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we report investigations of structural and electronic properties of ZnO in wurtzite (WZ), rock salt (RS) and zinc-blende (ZB) phases. Calculations have been done with full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method developed within the frame work of Density Functional Theory (DFT). For structural properties investigations, Perdew and Wang proposed local density approximations (LDA) and Perdew et al. proposed generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA and GGA; however, in RS phase, energy gap is significantly overestimated compared to experimental measurements. The Zn-d band was found to be more narrower with mBJ potential than that of LDA and GGA. On the other hand, our evaluated crystal field splitting energy values overestimate the experimental values. © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

  14. Expression profile analysis of mycotoxin-related genes in cartilage with endemic osteochondropathy kashin-beck disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Feng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy. Mycotoxins are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Because the molecular mechanism of mycotoxin-induced cartilage lesions remains unclear, there is not effective treatment for KBD now. To identify key genes involved in the mycotoxin-induced cartilage lesions, we compared the expression profiles of mycotoxin-related genes (MRG between KBD cartilage and healthy cartilage. Methods Total RNA was isolated from cartilage samples, following by being amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human whole genome microarray chip. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate the microarray data. 1,167 MRG were derived from the environmentally related genomic database Toxicogenomics. The microarray data of MRG was subjected to single gene and gene ontology (GO expression analysis for identifying differently expressed genes and GO. Results We identified 7 up-regulated MRG and 2 down-regulated MRG in KBD cartilage, involved in collagen, apoptosis, metabolism and growth & development. GO expression analysis found that 4 apoptosis-related GO and 5 growth & development-related GO were significantly up-regulated in KBD cartilage. Conclusions Based on the results of previous and our studies, we suggest that mycotoxins might contribute to the development of KBD through dysfunction of MRG involved in collagen, apoptosis and growth & development in cartilage.

  15. Prediction of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Score Using Acoustic Measurements in a Sample of Iium Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri Zanil, Muhamad; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Azam, Huda

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatrist currently relies on questionnaires and interviews for psychological assessment. These conservative methods often miss true positives and might lead to death, especially in cases where a patient might be experiencing suicidal predisposition but was only diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD). With modern technology, an assessment tool might aid psychiatrist with a more accurate diagnosis and thus hope to reduce casualty. This project will explore on the relationship between speech features of spoken audio signal (reading) in Bahasa Malaysia with the Beck Depression Inventory scores. The speech features used in this project were Power Spectral Density (PSD), Mel-frequency Ceptral Coefficients (MFCC), Transition Parameter, formant and pitch. According to analysis, the optimum combination of speech features to predict BDI-II scores include PSD, MFCC and Transition Parameters. The linear regression approach with sequential forward/backward method was used to predict the BDI-II scores using reading speech. The result showed 0.4096 mean absolute error (MAE) for female reading speech. For male, the BDI-II scores successfully predicted 100% less than 1 scores difference with MAE of 0.098437. A prediction system called Depression Severity Evaluator (DSE) was developed. The DSE managed to predict one out of five subjects. Although the prediction rate was low, the system precisely predict the score within the maximum difference of 4.93 for each person. This demonstrates that the scores are not random numbers.

  16. Factorial Structure of Depressive Symptoms in Anglophone Caribbean University Students: Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó establecer propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-Segunda Edición (BDI-II con estudiantes de una universidad del Caribe (n=400, 76% mujeres, edad media=25.2. Además, administramos la Escala de Elasticidad de Ego-89, La Escala de Tensión Percibida, La Escala de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo (Versión de Rasgo y La Escala de Depresión de Zung. El análisis factorial confirmativo comparó la estructura observada con las estructuras oblicuas propuestas en los modelos de dos factores. Las estimaciones factoriales y los índices de calidad de ajuste sugirieron adecuado ajuste para modelos de dos factores. La consistencia interna (=.86 y la fiabilidad test-retest (n=57, r=.78 eran fuertes. Las correlaciones de validez eran significativas en las direcciones teóricamente esperadas. Los resultados apoyan el uso del BDI-II con estudiantes del Caribe.

  17. Biological reduction of iron to the elemental state from ochre deposits of Skelton Beck in Northeast England

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    Pattanathu K S M Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochre, consequence of acid mine drainage, is iron oxides-rich soil pigments that can be found in the water drainage from historic base metal and coal mines. The anaerobic strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella denitrificans were used for the microbial reduction of iron from samples of ochre collected from Skelton Beck (Saltburn Orange River, NZ 66738 21588 in Northeast England. The aim of the research was to determine the ability of the two anaerobic bacteria to reduce the iron present in ochre and to determine the rate of the reduction process. The physico-chemical changes in the ochre sample after the microbial reduction process were observed by the production of zero-valent iron which was later confirmed by the detection of elemental Fe in XRD spectrum. The XRF results revealed that 69.16% and 84.82% of iron oxide can be reduced using G. sulfurreducens and S. denitrificans respectively after 8 days of incubation. These results could provide the basis for the development of a biohydrometallurgical process for the production of elemental iron from ochre sediments.

  18. Reliability and validity of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 in patients with Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Mohammad Imran; Wang, Di-Miao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to check the reliability and validity of the 12-item Chinese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for the assessment of disability in patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). We recruited 219 patients with KBD from the high-risk KBD area in the Shaanxi province, using stratified multistage random sampling. We assessed each patient using the Chinese version of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC). Statistical evaluations of the instruments consisted of Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Cronbach's alpha and ICC for the six domains ranged from 0.704 to 0.906 and 0.690 to 0.852, respectively. A six-factor structure fits the data well (CFI = 0.967, TLI = 0.944, RMSEA = 0.08). Regarding convergent validity, the four domains of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 (getting around, self-care, life activity, and participation) showed moderate-to-strong correlation for all three domains of the WOMAC (0.428 WHODAS 2.0 (understanding and communication, and getting along with people) showed weak correlation for the three domains of WOMAC (0.182 WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument when administered to KBD patients.

  19. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  20. Convergent Validity of the CORE Measures with Measures of Depression for Clients in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jane; Barkham, Michael; Stiles, William B.; Twigg, Elspeth; Hardy, Gillian E.; Rees, Anne; Evans, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Clients (N = 77) undergoing cognitive therapy for depression were assessed before treatment with the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), which encompasses domains of subjective well-being, problems, functioning, and risk of harming self or others, along with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDIII), the Hamilton…

  1. Child molesters' cognitive distortions. Conceptualizations of the term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Filip; Zielona-Jenek, Monika

    2016-10-31

    The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices. The primary theoretical background in the description of the concept of cognitive distortions of child molesters was the social cognition theory, but it was complemented with the assumptions of the theory of cognitive psychotherapy, extended theory of mind and discursive psychology perspective. Particular concepts describe the cognitive distortions relating them to different classes of cognitive phenomena: products, processes and structures, and the only thing they have in common is their incompatibility of their content to the social norms. Giving this concept a normative nature leads to internal contradictions within the conceptions that concern it. Moreover, using it to explain the various processes oversimplifies the picture of this phenomenon and leads to contradictions between theories. It is, therefore, necessary to consider replacing the term cognitive distortions with alternative and more precise concepts.

  2. Sintomas depressivos no câncer de mama: Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cangussu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form (BDI-SF, para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se medidas descritivas e o teste de qui-quadrado, que avaliou a associação entre variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e os sintomas depressivos. O nível de significância considerado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 29,6%. Os fatores associados à presença desses sintomas foram o tratamento quimioterápico (p = 0,021, presença de dor (p = 0,018 e limitação do movimento do membro superior (p = 0,010 e pior percepção da saúde (p = 0,018. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas depressivos são frequentes no câncer de mama, assim a saúde mental das mulheres com esse tipo de câncer deve ser investigada e tratada quando necessário, reduzindo o impacto desses sintomas na vida da mulher.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer and identify risk factors associated to its occurrence. METHODS: It was a transversal study where 71 women with breast cancer were interviewed. Two instruments were applied, being one questionnaire used to verify sociodemographic and clinical data, and the Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form to evaluate depressive symptoms. Descriptive methods and chi-square test were utilized to analyze data, evaluating association between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical data. Significance level was considered of 5%. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms prevalence was 29,6%. Factors associated to the presence of this kind of symptoms were

  3. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  4. Towards a New Kind of Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Slipper, Callan

    2013-01-01

    To explore Chiara’s cognitive proposal, this article takes a phenomenological and interdisciplinary approach in an attempt to give insight into the experience of cognition and offer a basis for understanding it within the context of human development. The article outlines three modes of cognition that can be seen in human being using a schematic understanding of childhood development as a basis. These modes of cognition are then looked at from an evolutionary perspective seeing how human cogn...

  5. Cognitive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbelt, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Introductory presentation on cognitive modeling for the course ‘Cognitive control’ of the MSc program Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University. It addresses basic questions, such as 'What is a model?', 'Why use models?', and 'How to use models?'

  6. Is It the Appropriate Time to Stop Applying Selenium Enriched Salt in Kashin-Beck Disease Areas in China?

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    Yujie Ning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify significant factors of selenium (Se nutrition of children in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD endemic areas and non-KBD area in Shaanxi Province for providing evidence of whether it is the time to stop applying Se-enriched salt in KBD areas. A cross-sectional study contained 368 stratified randomly selected children aged 4–14 years was conducted with 24-h retrospective questionnaire based on a pre-investigation. Food and hair samples were collected and had Se contents determined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Average hair Se content of 349.0 ± 60.2 ng/g in KBD-endemic counties was significantly lower than 374.1 ± 47.0 ng/g in non-KBD counties. It was significantly higher in the male children (365.2 ± 52.3 ng/g than in the female (345.0 ± 62.2 ng/g, p = 0.002 and significantly higher in the 4.0–6.9 years group (375.2 ± 58.9 ng/g than the 7.0–14.0 years group (347.0 ± 56.1 ng/g, p < 0.01. Gender, living area, Se intake without supplements, Se-enriched salt, oil source and protein intake were identified as significant factors of hair Se contents. Cereals, meat and milk were commonly included as significant food categories that mainly contributed to Se intake without supplement of the whole population. Balanced dietary structure without Se supplement could effectively enhance and maintain children’s Se nutrition. It may be the time to stop applying Se-enriched salt in KBD areas in Shaanxi Province.

  7. Validity and Clinical Utility of Subtyping by the Beck Depression Inventory in Women Seeking Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezaj, Valentina; Barnes, Rachel D; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-09-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is commonly used in the screening and evaluation process with bariatric surgery candidates despite relatively limited psychometric evidence in this patient group. We examined the validity of the BDI and its clinical utility for subtyping women seeking gastric bypass surgery. One hundred twenty-four women evaluated for gastric bypass surgery were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P) and completed a self-report battery of psychosocial measures including the BDI. Based on the SCID-I/P, 12.9 % (n = 16) met criteria for current mood disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed the BDI had a good area under the curve (0.788) for predicting SCID-I/P mood disorder diagnosis; BDI score of >15 optimized both sensitivity and specificity. Patients diagnosed with SCID-I/P mood disorders had significantly higher levels of eating disorder psychopathology, self-esteem, and shame, than those without mood disorders. Based on a BDI cut-off score of >15, 41.9 % (n = 52) were categorized as high-BDI and 58.1 % (n = 72) as low-BDI. Patients characterized as high-BDI also had significantly higher levels of all associated measures than those with low-BDI; effect sizes for the differences by BDI subtyping were generally 2-3 times greater than those observed when comparing SCID-I/P-based mood versus no mood disorder subgroups. In women seeking gastric bypass surgery, the BDI demonstrated limited acceptability efficiency for identifying mood disorders with a cut-point score of >15. When identifying clinical severity, however, subtyping women by BDI scores of >15 may identify a significantly more disturbed subgroup than relying on a SCID-I/P-generated mood disorder diagnosis.

  8. Factor structure and clinical utility of the Beck depression inventory in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to assess depression symptoms, but its factor structure and its clinical utility have not been evaluated in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. A total of 882 treatment-seeking obese patients with BED were administered structured interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders) and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a brief 16-item BDI version with a three-factor structure (affective, attitudinal and somatic). Both 21- and 16-item versions showed excellent internal consistency (both α=0.89) and had significant correlation patterns with different aspects of eating disorder psychopathology; three factors showed significant but variable associations with eating disorder psychopathology. Area under the curves (AUC) for both BDI versions were significant in predicting major depressive disorder (MDD; AUC=0.773 [16-item], 73.5% sensitivity/70.2% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 79.5% sensitivity/64.1% specificity) and mood disorders (AUC=0.763 [16-item], 67.1% sensitivity/71.5% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 84.2% sensitivity/55.7% specificity). The 21-item BDI (cutoff score ≥16) showed higher negative predictive values (94.0% vs. 93.0% [MDD]; 92.4% vs. 88.3% [mood disorders]) than the brief 16-item BDI (cutoff score ≥13). Both BDI versions demonstrated moderate performance as a screening instrument for MDD/mood disorders in obese patients with BED. Advantages and disadvantages for both versions are discussed. A three-factor structure has potential to inform the conceptualization of depression features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies. In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants. The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8). The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.

  10. Dimensional and hierarchical models of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in an Arab college student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of depressive symptomatology from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objectives of the study were: (i using the responses of a sample of Arab college students to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in CFA, to compare the "goodness of fit" indices of the original dimensional three-and two-factor first-order models, and their modifications, with the corresponding hierarchical models (i.e., higher - order and bifactor models; (ii to assess the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II, including convergent/discriminant validity with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25. Method Participants (N = 624 were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the questionnaires in class. CFA was done by AMOS, version 16. Eleven models were compared using eight "fit" indices. Results In CFA, all the models met most "fit" criteria. While the higher-order model did not provide improved fit over the dimensional first - order factor models, the bifactor model (BFM had the best fit indices (CMNI/DF = 1.73; GFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.034. All regression weights of the dimensional models were significantly different from zero (P Conclusion The broadly adequate fit of the various models indicates that they have some merit and implies that the relationship between the domains of depression probably contains hierarchical and dimensional elements. The bifactor model is emerging as the best way to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression. The psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II lend support to our CFA results.

  11. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...

  12. Insights and their emergence in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasmundi, Sarah Bro; Linell, Per

    2017-01-01

    performance in emergency medicine. We show how sense-making and insights are accomplished by medical teams when they integrate cultural expertise, professional skills, inter-bodily dynamics, material constraints and affordances within the environment, i.e. when local co-action is embedded in socio...... of sense-making, problem-solving and task performance in naturalistic contexts. Second, it presents a promising method for the analysis of cognitive activities, Cognitive Event Analysis (CEA), with which we investigate real-life medical interactions, especially the emergence of insights in procedural task...

  13. Guido Beck and the night of the long police batons: some observations about the relationship between physics and politics in the Argentinean context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Passos Videira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper consists in presenting the reaction of the physicist Guido Beck (1903-1988 towards the political events that occurred in the University of Buenos Aires (UBA, during the second term of 1966. It is not our intention to write a deep treatise on the problem, but to outline some of the ideas that Guido Beck had on the relation between science, State and society in South-American context. That will be done by describing his reaction to the well-known ‘night of the long police batons’. Beck had always been sensitive to the political instability in Argentinean academic system, once that political and ideological disputes could jeopardize the work towards the establishment of a scientific community in that country. As a conclusion, I defend the thesis that in Beck’s point of view the physicists at UBA had misunderstood the importance they had to Argentinean government and to part of the population in that same country.

  14. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: convergence with neurobiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David A; Beck, Aaron T

    2010-09-01

    In this review paper a modified cognitive neurophysiological model of Aaron T. Beck's cognitive formulation of anxiety and depression is proposed that provides an elaborated account of the cognitive and neural mediational processes of cognitive therapy (CT). Empirical evidence consistent with this model is discussed that indicates the effectiveness of cognitive therapy could be associated with reduced activation of the amygdalohippocampal subcortical regions implicated in the generation of negative emotion and increased activation of higher-order frontal regions involved in cognitive control of negative emotion. Future cognitive neuroscience research is needed on the unique brain substrates affected by CT and their role in facilitating symptom change. This future research would have important implications for improving the efficiency and efficacy of this treatment approach. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cognitive and emotional approach to assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs, F; Granger, B; Debray, Q; Ducroix, C

    1999-01-01

    Assertiveness is an individual function which allows adaptation to social interaction. It needs an heterogeneous psychological processus using behavioral, cognitive and emotional components in its expression. Dysfunction in assertiveness contributes to anxious, depressive and personality disorders, representing a frequent impairment for patients. Assertiveness was measured in a population of patients with anxious disorders (n = 33) without concomitant major depression. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was used for the clinical evaluation, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Coopersmith Inventory was also used for clinical measure of depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Global score to Rathus Assertiveness, correlated no specifically with all the others emotional factors. This multidimensional function would benefit to a more discriminant approach, measuring first behavioral and cognitive skills employed in social adaptation and secondly the emotional component of the processus.

  17. Reliability and validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen for medical patients in the general German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2014-03-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen (BDI-FS) is a self-report instrument for the detection of depression in youths and adults. It measures the severity of the depression, corresponding to the non-somatic criteria for the diagnosis of a major depression according to DSM-5. Until now the psychometric properties of the instrument have not been studied in the general population. In 2012, a survey representative for the Federal Republic of Germany was conducted. In addition to the BDI-FS, further self-rating questionnaires as well as a demographic questionnaire were administered. Altogether, 4480 people were surveyed with a return rate of 56.1% (N=2467 persons). Approximately 53% of those surveyed were women. The average age was 49.4 years (SD=18.0), with a range of 14-91 years. For the BDI-FS total-scores, a coefficient α of .84 was determined (women: α=.83; men: α=.85). In addition, a convergent validity (r=.67) was determined with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The discriminant validity of the BDI-FS can be classified as satisfactory. Based on a confirmatory factor analysis, the one-dimensionality of the BDI-FS could be confirmed, achieving very good fit indices (total sample: RMSEA=.058, CFI=.990, TLI=.986). An additional invariance analysis regarding gender, different age groups and their interaction resulted in strict invariance for the different multi-group analyses. Studies regarding stability have yet to be undertaken. A standard diagnostic interview for depression was not included. The results support the reliability and validity of the BDI-FS for use with the general German population. Although in the present studies the BDI-FS was superior to the PHQ-9 in terms of its ability to discriminate between depressive and somatic symptoms, in future investigations the diagnostic efficiency of the BDI-FS should be compared with this and other depression inventories (e.g., PHQ-2, PHQ-8, and CES-D). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Chronic alcoholism: insights from neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Maurage, P; Kornreich, C; Verbanck, P; Noël, X

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the anatomical structures and cellular processes underlying psychiatric disorders may help bridge the gap between clinical signs and basic physiological processes. Accordingly, considerable insight has been gained in recent years into a common psychiatric condition, i.e., chronic alcoholism. We reviewed various physiological parameters that are altered in chronic alcoholic patients compared to healthy individuals--continuous electroencephalogram, oculomotor measures, cognitive event-related potentials and event-related oscillations--to identify links between these physiological parameters, altered cognitive processes and specific clinical symptoms. Alcoholic patients display: (1) high beta and theta power in the resting electroencephalogram, suggesting hyperarousal of their central nervous system; (2) abnormalities in smooth pursuit eye movements, in saccadic inhibition during antisaccade tasks, and in prepulse inhibition, suggesting disturbed attention modulation and abnormal patterns of prefrontal activation that may stem from the same prefrontal "inhibitory" cortical dysfunction; (3) decreased amplitude for cognitive event-related potentials situated along the continuum of information-processing, suggesting that alcoholism is associated with neurophysiological deficits at the level of the sensory cortex and not only disturbances involving associative cortices and limbic structures; and (4) decreased theta, gamma and delta oscillations, suggesting cognitive disinhibition at a functional level. The heterogeneity of alcoholic disorders in terms of symptomatology, course and outcome is the result of various pathophysiological processes that physiological parameters may help to define. These alterations may be related to precise cognitive processes that could be easily monitored neurophysiologically in order to create more homogeneous subgroups of alcoholic individuals.

  19. Cognitive vulnerability to depression: an exploration of dysfunctional attitudes and ruminative response styles in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Altareb, Belkeis

    2012-03-01

    There has been little exploration of Beck's cognitive theory of depression and Nolen-Hoeksem's response styles theory within Arab populations. The study investigates the generalizability of these clinically influential models to Emirati citizens residing within United Arab Emirates (UAE). An opportunity sample of 450 undergraduate participants was assessed for dysfunctional attitudes using an Arabic/English 40-item version of Weissman and Beck's Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS). Participants also completed Arabic/English versions of Nolen-Hoeksema's ruminative response styles (RRS) scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Correlation and regression analyses showed depression to be associated with both RRS and dysfunctional attitudes. The study supports the generalization of these clinically influential theories of depression within a UAE context. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Stop Thinking and Start Doing: Switching from Cognitive Therapy to Behavioral Activation in a Case of Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottonari, Kathryn A.; Roberts, John E.; Thomas, Sherilyn N.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent investigations have demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are both efficacious treatments for depression (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Dimidjian et al., 2006; Dobson, 1989; Gloaguen, Cottraux, Cucherat, & Blackburn, 1998; Hollon, Thase, & Markowitz, 2002; Jacobson et al., 1996). This…

  1. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  2. [Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hortmuth, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus:Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410 AD. (Vordingborg, 2009).

  3. Cognitive ecology: ecological factors, life-styles, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive ecology integrates cognition, ecology, and neurobiology in one topic and has recently broadened into an exciting diversity of themes covering the entire range of cognition and ecological conditions. The review identifies three major environmental factors interacting with cognition: environmental variation (predictable and unpredictable), environmental complexity and predation. Generally, variable environments favor cognitive abilities such as exploration, learning, innovation, memory and also result in larger brains as compared to stable environments. Likewise, cognition is enhanced in complex versus simple environments, whereas the relationship between predation and cognitive abilities can be positive or negative. However, organisms have often evolved entire life-styles (e.g., residency versus migration, food-caching versus noncaching, generalism versus specialism) to deal with these environmental factors. Considering cognition within this framework provides a much more diverse picture of how cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with other adaptations to environmental challenges. This integrated approach identifies gaps of knowledge and allows the formulation of hypotheses for future testing. Several recently emerged approaches study cognitive abilities at a new and in part highly integrated level. For example, the effect that environment has on the development of cognitive abilities during ontogeny will improve our understanding about cause and effect and gene-environment interactions. Together with two recently emerged highly integrative approaches that link personality and pace-of-life syndromes with cognitive ecology these new directions will improve insight how cognition is interlinked with other major organizational processes. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. REFLEX : A metacognitive group treatment to improve insight in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, M.; Van der Meer, L.; De Vos, A.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Van der Gaag, M.; Aleman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many people with schizophrenia (50-80%) demonstrate impaired insight. A number of interventions aiming to improve insight have been proposed and evaluated, for example cognitive behavioral therapy and psycho-education. Results of these interventions leave room for improvement. Therefore,

  5. Insight in Schizophrenia : Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; de Vos, Annerieke E.; Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Nolen, Willem A.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one's traits and

  6. the relationship between insight and psychosis in state patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the link between insight and cognitive impairment;'5-17 and the value of insight as a predictor of outcome""I. ... and the social consequences of mental disorder) and 17 specific items measured by the positive and ..... Davilla R. Scher H. Unawareness of illness and neuropsychological perfonnance in chronic schizophrenia.

  7. The Role of Social and Cognitive Processes in the Relationship between Fear Network and Psychological Distress among Parents of Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gajda, Tina Marie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether cognitive and social processing variables mediated the relationship between fear network and depression among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Parents whose children were initiating HSCT (N = 179) completed survey measures including fear network, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), cognitive processing variables (positive reappraisal and self-blame) and social processing variables (emotional support and holding back from...

  8. A Multimodal, Nonpharmacologic Intervention Improves Mood and Cognitive Function in People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E; Bisht, Babita; Hall, Michael J; Rubenstein, Linda M; Louison, Rebecca; Klein, Danielle T; Wahls, Terry L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether participation in a 12-month multimodal intervention would improve mood and cognitive function in adults with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). In this one-arm, open-label feasibility trial, participants were prescribed a home-based multimodal intervention, including (1) a modified Paleolithic diet; (2) an exercise program (stretching and strengthening of the trunk and lower limb muscles); (3) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EStim) of trunk and lower limb muscles; and (4) stress management (meditation and self-massage). Individuals completed measures of mood (Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories) and cognitive (Cognitive Stability Index, Cognitive Screening Test, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System) and executive function (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of the intervention. Dosage of the multimodal intervention was assessed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The more individuals participated in the intervention activities, the greater improvements they had from baseline to 12 months on self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]; ps = 0.001 to 0.02), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]; ps = Paleolithic diet than to exercise and stress management dosage. Anxiety and depression changes were evident after just a few months, whereas changes in cognitive function were generally not observed until later in the intervention period. Mood and cognitive function changes from baseline to 12 months were significantly associated with fatigue improvements (ps = Paleolithic diet, exercise, EStim, and stress management intervention like this one has the potential to improve the mood and cognitive symptoms that can lead to considerable suffering in people with MS, potentially improving quality of life and function for people with progressive MS.

  9. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Reciprocal relations between cognitive neuroscience and formal cognitive models: opposites attract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Birte U; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Eichele, Tom; Brown, Scott; Serences, John T

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists study how the brain implements particular cognitive processes such as perception, learning, and decision-making. Traditional approaches in which experiments are designed to target a specific cognitive process have been supplemented by two recent innovations. First, formal cognitive models can decompose observed behavioral data into multiple latent cognitive processes, allowing brain measurements to be associated with a particular cognitive process more precisely and more confidently. Second, cognitive neuroscience can provide additional data to inform the development of formal cognitive models, providing greater constraint than behavioral data alone. We argue that these fields are mutually dependent; not only can models guide neuroscientific endeavors, but understanding neural mechanisms can provide key insights into formal models of cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  12. Insight and Treatment Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Cynthia O.; Loebel, Antony D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the effect of lurasidone and quetiapine extended-release (XR) on insight and judgment and assess the longitudinal relationships between improvement in insight and cognitive performance, functional capacity, quality of well-being, and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Design: Clinically unstable patients with schizophrenia (N=488) were randomized to once-daily, fixed-dose treatment with lurasidone 80mg, lurasidone 160mg, quetiapine XR 600mg, or placebo, followed by a long-term, double-blind, flexible-dose continuation study involving these agents. Results: Significantly greater improvement in insight and judgment (assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale G12 item) for the lurasidone and quetiapine XR groups, compared to the placebo group, was observed at Week 6. Over a subsequent six-month continuation period, the flexible dose lurasidone group showed significantly greater improvement in insight from acute phase baseline compared to the flexible-dose quetiapine XR group (QXR-QXR) (p=0.032). Improvement in insight was significantly correlated with improvement in cognition (p=0.014), functional capacity (p=0.006, UPSA-B), quality of well-being (p=0.033, QWB), and depressive symptoms (p=0.05, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score) across treatment groups and study periods. Conclusion: In this post-hoc analysis, flexibly dosed lurasidone 40 to 160mg/d was found to be associated with significantly greater improvement in insight compared to flexibly dosed quetiapine XR 200 to 800mg/d over long-term treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Across treatment groups, improvement in insight and judgment was significantly associated with improvement in cognition, functional capacity, quality of well-being, and depressive symptoms over time. PMID:29410934

  13. The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining emergent structure remains a challenge for all areas of cognitive science, and problem solving is no exception. The modern study of insight has drawn attention to the issue of emergent cognitive structure in problem solving research. We propose that the explanation of insight is beyond the scope of conventional approaches to cognitive…

  14. The end of the Strecknitz asylum at Lübeck - a contribution to the social history of psychiatry during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, P; Dilling, H

    1995-09-01

    At a first place the NS-policy of psychiatry is outlined -its global planning as well as its excecution. The picture is supplemented by and contrasted with its local implementation exemplified by the Strecknitz asylum at Lübeck. It becomes clear how much the global concept of the extermination of patients was interwoven with pragmatic plans of local authorities. At Lübeck only the partial identity of these interests led to the deportation of more than 600 patients. They were distributed to several transit camps in Hesse where more than 80% had died by the end of the Second World War. The main causes of death were hunger and infectious diseases - consequences of a deliberate and well-organized neglect. The behaviour and the reactions on the part of the relatives were shaped by supply shortages during the war, by internalized propaganda and by fear. The long-term effects beyond the end of the NS-regime vary a lot. Some of the relatives' coping strategies are portrayed. In some cases the murder of close family members continues to have its effects in the form of family secrets.

  15. Osteo-chondroprogenitor-specific deletion of the selenocysteine tRNA gene, Trsp, leads to chondronecrosis and abnormal skeletal development: a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M Downey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease, a syndrome characterized by short stature, skeletal deformities, and arthropathy of multiple joints, is highly prevalent in specific regions of Asia. The disease has been postulated to result from a combination of different environmental factors, including contamination of barley by mold mycotoxins, iodine deficiency, presence of humic substances in drinking water, and, importantly, deficiency of selenium. This multifunctional trace element, in the form of selenocysteine, is essential for normal selenoprotein function, including attenuation of excessive oxidative stress, and for the control of redox-sensitive molecules involved in cell growth and differentiation. To investigate the effects of skeletal selenoprotein deficiency, a Cre recombinase transgenic mouse line was used to trigger Trsp gene deletions in osteo-chondroprogenitors. Trsp encodes selenocysteine tRNA([Ser]Sec, required for the incorporation of selenocysteine residues into selenoproteins. The mutant mice exhibited growth retardation, epiphyseal growth plate abnormalities, and delayed skeletal ossification, as well as marked chondronecrosis of articular, auricular, and tracheal cartilages. Phenotypically, the mice thus replicated a number of the pathological features of Kashin-Beck disease, supporting the notion that selenium deficiency is important to the development of this syndrome.

  16. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol and drug use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangé, Bernard P; Marlatt, G Alan

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been successfully used to treat addiction. This article is in part a review on addiction models such as relapse prevention by Marlatt & Gordon, stages of change by Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, deriving from motivational interview, developed by Miller & Rollnick, as well as the cognitive models by Beck et al. Based on literature evidence for the development of effective treatment programs, we report on a group treatment model used in a group of alcoholics referred by the Department of Worker's Health Surveillance at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to the Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Research Center. Results are presented indicating that this type of treatment could be one alternative to others treatments in use. New research is needed to better validate cognitive-behavioral approach to alcohol and drug problems.

  17. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR PTSD IN COLOMBIAN COMBAT VETERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BOTERO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  18. Suicidal behavior and insight into illness among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between suicidal behavior and socio-demographic and clinical factors, including insight into illness, in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We evaluated 104 inpatients using the Self-Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ) for insight assessment, several Beck-related symptoms rating scales, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology. These patients were also evaluated for suicidal behavior and risk using the critical items of the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and lifetime suicide attempts. Patients with suicidal behavior generally had greater insight into illness than those who were non-suicidal. After controlling for depressive symptoms, the association of insight into illness with current suicidal ideation remained significant, whereas the association between insight and lifetime suicide attempts was no longer significant. As predicted, the regression analyses revealed that those with greater suicide risk had significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness and more lifetime suicide attempts. Moreover, greater insight into illness appeared to have a close, independent connection to suicidal behavior. Our findings suggest that depression, hopelessness, and greater insight into illness are major risk factors for suicide in patients with schizophrenia. It is plausible that depression mediates the relationship between greater insight into illness and suicidal behavior. Aggressive improvement of insight without the risk of deteriorating depressive symptoms may be warranted to reduce the risk of suicide.

  19. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Yuki; Ito, Koki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yutaka; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia. Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS), Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI)-30. The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms. Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness.

  20. Cognitive Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Ciril Bosch-Rosa; Thomas Meissner; Antoni Bosch-Domènech

    2015-01-01

    Smith et al. (1988) reported large bubbles and crashes in experimental asset markets, a result that has been replicated by a large literature. Here we test whether the occurrence of bubbles depends on the experimental subjects' cognitive sophistication. In a two-part experiment, we first run a battery of tests to assess the subjects' cognitive sophistication and classify them into low or high levels of cognitive sophistication. We then invite them separately to two asset market experimen...

  1. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  2. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... antidepressant, has significant precognitive effects in MDD unrelated to mood improvement. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was shown to alleviate executive dysfunction in an RCT of adults after full or partial remission of MDD. Preliminary evidence also indicates that erythropoietin may alleviate cognitive...

  3. The neural exploitation hypothesis and its implications for an embodied approach to language and cognition: Insights from the study of action verbs processing and motor disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Cuccio, Valentina

    2018-03-01

    As it is widely known, Parkinson's disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder. In the light of these findings, it has been suggested that Parkinson disorder can be interpreted within an embodied cognition framework (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015). The central tenet of any embodied approach to language and cognition is that high order cognitive functions are grounded in the sensory-motor system. With regard to this point, Gallese (2008) proposed the neural exploitation hypothesis to account for, at the phylogenetic level, how key aspects of human language are underpinned by brain mechanisms originally evolved for sensory-motor integration. Glenberg and Gallese (2012) also applied the neural exploitation hypothesis to the ontogenetic level. On the basis of these premises, they developed a theory of language acquisition according to which, sensory-motor mechanisms provide a neurofunctional architecture for the acquisition of language, while retaining their original functions as well. The neural exploitation hypothesis is here applied to interpret the profile of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. It is suggested that action semantic impairments directly tap onto motor disorders. Finally, a discussion of what theory of language is needed to account for the interactions between language and movement disorders is presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heuristics and Cognitive Error in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Patel, Sohil H

    2018-05-01

    The field of cognitive science has provided important insights into mental processes underlying the interpretation of imaging examinations. Despite these insights, diagnostic error remains a major obstacle in the goal to improve quality in radiology. In this article, we describe several types of cognitive bias that lead to diagnostic errors in imaging and discuss approaches to mitigate cognitive biases and diagnostic error. Radiologists rely on heuristic principles to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values into simpler judgmental operations. These mental shortcuts allow rapid problem solving based on assumptions and past experiences. Heuristics used in the interpretation of imaging studies are generally helpful but can sometimes result in cognitive biases that lead to significant errors. An understanding of the causes of cognitive biases can lead to the development of educational content and systematic improvements that mitigate errors and improve the quality of care provided by radiologists.

  5. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A; Didie, Elizabeth; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Fama, Jeanne M; Keshaviah, Aparna; Steketee, Gail

    2014-05-01

    There are few effective treatments for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and a pressing need to develop such treatments. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a manualized modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD (CBT-BDD). CBT-BDD utilizes core elements relevant to all BDD patients (e.g., exposure, response prevention, perceptual retraining) and optional modules to address specific symptoms (e.g., surgery seeking). Thirty-six adults with BDD were randomized to 22 sessions of immediate individual CBT-BDD over 24 weeks (n=17) or to a 12-week waitlist (n=19). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were completed pretreatment, monthly, posttreatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The Sheehan Disability Scale and Client Satisfaction Inventory (CSI) were also administered. Response to treatment was defined as ≥30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS total from baseline. By week 12, 50% of participants receiving immediate CBT-BDD achieved response versus 12% of waitlisted participants (p=0.026). By posttreatment, 81% of all participants (immediate CBT-BDD plus waitlisted patients subsequently treated with CBT-BDD) met responder criteria. While no significant group differences in BDD symptom reduction emerged by Week 12, by posttreatment CBT-BDD resulted in significant decreases in BDD-YBOCS total over time (d=2.1, p<0.0001), with gains maintained during follow-up. Depression, insight, and disability also significantly improved. Patient satisfaction was high, with a mean CSI score of 87.3% (SD=12.8%) at posttreatment. CBT-BDD appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious treatment that warrants more rigorous investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Reducing Delusional Conviction Through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser eKhazaal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038

  8. The effectiveness of integrating cognitive-behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on major depressive disorder and suicidal thoughts: A case report with six-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Alimardan Seidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of integrating cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on major depressive disorder and suicidal thoughts in a depressive case suffering from suicidal thoughts. This research was an experimental single-case study with a before-and-after design and six-month follow-up. Data were collected using a clinical interview, the Beck Depressive Inventory, and the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Results indicated the effectiveness of the intervention in decreasing the symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts, with 64% and 67% improvements in depression and suicidal thoughts, respectively. These effects were maintained during the follow-up period.

  9. Implicit and explicit self-related processing in relation to insight in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback

  10. The Effectiveness of Cognitive –Behavioral Group Therapy on the Depression Rate of Imprisoned Women in Ghaen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shokhmgar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current research is aimed at the assessment of the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on the depression rate of imprisoned women.Materials and method: In this experimental research, depression in 14 imprisoned women were diagnosed using Beck depression test. Individuals were randomly classified into two groups. Then ten therapeutic sessions of 90 minutes were programmed for experimental group. At the end of this period both experimental and control groups were asked to respond Beck depression questionnaire for the second time.Results: The results showed the significant decrease (p<0/05 of depression rate of experimental group (0.912 as compared to the control group (1.469.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective way to decrease the depression rates of the imprisoned women

  11. Electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors: A first-principles investigation using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. S. de; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of semilocal exchange and correlation effects on the electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors considering zinc-blende and wurtzite crystal structures. We find that the inclusion of such effects through the use of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential yields an excellent description of the electronic structures of these materials giving energy band gaps which are systematically larger than the ones obtained with standard functionals such as the generalized gradient approximation. The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical band gaps is then significantly reduced with semilocal exchange and correlation effects. However, the effective masses are overestimated in the zinc-blende nitrides, but no systematic trend is found in the wurtzite compounds. New results for energy band gaps and effective masses of zinc-blende and wurtzite indium nitrides are presented

  12. Growth, nutritional status, and signs of rickets in 0-5-year-old children in a Kashin-Beck disease endemic area of Central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooze, Shancy; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Mathieu, Françoise; Bally, Pascale; Yangzom, Dikki; Li, Jin Zhong; Goyens, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    In order to describe the growth of 0-5-year-old Tibetan children living in a Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) endemic rural area and to examine the relationship between anthropometric indicators and clinical signs of rickets, we analyzed the baseline data of a cohort of 668 children enrolled in a prospective program of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Tibetan children suffer from growth retardation. Z score of weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height was below -2 in 32.5%, 27.7%, and 12.1% of the children, respectively. Clinical signs of severe rickets are highly prevalent. Underweight, stunting, and clinical rickets increases with age. Prevalence of malnutrition was higher in the presence of signs of rickets. The proportion of children with a head circumference Z score rickets were observed. Stunting and underweight are frequent and probably associated with rickets.

  13. [Interaction of plasma selenium levels and D12S304 gene site in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease analyzed by multifactor dimensionality reduction software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhiguang; Liu, Li; Guo, Xiong

    2011-07-01

    To explore the interaction of plasma selenium levels and D12S304 gene site in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Case-control design was taken to compare the difference of plasma selenium levels and genotype of D12S304 between KBD patients and non-patients, and the interactions were analyzed by MDR software. Plasma selenium levels was lower in the case group than in the control group, while the D12S304 gene site was not different between the two groups, and no interaction between plasma selenium and genotype was observed. There was no interaction between plasma selenium and genotype at D12S304. Enlarging sample size or selecting another gene site might be needed in exploring the gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of KBD.

  14. Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M; Whiteford, Natalie T; Gelhorn, Heather L

    2013-08-01

    Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnic groups was evaluated in a large sample of college students, using pooled data from 11 universities from diverse geographical regions in the United States (N = 7,369). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of several possible factor structures, and the results from these analyses indicated that the BDI-II was most adequately represented by a hierarchical four-factor structure, composed of three first-order factors and one second-order factor. Results based on analyses of covariance structures indicated there was factorial invariance for this hierarchical four-factor structure across groups, suggesting that the BDI-II provides an assessment of severity of depressive symptoms that is equivalent across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.

  15. The effect of logotherapy on the expressions of cortisol, HSP70, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain scales in advanced cervical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetrisno; Sulistyowati, Sri; Ardhianto, Adhitya; Hadi, Syamsul

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to analyze the effect of logotherapy on the expression of cortisol, HSP70, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and to conduct pain assessments in advanced cervical cancer patients. We carried out this research through pretest-posttest control-group design on the expression of cortisol, HSP70, the BDI, and pain scales after a patient receives logotherapy treatment. Based on a comparative test conducted with the two groups before the treatment, there is no significant difference (p > .05). There is a significant difference (p logotherapy affects the expression of cortisol, BDI, and pain scales in advanced cervical cancer patients, and that it does not affect the expression of HSP70.

  16. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  17. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  18. Subjective Cognitive Decline Correlates With Depression Symptoms and Not With Concurrent Objective Cognition in a Clinic-Based Sample of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Muniz, Martha; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2017-01-19

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is common in older adults; however, its utility in clinic-based samples remains controversial given its strong associations with mood symptoms. Five hundred nineteen individuals aged 60-95 with a wide range of cognitive performance scores were referred by community health clinics for brief screening of cognitive complaints. Linear regression models examined the cross-sectional associations between SCD (5-item self-reported questions), symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and concurrent objective cognitive performance (Cognitive Composite) adjusting for demographics. There was not a significant association between SCD and concurrent objective cognition after adjusting for demographics and depression. In contrast, there was a significant association between SCD and depression after adjusting for demographics and objective cognition. There was also a consistent association between SCD and depression, but not between SCD and objective cognition, in those with high and low levels of SCD reporting, in all ranges of cognitive performance, and in those with mild to moderate depression. Results are consistent with previous findings and suggest that SCD does not accurately reflect concurrent cognitive performance in a clinic-based sample of older adults. Clinical interpretation of SCD should account for the role of depression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Is High IQ Protective Against Cognitive Dysfunction in Narcoleptic Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Mee; Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the cognitive functions of narcoleptics and determine whether intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood in these patients. Sixty-six subjects (33 narcoleptics, 33 controls) were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and an individual standardized intelligence test. The cognitive functions of the narcoleptic patients and the healthy controls were compared, as were those of high-IQ and mid-to-low-IQ narcoleptic patients. Narcoleptics exhibited significantly lower scores in the Corsi Block-Tapping Test forward and backward, and the digit symbol tests, and significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than the controls. However, verbal attention, verbal-visual long-term memory, and executive function task scores did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The mid-to-low-IQ patient group had lower mean digit span backward test, phonemic and semantic fluency Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Korean version of the Boston Naming Test scores, and a higher total score and general depressive symptoms subscales Beck Depression Inventory score than the high-IQ patient group. However, controls exhibited no IQ-related differences in cognitive performance or depressive mood. Patients in the high-IQ group exhibited impaired visual attention and working memory as compared with controls. The findings of the present study show that narcolepsy patients have deficits in visual attention and visual working memory, and tend to feel more general depressive symptoms but not somatic symptoms than their control, nonnarcoleptic counterparts. In addition, it appears that higher intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood.

  20. Therapist and supervisor competencies in cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Vyskocilová, Jana; Mozny, Petr; Novotny, Miroslav; Slepecky, Milos

    2011-01-01

    For cognitive behavioural therapy, acquisition and maintenance of psychotherapeutic and supervisory competencies is crucial. The PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the following keywords: cognitive-behavioural therapy, competencies, therapeutic relationship, intervention, technique, training, supervision, self-reflection, empirically supported, transference, countertransference, scheme of therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy. The search was performed by repeating the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. The articles were sorted and key articles listed in reference lists were searched. In addition, original texts by A.T. Beck, J. Beck, C. Padesky, M. Linehan, R. Leahy, J. Young, W. Kuyken and others were used. The resources were confronted with our own psychotherapeutic and supervisory experiences and only most relevant information was included in the text. Thus, the article is a review with conclusions concerned with competencies in cognitive behavioural therapy. For cognitive behavioural therapy, four domains of competencies in psychotherapy are crucial - relationship, case assessment and conceptualization, self-reflection and intervention. These may be divided into foundational, specific and supervisory. The foundational competencies include recognition of empirical basis for a clinical approach, good interpersonal skills, ability to establish and maintain the therapeutic relationship, self-reflection, sensitivity to a difference and ethical behaviour. The specific competencies involve the skill of case conceptualization in terms of maladaptive beliefs and patterns of behaviour, ability to think scientifically and teach this to the patient, structure therapy and sessions, assign and check homework, etc. The supervisor's competencies include multiple responsibilities in supporting the supervisee, identification and processing of the therapist's problems with the patient, continuous

  1. Sleep apnea syndrome and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia eSforza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airflow cessation resulting in brief arousals and intermittent hypoxemia. Several studies have documented significant daytime cognitive and behavioral dysfunction that seems to extend beyond that associated with simple sleepiness and that persists in some patients after therapeutic intervention. A still unanswered question is whether cognitive symptoms in OSA are primarily a consequence of sleep fragmentation and hypoxemia, or whether they coexist independently from OSA. Moreover, very little is known about OSA effects on cognitive performances in the elderly in whom an increased prevalence of OSA is present.In this review we will consider recent reports in the association between sleep apnea and cognition, with specific interest in elderly subjects, in whom sleep disturbances and age-related cognitive decline naturally occur. This will allow us to elucidate the behavioral and cognitive functions in OSA patients and to gain insight into age differences in the cognitive impairment.Clinically, these outcomes will aid clinicians in the evaluation of diurnal consequences of OSA and the need to propose early treatment.

  2. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  3. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective an...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities.......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  4. Epistemología del riesgo y trama de la vida en tres autores de la modernidad crítica: Jonas, Beck y Giddens / Epistemology of risk and the weave of life in three authors from the critical modernity: Jonas, Beck and Giddens

    OpenAIRE

    Juncosa, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo explora la dimensión epistemológica del riesgo y sus implicaciones en la trama de la vida y el futuro de lo viviente, según tres autores de la modernidad crítica: Hans Jonas, Ulrich Beck y Anthony Giddens. Uno de los elementos que ellos denuncian es la negación del “no-saber” que priva a la sociedad de su capacidad restrictiva frente a las decisiones de riesgo e impide el control social del conocimiento, la ciencia y la técnica. Esta impronta se propone como uno de l...

  5. Cognitive, Emotive, and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y.C.L. Kwok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component, social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component, emotional competence (emotive component, and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Psychological and Cognitive Profile of Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá-Junior, Antônio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-10-01

    Chronic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus are often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as cognitive decline. Once developed, psychological support is essential for improving the quality of life. This study is aimed at identifying impaired mental health in connection with these systemic metabolic disorders. A total of 34 patients were included in this cross-sectional study: 17 hypertensive individuals with a mean age of 59 ± 10 years, and 17 diabetic patients aged 54 ± 10 years. The following psychometric tests were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). A large number of patients with high blood pressure or diabetes was associated with mental health problems (82% or 65%, respectively; p = 0.246). Affective disorder, especially moderate to severe depression, was seen mainly in diabetic patients (76%), whereas hypertensive individuals had higher prevalence of anxiety (64%). There was no cognitive impairment in this middle-aged population. This study shows a high proportion of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, reinforcing the importance of psychiatric support for appropriate control of these metabolic disorders.

  7. Social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option.

  8. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  9. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  10. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  11. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, D M; Innocenti, A; Franzoni, F; Pruneti, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. There is evidence that aerobic exercise improves cognition in MCI patients. Overall research reported moderate effects for global cognition, logical memory, inhibitory control and divided attention. Due to methodological limitations of the investigated studies, findings should be interpreted with caution. Standardized training protocols, larger scale interventions and follow-ups may also provide better insight into the preventive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration in MCI and its conversion into dementia.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Calugi, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN), based on Beck's cognitive theory, was developed in a "generic" form in the early eighties. In recent years, however, improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in maintaining eating disorder psychopathology has led to the development of a "specific" form of CBT, termed CBT-E (E = enhanced), designed to treat all forms of eating disorders, including AN, from outpatient to inpatient settings. Although more studies are required to assess the relative effectiveness of CBT-E with respect to other available treatments, the data indicate that in outpatient settings it is both viable and promising for adults and adolescents with AN. Encouraging results are also emerging from inpatient CBT-E, particularly in adolescents, and clinical services offering CBT-E at different levels of care are now offered in several countries around the world. However, CBT-E requires dissemination in order to become widely available to patients.

  14. Disengagement from tasks as a function of cognitive load and depressive symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Christopher R; Milanovic, Melissa; Tran, Tanya; Cassidy, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Depression is associated with impairment in cognition and everyday functioning. Mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in depression and the factors that influence strategic deployment of cognitive abilities in complex environments remain elusive. In this study we investigated whether depression symptom severity is associated with disengagement from a working memory task (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT) with parametric adjustment of task difficulty. 235 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, low and high cognitive load conditions of the PASAT, and quality of life. Cognitive disengagement was the sum of consecutive items in which participants did not proffer a response to the trial. Individuals with higher depression severity showed more cognitive disengagement on the high but not low cognitive load trial of the PASAT; they did not differ in number of correct responses. Increased disengagement from the low to high cognitive load was associated with more impaired quality of life. Depression severity is associated with increased disengagement from tasks as difficulty increases. These findings suggest the importance of measuring how cognitive skills are avoided in complex environments in addition to considering performance accuracy. Individuals with depressive symptoms might preferentially avoid cognitive tasks that are perceived as more complex in spite of intact ability.

  15. Association study of polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes and Kashin-Beck disease and serum selenium/iodine concentration in a Tibetan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kashin-Beck disease is a kind of degenerative osteoarthropathy. Genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of the selenoprotein genes GPX1 (rs1050450, rs1800668, and rs3811699, TrxR2 (rs5748469, and DIO2 (rs225014 with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD in a Tibetan population and to investigate the association of these SNPs with the serum iodine/selenium concentration in the Tibetan population. DESIGN: Five SNPs including rs1050450, rs1800668, and rs3811699 in the GPX1 gene, rs5748469 in the TrxR2 gene, and rs225014 in the DIO2 gene were analyzed in Tibetan KBD patients and controls using the SNaPshot method. P trend values of the SNPs were calculated using an additive model. RESULTS: None of the five SNPs in the three genes showed a significant association with KBD. Haplotypes TCC, TTC and TTT of rs1050450, rs1800668 and rs3811699 in GPX1 showed a significant association with KBD and controls with P value of 0.0421, 5.0E-4 and 0.0066, respectively. The GPX1 gene (rs1050450 showed a potential significant association with the iodine concentration in the Tibetan study population (P = 0.02726. However, no such association was detected with the selenium concentration (P = 0.2849. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed that single SNPs in the genes GPX1 (rs1050450, rs1800668 and rs3811699, TrxR2 (rs5748469, and DIO2 (rs225014 may not be significantly associated with KBD in a Tibetan population. However, haplotype analysis of SNPs rs1050450, rs1800668 and rs3811699 in GPX1 gene showed a significant association with KBD. The results suggested that GPX1 gene play a protective role in the susceptivity of KBD in Tibetans. Furthermore, the GPX1 gene (rs1050450 may be significantly associated with the serum iodine concentration in Tibetans.

  16. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kako Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Kako, Koki Ito, Naoki Hashimoto, Kuniyoshi Toyoshima, Yusuke Shimizu, Nobuyuki Mitsui, Yutaka Fujii, Teruaki Tanaka, Ichiro Kusumi Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Objectives: To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia.Materials and methods: Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS, Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30.Results: The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms.Conclusion: Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness. Keywords: schizophrenia, insight

  17. A Study on the Reduction of the Depression Level and Improvement of the Psychological Adjustment Level of University Students through a Counseling Programme, Using Beck's Theories of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malii, Ibraheem; Alshareef, Basma

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the reduction of university students' depression level as well as improvement of their psychological adjustment level through a counseling programme, using Beck's Theories of depression. The sample of this study was randomly selected, and categorized into two groups: experimental and control groups. The former…

  18. Insight and illness perception in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2015-03-01

    Insight and illness perception are two concepts of interest in the study of factors related to clinical outcome in patients with psychosis. Insight implies a risk of emotional distress for the patient. Illness perceptions, regardless of their accuracy, might be favorable or not to illness. Literature provides evidence of significant correlates of these factors with clinical outcome, but they are rarely included in a single study. 1) assessing insight and illness perception in a sample of Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and, 2) analyzing how insight and illness perception relate to each other and how they relate to clinical status (i.e., positive, negative, and general psychopathology, depression, and anxiety). Sixty-one participants (55.7% females) were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital; insight and illness perceptions were assessed with the SUMD and the Brief-IPQ, respectively. Clinical status was assessed with the PANSS, CDS and BAI scales. Participants showed good insight, favorable illness perceptions for the cognitive and comprehension dimensions, but unfavorable for the emotional dimension. Clinical status of sample was characterized by mild symptoms. Poor insight related to positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were significantly associated to most clinical status parameters, whereas comprehension showed no significant results. The study not only replicates the significant association on insight and illness perception with clinical outcome, but shows how their patterns of interactions are different, reinforcing the idea that they are two distinct factors worthy of being habitually acknowledged in research and clinical practice.

  19. Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jung-Beeman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an "Aha!" experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1 revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2 revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.

  20. The effects of cognitive therapy versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Christian Jakobsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochrane systematic review methodology, with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized trials, are comparing the effects of cognitive therapy versus 'treatment as usual' for major depressive disorder. To be included the participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Altogether, we included eight trials randomizing a total of 719 participants. All eight trials had high risk of bias. Four trials reported data on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and four trials reported data on the Beck Depression Inventory. Meta-analysis on the data from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression showed that cognitive therapy compared with 'treatment as usual' significantly reduced depressive symptoms (mean difference -2.15 (95% confidence interval -3.70 to -0.60; P<0.007, no heterogeneity. However, meta-analysis with both fixed-effect and random-effects model on the data from the Beck Depression Inventory (mean difference with both models -1.57 (95% CL -4.30 to 1.16; P = 0.26, I(2 = 0 could not confirm the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression results. Furthermore, trial sequential analysis on both the data from Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Becks Depression Inventory showed that insufficient data have been obtained. DISCUSSION: Cognitive therapy might not be an effective treatment for major depressive disorder compared with 'treatment as usual'. The possible treatment effect measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression is relatively small. More randomized trials with low risk of bias, increased sample sizes, and broader more clinically relevant

  1. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  2. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Using the Persian-language version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-Persian) for the screening of depression in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasegh, Sasan; Baradaran, Nafiseh

    2014-10-01

    Early identification and treatment of depression can prevent the development of the full depressive episode and its consequences. Although the Beck Depression Inventory-II is among the most widely used tools for measuring depression, there are relatively few studies that empirically confirm any cutoff points for screening depression among university students. Our subjects were 400 students from Ilam University (Iran). On the basis of a diagnostic interview checklist, the subjects were differentiated whether they were major depressive syndrome positive (MDS+) (i.e., fulfill criteria A and C of major depressive episode Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria) or significant depression positive (SD+) (having depressed mood or anhedonia that caused significant distress or dysfunction). According to receiver operating characteristic curves obtained, the cutoff point of 22 or greater was the most suitable to screen MDS, whereas for screening milder but clinically significant depression (i.e., having depressed mood or anhedonia that caused significant distress or dysfunction), the cutoff point of 14 or greater was the best.

  5. Chondrocytes damage induced by T-2 toxin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of an endemic osteochondropathy, Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yingting; Guo, Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, is characterized by cartilage degeneration which is caused by abnormal catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in KBD pathogenesis. Among the proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, WNT-3A, FZD1, SOX9, and β-catenin were up-regulated, while FRZB was down-regulated in KBD cartilage. C28/I2 cells were evaluated for cell viability using the MTT assay after exposure to T-2 toxin, a suspicious environmental pathogenic factors of KBD. C28/I2 cells were treated with different intervening concentrations (0.001μg/mL,0.005μg/mL and 0.01μg/mL) of T-2 toxin for 24h. The expression of FZD1 and CTNNB1 (i.e.,β-catenin) was significantly reduced and SOX9 expression was significantly increased in chondrocytes after treatment with different intervening concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results indicate that alterations in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in articular cartilage play an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of KBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz, Iran in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a debilitating disease which is caused by social and environmental factors in additionto genetic factors. University students are among the young and vulnerable population to depression and theirpopulation is increasing with increase in universities and higher education institutions. Therefore, any disturbance instudent's mental and physical health is a serious threat for the next generation. In this study, we aimed to estimate theprevalence of depression and its related factors in students of School of Health and Nutrition at Tabriz University ofMedical Sciences, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey on 175 students selected by stratified random sampling, educating indifferent fields at School of Health and Nutrition in 2009. The data collection tool was the short form of the standardBeck Depression Inventory (BDI which is used for screening depression. The collected data were analyzed by softwareStata Statistical Software, Release 10.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. RESULTS: The results showed that 62.7% of the students had depression and from these 10.9% suffered from severedepression. Significantly higher depression rates were seen in students with worrisome about the future. Marriedstudents, those interested in their field of study, those performing prayers and regularly reading the Quran hadsignificantly lower rates of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high prevalence of depression, screening strategies should be implemented to identifydepressed students. Counseling services should be available and accessible to students at risk.

  7. Theoretical Investigation of Half-Metallic Oxides XFeO3 (X = Sr, Ba) via Modified Becke-Johnson Potential Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Saba; Rashid, Muhammad; Din, Fasih Ud; Saddique, M. Bilal; Laref, A.

    2018-03-01

    The cubic XFeO3 (X = Sr, Ba) perovskite oxides are studied for their thermodynamic stability in the ferromagnetic phase by using density functional theory calculations. We also explore the elastic properties of these compounds in terms of elastic constants C ij, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, anisotropy factor A, Poisson's ratio ν and the B/ G ratio. The electronic properties are examined to elucidate the magnetic order, and the thermoelectric properties of XFeO3 (X = Sr, Ba) materials are also presented. The modified Becke-Johnson local density approximation scheme has been used to compute the electronic band structure and density of states, which show that these materials are half-metallic ferromagnetic. We study the magnetic properties by computing the crystal field energy (ΔCF), John-Teller energy (ΔJT) and the exchange splitting energies Δx( d) and Δx( pd). Our results indicate that strong hybridization causes a decrease in the magnetic moment of Fe, which then produces permanent magnetic moments in the nonmagnetic sites.

  8. Enhanced measurement sensitivity of hopeless ideation among older adults at risk of self-harm: Reliability and validity of Likert-type responses to the Beck Hopelessness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Eva; O'Rourke, Norm; Donnelly, Martha

    2010-08-01

    Responses to the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) have been identified as a significant predictor of suicide-related ideation and self-harm, of note, to a greater degree than severity of depressive symptoms. The BHS is the most widely used instrument to assess this construct, yet concern has been expressed about the traditional true/false response format of this instrument. For this study, we obtained responses from older adults to a revised four-point Likert-type BHS response format. A national sample of 117 older Canadians at risk of self-harm was recruited from multiple sources for this study over a one-year period. Most participants were women (65%) with an average age of 68.47 years (SD = 9.02, range 50-92). Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two factors labeled Powerlessness/Disappointment and Negative Future Expectancies. Concurrent validity of this two-factor model of BHS responses is provided vis-a-vis suicide-related ideation subsequent to statistical control for socio-demographic factors, physical health, and depressive symptomatology. Of note, the relative contribution to the measurement of BHS factors is proportionately equal and greater than all other independent variables. We contend that this revised BHS response format may be appropriate for use in clinical and research applications though replication with other samples and populations is warranted.

  9. Opto-electronic response of spinels MgAl2O4 and MgGa2O4 through modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, B.; Khenata, R.; Bouhemadou, A.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Maqbool, M.

    2012-07-01

    A first-principles technique capable of describing the state accurately near to excited states of semiconductors and insulators, namely the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential approximation is used to investigate the opto-electronic response of magnesium spinel oxides: MgAl2O4 and MgGa2O4. The predicted bandgaps using the mBJ exchange approximation show a significant improvement over previous theoretical work using the common LDA and GGA, and are very closer to the experimental results. Band gap dependent optical parameters, like dielectric constant, index of refraction, reflectivity and optical conductivity are calculated and analyzed. The static dielectric constant and refractive index of MgGa2O4 are much larger than that of MgAl2O4. Refractive index drops below unity for higher energy photons, higher than 17 eV, show that the velocities of incident photons are greater than the velocity of light. However, these overlook can be explained by the fact that a signal must be transmitted as a wave packet rather than monochromatic wave. Moreover, the peak positions of the calculated optical parameters move down to low energies when the value of the band gap decreases. This comprehensive theoretical study of the optoelectronic properties predicts that these materials can be effectively used in the optical devices working in major part of the spectrum.

  10. Sensitivity to detect change and the correlation of clinical factors with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in depressed inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Rebecca; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Wilbertz, Gregor; Dykierek, Petra; Zobel, Ingo; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2012-06-30

    Discrepancies between scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as well as differences regarding their sensitivity to detect change, have been reported. This study investigates discrepancies and their potential prediction on the basis of demographic, personality, and clinical factors in depressed inpatients and analyzes the sensitivity to change. The HAMD and the BDI were administered to 105 inpatients with major depressive disorder randomized to 5 weeks of either interpersonal psychotherapy or clinical management. Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Low extraversion and high neuroticism were associated with relatively higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI compared with the HAMD. The HAMD presented a greater reduction of symptom scores than the BDI. Patients with high BDI scores, high HAMD scores or both revealed the greatest change, possibly due to a statistical effect of regression to the mean. Restricted by sample size, analyses were not differentiated by treatment condition. Regression to the mean cannot be tested directly, but it might be considered as a possible explanation. The HAMD and the BDI should be regarded as two complementary rather than redundant or competing instruments as the discrepancy is associated with personality characteristics. Attributing large effect sizes solely to effective treatment and a sensitive measure may be misleading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee A Moore

    Full Text Available Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  12. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  13. Assessing the performance of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential for optical constants of semiconductors in the ultraviolet-visible light region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kousuke; Sakai, Tomohiro

    2018-01-01

    We report on the performance of density functional theory (DFT) with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential and the random phase approximation dielectric function for optical constants of semiconductors in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) light region. We calculate optical bandgaps Eg, refractive indices n, and extinction coefficients k of 70 semiconductors listed in the Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids [(Academic Press, 1985), Vol. 1; (Academic Press, 1991), Vol. 2; and (Academic Press, 1998), Vol. 3] and compare the results with experimental values. The results show that the calculated bandgaps and optical constants agree well with the experimental values to within 0.440 eV for Eg, 0.246-0.299 for n, and 0.207-0.598 for k in root mean squared error (RMSE). The small values of the RMSEs indicate that the optical constants of semiconductors in the UV-Vis region can be quantitatively predicted even by a low-cost DFT calculation of this type.

  14. ELEMENTS REGULATION DURING CARTILAGE AND BONE DEFORMITY - POTENTIAL CLINICAL INDEX IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS, MONITORING AND PROGNOSIS IN CHILDREN OF KASHIN-BECK DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Ma Wei; Xiong, Guo; Farooq, Umer

    2015-01-01

    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is a chronic deforming osteoarthritis starting in early childhood and affecting the cartilage metabolism and endochondral ossification. Selenium (Se) deficiency has been postulated as the major environmental etiological factor for KBD by many studies. Other minerals such as the Manganese (Mn) and calcium (Ca) which don't have uniform distribution in environment are also important elements involved in bone and cartilage formation but their regulation in KBD has been rarely reported. The study was done to investigate the role of Mn and Ca in addition to Se in KBD. In this study, the Se, Mn and Calevels were investigated in children from different groups (KBD group, Healthy group from KBD endemic areas (inner control group), Healthy group (outer control group) from Non KBD areas and KBD group with selenium supplementation). The contents of Mn, S and Ca in serum and hair were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The increased Mn levels of. serum and hair in KBD children were observed compared with normal groups. The Mn and Ca have similar trends in different groups but Se and Mn displayed reversed trends. The Mn and Ca contributed to KBD pathogenesis combined with se in regulation of growth and development. The relative ratio of Mn to Se can be a potential clinical index in early diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of KBD in children.

  15. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  17. Toward understanding the insight paradox: internalized stigma moderates the association between insight and social functioning, hope, and self-esteem among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T

    2007-01-01

    Research has paradoxically linked awareness of illness to both better function outcomes and lesser hope and self-esteem. One possible explanation for these findings is that acceptance of having schizophrenia may impact outcomes differently depending on the meanings the person attaches to this acceptance, particularly whether he or she accepts stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness. To explore this possibility we performed a cluster analysis of 75 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders based on single measures of insight using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, internalized stigma using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and compared groups on concurrent assessments of hope and self-esteem. Three groups were produced by the cluster analyses: low in sight/mild stigma (n = 23), high insight/minimal stigma (n = 25), and high insight/moderate stigma (n = 27). As predicted, analysis of variance-comparing groups revealed that the high insight/moderate stigma group had significantly the lowest levels of hope on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and self-esteem using the Multidimensional Self-esteem Inventory. As predicted, the high insight/minimal stigma group also had significantly less impaired social function than the other groups. Implications for assisting persons to come to cope with awareness of illness and stigma are discussed.

  18. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.

  19. Fish consumption, intake of fats and cognitive decline at middle and older age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; van Gelder, Boukje M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2017-01-01

    To get insight in the impact of fish and fat intake in the prevention of accelerated cognitive decline with ageing, we tested associations between fish and different fat intakes and 5-year change in cognitive functions.

  20. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  1. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  2. Kriisi fataalne oht / Ulrich Beck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Sotsioloogi arvates peitub praeguses majanduskriisis võimalus tuua Euroopa Liit uutele alustele, võttes aluseks printsiibi, et poliitika on rahvuslikul tasemel seda edukam, mida euroopalikum, kosmopoliitlikum ta on

  3. En kommentar til Becks model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipps, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg

    2014-01-01

    Flipped classroom – en trend vi må forholde os til Online læringsressourcer har de sidste par år fået mange til at indse at teknologien har noget radikalt andet at byde på, og dette har skabt en populær didaktik kaldet flipped classroom som vi både ser vinde indpas i folkeskolen og på...... Professionshøjskolen Metropol hvor vi er ansat. Kommentaren her retter sig mod en tidligere bragt artikel i MONA, “Det virtuelle læringsrums topologi” af Claus Jessen. Vi argumenterer for at den didaktiske model flipped classrooms brug af video, frem for tavleundervisning, kan frigøre undervisningstid til at arbejde...

  4. Similar changes in cognitions following cognitive-behavioral therapy or escitalopram for major depressive disorder: Implications for mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabaugh, Amy; Fisher, Lauren; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Cohen, Mariana; Baer, Lee; Shapero, Benjamin G; Huz, Ilana; Cardoos, Amber; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E

    2015-05-01

    Psychosocial treatments and medications both have been shown to be effective in treating major depressive disorder. We hypothesized that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) would outperform medication on measures of cognitive change. We randomized depressed individuals to 12 weeks of CBT (n = 15) or escitalopram (n = 11). In an intent-to-treat analysis (n = 26), we conducted a repeated measures analysis of variance to examine changes in depressive symptoms (ie, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory), anhedonia (ie, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale), cognitive measures (ie, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale), and quality of life (ie, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire) at 4 time points: baseline, week 4, week 8, and week 12. Treatment for both groups started at baseline, and patients received either 12 weeks of individual CBT or 12 weeks of escitalopram with flexible dosing (10 to 20 mg). Collapsing the escitalopram and CBT groups, there were statistically significant pre-post changes on all outcome measures. However, there were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups on any of the outcome measures, including cognitive measures across time points. Our results suggest that both CBT and escitalopram have similar effects across a variety of domains and that, in contrast to our a priori hypothesis, CBT and escitalopram were associated with comparable changes on cognitive measures.

  5. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  6. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and

  7. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  8. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety and/or Depression Previous History of Malignancy 6 (10) 4 (7) 9 (15) 1 (2) 21 (36) 2 (3) Beck Depression Inventory * 8.8±10.1...2a. Finalizing a detailed study manual explicitly outlining inclusion/exclusion criteria, protocols for recruitment, questionnaire administration...of results into de -identified study database (months 6-40) ongoing at all sites Task 4. Cognitive, Sleep, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular

  9. Cognitive changes after carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Krick, C.; Backens, M.; Supprian, T.; Falkai, P.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to test changes in cognitive performance after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Ten patients were neuropsychologically tested at least 24 h before and 48 h after CAS. To diminish thromboembolic events, we used a proximal protection device. The following neuropsychological tests were selected: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), symbol digit test and subtests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (verbal fluency, constructional practice, word list memory and delayed recall). Affective state was determined by the Beck Depression Score (BDS). No patient suffered from depression (BDS <1) or dementia (MMSE 29.9±1.5). Nine of the ten patients (P=0.12) showed increased speed in the Number Connection Test (NCT) (corresponding to trail making test). Most patients showed better or similar results concerning delayed recall (P=0.31). No change was observed in the symbol digit test, word list memory, verbal fluency or constructional practice. Better results concerning NCT and delayed recall after carotid stenting might be due to improved brain perfusion. After CAS, cognitive and memory performance seem to improve. Further studies with different time intervals and more refined testing, as well as perfusion-weighted imaging, are needed. (orig.)

  10. Mediodorsal thalamus and cognition in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Baxter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.

  11. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  12. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie

    2003-10-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.

  13. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  14. Organization, Evolution, Cognition and Dynamic Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2007-01-01

    Using insights from ‘embodied cognition’ and a resulting ‘cognitive theory of the firm’, I aim to contribute to the further development of evolutionary theory of organizations, in the specification of organizations as ‘interactors’ that carry organizational competencies as ‘replicators’, within

  15. Cognition and Error in Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    The author integrates work from cognitive and developmental psychology with studies in writing in order to explain why the quality of student writing sometimes appears to regress to earlier or less proficient levels. Insights from this combined analysis are applied to explain how and why to use specific Writing Across the Curriculum strategies to…

  16. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  17. Rendimiento diagnóstico y estructura factorial del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tenía dos objetivos. Primero, analizar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la versión española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II en una muestra de pacientes con trastornos psicológicos y, segundo, examinar si las soluciones unifactoriales y bifactoriales del BDI-II encontradas previamente en muestras similares son replicables y, de ser así, analizar la contribución relativa del factor general y de los dos factores específicos a la varianza del BDI-II. El BDI-II, junto con el módulo de los trastornos del estado de ánimo de la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para los Trastornos del Eje I del DSM-IV (SCID-I VC y un listado de cotejo de síntomas depresivos completado por el clínico, fueron aplicados a una muestra española de 322 pacientes adultos ambulatorios con diversos trastornos psicológicos. Tomando como criterio el diagnóstico clínico basado en la SCID-I VC y el listado de cotejo de síntomas depresivos, el BDI-II demostró un rendimiento diagnóstico aceptable para discriminar entre pacientes con trastorno depresivo mayor y pacientes sin depresión. Los análisis factoriales indicaron que el BDI-II mide una dimensión general de depresión compuesta por dos factores relacionados (somático y cognitivo, pero estos factores apenas explicaban varianza adicional más allá de la puntuación global.

  18. Psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of the English and Chinese versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yu; Ng, Terence; Yeo, Hui Ling; Shwe, Maung; Gan, Yan Xiang; Chan, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    There is a lack of psychometric data for both the English and Chinese versions of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to support its usage among breast cancer patients. This study examined the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of the English and Chinese versions of BAI among breast cancer patients in Singapore. Patients were recruited from two major cancer centers in Singapore. The criterion and construct validity of BAI was assessed by its correlation strength with (1) the emotional functioning subdomain of EORTC QLQ-C30 and (2) constructs related to anxiety, namely fatigue, dyspnea, and quality of life. The known-group validity was assessed according to the patients' breast cancer stage, religious beliefs, and emotional functioning levels. The internal consistency of the BAI domains was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Regression analysis was performed to compare the BAI total and domain scores between the two language versions. Data from 244 patients (144 English-speaking and 100 Chinese-speaking) were analyzed. For both language versions, the BAI total scores correlated moderately with the EORTC QLQ-C30 emotional functioning subdomain (r = -0.655 and -0.601). Correlations with fatigue, quality of life, and dyspnea were moderate (|r| = 0.456-0.606). Patients with poorer emotional functioning reported higher anxiety levels, establishing known-group validity. All BAI domains demonstrated satisfactory internal consistencies (α = 0.74-0.87), except for the panic domain (α = 0.57-0.61). Possible measurement equivalence between the language versions was established. Both English and Chinese versions of BAI are valid, reliable, and possibly equivalent for future use.

  19. Accidental or linked: separated odontoid process fused to the enlarged anterior arch of the atlas associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in a Kashin-Beck disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueyuan; Ling, Ming; Chang, Yanhai; Sun, Zhengming

    2017-05-01

    KBD is an endemic disease affecting the epiphyseal growth plate and articular cartilage of multiple joints, resulting in extremities' deformation and skeletal dysplasia. More attention has been paid to the visible deformed extremities instead of inconspicuous spinal condition. There is a lack of reports concerning the spinal radiological features, especially for the atlantoaxial joint. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) patient diagnosed with atlantoaxial subluxation, concomitant with separated odontoid process fused to the enlarged anterior arch of the atlas. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with 54 years' history of KBD complaining of occipitocervical pain, decreasing motor strength and sensory function of both upper and lower extremities. Subsequent radiological examinations of lateral plain radiography, computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging were performed to reveal these rare characteristics of atlantoaxial joint in this patient. Then, we review the associated articles to postulate whether this anomaly is accidental or linked in a KBD patient. She had an extremely rare variant with three aspects of characteristics: atlantoaxial subluxation concurrent with severe spinal canal stenosis and spinal cord compression, odontoid process separating from the body of axis, and the enlarged anterior arch of the atlas fusion with odontoid process. Comparing with the congenital anomaly of atlantoaxial joint, we postulated that this aetiology of anomaly might be linked to the acquired form attributed to the histopathology of KBD, rather than an accidental event. The anomaly of atlantoaxial joint might occur in KBD patients. Larger numbers of KBD candidates with earlier symptoms are recommended for radiological examinations of atlantoaxial joint, especially for the adolescents. Spinal surgeons are suggested to involve the research of the spinal anatomy and variation for the prevention and earlier therapy for

  20. Phylogeography of Beck's Desert Scorpion, Paruroctonus becki, reveals Pliocene diversification in the Eastern California Shear Zone and postglacial expansion in the Great Basin Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew R; Jaeger, Jef R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Riddle, Brett R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of Beck's Desert Scorpion, Paruroctonus becki (Gertsch and Allred, 1965), spans the 'warm' Mojave Desert and the western portion of the 'cold' Great Basin Desert. We used genetic analyses and species distribution modeling to test whether P. becki persisted in the Great Basin Desert during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), or colonized the area as glacial conditions retreated and the climate warmed. Phylogenetic and network analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), 16S rDNA, and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) DNA sequences uncovered five geographically-structured groups in P. becki with varying degrees of statistical support. Molecular clock estimates and the geographical arrangement of three of the groups suggested that Pliocene geological events in the tectonically dynamic Eastern California Shear Zone may have driven diversification by vicariance. Diversification was estimated to have continued through the Pleistocene, during which a group endemic to the western Great Basin diverged from a related group in the eastern Mojave Desert and western Colorado Plateau. Demographic and network analyses suggested that P. becki underwent a recent expansion in the Great Basin. According to a landscape interpolation of genetic distances, this expansion appears to have occurred from the northwest, implying that P. becki may have persisted in part of the Great Basin during the LGM. This prediction is supported by species distribution models which suggest that climate was unsuitable throughout most of the Great Basin during the LGM, but that small patches of suitable climate may have remained in areas of the Lahontan Trough. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Kalu, Raphael Birya; Katana, Khamis; Kabunda, Beatrice; Hassan, Amin S; Newton, Charles R; Van de Vijver, Fons

    2016-01-01

    We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure. In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29) with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77). A considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart)' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model) were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51]) confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121) = 23.31, p low literacy population.

  2. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  3. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  4. Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function - Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre; Agrawal, Niruj; Morgan, Kevin D.; David, Anthony S.

    Background One factor contributing to impaired awareness of illness (poor insight) in psychotic disorders may be neurocognitive deficits. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted after data extraction. Following an overall analysis, in which measures of different cognitive domains

  5. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    social media activities are presented as an example of a cognitive fingerprint. 1 Introduction The science of autonomy requires new methods for the ver...Abramson and Aha 2013). Here, we’ve improved upon this approach by randomizing the selection of a subset of learn- ers from a pool of learners for each...point represent the av- erage of 5 user trials. ensemble learning method (number of features, learner pool size, number of selected learners , evaluation

  6. Cognitive epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide...

  7. The cognition and neuroscience of relational reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2012-01-05

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the complex cognitive processes that give rise to human reasoning. This review focuses on the cognitive and neural characteristics of relational reasoning and analogy performance. Initially relational reasoning studies that have investigated the neural basis of abstract reasoning with an emphasis on the prefrontal cortex are described. Next studies of analogical reasoning are reviewed with insights from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. Additionally, studies of cognitive components in analogical reasoning are described. This review draws together insights from numerous studies and concludes that prefrontal areas exhibit domain independence in relational reasoning, while posterior areas within the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes show evidence of domain dependence in reasoning. Lastly, future directions in the study of relational reasoning are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia: a review†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Plitman, Eric; Rajji, Tarek K.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Impaired insight into illness is a prevalent feature of schizophrenia, which negatively influences treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Little is known about the effects of aging on insight impairment. We aimed to review the available research literature on the effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia, in relation to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Ultimately, we propose a trajectory of insight in schizophrenia across the lifespan. Method A systematic Medline® literature search was conducted, searching for English language studies describing the relationship of insight into illness in schizophrenia with aging. Results We identified 62 studies. Insight impairment is associated with illness severity, premorbid intellectual function (i.e. IQ), executive function, and memory. Insight impairment improves modestly during midlife, worsening again in late life. It tends to fluctuate with each episode of psychosis, likely in relation to worsening positive symptoms that improve with antipsychotic treatment. The relationship between insight impairment and cognitive dysfunction appears to attenuate with age, while the relationship with lower premorbid intellectual function is preserved. The association between impaired insight and negative symptoms is unclear. Conclusions The available literature suggests that the course of insight impairment follows a U-shaped curve, where insight impairment is severe during the first episode of psychosis, modestly improves over midlife, and declines again in late life. Future studies are required to investigate the trajectory of insight into illness and its core domains across the lifespan from prodromal phase to late life. PMID:25055980

  9. The effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Plitman, Eric; Rajji, Tarek K; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-11-01

    Impaired insight into illness is a prevalent feature of schizophrenia, which negatively influences treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Little is known about the effects of aging on insight impairment. We aimed to review the available research literature on the effects of aging on insight into illness in schizophrenia, in relation to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Ultimately, we propose a trajectory of insight in schizophrenia across the lifespan. A systematic Medline® literature search was conducted, searching for English language studies describing the relationship of insight into illness in schizophrenia with aging. We identified 62 studies. Insight impairment is associated with illness severity, premorbid intellectual function (i.e. IQ), executive function, and memory. Insight impairment improves modestly during midlife, worsening again in late life. It tends to fluctuate with each episode of psychosis, likely in relation to worsening positive symptoms that improve with antipsychotic treatment. The relationship between insight impairment and cognitive dysfunction appears to attenuate with age, while the relationship with lower premorbid intellectual function is preserved. The association between impaired insight and negative symptoms is unclear. The available literature suggests that the course of insight impairment follows a U-shaped curve, where insight impairment is severe during the first episode of psychosis, modestly improves over midlife, and declines again in late life. Future studies are required to investigate the trajectory of insight into illness and its core domains across the lifespan from prodromal phase to late life. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Prevalence of gambling, depressive symptoms and cognitive distortions in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera, Belén del Valle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the presence of depressive symptoms and cognitive distortions in a sample of undergraduate students and investigate the possible relationship with severity of gambling disorders. To this aim, a sample of 277 local students (66.8 % women between 18 and 35 years completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS, a Gambling Prevalence Questionnaire, the Gambling Belief Questionnaire Spanish Version (GBQ-S and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. No differences in depression symptoms were found depending on gambling frequency and SOGS´s scores. The presence of cognitive distortions in less severe forms of gambling disorders was corroborated. Cognitive distortions’ levels increased with increasing severity and frequency of gambling.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: implications for Asian immigrants in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandil, Riddhi

    2006-06-01

    Many interventions are available for treating adolescent depression. This paper attempts to present a summary of cognitive behavioral therapies/techniques that might be useful for treating depression in Asian immigrant adolescents. Articles were selected by conducting a literature search on Psyc-Info. Prevalence, symptoms and measures of adolescent depression are discussed. Summary of popular therapies like PASCET, CWD-A, Beck's CBT are provided. A rationale for the use of these with Asian immigrants is hypothesized. There is no empirical evidence for the efficacy of CBT with this population. A need to validate the use of CBT with this population is asserted.

  12. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  13. The cognitive neuroscience of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2004-12-01

    This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit. By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article. The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

  14. [Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der Lübecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Zicht] / Dennis Hormuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus : Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der LÜbecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Sicht. In: Stadtgründung und Stadterweiterung. Beiträge von Archäologie und Stadtgeschichtsforschung (=Beiträge zur Geschichte der Städte Mitteleuropas XXII). Linz, 2011. S. 75-104

  15. Inferring about individual drug and schizotypy effects on cognitive functioning in polydrug using mephedrone users before and after clubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Brooks, Rowan; Mohr, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Mephedrone has been recently made illegal in Europe, but little empirical evidence is available on its impact on human cognitive functions. We investigated acute and chronic effects of mephedrone consumption on drug-sensitive cognitive measures, while also accounting for the influence of associated additional drug use and personality features. Twenty-six volunteers from the general population performed tasks measuring verbal learning, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility before and after a potential drug-taking situation (pre-clubbing and post-clubbing at dance clubs, respectively). Participants also provided information on chronic and recent drug use, schizotypal (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), sleep pattern and premorbid IQ. We found that (i) mephedrone users performed worse than non-users pre-clubbing and deteriorated from the pre-clubbing to the post-clubbing assessment; (ii) pre-clubbing cannabis and amphetamine (not mephedrone) use predicted relative cognitive attenuations; (iii) post-clubbing, depression scores predicted relative cognitive attenuations; and (iv) schizotypy was largely unrelated to cognitive functioning, apart from a negative relationship between cognitive disorganisation and verbal fluency. Results suggest that polydrug use and depressive symptoms in the general population negatively affect cognition. For schizotypy, only elevated cognitive disorganisation showed potential links to a pathological cognitive profile previously reported along the psychosis dimension. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Relationship between insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre

    2017-12-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia has been associated with executive dysfunction and deficits in general cognitive ability. The overall outcome of available neurocognitive studies suggests that there is a significant but modest relationship between cognitive deficits and poor insight in schizophrenia. However, social cognitive abilities, particularly, theory of mind (ToM), might also play a role in poor insight in schizophrenia. A novel meta-analysis of the relationship between ToM and insight in schizophrenia was conducted. Current meta-analysis included 16 studies including 1085 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. There was a significant association between ToM and clinical insight (r=0.28, CI=0.20-0.36). By contrast, there was no significant relationship between ToM and cognitive insight. Current findings suggest that there is a small but significant relationship between ToM and clinical insight in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is one of the factors contributing to poor insight in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of cognitive therapy versus 'no intervention' for major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Christian Jakobsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used The Cochrane systematic review methodology with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized trials comparing the effects of cognitive therapy versus 'no intervention' for major depressive disorder. Participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder to be eligible. Altogether, we included 12 trials randomizing a total of 669 participants. All 12 trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression showed that cognitive therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms (four trials; mean difference -3.05 (95% confidence interval (Cl, -5.23 to -0.87; P<0.006 compared with 'no intervention'. Trial sequential analysis could not confirm this result. Meta-analysis on the Beck Depression Inventory showed that cognitive therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms (eight trials; mean difference on -4.86 (95% CI -6.44 to -3.28; P = 0.00001. Trial sequential analysis on these data confirmed the result. Only a few trials reported on 'no remission', suicide inclination, suicide attempts, suicides, and adverse events without significant differences between the compared intervention groups. DISCUSSION: Cognitive therapy might be an effective treatment for depression measured on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory, but these outcomes may be overestimated due to risks of systematic errors (bias and random errors (play of chance. Furthermore, the effects of cognitive therapy on no remission, suicidality, adverse events, and quality of life are unclear. There is a need for randomized trials with low risk of

  18. Differential association of insulin resistance with cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A W; Gordon, J L; Lavoie, K L; Arsenault, A; Dasgupta, K; Bacon, S L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations of depressive symptoms with insulin resistance, evaluating somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms separately. A total of 328 individuals (mean age 60 years) referred for exercise stress testing, taking part in the Mechanisms and Outcomes of Silent Myocardial Ischemia study, completed the Beck Depression Inventory II. A fasting venous blood sample was collected for assessments of insulin and glucose level; the HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was calculated. In principal component analysis, Beck Depression Inventory II items were forced to load onto two components (somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms). Adjusting for age, sex, BMI, medication use, smoking, physical activity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, general linear model analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the components and log HOMA-IR . Principal component analysis showed that nine items loaded onto a cognitive depressive symptoms component and 10 items loaded onto a somatic depressive symptoms component. When examined separately, both components were significantly associated with log HOMA-IR however, when including both components simultaneously in the model, only somatic depressive symptoms remained significantly associated with log HOMA-IR. Back-transformed, a one-unit change in somatic depressive symptoms was associated with a 1.07 (95% CI 1.002, 1.14) change in HOMA-IR and a one-unit change in cognitive depressive symptoms was associated with a 1.03 (95% CI 0.97, 1.14) change in HOMA-IR. Somatic depressive symptoms seem to be more strongly associated with insulin resistance than do cognitive depressive symptoms. Monitoring somatic depressive symptoms may be more appropriate than monitoring cognitive depressive symptoms among depressed individuals with high insulin resistance. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  19. Cognitive behavior therapy for stuttering: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R P; Sharma, M P; Shivashankar, N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI), Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Assertiveness Scale (AS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL). Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.

  20. Cognitive impairments in poly-drug ketamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H J; Lau, C G; Tang, A; Chan, F; Ungvari, G S; Tang, W K

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairment has been found to be reversible in people with substance abuse, particularly those using ketamine. Ketamine users are often poly-substance users. This study compared the cognitive functions of current and former ketamine users who were also abusing other psychoactive substances with those of non-users of illicit drugs as controls. One hundred ketamine poly-drug users and 100 controls were recruited. Drug users were divided into current (n = 32) and ex-users (n = 64) according to the duration of abstinence from ketamine (>30 days). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADSA) and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) were used to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms and the severity of drug use, respectively. The cognitive test battery comprised verbal memory (Wechsler Memory Scale III: Logic Memory and Word List), visual memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, ROCF), executive function (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Modified Verbal Fluency Test), working memory (Digit Span Backward), and general intelligence (Information, Arithmetic and Digit-Symbol Coding) tests. Current users had higher BDI and HADSA scores than ex-users (p recognition than controls (p = 0.002). No difference was found between the cognitive functions of current and ex-users. Ketamine poly-drug users displayed predominantly verbal and visual memory impairments, which persisted in ex-users. The interactive effect of ketamine and poly-drug use on memory needs further investigation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of attention: Psychophysics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Sensory physiologists and psychologists have recognized the importance of attention on human performance for more than 100 years. Since the 1970s, controlled and extensive experiments have examined effects of selective attention to a location in space or to an object. In addition to behavioral studies, cognitive neuroscientists have investigated the neural bases of attention. In this paper, I briefly review some classical attention paradigms, recent advances on the theory of attention, and some new insights from psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience. The focus is on the mechanisms of attention, that is, how attention improves human performance. Situations in which the perception of objects is unchanged, but performance may differ due to different decision structures, are distinguished from those in which attention changes the perceptual processes. The perceptual template model is introduced as a theoretical framework for analyzing mechanisms of attention. I also present empirical evidence for two attention mechanisms, stimulus enhancement and external noise exclusion, from psychophysics, neurophysiology and brain imaging.

  2. Metacognitive capacity as a predictor of insight in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Liffick, Emily; Francis, Michael M; Leonhardt, Bethany L; James, Alison; Buck, Kelly D; Hamm, Jay A; Minor, Kyle S; Mehdiyoun, Nikki; Breier, Alan

    2015-05-01

    Impaired insight is common in the first episode of psychosis (FEP). Although considerable research has examined the factors that are associated with impaired insight in chronic psychosis, less is known about the factors that underlie and sustain poor insight in FEP. Impaired metacognition, or the ability to form integrated representations of self and others, is a promising potential contributor to poor insight in FEP. To explore this possibility, the authors assessed insight and metacognition in 40 individuals with FEP and then examined the relationship between these areas and social cognition domains, neurocognitive domains, and psychotic symptoms. Correlation analyses revealed that improved insight was associated with higher metacognition, better vocabulary and Theory of Mind scores, and fewer symptoms. The domain of metacognitive mastery also predicted clinical insight. Results support the need to develop an integrative therapeutic approach focused on improving metacognition, hence addressing poor insight in FEP.

  3. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for anxiety and depression in adults with mild intellectual disabilities (ID: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blizard Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have showed that people with intellectual disabilities (ID have suitable skills to undergo cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. Case studies have reported successful use of cognitive behavioural therapy techniques (with adaptations in people with ID. Modified cognitive behavioural therapy may be a feasible and effective approach for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders in ID. To date, two studies have reported group-based manaulised cognitive behavioural treatment programs for depression in people with mild ID. However, there is no individual manualised programme for anxiety or depression in people with intellectual disabilities. The aims of the study are to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial for CBT in people with ID. The data will inform the power calculation and other aspects of carrying out a definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods Thirty participants with mild ID will be allocated randomly to either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU. The CBT group will receive up to 20 hourly individual CBT over a period of 4 months. TAU is the standard treatment which is available to any adult with an intellectual disability who is referred to the intellectual disability service (including care management, community support, medical, nursing or social support. Beck Youth Inventories (Beck Anxiety Inventory & Beck Depression Inventory will be administered at baseline; end of treatment (4 months and at six months to evaluate the changes in depression and anxiety. Client satisfaction, quality of life and the health economics will be secondary outcomes. Discussion The broad outcome of the study will be to produce clear guidance for therapists to apply an established psychological intervention and identify how and whether it works with people with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN38099525

  4. Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Abedi, Fatemeh; Mazroii, Navid; Assarian, Amin; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D may decrease depression symptoms through its beneficial effects on neurotransmitters, metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. This study was designed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce symptoms of depression, metabolic profiles, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 patients between 18 and 65 y of age with a diagnosis of MDD based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a single capsule of 50 kIU vitamin D/wk (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and postintervention to quantify relevant variables. The primary [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which examines depressive symptoms] and secondary (glucose homeostasis variables, lipid profiles, hs-CRP, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) outcomes were assessed. Baseline concentrations of mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly different between the 2 groups (9.2 ± 6.0 and 13.6 ± 7.9 μg/L in the placebo and control groups, respectively, P = 0.02). After 8 wk of intervention, changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly greater in the vitamin D group (+20.4 μg/L) than in the placebo group (-0.9 μg/L, P < 0.001). A trend toward a greater decrease in the BDI was observed in the vitamin D group than in the placebo group (-8.0 and -3.3, respectively, P = 0.06). Changes in serum insulin (-3.6 compared with +2.9 μIU/mL, P = 0.02), estimated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-1.0 compared with +0.6, P = 0.01), estimated homeostasis model assessment of β cell function (-13.9 compared with +10.3, P = 0.03), plasma total antioxidant capacity (+63.1 compared with -23.4 mmol/L, P = 0.04), and glutathione

  5. Study of wurtzite and zincblende GaN/InN based solar cells alloys: First-principles investigation within the improved modified Becke-Johnson potential

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-09-01

    Wurtzite GaInN alloys with flexible energy gaps are pronounced for their potential applications in optoelectronics and solar cell technology. Recently the unwanted built-in fields caused by spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in wurtzite (WZ) GaInN, has turned the focus towards zinc-blende (ZB) GaInN alloys. To comprehend merits and demerits of GaInN alloys in WZ and ZB structures, we performed a comparative study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ga1-xInxN alloys with different In concentration using first-principles methodology with density function theory with generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. Investigations pertaining to total energy of GaInN for the both phases, demonstrate a marginal difference, reflecting nearly equivalent stability of the ZB-GaInN to WZ-GaInN. The larger ionic radii of indium (In), result in larger values of lattice parameters of Ga1-xInxN with higher In concentration. For In deficient Ga1-xInxN, at first, the formation enthalpies increase rapidly as the In content approaches to 45% in WZ and 47% in ZB, and then decreases with the further increase in In concentration. ZB-Ga1-xInxN alloys exhibit comparatively narrower energy gaps than WZ, and get smaller with increase in In contents. The smaller values of effective masses of free carriers, in WZ phase, than ZB phase, reflect higher carrier mobility and electrical conductivity of WZ-Ga1-xInxN. Moreover wide energy gap of WZ-Ga1-xInxN results in large values of the absorption coefficients comparatively and smaller static refractive indices compared to ZB-Ga1-xInxN. Comparable electronic and optical characteristics of the ZB-Ga1-xInxN to WZ-Ga1-xInxN endorses it a material of choice for optoelectronics and solar cell applications besides the WZ-Ga1-xInxN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Temporal decision-making: insights from cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Luhmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

  7. Audio Support Guidelines for Accessible Assessments: Insights from Cognitive Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Rogers, Christopher; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2014-01-01

    Some students, including students with print disabilities, students with low vision, and English language learners, may benefit from having test content read aloud. However, there have been challenges in standardizing the presentation of test content, including whether or not to read answer choices or to describe maps and cartoons, among many…

  8. Insights in cognitive patterns : Essays on heuristics and identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, Marloes

    2016-01-01

    People are inclined to find patterns in everything they sense, even if there is no pattern to discover. Humans use action-oriented mental patterns as rules of thumb, so called heuristics, in speedy decision-making. At the same time, we see this desire for pattern finding in social orderliness, in

  9. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    using a fast-track methodology. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors. Potential prophylactic intervention may include...... minimal invasive surgery, multi-modal non-opioid pain management and pharmacological manipulation of the inflammatory response and sleep architecture....

  10. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  11. Facial emotion recognition in patients with subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, J; Aigner-Wöber, R; Reischenböck, N; Kryspin-Exner, I; Moser, D; Klug, S; Auff, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Pusswald, G; Lehrner, J

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been shown to substantially impair several aspects in everyday life of affected individuals (e.g. social functioning). Presently, we aim at assessing differences in emotion recognition performance in three patient groups suffering from mild forms of cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. Performance on a concise emotion recognition test battery (VERT-K) of 68 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), 44 non-amnestic (non-aMCI), and 25 amnestic patients (aMCI) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was compared with an age-equivalent sample of 138 healthy controls all of which were recruited within the framework of the Vienna Conversion to Dementia Study. Additionally, patients and controls underwent individual assessment using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery examining attention, executive functioning, language, and memory (NTBV), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a measure of premorbid IQ (WST). Type of diagnosis showed a significant effect on emotion recognition performance, indicating progressively deteriorating results as severity of diagnosis increased. Between-groups effect sizes were substantial, showing non-trivial effects in all comparisons (Cohen's ds from -0.30 to -0.83) except for SCD versus controls. Moreover, emotion recognition performance was higher in women and positively associated with premorbid IQ. Our findings indicate substantial effects of progressive neurological damage on emotion recognition in patients. Importantly, emotion recognition deficits were observable in non-amnestic patients as well, thus conceivably suggesting associations between decreased recognition performance and global cognitive decline. Premorbid IQ appears to act as protective factor yielding lesser deficits in patients showing higher IQs.

  12. Prospective evaluation of a cognitive vulnerability-stress model for depression: the interaction of schema self-structures and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Dozois, David J A

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the diathesis-stress component of Beck's (1967) cognitive theory of depression. Initially, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema and depressive symptoms. One year later, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema, depressive symptoms, and negative life events. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for initial depression, indicated that more tightly interconnected negative content was associated with greater elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of life events. More diffusely interconnected positive content for interpersonal self-referent information also interacted with life events to predict depressive symptoms. Cognitive organization dimensions showed moderate to high stability across the follow-up, suggesting that they may be trait-like vulnerability factors. Implications for the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  14. Complexity, cognition and the city

    CERN Document Server

    Portugali, Juval

    2011-01-01

    Complexity, Cognition and the City aims at a deeper understanding of urbanism, while invoking, on an equal footing, the contributions both the hard and soft sciences have made, and are still making, when grappling with the many issues and facets of regional planning and dynamics. In this work, the author goes beyond merely seeing the city as a self-organized, emerging pattern of some collective interaction between many stylized urban "agents" – he makes the crucial step of attributing cognition to his agents and thus raises, for the first time, the question on how to deal with a complex system composed of many interacting complex agents in clearly defined settings. Accordingly, the author eventually addresses issues of practical relevance for urban planners and decision makers. The book unfolds its message in a largely nontechnical manner, so as to provide a broad interdisciplinary readership with insights, ideas, and other stimuli to encourage further research – with the twofold aim of further pushing ba...

  15. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  16. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  17. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure–function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging, has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example, more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments, including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. Such future developments may offer an expanded set of tools with which to investigate structure–function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualize testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal roles in cognition. PMID:23631540

  18. Comparative cognition in the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, D A

    2000-06-01

    According to the received view of the history of psychology, behaviorism so dominated psychology prior to the 1960s that there was little research in animal cognition. A review of the research on animal cognition during the 1930s reveals a rich literature dealing with such topics as insight, reasoning, tool use, delay problems, oddity learning, abstraction, spatial cognition, and problem solving, among others. Material on "higher processes" or a related topic was prominent in the textbooks of the period. Tracing academic lineages reveals such teachers as Harvey Carr, Robert M. Yerkes, and Edward C. Tolman as sources of this interest. The alleged hegemony of strict behavioristic psychology, interpreted as excluding research on animal cognition, requires revision. Some possible reasons for this neglect are suggested.

  19. Africa Insight: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science. AISA is a statutory research body focusing on ...

  20. New Insights into Obesity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 12. New Insights into Obesity. D D Bansal Ravneet Kaur Boparai. Research News Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2003 pp 92-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/12/0092-0093 ...

  1. Africa Insight: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  2. Imaging: Insight Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard L., II; Cotrell, Howard W.

    Imaging is the process of creating mental pictures that can be scanned as people would scan a current event. It is a real, powerful personal process, which has been used in medicine, science, health care, sports, creativity, education, and other areas. On a day-to-day level, imaging can be used to engineer insights regarding self-concept,…

  3. The Power of Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-08

    joint government and industry conference in Australia . And last month in the United Kingdom, defense representatives from four nations ( Australia ...cooperation that is the hallmark of the International Performance Management Council. There now are six nations in the Council: Australia , Canada...reported,” but managed. From Oversight to Insight The earned value reform objectives supported the larger acquisition reform objectives introduced by the

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  6. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  7. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  8. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self......-control in a more general sense from both an EC and a CBT perspective.We end by elaborating the five learning objectives and present suggestions for follow-up reading...

  9. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The effects of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances on cognitive impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Yesim Güzey; Tunç, Abdülkadir; Güngen, Belma Doğan; Güngen, Adil Can; Aydemir, Yusuf; Demiyürek, Bekir Enes

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances on cognitive functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. In this prospective case-control study, demographic data, smoking history, depression, anxiety, sleep quality and cognitive status of 48 COPD patients and 36 healthy volunteers aged 40-90 years were recorded. The Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess depression, anxiety and sleep quality, respectively in COPD patients. Cognitive performance was studied by the mini-mental state examination. The mean age of patients with COPD was 65.3 ± 9.4 years, and disease duration was 9.6 ± 7.8 years. Male sex ratio, smoking, BDI score, BAI score, total PSQI score, sleep latency, sleep duration, average use of sleep aids and sleep disturbances in patients with COPD were significantly higher than the control group ( p  cognitive impairment was compared by age, FVC, FEV, FEV/FVC, PEF values and smoking, no statistically significant relationship was found ( p  > 0.05). A statistically significant relationship was established between cognitive impairment and severity of disease, presence of anxiety, presence of depression and sleep quality. In our study, we found that sleep disorders, depression and anxiety comorbid with COPD increased cognitive impairment as well as the severity of disease. We believe that this finding is important in terms of reducing the risk of cognitive impairment, preventing misdiagnosis and treatment of the aforementioned comorbid diseases.

  11. Cognitive approach to information retrieval and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive approach (viewpoint/standpoirit in the retrieval and communication of information, as well as in librarianship and information science has started gaining importance in the 70's. Today, it is present in literary and objective knowledge studies, as well as in studies of users,information brokers and systems of information retrieval.Cognitive approach exercises strong impact on several scientific disciplines which are grouped under the roof of cognitive science. The cognitive approach has caused split and the formation of a new paradigm, i.e. the cognitive paradigm, in many scientific disciplines.In the frames of the definition of Kuhn's concept of paradigm, it is evident that librarianship and information science are on the pre-paradigmatic level. I Iowever,some authors mention the existence of at least two paradigms in library and information science, i.e. physical and cognitive paradigm.The hištorical overview of cognitive oriented research works of Brookes, De Mey,Belkin, Ingwersen and others enables the insight into the development of library and information scientific thought up to the present.

  12. Hopelessness, neurocognitive function, and insight in schizophrenia: relationship to suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hyung; Jayathilake, Karu; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2003-03-01

    Insight and hopelessness have been reported to be associated with suicidality in schizophrenia. In addition, there is evidence that diminished insight is correlated with impairment in some domains of cognitive function in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relative importance for suicidality in patients with schizophrenia of hopelessness, cognitive dysfunction, and insight. This study included 333 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were prospectively studied. Insight was rated by the insight items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Positive, negative, and anxiety-depression symptoms were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Cognition was assessed with a neurocognitive battery, which included measures of attention and psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, verbal memory, working memory, and executive function. Current and lifetime suicidality was prospectively assessed. Hopelessness, substance abuse, and greater insight were associated with attempted suicide and suicidal ideation. Those with a history of lifetime, but not current, suicidality had better function on tests of psychomotor speed and attention, verbal working memory, verbal fluency, verbal memory, and executive function. Neurocognitive measures were not significantly correlated with hopelessness and insight. Hopelessness was more severe in those with current and lifetime suicidality. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict current and lifetime suicidality from hopelessness, substance abuse, insight, and cognitive factor scores. The regression models predicting current and lifetime suicidality indicated that hopelessness was the most important predictor of both (beta=0.41, p=0.0001; and beta=0.35, p=0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that hopelessness, substance abuse, greater insight into illness, and higher cognitive function are associated with greater

  13. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  14. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  15. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  16. Africa Insight: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Africa Insight · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1995-641X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  17. Avian brains: Insights from development, behaviors and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...... that there is not anything special about the biological boundary of the skin and skull per se, rather than some positive claim about where the boundaries of extended or distributed cognitive systems really are. I also examine the role of the concept of cognition in the theoretical frameworks of Distributed Cognition, Joint...

  19. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes present...... both human and technical system components. I argue for what I call an *expansive but deflated conception of cognition*, primarily on pragmatic grounds. In addition, I claim that the important lesson of the “boundaries of cognition” debate in cognitive science is the negative claim...

  20. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a community sample Validação da versão brasileira em português do Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II numa amostra da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Gomes-Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI is used worldwide for detecting depressive symptoms. This questionnaire has been revised (1996 to match the DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode. We assessed the reliability and the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BDI-II for non-clinical adults. METHODS: The questionnaire was applied to 60 college students on two occasions. Afterwards, 182 community-dwelling adults completed the BDI-II, the Self-Report Questionnaire, and the K10 Scale. Trained psychiatrists performed face-to-face interviews with the respondents using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Descriptive analysis, signal detection analysis (Receiver Operating Characteristics, correlation analysis, and discriminant function analysis were performed to investigate the psychometric properties of the BDI-II. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of the BDI-II was 0.89, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was 0.93. Taking the SCID as the gold standard, the cut-off point of 10/11 was the best threshold for detecting depression, yielding a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 87%. The concurrent validity (a correlation of 0.63-0.93 with scales applied simultaneously and the predictive ability of the severity level (over 65% correct classification were acceptable. CONCLUSION: The BDI-II is reliable and valid for measuring depressive symptomatology among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian non-clinical populations.OBJETIVOS: O Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB é utilizado mundialmente para detectar sintomas depressivos. Este questionário foi revisado (1996 para se adequar aos critérios do DSM-IV para episódio depressivo maior. Avaliamos a confiabilidade e validade da versão I em português-brasileiro do IDB-I em uma amostra não clínica de adultos. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi aplicado em duas

  1. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Relación empírica entre la Terapia Racional Emotivo-Conductual (TREC) de Ellis y la Terapia Cognitiva (TC) de Beck en una muestra costarricense

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas Pizarro, Hannia; Lega, Leonor I.

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se explora una posible relación empírica entre la terapia racional emotivoconductual (TREC) de Ellis y la terapia cognitiva (TC) de Beck, dos de los modelos más conspicuos en el campo de la psicoterapia cognitiva actual. Si bien este modelo utiliza el término “cognitivo” en forma tal que se encuentra asociado con el afecto, la fisiología y la conducta (Dobson, 1986), sostiene que las perturbaciones emocionales, en esencia, son causadas por el proceso cognitivo del individuo. E...

  3. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  4. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi; Emura, Rina; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Ayako; Ogata, Akiko; Hiejima, Shigeto; Hosomi, Jun

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that the stigma surrounding mental illness may be greater in Japan than elsewhere. However, few Japanese studies have focused on self-stigma (the internalization of social stigma), and few interventions to reduce self-stigma exist. To remedy this deficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing self-stigma and examined the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. We administered a 10-session group CBT program to 46 Japanese outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms (36 men, 10 women; mean age=38.57 years, SD=8.33; 20 diagnosed with mood disorders; 24 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 2 with other disorders). A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State-Form, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Participants exhibited significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and maladjusted cognitive bias and reductions in self-stigma. Cognitive bias was significantly correlated with self-stigma. Group CBT is effective in improving both emotional symptoms and self-stigma in outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduction in self-stigma plays a mediating role in alleviating emotional symptoms and improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between cognitive appraisals of adolescents with OCD and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Balsak, Fuat; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Çelik, Cihat

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate cognitive models of OCD via the influence of mothers' cognitive appraisals on children's cognitions and OCD symptoms. Our sample consisted of 21 adolescents with OCD, their mothers and 27 parent-child dyads for control group without OCD. Subjects with OCD and their mothers were administered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), The White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), The Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R) and The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). While the BDI (t=2.18, pOCD subjects were significantly higher than the mothers of control subjects, the comparisons for the PI, TAF likelihood and PIOS scores of groups were not significant. Intradyadic correlation revealed significant relationships for PI-Rumination, PI-Checking and WBSI scales between the scores of parent and child in OCD dyads, (respectively, r=0.49, P=0.11; r=0.37, P=0.045; and r=0.47, P=0.014). There was no significant relationship in the control group. Our results partially supported that mothers' cognitive appraisals are associated with the cognitive appraisal of adolescents. A cognitive intradyadic interaction between mother and child might be more likely in the presence of OCD in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive functions, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances: assessment of nonmotor features in young patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Yildizhan; Sengul, Hakan S; Yucekaya, Sevda K; Yucel, Selma; Bakim, Bahadir; Pazarcı, Nevin K; Özdemir, Gökhan

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that besides motor features, patients with essential tremor (ET) may exhibit significant nonmotor features, such as mild cognitive deficits, fatigue, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and sleep disturbances. The goal of this study was to examine nonmotor features in young patients with ET and their impact on quality of life. 45 patients (24.55 ± 7.16 years old) with ET and 35 controls were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Short Form-36. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the Turkish version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Battery (MoCA). We ruled out other possible causes of the tremor. The tremor rate was evaluated using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale. Poor sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were more common, and MoCA total scores were lower in the patient group. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety levels were seen to have a negative effect on physical and mental health. Excessive daytime sleepiness had a negative effect on physical health. There is an emerging interest in nonmotor features of ET. This study showed that even young patients have nonmotor features that decrease their quality of life. This might tell us that nonmotor symptoms could be a part of the disease in the early stages.

  7. An investigation into the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on patients with chronic depression: a small case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn GL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gemma Louise HornUniversity of Dundee, Scotland, UKBackground: National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and antidepressants to treat chronic depression. The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP is the only therapy model specifically designed for the treatment of chronic depression.Objectives: To determine the clinical response to the CBASP of patients in a specialist clinical service for affective disorder and to ascertain their views on the value of the CBASP for their condition.Methods: Qualitative data from interviews including a questionnaire and objective data from Becks Depression Inventory II symptom rating scales were used to monitor the progress of a small case series of five patients with chronic, treatment refractory depression as they received the CBASP over a 10-month period.Results: Common themes from patient interviews show very positive engagement and attitudes to the CBASP from the questionnaire. Rating scales from Becks Depression Inventory II pre- and posttreatment showed very little change for three patients with improvements between 2 and 7 points but deterioration in symptoms of 2 points for the fourth patient.Conclusion: The CBASP is a well-liked and positive therapy that helps patients manage their lives and deal with personal relationships, although objective data indicate little change in symptom severity.Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, chronic depression, CBASP

  8. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Koundi, Kalliopi; Pappa, Xenia; Sakkas, Pavlos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  9. A Comparative Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Tamannaeifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT is a new method of psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD. The aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 19 depressive out-patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy. Twelve therapeutic sessions administered in consulting center of Tehran University twice a week. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS before and after the treatments. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results show no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of depression and rumination. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that ACT is an effective treatment, the effectiveness of which appears equivalent to that of CT.

  10. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and recovery of a delusional dysmorphophobia case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Yust, Carlos; Delgado-Ríos, Patricia; Escudero-Pérez, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We present the application of cognitive-behavioural therapy in a clinical case diagnosed with delusional dysmorphophobia. The psychometric scales used for evaluation were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Beck Anxiety and Depression inventories, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale along with the degree of conviction in the delusional belief and in alternative explanations, and social functioning measured by patient reporting. The therapy included cognitive and behavioural techniques: evidence analysis, search for alternative explanations, logical and functional analysis, reality testing, progressive relaxation techniques, in vivo and imaginal exposure therapy. Evaluations were performed before and after the treatment and then at follow-up after 12 and 24 months. Progressively, the delusional conviction disappeared. There were significant improvements at an emotional level and the patient recovered social and work  functioning. The need to use psychological treatments for people with delusional disorder as first choice treatment must be considered.

  11. The effect of inpatient cognitive-behavioral therapy for eating disorders on temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Brambilla, Francesca; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-06-01

    Personality traits seem to have an important role in the development, clinical expression, course, and treatment response in eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the effects of an inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the measures of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)) in 149 consecutive patients with EDs. Baseline assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the TCI. Treatment was based on the transdiagnostic cognitive behavior theory and treatment of ED, adapted for an inpatient setting. Treatment effects were tested by paired ANOVA, adjusted for covariates. No effects were found on Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, and Cooperativeness. Harm Avoidance (F=18.17, pbehavior and of BMI changes. We conclude that in ED, a few scales of both temperament and character are significantly modified by CBT, in relation to changes in psychopathology and depression, independently of nutrition. These results are relevant for future studies based on TCI.

  12. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting From an Anti-Gay Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of internalized homophobia. Client symptomatology was tracked using the PTSD Symptom Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory over the course of 12 sessions and for a 3-month posttermination session. Symptoms were significantly reduced by the end of the 12-week therapy and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. This case highlights the utility of this therapy in targeting both ASD symptoms and internalized homophobia relating to experiencing a hate crime–related assault. The authors elaborate on theoretical and applied issues in adapting a structured cognitive-behavioral intervention to the treatment of ASD symptoms associated with experiencing a hate crime. PMID:17075610

  13. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  14. Cementoenamel junction: An insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharidi Laxman Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and nature of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ are more than descriptive terms used simply to describe some aspects of tooth morphology; however, CEJ gains a lot of clinical significance due to various measurements dependent on it. It may be necessary to determine the location and pathological changes occurring at CEJ to make a diagnosis and treat diseases pertaining to epithelial attachment and gingival margin. However, the information related to CEJ is not discussed commonly. Hence, the present review paper provides an insight on CEJ in both primary and permanent dentition.

  15. Genomic insights into tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, James E

    2014-05-01

    Prevalent since pre-history, human tuberculosis - caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis - remains a major source of death worldwide. Moreover, increasing drug resistance poses the threat of disease resurgence. However, the expanding application of genomic techniques is providing new avenues for combating this old foe. Whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomics and systems biology are generating new insights into the origins and ongoing evolution of M. tuberculosis, as well as the molecular basis for its pathogenicity. These have important implications for our perspective of the disease, development of new drugs and vaccines, and treatment of patients using existing therapeutics.

  16. [Low-intensity, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal-Uram, Dóra; Harsányi, László; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease. This case study illustrates the management and stabilization of a 21-year-old adult male patient with active Crohn's disease and with severe psychiatric comorbidity. The patient was diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and dysruptive mood dysregulation disorder based on the results of psychodiagnostics (SCID-II structured clinical interview, MMPI personality inventory and disease-specific clinical questionnaires such as Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Social Cognition Questionnaire, Anger Expression Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The main aim of psychotherapy is to increase the adherence to pharmacotherapy, to promote psychosocial functioning, to improve well-being and to enhance adaptive coping strategies. Low-intensity cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy was used which included psychoeducation, motivational interview, behavioural activation, patient diary, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving training, and family consulting. Twenty-five sessions were held weekly in outpatient form and 3 sessions of crisis intervention after the surgery at the hospital. The efficacy of the treatment was measured by self-reported questionnaires at baseline and at two follow-up sessions which corroborated a very significant decrease in the severity of depression, hopelessness, while emotional regulation and self-esteem became more adaptive. The remission of the above

  17. Level of insight and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ana Cristina Gargano; Diniz, Juliana B; Torres, Albina R; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Fossaluza, Victor; Bragancas, Carlos Alberto; Ferrão, Ygor; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2007-04-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have several similarities and are included among the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. However, the content of preoccupations and level of insight of BDD patients differ from OCD patients. To compare the level of insight regarding obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and other clinical features in OCD patients with and without comorbid BDD. We evaluated 103 OCD patients (n=25, comorbid BDD), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the University of Sao Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. The study groups differed significantly on several clinical features, including level of insight. A worse level of insight regarding OCS was independently associated with the presence of comorbid BDD. Lower educational level, more psychiatric comorbidities, presence of somatic and hoarding obsessions, and presence of intrusive images were associated with BDD comorbidity, even after adjusting for possible confounders. The presence of BDD in OCD patients is associated with poorer insight into obsessional beliefs and higher morbidity, reflected by lower educational levels and higher number of psychiatric comorbid disorders in general.

  18. Changes in the influence of affect and cognition over time on consumer attitude formation toward nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van Roxanne I.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Insights into how consumer attitudes toward nanotechnology are formed and develop are crucial for understanding and anticipating possible barriers in consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications. In this study, the influence of affect and cognition on overall opinion is investigated

  19. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation; Cardiac surgery and abdominal surgery are not the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a debilitating surgical complication, with cardiac surgery patients at particular risk. To gain insight in the mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of POCD after cardiac versus non-cardiac surgery, systemic and central inflammatory changes,

  20. Measuring cognitive errors using the Cognitive Distortions Scale (CDS: psychometric properties in clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Özdel

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess thinking errors using case examples in two domains: interpersonal and personal achievement. Although its validity and reliability has been previously demonstrated in non-clinical samples, its psychometric properties and scoring has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Distortions Scale in two Turkish samples and to examine the usefulness of the categorical scoring system. A total of 325 individuals (Sample 1 and Sample 2 were enrolled in this study to assess those psychometric properties. Our Sample 1 consisted of 225 individuals working as interns at the Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital and Sample 2 consisted of 100 patients diagnosed with depression presenting to the outpatient unit of the same Hospital. Construct validity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire. Factor analyses supported a one-factor model in these clinical and non-clinical samples. Cronbach's α values were excellent in both the non-clinical and clinical samples (0.933 and 0.918 respectively. Cognitive Distortions Scale scores showed significant correlation with relevant clinical measures. Study Cognitive Distortions Scale scores were stable over a time span of two weeks. This study showed that the Cognitive Distortions Scale is a valid and reliable measure in clinical and non-clinical populations. In addition, it shows that the categorical exists/does not exist scoring system is relevant and could be used in clinical settings.