WorldWideScience

Sample records for beck cognitive insight

  1. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  2. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Audrey; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Bherer, Louis; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (r s = -0.48; p < 0.05) and visual memory (r s = -0.46; p < 0.05). The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  3. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chien-Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be

  4. The role of psychological inflexibility in Beck's cognitive model of depression in a sample of undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.

  5. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia.

  6. Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: Associations With Clinical and Cognitive Insight Controlling for Levels of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Luther, Lauren; Vinci, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia is a risk factor for both poor outcomes and treatment adherence. Accordingly, interest in identifying causes of poor insight has increased. This study explored whether theory of mind (ToM) impairments are linked to poor clinical and cognitive insight independent of psychopathology. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 37) and control subjects (n = 40) completed assessments of ToM with the Hinting Task and the Brüne Picture Sequencing Task, clinical insight and psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and cognitive insight with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Results indicated that the schizophrenia group had greater impairments in ToM relative to control subjects. In the schizophrenia group, the Hinting Task performance was related to both cognitive and clinical insight, with only the relationship with cognitive insight persisting after controlling for psychopathology. Picture Sequencing Task performance was related to cognitive insight only. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  8. The Beck Initiative: Training School-Based Mental Health Staff in Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Torrey A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Pontoski, Kristin; Feinberg, Betsy; Rosenberg, Zachary; Evans, Arthur; Hurford, Matthew O.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT) as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1) to examine the development of therapists' knowledge and skills in CT, an…

  9. Toward a model of cognitive insight in first-episode psychosis: verbal memory and hippocampal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, L; Czechowska, Y; Chochol, C; Malla, A; Joober, R; Pruessner, J; Lepage, M

    2010-09-01

    Our previous work has linked verbal learning and memory with cognitive insight, but not clinical insight, in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP). The current study reassessed the neurocognitive basis of cognitive and clinical insight and explored their neural basis in 61 FEP patients. Cognitive insight was measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and clinical insight with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Global measures for 7 domains of cognition were examined. Hippocampi were manually segmented in to 3 parts: the body, head, and tail. Verbal learning and memory significantly correlated with the BCIS composite index. Composite index scores were significantly associated with total left hippocampal (HC) volume; partial correlations, however, revealed that this relationship was attributable largely to verbal memory performance. The BCIS self-certainty subscale significantly and inversely correlated with bilateral HC volumes, and these associations were independent of verbal learning and memory performance. The BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale significantly correlated with verbal learning and memory but not with HC volume. No significant correlations emerged between the SUMD and verbal memory or HC volume. These results strengthen our previous assertion that in individuals with an FEP cognitive insight may rely on memory whereby current experiences are appraised based on previous ones. The HC may be a viable location among others for the brain system that underlies aspects of cognitive insight in individuals with an FEP.

  10. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  11. Developmental insights into mature cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Three cases are described that illustrate new ways in which developmental research is informing the study of cognition in adults: statistical learning, neural substrates of cognition, and extended concepts. Developmental research has made clear the ubiquity of statistical learning while also revealing is limitations as a stand-alone way to acquire knowledge. With respect to neural substrates, development has uncovered links between executive processing and fronto-striatal circuits while also pointing to many aspects of high-level cognition that may not be neatly reducible to coherent neural descriptions. For extended concepts, children have made especially clear the weaknesses of intuitive theories in both children and adults while also illustrating other cognitive capacities that are used at all ages to navigate the socially distributed aspects of knowledge.

  12. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  13. Cognitive insight is associated with cortical thickness in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; MacMaster, Frank P; Bray, Signe; Clark, Darren; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Compared to non-clinical subjects, people with psychosis show poor cognitive insight as reflected in low Self-Reflectiveness and high Self-Certainty. Neuroimaging studies have reported that 1) low Self-Reflectiveness is associated with volumetric reductions in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), 2) higher Self-Certainty is associated with volumetric reductions in hippocampus, and 3) higher Self-Certainty is associated with fractional anisotropy in the fornix, in people with psychosis. The aims of the current study were to expand on this research by 1) performing an exploratory whole-brain cortical thickness analysis of the neural correlates of cognitive insight, to reveal whether regions outside the VLPFC are important for cognitive insight, and 2) to evaluate associations between cognitive insight and subfields of the hippocampus, which are distinct, interacting, and have different functions. We also aimed to replicate previous research documenting associations between cognitive insight and 3) total hippocampal volumes and 4) fornix fractional anisotropy. Fifteen people with a first-episode psychosis completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale and provided magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging scans. Cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes were analyzed in FreeSurfer, and fornixfractional anisotropy was analyzed in Diffusion Toolkit/TrackVis. Higher Self-Reflectiveness and lower Self-Certainty significantly associated with thickness and thinness in VLPFC, respectively, as well as thickness and thinness in widespread frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. No associations emerged between Self-Reflectiveness or Self-Certainty and hippocampal total or sub-field volumes, or fornix fractional anisotropy. Results suggest that the neural correlates of cognitive insight involve a network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions.

  14. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921- Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fatih Yavuz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available he American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.

  15. Measuring cognitive insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónsdóttir Halldóra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both diagnostic groups. Methods The BCIS self-report inventory was administered to patients with schizophrenia (n = 143, bipolar disorder (n = 92 and controls (n = 64. The 15 items of the inventory form two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Results The internal consistency of the subscales was good for the patient groups and the controls. The mean subscale scores were not significantly different for the three groups. Four items in subscale self-reflectiveness referring to psychotic experiences gave, however, different results in the control subjects. Self-certainty and scores on insight item PANSS correlated significantly in the schizophrenia, but not in the bipolar group. Conclusion BCIS with its two subscales seems applicable for patients with bipolar disorder as well as for patients with schizophrenia. The self-report inventory can also be applied to control subjects if the items referring to psychotic experiences are omitted. In schizophrenia high scores on self-certainty is possibly associated with poor insight of illness. For the bipolar group the subscales are largely independent of traditional insight measures.

  16. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921-) Biography

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fatih YAVUZ; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR

    2012-01-01

    he American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the ...

  17. Relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Hoon Kim,1 Seul Lee,1 Ah-Young Han,1 Kyungwook Kim,2 Jinyoung Lee1 1Neuroscience Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Medicine, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: The concept of cognitive insight refers to the cognitive processes involved in patients’ re-evaluation of their anomalous experiences and of their misinterpretations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia to further shed light on the nature of cognitive insight and its functional correlates in schizophrenia.Methods: Seventy-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated for cognitive insight and subjective quality of life using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4. The symptoms of schizophrenia were also assessed. Pearson’s correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis that controlled for the severity of symptoms were performed to adjust for the possible effects of symptoms.Results: The self-reflectiveness subscale score of the BCIS had significant positive correlations with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain and total SQLS-R4 scores, indicating that the higher the level of cognitive insight, the lower the subjective quality of life. In partial correlation analysis controlling for symptoms, the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale score still had a significant correlation with the SQLS-R4 psychosocial domain score. The correlation coefficient between the BCIS self-reflectiveness and total SQLS-R4 scores was reduced to a nonsignificant statistical tendency.Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that cognitive insight, particularly the level of self-reflectiveness, is negatively associated with

  18. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic disord

  19. Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods. Ethological and experimental evidence has added significantly to our understanding of nonhuman brains and cognition, especially those of nonhuman primates. Studies of fossil brains through endocasts and sophisticated imaging techniques have revealed evolutionary changes in gross neural anatomy. Psychologists have also gotten into the game through application of reverse engineering to experimentally based descriptions of cognitive functions. For hominin evolution, there is another rich source of evidence of cognition, the archeological record. Using the methods of Paleolithic archeology and the theories and models of cognitive science, evolutionary cognitive archeology documents developments in the hominin mind that would otherwise be inaccessible.

  20. Corvid Caching : Insights From a Cognitive Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Elske; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    Caching and recovery of food by corvids is well-studied, but some ambiguous results remain. To help clarify these, we built a computational cognitive model. It is inspired by similar models built for humans, and it assumes that memory strength depends on frequency and recency of use. We compared our

  1. Kontrollmestringsteori og Becks kognitve teori. En sammenlignende undersøkelse av teoriene med henblikk på forståelse og behandling av depresjon

    OpenAIRE

    Brabrand, Kristin; Søvik, Ellen; Blomdal, Ane Jostedt

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy theories differ in how they understand and approach depression (Nordahl et al., 2012). In this paper we compare the control-mastery theory and Beck`s cognitive theory, with the aim to identify similarities and differences between the theories. In this comparison, similarities in conceptualization appeared. Both the control- mastery theory and Beck`s cognitive theory describe depression as developed on the basis of maladaptive cognitions (Beck, 1970; Weiss, 1993). At the same tim...

  2. Dynamic statistical models of biological cognition: insights from communications theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2014-10-01

    Maturana's cognitive perspective on the living state, Dretske's insight on how information theory constrains cognition, the Atlan/Cohen cognitive paradigm, and models of intelligence without representation, permit construction of a spectrum of dynamic necessary conditions statistical models of signal transduction, regulation, and metabolism at and across the many scales and levels of organisation of an organism and its context. Nonequilibrium critical phenomena analogous to physical phase transitions, driven by crosstalk, will be ubiquitous, representing not only signal switching, but the recruitment of underlying cognitive modules into tunable dynamic coalitions that address changing patterns of need and opportunity at all scales and levels of organisation. The models proposed here, while certainly providing much conceptual insight, should be most useful in the analysis of empirical data, much as are fitted regression equations.

  3. Learning Science: Some Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.

    Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.

  4. Insights in the electronic structure and redox reaction energy in LiFePO{sub 4} battery material from an accurate Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rafael B., E-mail: rafael.barros@physics.uu.se [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Almeida, J. de S [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Ferreira da Silva, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Ahuja, Rajeev [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-28

    The main goals of this paper are to investigate the accuracy of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential to predict the electronic structure of lithium iron phosphate and the related redox reaction energy with the lithium deintercalation process. The computed electronic structures show that the TB-mBJ method is able to partially localize Fe-3d electrons in LiFePO{sub 4} and FePO{sub 4} which usually is a problem for the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) due to the self interaction error. The energy band gap is also improved by the TB-mBJ calculations in comparison with the GGA results. It turned out, however, that the redox reaction energy evaluated by the TB-mBJ technique is not in good agreement with the measured one. It is speculated that this disagreement in the computed redox energy and the experimental value is due to the lack of a formal expression to evaluate the exchange and correlation energy. Therefore, the TB-mBJ is an efficient method to improve the prediction of the electronic structures coming form the standard GGA functional in LiFePO{sub 4} and FePO{sub 4}. However, it does not appear to have the same efficiency for evaluating the redox reaction energies for the investigated system.

  5. Insight change in psychosis : relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four pa

  6. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was measu

  7. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  8. Thinking in Action: Some Insights from Cognitive Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport…

  9. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  10. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet DİNÇ

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored sevent...

  11. Neurocognitive insight and objective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Harvey, Philip D; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core component of schizophrenia affecting everyday functioning; the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia show awareness of neurocognitive impairment (neurocognitive insight) is unclear. This study investigated neurocognitive insight and examined the cross-sectional relationships between neurocognitive insight and objective neurocognition and functional capacity performance in a large outpatient sample. 214 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders completed measures of neurocognition, functional capacity, and self-reported neurocognitive problems. Latent profile analysis classified participants with regard to neuropsychological performance and self-report of neurocognitive problems. The resulting classes were then compared on executive functioning performance, functional capacity performance, and psychiatric symptom severity. More than three quarters of the sample demonstrated objective neurocognitive impairment (global deficit score≥0.50). Among the participants with neurocognitive impairment, 54% were classified as having "impaired" neurocognitive insight (i.e., reporting few neurocognitive problems despite having objective neurocognitive impairment). Participants with impaired vs. intact neurocognitive insight did not differ on executive functioning measures or measures of functional capacity or negative symptom severity, but those with intact neurocognitive insight reported higher levels of positive and depressive symptoms. A substantial portion of individuals with schizophrenia and objectively measured neurocognitive dysfunction appear unaware of their deficits. Patient self-report of neurocognitive problems, therefore, is not likely to reliably assess neurocognition. Difficulty self-identifying neurocognitive impairment appears to be unrelated to executive functioning, negative symptoms, and functional capacity. For those with intact neurocognitive insight, improving depressive and psychotic symptoms may be

  12. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack...

  13. Analogical Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Richland, Lindsey E.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Applying knowledge from one context to another is a notoriously difficult problem, both for children and adults, but lies at the heart of educational endeavors. Analogical reasoning is a cognitive underpinning of the ability to notice and draw similarities across contexts. Reasoning by analogy is especially challenging for students, who must…

  14. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people’s awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people’s awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people’s cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  15. Enclothed Cognition and Controlled Attention during Insight Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; DeCaro, Marci S.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) increase the ability and tendency to devote greater attentional control to a task--improving performance on a wide range of skills. In addition, recent research on enclothed cognition demonstrates that the situational influence of wearing a white lab coat increases controlled attention, due…

  16. Explore Awareness of Information Security: Insights from Cognitive Neuromechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Han, Tianlin; Dai, Xingyun

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, the increasingly diversified portable mobile terminals, online shopping, and social media have facilitated information exchange, social communication, and financial payment for people more and more than ever before. In the meantime, information security and privacy protection have been meeting with new severe challenges. Although we have taken a variety of information security measures in both management and technology, the actual effectiveness depends firstly on people's awareness of information security and the cognition of potential risks. In order to explore the new technology for the objective assessment of people's awareness and cognition on information security, this paper takes the online financial payment as example and conducts an experimental study based on the analysis of electrophysiological signals. Results indicate that left hemisphere and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal are sensitive to the cognitive degree of risks in the awareness of information security, which may be probably considered as the sign to assess people's cognition of potential risks in online financial payment.

  17. Grounded and embodied mathematical cognition: Promoting mathematical insight and proof using action and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Mitchell J; Walkington, Candace

    2017-01-01

    We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities. Our focus here is on pre-college geometry proof production. GEMC suggests that action alone can foster insight but is insufficient for valid proof production if action is not coordinated with language systems for propositionalizing general properties of objects and space. GEMC guides the design of a video game-based learning environment intended to promote students' mathematical insights and informal proofs by eliciting dynamic gestures through in-game directed actions. GEMC generates several hypotheses that contribute to theories of embodied cognition and to the design of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education interventions. Pilot study results with a prototype video game tentatively support theory-based predictions regarding the role of dynamic gestures for fostering insight and proof-with-insight, and for the role of action coupled with language to promote proof-with-insight. But the pilot yields mixed results for deriving in-game interventions intended to elicit dynamic gesture production. Although our central purpose is an explication of GEMC theory and the role of action-cognition transduction, the theory-based video game design reveals the potential of GEMC to improve STEM education, and highlights the complex challenges of connecting embodiment research to education practices and learning environment design.

  18. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals.

  19. Kuu plaat : Beck "Guero". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Beck "Guero", Common "Be", Stupid F ja Hash "Koodeks: R.L.V.", Kulo "Onarhia", Natalie Imbruglia "Counting Down the Days", New Order "Waiting for the Sirens' Call", Human Ground "Human Ground"

  20. What Captures Gaze in Visual Design - Insights from Cognitive Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and factors that have been experimentally shown to capture attention, as well as those factors that modulate the capture and direction of attention. We do so by drawing on the large body of evidence provided by cognitive psychology, as we believe this research area could potentially provide a source...... readily available. Visual attention is the principle mechanism that governs where we direct our gaze. Understanding the factors that influence how attention is directed is therefore necessary for understanding user intentions and gaze patterns. In this paper, we provide an overview of the characteristics...

  1. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack...... of appropriate controls. Furthermore, there are no internationally accepted criteria for defining POCD. This article aims to provide an update of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of POCD with a focus on perioperative pathophysiology and possible benefits achieved from an enhanced postoperative recovery...

  2. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  3. The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, S.W.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Crone, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-

  4. Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas; Cacioppo, John T

    2010-02-01

    People conceive of wrathful gods, fickle computers, and selfish genes, attributing human characteristics to a variety of supernatural, technological, and biological agents. This tendency to anthropomorphize nonhuman agents figures prominently in domains ranging from religion to marketing to computer science. Perceiving an agent to be humanlike has important implications for whether the agent is capable of social influence, accountable for its actions, and worthy of moral care and consideration. Three primary factors-elicited agent knowledge, sociality motivation, and effectance motivation-appear to account for a significant amount of variability in anthropomorphism. Identifying these factors that lead people to see nonhuman agents as humanlike also sheds light on the inverse process of dehumanization, whereby people treat human agents as animals or objects. Understanding anthropomorphism can contribute to a more expansive view of social cognition that applies social psychological theory to a wide variety of both human and nonhuman agents.

  5. Going with the Grain of Cognition: Applying Insights from Psychology to Build Support for Childhood Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Isabel; Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lawrence, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.

  6. Going with the Grain of Cognition: Applying Insights from Psychology to Build Support for Childhood Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Isabel; Hurlstone, Mark J; Lawrence, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.

  7. Going with the Grain of Cognition: Applying insights from psychology to build support for childhood vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rossen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.

  8. Insights into numerical cognition: considering eye-fixations in number processing and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, J; Huber, S; Klein, E; Moeller, K

    2016-05-01

    Considering eye-fixation behavior is standard in reading research to investigate underlying cognitive processes. However, in numerical cognition research eye-tracking is used less often and less systematically. Nevertheless, we identified over 40 studies on this topic from the last 40 years with an increase of eye-tracking studies on numerical cognition during the last decade. Here, we review and discuss these empirical studies to evaluate the added value of eye-tracking for the investigation of number processing. Our literature review revealed that the way eye-fixation behavior is considered in numerical cognition research ranges from investigating basic perceptual aspects of processing non-symbolic and symbolic numbers, over assessing the common representational space of numbers and space, to evaluating the influence of characteristics of the base-10 place-value structure of Arabic numbers and executive control on number processing. Apart from basic results such as reading times of numbers increasing with their magnitude, studies revealed that number processing can influence domain-general processes such as attention shifting-but also the other way round. Domain-general processes such as cognitive control were found to affect number processing. In summary, eye-fixation behavior allows for new insights into both domain-specific and domain-general processes involved in number processing. Based thereon, a processing model of the temporal dynamics of numerical cognition is postulated, which distinguishes an early stage of stimulus-driven bottom-up processing from later more top-down controlled stages. Furthermore, perspectives for eye-tracking research in numerical cognition are discussed to emphasize the potential of this methodology for advancing our understanding of numerical cognition.

  9. Insight in the Brain: The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Eureka Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, Mark [Northwestern University

    2013-04-03

    Where do new ideas come from? Although all new ideas build on old, this can happen in different ways. Some new ideas, or solutions to old problems, are achieved through methodical, analytical processing. Other new ideas come about in a sudden burst of insight, often based on or generating a restructured view of the problem itself. Behavioral, brain imaging, and eye-tracking results all reveal distinct cortical networks contributing to insight solving, as contrasted with analytic solving. Consistently, the way in which people solve problems appears to relate to the way they engage attention and cognitive control: across time, across moods, and across individuals. Insight is favored when people can disengage from strong stimuli and associations - figuratively and literally looking "outside the box" of the problem to suddenly solve with a new idea.

  10. Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions.

  11. The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental trajectories of creative cognition across adolescence. Participants (N = 98), divided into four age groups (12/13 yrs, 15/16 yrs, 18/19 yrs, and 25-30 yrs), were subjected to a battery of tasks gauging creative insight (visual; verbal) and divergent thinking (verbal; visuo-spatial). The two older age groups outperformed the two younger age groups on insight tasks. The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. No age-group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds outperformed 12/13-year-olds; a model with peak performance for 15/16-years-old showed the best fit. The results for the different creativity processes are discussed in relation to cognitive and related neurobiological models. We conclude that mid-adolescence is a period of not only immaturities but also of creative potentials in the visuo-spatial domain, possibly related to developing control functions and explorative behavior.

  12. Using the Cognitive Pretesting Method to Gain Insight Into Participants’ Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L. K. Koskey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative researchers traditionally use cognitive pretesting methods such as think-alouds to determine whether participants are interpreting close-ended survey items as intended. I applied this method to evaluate the score validity of quantitative survey instruments with a middle school and high school sample of students. Through these applications, the cognitive pretesting method also revealed to be a useful tool for cueing participants’ reflection on their experiences related to the phenomenon of interest. Qualitative researchers traditionally use more open-ended interviews guided by general “how” and “why” questions, which might not serve as sufficient prompts to elicit participants’ reflection on their experiences, especially younger participants. To date, there are no illustrative examples focused on how having participants think-aloud as they complete a quantitative survey can inform qualitative-focused or mixed research questions. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to illustrate how the cognitive pretesting method, where participants think-aloud as they complete a survey, can be used as an additional technique to gain insight into their experiences of a phenomenon. The phenomenon in this illustration was defined as the participants’ experiences with the science content that they were learning in school. Limitations and methodological challenges and recommendations for overcoming these barriers are also discussed.

  13. El legado psicoanalítico en la terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Pablo Korman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychodynamic model in which Beck was formed tried to include psychoanalysis into the scientific model. This was consistent with the aims of many clinical researchers in the 1950-1960 decades in the United States. This will take him, years later, to develop the cognitive therapy. In this paper we will focus on Beck psychoanalytic training and his firsts publications as a specialist in psychiatry during his hospital practice (at the Austen Riggs Clinic and in the Valley Forge Army Hospital. We will analyze his first hypotheses, trying to trace the evidence of his mode of action as a psychoanalyst. This formation will subsequently lead him to rethink the psychoanalytic theory, a fact that will be the key to explain the features that will adopt cognitive therapy.

  14. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  15. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvoort SJW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serge JW Walvoort,1–3 Paul T van der Heijden,3,4 Roy PC Kessels,1,2,5 Jos IM Egger1–3,6 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, 3Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 4Reinier van Arkel Mental Health Institute, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands Aim: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8 was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS and in alcohol use disorder (AUD patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results: Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73. The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion: The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. Keywords: illness insight, anosognosia, alcohol use disorder, Korsakoff

  16. P03-241 - Improving insight in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and understanding insight from a patient perspective - a mixed methods study. European Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R; Hansson, L; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The method Guided Self-Determination (GSD), originally developed and proven effective in difficult diabetes care, has been adjusted to patients with schizophrenia. Currently a randomised controlled study investigates if the method GSD has effect on the outcomes insight, self-esteem, recovery......, psychopathology and social functioning when applied in psychiatric care in 3 Assertive Outreach Teams and 3 Psychosis Teams. As an extension from the RCT we just started a qualitative study using Classic Grounded Theory. The overall approach is a Mixed Methods Approach with a Sequential Explanatory Strategy....... The RCT hypothesize that the method GSD improves both clinical and cognitive insight in patients, measured by Birchwood Insight Scale and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale that both are self-rating scales. Lack of insight into illness is often associated with patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Also poorer...

  17. Effects on cognitive and clinical insight with the use of Guided Self-Determination in outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke; Licht, R W; Lysaker, P H

    2015-01-01

    with schizophrenia. The design was an open randomized trial. The primary hypothesis was cognitive insight would improve in those patients who received GSD-SZ+TAU as assessed by the BCIS. We additionally explored whether the intervention led to changes in clinical insight, self-perceived recovery, self-esteem, social...... their illness management, Guided Self-Determination (GSD), has been adapted for use in patients with schizophrenia (GSD-SZ). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on insight of GSD-SZ as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) as compared to TAU alone in outpatients diagnosed...

  18. Utility of social cognition and insight in the prediction of inpatient violence among individuals with a severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldheter, Evan J; Jones, Nicole T; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Penn, David L

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of social cognition and insight in the prediction of violence in a psychiatric inpatient sample. Violence history, demographic information, symptomatology, neuropsychological functioning, social cognition (i.e., attributional style), and insight were assessed in 29 inpatients with severe mental illness. Greater posttest violence was associated with greater pretest violence, less education, greater psychiatric distress, neuropsychological impairment, and hostile attributional and personalizing biases. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that history of violence contributed the most variance to posttest violence. Hostile attributional and personalizing biases were also uniquely associated with posttest violence. Overall, this study supported the modest utility of attributional style measures in the prediction of inpatient violence. The predictive value of insight in this context appears limited.

  19. Exercise benefits for the aging brain depend on the accompanying cognitive load: insights from sleep electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2013-11-01

    Although exercise clearly offsets aging effects on the body, its benefits for the aging brain are likely to depend on the extent that physical activity (especially locomotion) facilitates multisensory encounters, curiosity, and interactions with novel environments; this is especially true for exploratory activity, which occupies much of wakefulness for most mammals in the wild. Cognition is inseparable from physical activity, with both interlinked to promote neuroplasticity and more successful brain aging. In these respects and for humans, exercising in a static, featureless, artificially lit indoor setting contrasts with exploratory outdoor walking within a novel environment during daylight. However, little is known about the comparative benefits for the aging brain of longer-term daily regimens of this latter nature including the role of sleep, to the extent that sleep enhances neuroplasticity as shown in short-term laboratory studies. More discerning analyses of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity especially 0.5-2-Hz activity would provide greater insights into use-dependent recovery processes during longer-term tracking of these regimens and complement slower changing waking neuropsychologic and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures, including those of the brain's default mode network. Although the limited research only points to ephemeral small sleep EEG effects of pure exercise, more enduring effects seem apparent when physical activity incorporates cognitive challenges. In terms of "use it or lose it," curiosity-driven "getting out and about," encountering, interacting with, and enjoying novel situations may well provide the brain with its real exercise, further reflected in changes to the dynamics of sleep.

  20. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM

    2016-01-01

    Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476

  1. Insight, grey matter and cognitive function in first-onset psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Kevin D

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that neuropsychological and structural brain deficits are implicated in poor insight. Few insight studies however have combined neurocognitive and structural neuroanatomical measures.

  2. REFLEX, a social-cognitive group treatment to improve insight in schizophrenia: study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijnenborg GHM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting point of the development of REFLEX: a brief psychosocial intervention to improve insight in schizophrenia. REFLEX is a 12-sessions group training, consisting of three modules of four sessions each. Modules in this intervention are: "coping with stigma", "you and your personal narrative", and "you in the present". Methods/Design REFLEX is currently evaluated in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eight mental health institutions in the Netherlands participate in this evaluation. Patients are randomly assigned to either REFLEX or an active control condition, existing of cognitive remediation exercises in a group. In a subgroup of patients, fMRI scans are made before and after training in order to assess potential haemodynamic changes associated with the effects of the training. Discussion REFLEX is one of the few interventions aiming specifically to improving insight in schizophrenia and has potential value for improving insight. Targeting insight in schizophrenia is a complex task, that comes with several methodological issues. These issues are addressed in the discussion of this paper. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN50247539

  3. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eTaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using EEG biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  4. Depression in schizophrenia: the influence of the different dimensions of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdrahi, David; Denard, Sophie; Swendsen, Joel; Jaussent, Isabelle; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-04-30

    Improving insight in patients with schizophrenia appears necessary to enhance medication adherence and clinical outcome, but in some patients acquiring insight can paradoxically increase hopelessness, depression and suicidal behavior. The aim of this study is to explore the association of two dimensions of insight (cognitive and clinical) with depression, hopelessness and clinical variables in patients with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 61 remitted outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were included. Insight was assessed using the "Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder" (SUMD), the PANSS-item G12 and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Overall, 41.2% of the sample had a history of suicide attempts. Patients in the high clinical insight group had significantly higher depression scores, higher hopelessness scores, greater histories of suicide attempts and were more likely to have received psychoeducation. Compared to patients with low cognitive insight, those with high overall cognitive insight were significantly more depressed and had more often received psychoeducation. Greater insight may have negative consequences in terms of depressive symptoms and therefore presents a challenge to clinicians in assessing the individual risks and benefits of strategies intended to enhance awareness of mental disorder.

  5. Origins of spatial, temporal and numerical cognition: Insights from comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B M; Jordan, Fiona M; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Clayton, Nicky S

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary comparative cognition has a large repertoire of animal models and methods, with concurrent theoretical advances that are providing initial answers to crucial questions about human cognition. What cognitive traits are uniquely human? What are the species-typical inherited predispositions of the human mind? What is the human mind capable of without certain types of specific experiences with the surrounding environment? Here, we review recent findings from the domains of space, time and number cognition. These findings are produced using different comparative methodologies relying on different animal species, namely birds and non-human great apes. The study of these species not only reveals the range of cognitive abilities across vertebrates, but also increases our understanding of human cognition in crucial ways.

  6. Diagnosing Depression in Chronic Pain Patients: DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder vs. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Knaster; Ann-Mari Estlander; Hasse Karlsson; Jaakko Kaprio; Eija Kalso

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional ...

  7. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DİNÇ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works.

  8. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  9. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umegaki H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Umegaki Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly. T2DM has been thought to be associated with vascular diseases, eventually leading to vascular dementia, but recent studies have established that T2DM is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. With the increase in the number of elderly individuals with T2DM, the number of diabetic patients with cognitive dysfunction has been increasing. T2DM may accelerate AD-associated pathologies through insulin resistance. Vascular pathologies may also be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in T2DM subjects. Several other mechanisms also seem to be involved in T2DM-related cognitive dysfunction. More investigations to clarify the association of T2DM with cognitive impairment are warranted. These investigations may help to increase our understanding of AD and open a new door to the development of therapeutics. Recent pharmaceutical advancement in T2DM treatment has resulted in the availability of a wide range of antidiabetics. Some evidence has suggested that antidiabetic therapies help to prevent cognitive dysfunction. At present, however, the optimal level of blood glucose control and the best combination of medications to achieve it in terms of cognitive preservation have not been established. More investigation is warranted. Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging new complication of T2DM that requires further study. Keywords: insulin resistance, dementia, blood glucose, amyloid ß, tau, small vascular disease

  10. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development

    OpenAIRE

    Ora eOudgenoeg-Paz; James eRivière

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young ...

  11. Depression and cognition: new insights from the Lorenz curve and the Gini index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maldonado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal aportación del actual estudio prospectivo ex post facto es el uso de técnicas estadísticas conocidas como la Curva de Lorenz o el Índice de Gini, para analizar el contenido de las cogniciones depresivas, en función del estilo atribucional (i.e., atribuciones internas, estables y globales para las causas del fracaso o de sucesos negativos, como propone el modelo de la indefensión aprendida y la triada cognitiva negativa (i.e., una visión negativa de sí mismo, del mundo y del futuro, acorde al modelo cognitivo de Beck de la depresión. Tanto las curvas de Lorenz, como los índices de Gini, revelaron que, mientras el estilo atribucional estaba poco relacionado con el nivel de depresión, la triada cognitiva negativa mostraba una alta relación, lo que sugiere que esta última constituye una mejor descripción del contenido cognitivo de los pensamientos depresivos. Al mismo tiempo, este estudio documenta como ambas técnicas, Índice de Gini y Curva de Lorenz, pueden usarse para evaluar tanto la capacidad predictiva de diferentes instrumentos o técnicas de medida psicológicas, como la validez de las variables propuestas por los modelos teóricos que pretenden explicar trastornos psicológicos concretos. Este estudio pionero revela por tanto, la utilidad potencial de estas técnicas estadísticas en Psicología tanto para analizar los factores o predictores de trastornos psicológicos específicos, como para potenciar los instrumentos de medida existentes, como se ha mostrado en este trabajo para la depresión.

  12. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: Insights from typical and atypical development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg - Paz, Ora; Riviére, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor

  13. Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…

  14. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: Insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Vytal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion-cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated

  15. Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Jessica; Watters, Carolyn A; Yu, Stephanie Chee-Min; Bagby, R Michael; Ryder, Andrew G; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-03-01

    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI-II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI-II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly.

  16. The Importance of Emotional Insight in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Adolescent Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…

  17. Cognition, affection and interpersonal relationship of women with bipolar disorder / Cognição, afeto e relacionamento interpessoal de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luciano Codani Hisatugo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The bipolar affective disorder induces incapacitation and social isolation, and might lead to suicide. It was a clinical study of multiple cases using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Suicide Inventory (BSI, Hamilton Scale of Depression (HAM-D and the Rorschach, by Exner's Comprehensive System (CS. The objective was to analyze the affective, cognitive and interpersonal aspects of the patients. Four female out-patients who were previously diagnosed as bipolar depressive, by the Psychiatry Interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCIDI/CV-DSM-IV criteria were studied. Results had indicated undervalued feelings about themselves, euphoric contents and lack of insight about the self-tolerance related to stress controls. Emotional and cognitive aspects have influenced the interpersonal context leading to increased suffering. Other qualitative and clinic data have been observed and commented.

  18. INSIGHTS IN EEG VERSUS HEG AND RT-FMRI NEURO FEEDBACK TRAINING FOR COGNITION ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Plerou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovative research technologies in the neurosciences have remarkably improved the perception of brain structure and function. The use of several neurofeedback training techniques is broadly used for the memory and cognition augmentation as well as for several learning difficulties and AHDD rehabilitation. Author’s objective is to review cognitive enhancement techniques with the use of brain imaging intervention methods as well to evaluate the effects of these methods in the educational process. The efficiency and limitations of neurofeedback training with the use of EEG brain imaging, HEG scanning, namely NIR and PIR method and fMRI scan including rt-fMRI brain scanning technique are also discussed. Moreover, technical and clinical details of several neurofeedback treatment approaches were also taken into consideration.

  19. The prefrontal cortex: insights from functional neuroimaging using cognitive activation tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Polikliniek 7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the functional anatomy of a variety of cognitive processes represented by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Overall, these studies have demonstrated that standard prefrontal neuroactivation tasks recruit a widely distributed network within the brain of which the PFC consistently forms a part. As such, these results are in keeping with the notion that executive functions within the PFC rely not only on anterior (mainly prefrontal) brain areas, but also on posterior (mainly parietal) brain regions. Moreover, intervention of similar brain regions in a large number of different executive tasks suggests that higher-level cognitive functions may best be understood in terms of an interactive network of specialised anterior as well as posterior brain regions. (orig.)

  20. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children.

  1. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Genotype/phenotype Insights from Partial Deletion Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKarmiloff-Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying genotype-phenotype relations in human social cognition has been enhanced by the study of Williams syndrome (WS. Indeed, individuals with WS present with a particularly strong social drive, and researchers have sought to link deleted genes in the WS Critical Region (WSCR of chromosome 7q11.23 to this unusual social profile. In this paper, we provide details of two case studies of children with partial genetic deletions in the WSCR: an 11-year-old female with a deletion of 24 of the 28 WS genes, and a 14-year-old male who presents with the opposite profile, i.e. the deletion of only 4 genes at the telomeric end of the WSCR. We tested these two children on a large battery of standardised and experimental social perception and social cognition tasks - both implicit and explicit - as well as standardised social questionnaires and general psychometric measures. Our findings reveal a partial WS socio-cognitive profile in the female, contrasted with a more autistic-like profile in the male. We discuss the implications of these findings for genotype/phenotype relations, as well as the advantages and limitations of animal models and of case study approaches.

  2. Shallow science or meta-cognitive insights: a few thoughts on reflection via bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    The authors conclude this special issue by responding to the commentaries of their colleagues and reviewing relevant scholarship that appeared in the bibliometric literature since their literature reviews for the initial three articles in this issue were completed. They conclude, in part, that examination of bibliometric data regarding the entry of an article into the profession's knowledge base, and its ongoing life therein, may provide insights about the scientific communication process that lead to improvements of that process.

  3. Tourette Syndrome: Complementary Insights from Measures of Cognitive Control, Eyeblink Rate, and Pupil Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Jordan A.; Wendelken, Carter; Mathews, Carol A.; Marco, Elysa J.; Schreier, Herbert; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) have severe motoric and vocal tics that interfere with all aspects of their lives, while others have mild tics that pose few problems. We hypothesize that observed tic severity reflects a combination of factors, including the degree to which dopaminergic (DA) and/or noradrenergic (NE) neurotransmitter systems have been affected by the disorder, and the degree to which the child can exert cognitive control to suppress unwanted tics. To explore these hypotheses, we collected behavioral and eyetracking data from 26 patients with TS and 26 controls between ages 7 and 14, both at rest and while they performed a test of cognitive control. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use eyetracking measures in patients with TS. We measured spontaneous eyeblink rate as well as pupil diameter, which have been linked, respectively, to DA and NE levels in the central nervous system. Here, we report a number of key findings that held when we restricted analyses to unmedicated patients. First, patients’ accuracy on our test of cognitive control accounted for fully 50% of the variance in parentally reported tic severity. Second, patients exhibited elevated spontaneous eyeblink rates compared to controls, both during task performance and at rest, consistent with heightened DA transmission. Third, although neither task-evoked pupil dilation nor resting pupil diameter differed between TS patients and controls, pupil diameter was positively related to parentally reported anxiety levels in patients, suggesting heightened NE transmission in patients with comorbid anxiety. Thus, with the behavioral and eyetracking data gathered from a single task, we can gather objective data that are related both to tic severity and anxiety levels in pediatric patients with TS, and that likely reflect patients’ underlying neurochemical disturbances. PMID:26175694

  4. Cognitiva (TC de Beck en una muestra costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannia Cabezas Pizarro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se explora una posible relación empírica entre la terapia racional emotivoconductual (TREC de Ellis y la terapia cognitiva (TC de Beck, dos de los modelos más conspicuos en el campo de la psicoterapia cognitiva actual. Si bien este modelo utiliza el término “cognitivo” en forma tal que se encuentra asociado con el afecto, la fisiología y la conducta (Dobson, 1986, sostiene que las perturbaciones emocionales, en esencia, son causadas por el proceso cognitivo del individuo. En esta investigación, se trabajó con una muestra de 200 estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica de diferentes áreas a quienes se les aplicaron las escalas de: Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI [Escala de Actitudes y Creencias], y el Beck Depression Inventory, 2ª edición (BDI-II [Inventario de Depresión de Beck], escalas que fueron adaptadas al español. El análisis estadístico de los datos confirma empíricamente la relación entre ambos modelos.

  5. Cognitive effort in direct and inverse translation performance: Insight from eye-tracking technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined the translation performance of four professional translators with the aim of exploring the cognitive effort involved in direct and inverse translation. Four professional translators translated two comparable texts from English into Spanish and from Spanish into English. Eye-tracking technology was used to analyze the total time spent in each task, fixation time, and average fixation time. Fixation count in three areas of interest was measured including: source text, target text, and browser, used as an external support. Results suggested that although total time and fixation count were indicators of cognitive effort during the tasks, fixation count in the areas of interest data showed that more effort was directed toward the source text in both tasks. Overall, this study demonstrates that while more traditional measures for translation difficulty (e.g., total time indicate more effort in the inverse translation task, eye-tracking data indicate that differences in the effort applied in both directions must be carefully analyzed, mostly regarding the areas of interest.

  6. Insight into dopamine-dependent planning deficits in Parkinson's disease: A sharing of cognitive & sensory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieruccini-Faria, F; Jones, J A; Almeida, Q J

    2016-03-24

    Cognitive and sensorimotor processes are both needed for successful planning of footsteps during complex gait situations, but the interaction between these factors during motor planning, as well as their response to dopaminergic treatment is poorly understood in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the current study, we evaluated walking and gaze behaviors of individuals with PD while planning an approach toward an obstacle to be stepped over. The obstacle clearance task was completed both ON and OFF dopaminergic medication by individuals with Parkinson's disease (n=20) and compared to healthy age-matched control participants (n=19), as well as with and without an auditory digit monitoring dual task. In this novel protocol of synchronized gaze and gait data collection, each trial was split into an early and late phase prior to the obstacle, providing a unique opportunity to examine dopamine-dependent planning deficits in PD. Interestingly, only patients in the OFF medication state showed greater deceleration in the late phase (i.e., just before the obstacle) (F(1,37)=45.42, pphase) with the additional demands of a dual task (F(2,74)=3.49, p=0.035). Only gait deceleration between approaching phases improved with dopaminergic treatment (F(1,18)=59.20; pplanned for the obstacle more so in the early phase (pphase or condition suggesting that the deceleration and increased variability when approaching an obstacle is the result of a greater demand for online sensory feedback that cannot be compensated for with visual strategies. We conclude that dopamine influences planning by limiting sensorimotor processing capacity, especially in the presence of increased cognitive demand in PD.

  7. Canonical failure modes of real-time control systems: insights from cognitive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-04-01

    Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes.

  8. Gaining insight into adolescent vulnerability for social anxiety from developmental cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Caouette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex, recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach.

  9. Sociological and Biological Insights on How to Prevent the Reduction in Cognitive Activity that Stems from Robots Assuming Workloads in Human–Robot Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Compagna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of cognitive tasks brought about by new developments in service-robots’ collaboration with humans in working environments has given rise to new challenges as to how to address safety issues. This paper presents insights from biology, cognitive/neural sciences and sociology that can conquer these new challenges. The main focus lies in sociological variables that ensure safe human–robot interaction in working environments rather than addressing biological ones (avoiding bodily harm or purely cognitive ones (avoiding any signals that are outside the human’s sensory comfort zones. We will present an approach on how to integrate behavioral patterns into the robotic system in order to prevent the problem of reduced cognition in relation to essential features, which are necessary for carrying out this pattern in the context of a human–robot interaction with non-humanoid robots (which is the most typical design of robots used in work environments.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Nature and Relation to Non-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders.

  11. Mechanisms underlying autoimmune synaptic encephalitis leading to disorders of memory, behavior and cognition: insights from molecular, cellular and synaptic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Emilia H; Jain, Ankit; Peng, Xiaoyu; Hughes, Ethan G; Dalmau, Josep; Balice-Gordon, Rita J

    2010-07-01

    Recently, several novel, potentially lethal and treatment-responsive syndromes that affect hippocampal and cortical function have been shown to be associated with auto-antibodies against synaptic antigens, notably glutamate or GABA-B receptors. Patients with these auto-antibodies, sometimes associated with teratomas and other neoplasms, present with psychiatric symptoms, seizures, memory deficits and decreased levels of consciousness. These symptoms often improve dramatically after immunotherapy or tumor resection. Here we review studies of the cellular and synaptic effects of these antibodies in hippocampal neurons in vitro and preliminary work in rodent models. Our work suggests that patient antibodies lead to rapid and reversible removal of neurotransmitter receptors from synaptic sites, leading to changes in synaptic and circuit function that in turn are likely to lead to behavioral deficits. We also discuss several of the many questions raised by these and related disorders. Determining the mechanisms underlying these novel anti-neurotransmitter receptor encephalopathies will provide insights into the cellular and synaptic bases of the memory and cognitive deficits that are hallmarks of these disorders, and potentially suggest avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  13. Brief Report: Is Cognitive Rehabilitation Needed in Verbal Adults with Autism? Insights from Initial Enrollment in a Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is an emerging set of potentially effective interventions for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder, yet the applicability of these approaches for "high functioning" adults who have normative levels of intelligence remains unexplored. This study examined the initial cognitive performance characteristics of 40…

  14. Ulrich Beck : ostmine võib olla sama mõjus poliitiline osalusvorm kui valimaskäimine / Ulrich Beck ; interv. Indrek Ibrus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Sotsioloog on seisukohal, et tänapäeval, kus teadusest ja majandusest on kujunenud poliitika, saab erasektorit ja teadlasi mõjutada tarbijakäitumise ning riikidevahelise koostöö suurendamisega. Lisa: Ulrich Beck

  15. REFLEX, a social-cognitive group treatment to improve insight in schizophrenia : Study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Van der Gaag, Mark; Bockting, Claudi L H; Van der Meer, Lisette; Aleman, André

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting

  16. Structure-Function Relationships behind the Phenomenon of Cognitive Resilience in Neurology: Insights for Neuroscience and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of cognitive resilience, that is, the dynamical preservation of normal functions despite neurological disorders, demonstrates that cognition can be highly robust to devastating brain injury. Here, cognitive resilience is considered across a range of neurological conditions. Simple computational models of structure-function relationships are used to discuss hypotheses about the neural mechanisms of resilience. Resilience expresses functional redundancies in brain networks and su...

  17. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative researc

  18. Profiling modern risks. An appraisal of the works of bauman, beck, castel, giddens and baudrillard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korstanje Maximiliano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the fear can be seen a grounding emotion broadly studied by psychology, sociology and anthropology for many years. Every end of millennium represents for human beings a new embodiment of their beliefs, their production, forms of consumption and even their hierarchical lines of authority. As privileged witnesses of the starting of a new millennium, one might realize how the sentiment of unprotection has been disseminated as a virus world-wide. Ranging from appalling events such as 11/09 towards the Swine Flu recently appeared in Mexico, the perception of lay-people of what is or not dangerous seem to be changed for-ever. Under such a context, the present theoretical manuscript explores the connection of risk and fear at the time it delves into the main contributions and limitations of Jean Baudrillard, Anthony Giddens, Robert Castel, Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman. From different angles, every-one of cited scholars will give to reader an insight view of the role played by risk and fear in our modern society.

  19. [Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449. (Verhöffentlichungen zur Geschichte der Hansestadt Lübeck. B. 48). (Lübeck, 2010)

  20. Structure-Function Relationships behind the Phenomenon of Cognitive Resilience in Neurology: Insights for Neuroscience and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudrauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cognitive resilience, that is, the dynamical preservation of normal functions despite neurological disorders, demonstrates that cognition can be highly robust to devastating brain injury. Here, cognitive resilience is considered across a range of neurological conditions. Simple computational models of structure-function relationships are used to discuss hypotheses about the neural mechanisms of resilience. Resilience expresses functional redundancies in brain networks and suggests a process of dynamic rerouting of brain signals. This process is underlined by a global renormalization of effective connectivity, capable of restoring information transfer between spared brain structures via alternate pathways. Local mechanisms of synaptic plasticity mediate the renormalization at the lowest level of implementation, but it is also driven by top-down cognition, with a key role of self-awareness in fostering resilience. The presence of abstraction layers in brain computation and networking is hypothesized to account for the renormalization process. Future research directions and challenges are discussed regarding the understanding and control of resilience based on multimodal neuroimaging and computational neuroscience. The study of resilience will illuminate ways by which the brain can overcome adversity and help inform prevention and treatment strategies. It is relevant to combating the negative neuropsychological impact of aging and fostering cognitive enhancement.

  1. Cognitive content structure of anxious and depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There were three aims of the study: to determine psychometric properties of Serbian translation of Beck's Cognition Check List, to analyze factor structure of both subscales of Check List and to check the relationship among determined dimensions of the subscales. Patients with depressive anxiety and mixed diagnoses participated. Results suggest that subscale of depressive cognitions is of satisfactory reliability and both concurrent and divergent validity. Subscale of anxious cognitions has satisfactory internal consistency, but is weakly correlated with anxiety symptoms and is not discriminatively valid. Principal components analysis of depressive cognitions subscale yielded three factors that corresponded to the elements of Beck's "Negative Cognitive Triad". Analysis of anxious subscale did not provided dimensions hypothesized by Beck, but three dimensions, which correspond to three groups of anxious symptoms, where identified. Results indicate possibility of applying Beck’s Content Specificity Hypothesis on separation of specific anxiety or phobic disorders.

  2. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  4. Factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II among South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Nel, Adriaan; Saal, Wylene

    2014-02-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that mood disturbance is common among patients living with HIV and may be an important barrier to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Thus the assessment of depressed mood is an important and necessary aspect of the experience of persons living with HIV as it may impact the health status of individuals directly and indirectly. We sought to determine the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) among a sample of 185 South Africans living with HIV and receiving ART. The mean BDI score was 16.5 (SD 12.15) with a range from 0-50 (out of a possible 63), indicating on average moderate levels of depression. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.90. Although the four factors had eigenvalues that were technically above 1.0, only three factors could logically be extracted, the combination of which accounted for 47.29% of the variance. These three factors were Cognitive, Affective and Somatic. The results indicate that the BDI-II is a reliable measure of symptoms of depression among persons living with HIV. The factor structure among South Africans receiving ART is similar to that of other samples, although surprisingly, the item assessing appetite disturbance did not load on any factor. The results of the study suggest that the BDI-II is a useful measure among South Africans living with HIV. In the context of the need to rapidly identify depressed mood among persons receiving ART in public health clinics, the BDI may be a useful instrument. We end the paper with certain cautions associated with routine screening.

  5. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  6. Cognição, afeto e relacionamento interpessoal de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar Cognition, affection and interpersonal relationship of women with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luciano Codani Hisatugo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno afetivo bipolar causa incapacitação e isolamento social, podendo levar ao suicídio. Tratou-se de estudo clínico de casos múltipos com uso de: Inventário de Depressão (BDI e Suicídio (BSI de Beck, Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HAM-D e Rorschach, Sistema Compreensivo. O objetivo foi analisar os aspectos afetivos, cognitivos e interpessoais das pacientes. Quatro pacientes foram estudadas. Foram atendidas em ambulatório público e préviamente diagnosticadas com depressão bipolar, segundo Entrevista Psiquiátrica (SCID-I/CV-DSM-IV. Resultados indicaram sentimentos depreciativos na autoimagem, conteúdos eufóricos e falta de insight sobre a auto-tolerância ao estresse. Aspectos emocionais e cognitivos influenciaram no contexto interpessoal, acentuando o sofrimento. Outros dados qualitativos clínicos foram observados e comentados.The bipolar affective disorder induces incapacitation and social isolation, and might lead to suicide. It was a clinical study of multiple cases using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Suicide Inventory (BSI, Hamilton Scale of Depression (HAM-D and the Rorschach, by Exner's Comprehensive System (CS. The objective was to analyze the affective, cognitive and interpersonal aspects of the patients. Four female out-patients who were previously diagnosed as bipolar depressive, by the Psychiatry Interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCIDI/CV-DSM-IV criteria were studied. Results had indicated undervalued feelings about themselves, euphoric contents and lack of insight about the self-tolerance related to stress controls. Emotional and cognitive aspects have influenced the interpersonal context leading to increased suffering. Other qualitative and clinic data have been observed and commented.

  7. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  8. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article...... turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question....

  9. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  10. Meta-Analysis of the English Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Johnson, Erin; Bardoshi, Gerta

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 144 studies from 1996 to 2013 using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Internal consistency was 0.89 and test-retest reliability 0.75. Convergent comparisons were robust across 43 depression instruments. Structural validity supported both one- and two-factor solutions and diagnostic accuracy varied according…

  11. A Factor Analytic Study of the Beck Depression Inventory for Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedl, John J., Jr.

    Previous factor studies of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) have not analyzed the item data as a function of sex, or reported more than one factor solution. To further study the factor structure of the BDI, items were factor analyzed and multiple solutions were examined for simple structure, parsimony, and psychological meaningfulness. A sample…

  12. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  13. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II for Hong Kong Community Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lee, Peter W. H.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test for the validity of a Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (C-BDI-II) for use with Hong Kong community (i.e., nonclinical) adolescents. Based on a randomized triadic split of the data (N = 1460), we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group1 (n = 486) and confirmatory factor…

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  15. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventories When Used with an Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Arleen J.; Kligman, Evan

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-reported inventory tapping current feelings only. A short form was published in 1972 consisting of 13 items from the original BDI, called the BDI-SF. In 1978 the original version was modified to eliminate double negative statements and alternative ways of asking the same question and then referred to…

  17. Validation of the Urdu Translation of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Nailah

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an Urdu version of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) for use with Pakistani adolescents and young adults. For this purpose, the English BSI was translated into Urdu and tested for psychometric properties. The analyses were carried out with data from a sample of 904 adolescents and young adults from eight…

  18. „Cinemagraphs” Jamie Beck w kontekście dramatycznej teorii literatury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Woźniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present works of a New York photographer Jamie Beck, who developed a new type of moving photography – cinemagraphs, and look at her work from the perspective of the dramatic theory of literature. Jamie Beck in her works redefines many notions related to the visual realm. Movement and time relationship, the model identity and the impact of material on the image perception are the most interesting problems, that are connected with cinemagraphs. All these issues are analyzed in relation to fields dealing with image: André Rouille’s and Roland Barthes’ photographic theories, art history represented by Georges Didi- Huberman and Rudolf Arnheim’s “the psychology of creative eye”.

  19. A counterexample to Beck's conjecture on the discrepancy of three permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Alantha

    2011-01-01

    Given three permutations on the integers 1 through n, consider the set system consisting of each interval in each of the three permutations. Jozsef Beck conjectured (c. 1987) that the discrepancy of this set system is O(1). We give a counterexample to this conjecture: for any positive integer n = 3^k, we exhibit three permutations whose corresponding set system has discrepancy Omega(log(n)). Our counterexample is based on a simple recursive construction, and our proof of the discrepancy lower bound is by induction. This example also disproves a generalization of Beck's conjecture due to Spencer, Srinivasan and Tetali, who conjectured that a set system corresponding to l permutations has discrepancy O(sqrt(l)).

  20. Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric characteristics in a sample from the clinical Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Morejón, Antonio J; Vázquez-Morejón Jiménez, Raquel; Zanin, Gloria Bellido

    2014-10-28

    Even though the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is one of the most popular instruments to assess anxiety today, only limited data is available about its psychometric characteristics and normative values in clinical Spanish populations. A study was conducted to test the psychometric characteristics of a Spanish adaptation of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in a sample of 918 outpatients being treated at a community mental health center in Spain. Results confirmed the adaptation's high internal consistency (∝ = .91), substantial test-retest reliability at 8-10 weeks (r = .84, p Anxiety (r = .86, p Phobic Anxiety (r = .63, p < .01) dimensions of the SCL-90-R, and with the Anxious Thoughts Inventory (r = .57, p < .01). Gender differences in BAI scores did occur, so normative values appear separately for each gender.

  1. Application of the Beck model to stock markets: Value-at-Risk and portfolio risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, M.; Sato, A.-H.

    2008-02-01

    We apply the Beck model, developed for turbulent systems that exhibit scaling properties, to stock markets. Our study reveals that the Beck model elucidates the properties of stock market returns and is applicable to practical use such as the Value-at-Risk estimation and the portfolio analysis. We perform empirical analysis with daily/intraday data of the S&P500 index return and find that the volatility fluctuation of real markets is well-consistent with the assumptions of the Beck model: The volatility fluctuates at a much larger time scale than the return itself and the inverse of variance, or “inverse temperature”, β obeys Γ-distribution. As predicted by the Beck model, the distribution of returns is well-fitted by q-Gaussian distribution of Tsallis statistics. The evaluation method of Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most significant indicators in risk management, is studied for q-Gaussian distribution. Our proposed method enables the VaR evaluation in consideration of tail risk, which is underestimated by the variance-covariance method. A framework of portfolio risk assessment under the existence of tail risk is considered. We propose a multi-asset model with a single volatility fluctuation shared by all assets, named the single β model, and empirically examine the agreement between the model and an imaginary portfolio with Dow Jones indices. It turns out that the single β model gives good approximation to portfolios composed of the assets with non-Gaussian and correlated returns.

  2. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ya-xu; Dong, Wei; Liu, Hui;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine on adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD). A total of 80 patients, aged over 40 years, were randomized into two groups receiving either 1,600 mg oral mixture of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine or placebo......). But the overall mean change in joint space was significant between the two groups (P glucosamine might play a protective role in preserving articular cartilage and provide...

  3. Beck PRIDE Center - An Effective Solution for Combat Injured Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    study report varied medical or physical issues. The other subscale scores display a more intermediate quality of life. SUMMARY OF ADDITIONAL INTAKE...Sought from Project, (3) Deployment, (4) Medical or Physical Issues, (5) Current Treatment/Resources, and (6) Community Support/Outreach. As with...Arkansas that have deployed and services offered to family members as needed. Medical or Physical Issues. Beck PRIDE participants report a number of

  4. Internet Addiction and Beck Depression Inventory in the University Students at a Student Hostel

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Senih Mayda 1; Muammer Yılmaz 1; Filiz Bolu; et. al.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between internet addiction and depression in students at a student hostel. Methods: The data of this descriptive study was collected with questionnaires applied to 698 of 1000 university students by face to face interview. Data was collected with Beck Depression Inventory and with the interview form that includes 15 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and 7 questions they were prepared using Goldberg’s diagnostic criteria. Results: A...

  5. Ulrich Beck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Christiansen, Allan

    in a clear and accessible way. Largely concerned with the last 25 years of Beck’s authorship, the book nevertheless takes a retrospective look at his works from the late seventies and early eighties, and reviews the critique that has been raised against Beck’s sociology through the years. Each chapter......, globalization and subpolitics, his world famous theory of the risk society and second modernity as well as his latest work on cosmopolitanism. Focusing on the theory outlined in Beck’s chief work, Risk Society, and on his theory of second modernity, the book explains the sociologist’s ideas and writing...

  6. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  7. Cognitive-behavioural therapy v. usual care in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Conradi; P. de Jonge; J. Ormel

    2008-01-01

    We examined in a primary care sample whether acute-phase cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) would be more effective than usual care for patients with multiple prior episodes of depression. Depression outcome was based on a 3-monthly administered Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during a 2-year follo

  8. A Component Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested Beck's theory explaining efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CT) for depression. Involved randomly assigning 150 outpatients with major depression to a treatment focused on the behavioral activation (BA) component of CT, a treatment including BA and teaching skills to modify automatic thoughts, but excluding the components of CT…

  9. Depression and Helplessness-Induced Cognitive Deficits in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Kevin J.; And Others

    To explore the effects of depression and learned helplessness on cognitive task deficits, 66 community-residing elderly adults were categorized as depressed or nondepressed based on Beck Depression Inventory scores. After a pre-test battery measuring short-term memory and components of crystallized/fluid intelligence, the subjects responded to a…

  10. A terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como reflexividade na alta modernidade: uma sociologia do conhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira; Anderson Clayton Pires; Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Uma sociologia do conhecimento interpreta a produção do conhecimento como vinculada a situações sociais. Partindo dessa premissa epistemológica, nosso artigo objetivou interpretar a terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como conhecimento construído e construtor do fenômeno de reflexividade da alta modernidade, conforme interpretada por Anthony Giddens. Nossa hipótese é que a reorientação do sistema de crenças do cliente, proposta pela terapia cognitiva, é uma forma de reconstrução reflexiva da auto...

  11. El legado psicoanalítico en la terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Pablo Korman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El psicoanálisis en el que Beck se formó tenía como objetivo incluir al psicoanálisis dentro del modelo científico. Esto era consistente con los intereses de un gran número de investigadores clínicos en los Estados Unidos durante las décadas de 1950 y 1960. Este trayecto intelectual lo llevará, años después, a desarrollar la terapia cognitiva. En este trabajo nos enfocaremos en el entrenamiento psicoanalítico de Beck así como en las primeras publicaciones de éste como especialista en psiquiatría durante su práctica hospitalaria en la Clínica de Austen Riggs y en el Hospital Valley Forge Army. Analizaremos sus primeras hipótesis, intentando rastrear los indicios de su modo de actuar como psicoanalista. Esta misma formación posteriormente lo llevará a un replanteo del modelo psicoanalítico, hecho que será clave para explicar las características que adoptará la terapia cognitiva.

  12. DETECTION OF HPVB19 IN SERA OF KASHIN-BECK DISEASE PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between Kashin-Beck Disease(KBD) and Human Parvovirus B19(HPVB19).Methods HPVB19DNA was detected in 55 sera of KBD patients and 52 healthy in adjacent non-endemic area and 35 healthy sera in normal area using PCR and then linked the HPVB19DNA to pGEM-T vector.The nucleotide sequence was analyzed and compared with HPVB19 nucleotide sequence published by Genebank and another in Journal of virology.Results HPVB19DNA was found in 16 of 55 sera in KBD patients,and the HPVB19DNA position rate(29.09%) is significantly higher than that of the two healthy control groups(11.54%、11.42% respectively)(P<0.05).The nucleotide sequence homologies compared with the two published nucleotide sequence were 97.75%、97%,respectively.The putative amino acid homologies compared with the tow published were 93.5%.The amino acid variation was greater than the nucleotide sequence variation because of a base insertion.Conclusion There was a close relationship between HPVB19 infection and Kashin-Beck Disease.

  13. EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON IMMUNE FUNCTION OF ERYTHROCYTE IN KASHIN-BECK DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xiaoxia; Xiong Yongmin; Chu Yonglie; Wang Zhilun

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between erythrocyte immune function and selenium (Se)level. Methods Forty-nine Kashin-Beck patients in endemic area aged 13- 16 years were divided into two groups and were orally given either selenized yeast or sodium selenite to provide 200 μg selenium per day for 12 weeks. Erythrocyte selenium level, glutathione peroxidase activity, the rosette formation rates of red blood cells complement receptor type Ⅰ(CR1), the immune function of red blood cells, and circulating immune complexes(CIC) were determined. Results After supplementing with selenium for 12 weeks, erythrocyte selenium level, glutathione peroxidase activity, the rosette formation rates of red blood cells CR1 were significantly increased. But the difference in rosette formation rates of IC and CIC content was not significant between before and after Se supplementation. Conclusion The increase of the immune function of the erythrocyte by selenium-supplement may be one of the effective mechanisms for the prevention of Kashin-Beck disease.

  14. Diálogos entre Bruno Latour e Ulrich Beck: convergências e divergências = Dialogues between Bruno Latour and Ulrich Beck: convergences and divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotondaro, Tatiana Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo expor e refletir sobre o debate entre dois dos principais cientistas sociais da atualidade: Ulrich Beck e Bruno Latour. Contudo, sugiro ainda que esse debate transcende o nível de suas convergências e divergências nos fornecendo indicativos de algumas tendências nas humanidades. Um dos aspectos que pretendo discutir se refere ao que observo como uma “abertura antropológica” das ciências humanas, que de modo algum corresponde a sua antropologização. Argumento que em função da proliferação de crises, pela quais passam as instituições contemporâneas, sociólogos e cientistas políticos tendem a abrir seus esquemas macroexplicativos da realidade social ao escrutínio e à combinação de metodologias antropológicas como meio de encontrar bases para a construção de novos parâmetros que possam balizar projetos políticos normativos inclusivos

  15. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II across groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Skule

    Full Text Available This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions.

  16. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  17. Teoria da resposta ao item aplicada ao Inventário de Depressão Beck Item response theory applied to the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, uma escala que mede o traço latente de intensidade de sintomas depressivos, pode ser avaliado através da Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI. Este estudo utilizou o modelo TRI de Resposta Gradual na avaliação da intensidade de sintomas depressivos de 4.025 indivíduos que responderam ao BDI, de modo a explorar eficientemente a informação disponível nos diferentes aspectos possibilitados pelo uso desta metodologia. O ajuste foi efetuado no software PARSCALE. Foram identificados 13 itens do BDI nos quais pelo menos uma categoria de resposta não tinha chance maior que as demais de ser escolhida, de modo que estes itens tiveram de ser recategorizados. Os itens com maior capacidade de discriminação são relativos à tristeza, pessimismo, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfação, auto-aversão, indecisão e dificuldade para trabalhar. Os itens mais graves são aqueles relacionados com perda de peso, retraimento social e idéias suicidas. O grupo dos 202 indivíduos com as maiores intensidades de sintomas depressivos foi composto por 74% de mulheres, e praticamente 84% possuíam diagnóstico de algum transtorno psiquiátrico. Os resultados evidenciam alguns dos inúmeros ganhos advindos da utilização da TRI na análise de traços latentes.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, a scale that measures the latent trait intensity of depression symptoms, can be assessed by the Item Response Theory (IRT. This study used the Graded-Response model (GRM to assess the intensity of depressive symptoms in 4,025 individuals who responded to the BDI, in order to efficiently use the information available on different aspects enabled by the use of this methodology. The fit of this model was done in PARSCALE software. We identified 13 items of the BDI in which at least one response category was not more likely than others to be chosen, so that these items had to be categorized again. The items with greater power of

  18. A terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como reflexividade na alta modernidade: uma sociologia do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uma sociologia do conhecimento interpreta a produção do conhecimento como vinculada a situações sociais. Partindo dessa premissa epistemológica, nosso artigo objetivou interpretar a terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como conhecimento construído e construtor do fenômeno de reflexividade da alta modernidade, conforme interpretada por Anthony Giddens. Nossa hipótese é que a reorientação do sistema de crenças do cliente, proposta pela terapia cognitiva, é uma forma de reconstrução reflexiva da autoidentidade, visando superar conflitos típicos da instabilidade da alta modernidade. Assinalamos aspectos na terapia cognitiva que a identificam com a reflexividade, sobretudo a ideia de que a construção da autoidentidade é uma tarefa na qual o indivíduo se engaja reflexivamente.

  19. How close are the Slater and Becke-Roussel potentials in solids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter; Schwarz, Karlheinz

    2015-10-13

    The Becke–Roussel (BR) potential [Phys. Rev. A 1989, 39, 3761] was proposed as an approximation to the Slater potential, which is the Coulomb potential generated by the exact exchange hole. In the present work, a detailed comparison between the Slater and BR potentials in solids is presented. It is shown that the two potentials usually lead to very similar results for the electronic structure; however, in a few cases, e.g., Si, Ge, or strongly correlated systems like NiO, the fundamental band gap or magnetic properties can differ markedly. Such differences should not be neglected when the computationally expensive Slater potential is replaced by the cheap semilocal BR potential in approximations to the exact-exchange Kohn–Sham potential, such as the one proposed by Becke and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 221101].

  20. An examination of racial bias in the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidharan, Tracy; Pawlow, Laura A; Pettibone, Jonathan C

    2012-04-01

    Historically, many psychological measures were developed and standardized based on a primarily Caucasian population. These tests are subsequently applied to minorities and may be inappropriate and possibly even pathologizing. The widely used Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was initially standardized on a sample of Caucasian university students and its use with minorities has only recently been investigated. This study examined the possibility of racial bias in the BDI-II by comparing Caucasian and African American Midwestern university students. A hierarchical multiple regression compared the scores of the BDI-II with a similar measure of depression that is standardized for use with African Americans. There was no evidence of racial bias discovered in the BDI-II in this sample. Implications and future directions of research are discussed.

  1. Energy Edge Post-Occupancy Evaluation Project: The Dubal/Beck Office Building Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The Workspace Satisfaction Survey measures occupant satisfaction with the thermal, lighting, acoustical, and air quality aspects of the work environment. In addition, to ratings of these ambient environmental features, occupants also rate their satisfaction with a number of functional aesthetic features of the office environment as well as their satisfaction with specific kinds of workspaces (e.g., computer rooms, the lobby, employee lounge, etc.) Each section on ambient conditions includes questions on the frequency with which people experience particular kinds of discomforts or problems, how much the discomfort bothers them, and how much it interferes with their work. Occupants are also asked to identify how they cope with discomfort or environmental problems, and to what extent these behaviors enable them to achieve more satisfactory conditions. This report documents the results of this survey of the occupants of the Dubal/Beck Office building, Portland, Oregon. 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. OCCURRENCE CHARACTERISTIC OF KASHIN-BECK DISEASE BASED ON NUCLEAR FAMILY PEDIGREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雄; 杨亚宁

    2003-01-01

    Objective The occurrence characteristic of Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) in pedigrees ascertained on the basis of one proband was estimated. Methods A total of 255 individuals in 40 pedigrees were collected from areas in the Shaanxi Province. Results ① Parents and siblings of index cases have a 3-4 times higher risk than a random unrelated individual. The odds ratio for disease is higher in mothers than in fathers of index cases; ② Prevalence in relatives of index cases (Kr=59.2%) greatly exceeds population prevalence (K=17.5%); ③ Kr increases with sibship size; ④ There is no significant difference of Kr for male and female siblings of index cases. Also, population prevalence is not sex-specific. Conclusion In conjunction with environmental agents, genetics may play an important role in KBD etiology.

  3. Cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure: insights from the warfarin versus aspirin in reduced cardiac ejection fraction (WARCEF trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Graham

    Full Text Available We sought to determine whether cognitive function in stable outpatients with heart failure (HF is affected by HF severity. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 2, 043 outpatients with systolic HF and without prior stroke enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF Trial. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between cognitive function measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE and markers of HF severity (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, and 6-minute walk distance. The mean (SD for the MMSE was 28.6 (2.0, with 64 (3.1% of the 2,043 patients meeting the cut-off of MMSE <24 that indicates need for further evaluation of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, 6-minute walk distance (β-coefficient 0.002, p<0.0001, but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was independently associated with the MMSE as a continuous measure. Age, education, smoking status, body mass index, and hemoglobin level were also independently associated with the MMSE. In conclusion, six-minute walk distance, but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was an important predictor of cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure.

  4. Cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure: insights from the warfarin versus aspirin in reduced cardiac ejection fraction (WARCEF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan; Ye, Siqin; Qian, Min; Sanford, Alexandra R; Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Mann, Douglas L; Levin, Bruce; Pullicino, Patrick M; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Teerlink, John R; Mohr, J P; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Estol, Conrado J; Lok, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D; Thompson, John L P; Homma, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether cognitive function in stable outpatients with heart failure (HF) is affected by HF severity. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 2, 043 outpatients with systolic HF and without prior stroke enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between cognitive function measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and markers of HF severity (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, and 6-minute walk distance). The mean (SD) for the MMSE was 28.6 (2.0), with 64 (3.1%) of the 2,043 patients meeting the cut-off of MMSE <24 that indicates need for further evaluation of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, 6-minute walk distance (β-coefficient 0.002, p<0.0001), but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was independently associated with the MMSE as a continuous measure. Age, education, smoking status, body mass index, and hemoglobin level were also independently associated with the MMSE. In conclusion, six-minute walk distance, but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was an important predictor of cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure.

  5. Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Modulations of Visual-Spatial Attention and Working Memory: Insights from Molecular Genetic Research and Implications for Adult Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Viola S.; Passow, Susanne; Biesenack, Julia; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Attention and working memory are fundamental for selecting and maintaining behaviorally relevant information. Not only do both processes closely intertwine at the cognitive level, but they implicate similar functional brain circuitries, namely the frontoparietal and the frontostriatal networks, which are innervated by cholinergic and dopaminergic…

  6. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eOker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  7. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  8. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  9. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  10. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II across U.S. and Turkish Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel-Cinarbas, Deniz; Cui, Ying; Lauridsen, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for factorial invariance across Turkish and U.S. college student samples. The results indicated that (a) a two-factor model has an adequate fit for both samples, thus providing evidence of configural invariance, and (b) there is a metric invariance but "no" sufficient…

  12. Analysis of selenium content in hair samples of children in Kaschin-Beck Disease areas in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康芬艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare selenium content in hair samples of children in Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) areas and control areas,and to provide academic data for KBD control and prevention.Methods In 2011,Longnan,Qingyang,Dingxi City of KDB areas in Gansu Province were selected as survey point,meanwhile,colleagues of Tianshui City and Lanzhou City were selected as control.

  13. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  14. Correlação entre Inventário de Depressão de Beck e cortisol urinário em diabéticos tipo 2 Correlación entre el inventario de Depresión de Beck y el cortisol urinario en diabeticos tipo 2 Correlation between urine cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression inventory in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bulgarelli do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a correlação entre o cortisol urinário e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck em diabéticos do tipo 2. MÉTODOS: O cortisol urinário foi avaliado em uma amostra composta por 40 pacientes da Liga de Controle de Diabetes da Disciplina de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo e para a avaliação dos sintomas de depressão foi aplicado o Inventário de Depressão de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidade para o Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920e correlação significativa foi observada entre cortisol urinário e Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJETIVO: Verificar la correlación entre el cortisol urinario y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck en diabéticos del tipo 2. MÉTODOS: El cortisol urinario fue evaluado en una muestra compuesta por 40 pacientes de la Liga de Control de Diabetes de la Disciplina de Endocrinología del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sao Paulo y para la evaluación de los síntomas de depresión fue aplicado el Inventario de Depresión de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidad para el Inventario de Depresión de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920 y correlación significativa observada entre el cortisol urinario e Inventario de Depresión de Beck (Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory in type 2 diabetics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes from the diabetes control league of the discipline of endocrinology of the HCFM-USP. Measures consisted of urinary cortisol and depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: The Beck Depression Inventory had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. There was a statistically significant correlation between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (Spearman r = 0.52, p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: The

  15. Networks in Cognitive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-01-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in cognitive science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions or collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into cognitive sciences, and the expansion of complex systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the cognitive sciences.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory applied to college students: factor analysis and relation to the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L; Gorenstein, C; Vieira Filho, A H; Tung, T C; Artes, R

    2001-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and its relation to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were evaluated in a large Brazilian college student sample containing 845 women and 235 men. STAI-T scores tended to be higher for women, singles, those who work, and subjects under 30 years. Factor analysis of the STAI-T for total sample and by gender yielded two factors: the first representing a mood dimension and the second being related to worrying or cognitive aspects of anxiety. In order to study the relation between anxiety and depression measures, factor analysis of the combination of the 21 BDI items and the 20 STAI-T items was also carried out. The analysis resulted in two factors that were analyzed according to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Most of the BDI items (measuring positive affectivity and nonspecific symptoms of depression) were loaded on the first factor and four STAI-T items that measure positive affectivity. The remaining STAI-T items, all of them measuring negative affect, remained in the second factor. Thus, factor 1 represents a depression dimension and factor 2 measures a mood-worrying dimension. The findings of this study suggest that, although widely used as an anxiety scale, the STAI-T in fact measures mainly a general negative affect.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory applied to college students: factor analysis and relation to the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T and its relation to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were evaluated in a large Brazilian college student sample containing 845 women and 235 men. STAI-T scores tended to be higher for women, singles, those who work, and subjects under 30 years. Factor analysis of the STAI-T for total sample and by gender yielded two factors: the first representing a mood dimension and the second being related to worrying or cognitive aspects of anxiety. In order to study the relation between anxiety and depression measures, factor analysis of the combination of the 21 BDI items and the 20 STAI-T items was also carried out. The analysis resulted in two factors that were analyzed according to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Most of the BDI items (measuring positive affectivity and nonspecific symptoms of depression were loaded on the first factor and four STAI-T items that measure positive affectivity. The remaining STAI-T items, all of them measuring negative affect, remained in the second factor. Thus, factor 1 represents a depression dimension and factor 2 measures a mood-worrying dimension. The findings of this study suggest that, although widely used as an anxiety scale, the STAI-T in fact measures mainly a general negative affect.

  18. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  19. Efficacy and process of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depression in jail and prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Jamie; Scogin, Forrest; Schriver, Jennifer; Domino, Marla; Wilson, Dawn; LaRocca, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this two-study project was to determine the effects of cognitive bibliotherapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms in jail and prison inmates. Participants in both samples were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received the 4-week bibliotherapy program or a delayed-treatment control group. In the jail sample, which served as a pilot study for the more detailed prison study, the treatment group showed greater improvement on the A. T. Beck and R. A. Steer Beck Depression Inventory, 1993, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX and the DAS (M. M. Weissman, & A. T. Beck Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: A preliminary investigation; paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, November, 1978, Toronto, ON, Canada). In the prison sample, results indicated that the treatment group showed greater improvement on the HRSD (M. Hamilton, Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness, British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 6, 1967, pp. 278-296) and the A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), 1996, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX. Approximately half of the treated participants achieved clinically significant change. Analyses of the follow-up data revealed maintenance of treatment gains in the prison and jail samples. In the prison study, significant changes were also observed on a general measure of psychological distress. Overall, results suggest that cognitive bibliotherapy may be efficacious for depressed inmates.

  20. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  1. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  2. Sub-tangentially loaded and damped Beck's columns on two-parameter elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Nam-Il; Kim, Moon-Young

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic stability of the damped Beck's column on two-parameter elastic foundation is investigated by using Hermitian beam elements. For this purpose, based on the extended Hamilton's principle, the dimensionless finite element (FE) formulation using the Hermitian interpolation function is presented. First, the mass matrix, the external and internal damping matrices, the elastic and the geometric stiffness matrices, Winkler and Pasternak foundation matrices, and the load correction stiffness matrix due to the sub-tangential follower force are obtained. Then, evaluation procedure for the flutter and divergence loads of the non-conservative system and the time history analysis using the Newmark- β method are shortly described. Finally, the influences of various parameters on the dynamic stability of non-conservative systems are newly addressed: (1) variation of the second flutter load due to sub-tangentiality, (2) influences of the external and the internal damping on flutter loads by analysis of complex natural frequencies, (3) the effect of the growth rate of motion in a finite time interval using time history analysis, and (4) fluctuation of divergence and flutter loads due to Winkler and Pasternak foundations.

  3. Modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential: improved modeling of lead halides for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi A. Jishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report first-principles calculations, within density functional theory, on the lead halide compounds PbCl2, PbBr2, and CH3NH3PbBr3−xClx, taking into account spin-orbit coupling. We show that, when the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is used with a suitable choice of defining parameters, excellent agreement between calculations and experiment is obtained. The computational model is then used to study the effect of replacing the methylammonium cation in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 with either N2H5+or N2H3+, which have slightly smaller ionic radii than methylammonium. We predict that a considerable downshift in the values of the band gaps occurs with this replacement. The resulting compounds would extend optical absorption down to the near-infrared region, creating excellent light harvesters for solar cells.

  4. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  5. Researcher Allegiance and Meta-analysis: The Case of Cognitive Therapy for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, E. A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines the studies of K. S. Dobson regarding metaanalysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory as an outcome measure. Confirms Dobson's conclusions but shows that about half the difference between CT and other treatments was predictable from researcher allegiance. Comparable analysis of a later set…

  6. Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A Comparison of Individual Psychotherapy and Bibliotherapy for Depressed Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Mark; Scogin, Forrest; McKendree-Smith, Nancy L.; Floyd, Donna L.; Rokke, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one community-residing older adults age 60 or over either received 16 sessions of individual cognitive psychotherapy (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) or read Feeling Good (Burns, 1980) for bibliotherapy. Posttreatment comparisons with the delayed-treatment control indicated that both treatments were superior to a delayed-treatment control.…

  7. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  8. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  9. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  10. A test of the cognitive content specificity hypothesis in depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Anna; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-03-01

    The present study tested the cognitive content specificity hypothesis (CCSH) to assess whether anxiety and depression can be differentiated on the basis of cognitive disturbance. One hundred and thirty five depressed participants were administered the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ) and the anxious self-statements questionnaire (ASSQ). It was hypothesised that depressive cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, depressive (but not anxiety) symptoms in a depressed sample. Conversely, it was predicted that anxiety cognitions would be specifically related to, and predictive of, anxiety (but not depressive) symptoms in a depressed sample. Results revealed that the ATQ was the sole predictor of the BDI and similarly, the ASSQ was the sole predictor of the BAI. These findings support the CCSH in depression and provide an integrative framework for a greater understanding of the relationship between anxiety and depression.

  11. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Jain, Animesh; Hegde, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Depression among medical students is an area of increasing concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sample of 400 students was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory by investigators. Associations between depression and class of studying, social factors like alcohol use, drug addiction, family problems, family history of depression, and st...

  12. Funcionamento Diferencial do Item no Inventário de Depressão Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos mostram o Funcionamento Diferencial do Item (DIF em itens do Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, ao compararem homens e mulheres. A presença de um grande número de itens com DIF no BDI é uma severa ameaça à validade da medida da intensidade de sintomas depressivos obtida pela Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI e às conclusões baseadas nos escores derivados dos itens com e sem DIF. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar esses itens do BDI, ajustar o modelo de TRI para itens constrangedores (modelo 2, o qual acomoda itens com a presença de DIF, e comparar esses resultados com os do ajuste do modelo logístico de dois parâmetros tradicional da TRI (modelo 1. MÉTODOS: Os resultados obtidos com ambos os modelos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Os itens que apresentaram DIF foram: tristeza, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfações, culpa, punição, choro, fatigabilidade e perda da libido. Os resultados do ajuste dos dois modelos são similares quanto à discriminação, gravidade (à exceção dos itens com DIF e no cálculo de escores para os indivíduos. Apesar disso, o modelo 2 é vantajoso, pois mostra as diferenças em gravidade do sintoma depressivo para os grupos avaliados, trazendo, dessa forma, mais informação ao pesquisador sobre a população estudada. CONCLUSÃO: Esse modelo, que tem um alcance mais amplo em termos de população-alvo, pode ser uma ótima alternativa na identificação e acompanhamento de indivíduos com potencial depressivo.

  13. Robust flood frequency analysis: Performance of EMA with multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Yu, Xin; Whealton, C. A.; Xu, Ziyao

    2016-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis generally involves the use of simple parametric probability distributions to smooth and extrapolate the information provided by short flood records to estimate extreme flood flow quantiles. Parametric probability distributions can have difficulty simultaneously fitting both the largest and smallest floods. A danger is that the smallest observations in a record can distort the exceedance probabilities assigned to the large floods of interest. The identification and treatment of such Potentially Influential Low Floods (PILFs) frees a fitting algorithm to describe the distribution of the larger observations. This can allow parametric flood frequency analysis to be both efficient, and also robust to deviations from the proposed probability model's lower tail. Historically, PILF identification involved subjective judgement. We propose a new multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier test (MGBT) for objective PILF identification. MGBT PILF identification rates (akin to Type I errors) are reported for the lognormal (LN) distribution and the log-Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution with a variety of skew coefficients. MGBT PILF identification generally matched subjective identification from a recent California flood frequency study. Monte Carlo results show that censoring of PILFs identified by the MGBT algorithm improves the extreme quantile estimator efficiency of the expected moments algorithm (EMA) for negatively skewed LP3 distributions and has little effect for zero or positive skews; simultaneously it protects against deviations from the LP3 in the lower tail, as illustrated by distorted LN examples. Thus, MGBT generally makes flood frequency analysis based on the LP3 distribution with EMA both more accurate and more robust.

  14. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cuiyan, E-mail: xj.cy.69@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lei, Ronghui, E-mail: leirh@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Tiainen, Mika, E-mail: mika.tiainen@uef.fi [School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Wu, Shixun, E-mail: wushixun313@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wdrr@163.com [Department of Kashin–Beck Disease, Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, Qinghai 811602 (China); Pei, Fuxing, E-mail: peifuxing@vip.163.com [Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Guo, Xiong, E-mail: guox@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC–PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-α expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. - Highlights: • Disordered glycometabolism in KBD was demonstrated by combining serum metabolomics and chondrocyte studies. • Glucose and TNF-α were key molecules linked to altered metabolism and inflammation in the pathophysiology of KBD. • The glycometabolism disorder was linked to expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, ROS and apoptosis of KBD chondrocytes.

  15. Whole-exome sequencing for the identification of susceptibility genes of Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and investigate the susceptibility genes of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD in Chinese population. METHODS: Whole-exome capturing and sequencing technology was used for the detection of genetic variations in 19 individuals from six families with high incidence of KBD. A total of 44 polymorphisms from 41 genes were genotyped from a total of 144 cases and 144 controls by using MassARRAY under the standard protocol from Sequenom. Association was applied on the data by using PLINK1.07. RESULTS: In the sequencing stage, each sample showed approximately 70-fold coverage, thus covering more than 99% of the target regions. Among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs used in the transmission disequilibrium test, 108 had a p-value of <0.01, whereas 1056 had a p-value of <0.05. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG pathway analysis indicates that these SNPs focus on three major pathways: regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and metabolic pathways. In the validation stage, single locus effects revealed that two of these polymorphisms (rs7745040 and rs9275295 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DRB1 gene and one polymorphism (rs9473132 in CD2-associated protein (CD2AP gene have a significant statistical association with KBD. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DRB1 and CD2AP gene were identified to be among the susceptibility genes of KBD, thus supporting the role of the autoimmune response in KBD and the possibility of shared etiology between osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and KBD.

  16. THE PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOW SELENIUM AND KASHIN-BECK DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relationship of cause-result between low selenium (Se) and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) was probed by the prospective study of epidemiological method with regarding low-Se as an exposure factor in this paper. 597 healthy children lived in KBD areas with low, middle and high prevalence were divided into the low-Se exposed group and the non-low-Se exposed group according to their Se content in hair. The low-Se exposed group was divided into three subgroups, such as Se content in hair≤110 ng/g, 110 ng/g<Se content in hair≤150 ng/g and 150 ng/g<Se content in hair≤200 ng/g, respectively. Six new cases of the total with KBD (incidence was 0.574% person-year) were found in the low-Se exposed group during three years period of the investigation. No new case was found in the non low-Se exposed group . KBD incidence was not significantly different between those two groups. Two new cases were found in children with Se content in hair kept below 110 ng/g during three years (incidence: 1.21% person-year). SMR in each group indicated that the new cases observed in the low-Se exposed group was remarkable lower than the new cases expected. It was not observed that the dose-response relationship between low-Se and KBD, and was not supported that the low-Se was a predominant factor to cause KBD.

  17. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes.

  18. Kashin-Beck disease in children: radiographic findings in the wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W. [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang, Y. [Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital, Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Y.; Cheng, X. [Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital, Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Beijing (China); Wang, L.; Genant, H.K. [Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section and Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Objective: To characterize the features and prevalence of radiographic abnormalities of the wrist in children with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and to determine whether the presence of radiographic abnormalities in the wrist correlates with the severity of KBD. Design and patients: Two hundred and eight posteroanterior radiographs of the right hand (including wrist) in children with KBD, ranging in age from 4 to 11 years (mean age 7.7 years), from endemic areas of China were reviewed. Carpal bony margins were evaluated for blurring, thinning, irregularity with and without sclerosis, interruption, depression or destruction. The radiocarpal, intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints were assessed for widening or narrowing. The severity of the disease was graded using the hand criteria from the Chinese Radiographic Criteria of KBD Diagnosis, which classifies the following five types according to the location of the hand involved: I, metaphysis; II, diaphysis; III, I+II; IV, metaphysis and epiphysis; V, II+IV. Results: Of the 208 children, 95 had abnormalities in the hand but not in the wrist; 108 had both hand and wrist abnormalities; only five had abnormal wrist findings without any hand abnormalities. Of the 108 cases with wrist abnormalities, all the carpal bones were involved in 33 cases, of which the hand types were either IV or V. However, any individual carpal bone, or combination of bones, may become involved. The carpal bones most likely to show abnormalities were the capitate and the hamate (93%), followed by the triquetrum (31%), the lunate (9%), the scaphoid (6%), and the trapezoid and the trapezium (5%). The pisiform bones were not evaluated because they cannot be seen on the overlapping posteroanterior radiographs. The most commonly involved carpal joint was the midcarpal joint (42%). Conclusions: Recognizing carpal abnormalities on radiographs is helpful for the diagnosis of KBD and the evaluation of the severity of the disease. The more severe the KBD, the

  19. Immunology of Kaschin- Beck Disease: Studies on lymphocyte subsets, humoral immunity and their relationship with selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-lun; ZHAI Jun-min; GUO Ru-ning; CHEN Jing-hong; CHEN Yan; ZHOU Yang; Jean Vanderpas

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the humoral immunity status and distribution pattern of lymphocyte subgroups of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in patients with Kaschin - Beck Disease (KBD), and their relationship with erythrocyte selenium. Methods 23 X- ray diagnosed patients, 22 age- and sex- matched healthy children in KBD affected area (KAA), And 25 in KBD non- affected area (KNAA) were randomly selected. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies anti - CD4, anti-CD8. anti - CD20 was conducted to analyze the lymphocyte subsets. Serum IgM, IgA, IgG, Complement C3 and C4 were assayed using rate nephelometry (Array 360 System, USA). The contents of erythrocyte selenium was determined by 2,3 - diaminonaphthalene fluorescence assay. Results CD4+ and CD8 + cells percentage in PBMCs and serum IgA were significantly lower in KAA than those in KNAA( P < 0.05). CD20 +percentage in KAA displayed a decreasing trend compared to KNAA, although not statistically significantly. No statistical differences were found in CD4/CD8 ratio, serum IgG, IgM, C3 and C4 levels. Erythrocyte selenium level in KAA still showed a pronounced decrease compared to that in KNAA. Correlation analysis showed that erythrocyte selenium contents had a strong association with the CD4 cell percentage ( r =0.625, P <0.05), and also a close relationship with serum IgA ( r =0.462, P <0.05). In addition, we detected a moderate correlation between the serum IgA and CD4 + percentage ( r = 0. 130, P > 0. 05). Conclusion Taken together, our resalts suggested that children in KAA had a comparably low cellular immunity level manifested by the marked depression of CD4 and CD8 cells percentage, and their humoral immunity status was also in a state of moderate immune suppression. Of this immune disorder in KBD patients, selenium deficiency probably played a critical role via affecting the distribution pattern of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Selenium-deficiency and immune impairment maybe both have

  20. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  1. Child molesters' cognitive distortions. Conceptualizations of the term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Filip; Zielona-Jenek, Monika

    2016-10-31

    The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices. The primary theoretical background in the description of the concept of cognitive distortions of child molesters was the social cognition theory, but it was complemented with the assumptions of the theory of cognitive psychotherapy, extended theory of mind and discursive psychology perspective. Particular concepts describe the cognitive distortions relating them to different classes of cognitive phenomena: products, processes and structures, and the only thing they have in common is their incompatibility of their content to the social norms. Giving this concept a normative nature leads to internal contradictions within the conceptions that concern it. Moreover, using it to explain the various processes oversimplifies the picture of this phenomenon and leads to contradictions between theories. It is, therefore, necessary to consider replacing the term cognitive distortions with alternative and more precise concepts.

  2. Reliability and validity of the EQ-5D-3L for Kashin–Beck disease in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hua; Farooq, Umer; Wang, Dimiao; Yu, Fangfang; Younus, Mohammad Imran; GUO, XIONG

    2016-01-01

    Background Kashin–Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteoarthropathy in areas which extend from the North-East to the South-West of China. Most of the patients with KBD suffer multiple dysfunctions in major joints causing decreased health status. However because of their low education level and unique living habits, it is hard to find tools to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL). European quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) patient-reported instrument is widely used to measure HRQOL. Thi...

  3. El Inventario de Depresión de Beck: Su validez en población adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El Inventario de Depresión de Beck, IA (BDI-IA), ha demostrado buenas propiedades psicométricas durante los últimos cuarenta años. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la estructura factorial y las propiedades psicométricas del BDI-IA para adolescentes mexicanos. Participó un total de 385 adolescentes en dos muestras (comunidad general, pacientes psiquiátricos externos con y sin trastorno depresivo). Los participantes completaron el BDI-IA y una batería de instrumentos para medir constr...

  4. Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bilgi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9% of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  5. The poverty of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life.

  6. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity......) or cognitively impaired (N = 92). METHODS: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale measured subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Depressive symptoms were determined using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A neuropsychological battery was administered...

  7. Local Constructions of Vulnerability and Resilience in the Context of Climate Change. A Comparison of Lübeck and Rostock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Christmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is globally defined as a “reality”. This does not mean however that the way in which it is understood is the same all over the world. Rather, perceptions may differ at different places and times, even if physical and geographical conditions are similar. For the time being, this phenomenon has not been dealt with on a theoretical-conceptual level. The article will address this desiderate. Based on the approaches of social constructivism as well as actor-network theory, a theoretical concept will be suggested as a heuristic model for empirical analysis. By the examples of Lübeck and Rostock, two cities on Germany’s Baltic coast, it will be shown that climate change related perceptions of vulnerability and resilience may build on physical-material aspects but that they are above all considerably interwoven with specific cultural and social patterns of interpretation. In the framework of the local discourse in Lübeck, it is the strong Hanseatic tradition which consumes the climate change issue, whereas in Rostock it is the problems and historical breaks of a transformation society which shape the way of viewing climate change.

  8. STUDIES ON LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS,HUMORAL IMMUNITY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH SELENIUM IN PATIENTS WITH KASHIN-BECK DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治伦; 郭汝宁; 陈静宏; 陈燕; 丁方羽; 吴劲; 周扬

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the humoral immunity status and distribution pattern of lymphocyte subgroups of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in patients with Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD), and their relationship with erythrocyte selenium. Methods 23 X-ray diagnosed patients, 22 age- and sex- matched healthy children in KBD affected area (KAA), and 25 in KBD non-affected area (KNAA) were randomly selected. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD20 was conducted to analyze the lymphocyte subsets. Serum IgM, IgA, IgG, Complement C3 and C4 were assayed using rate nephelometry (Array 360 System, USA). The contents of erythrocyte selenium was determined by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene fluorescence assay. Results CD4+ and CD8+ cells percentage in PBMCs and serum IgA were significantly lower in KAA than those in KNAA(P0.05) was found. Conclusion These results suggested that children in KAA had a comparably low cellular immunity level and their humoral immunity status was also in a state of moderate immune suppression. Of this immune disorder in Kashin-Beck disease patients, selenium deficiency probably played a critical role via affecting the distribution pattern of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Selenium-deficiency and immune impairment maybe both have something to do with the cause-effect chain of KBD.

  9. Dreaming and insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Edwards

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years. Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996 therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams. The need to distinguish ‘aha’ experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from ‘aha’ experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  10. Dreaming and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  11. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  12. Inventário de Depressão de Beck - BDI: validação fatorial para mulheres com câncer Beck Depression Inventory - BDI: factorial analysis for women with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gandini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo validar fatorialmente o Inventário de Depressão de Beck - BDI para uma amostra de 208 mulheres com câncer. A validação fatorial do BDI foi realizada por meio da análise fatorial, método de extração dos componentes principais e rotação oblimin, tendo sido identificadas duas soluções fatoriais, uma bifatorial - sendo F1 composto por 8 itens (a = 0,82 denominado "visão negativa de si mesmo", explicando 32,4% da variância e F2 com 5 itens (a = 0,77 denominado "função física", explicando 8% da variância - e outra unifatorial com 13 itens, com fidedignidade altamente satisfatória (a = 0,86 denominada "depressão", explicando 38% da variância total.This study refers to the factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory - BDI in a population composed by 208 women with cancer. The extraction method was principal components and the rotation procedure was oblimin. The BDI factorial analysis was done through the oblimin rotation, finding two solutions possibilities. One with two factors solution - the first one with 8 items (a = 0,82, called "negative view of self", explaining 32,4% of the variance and the second factor with 5 items (a = 0,77, called "physical function", explaining 8% of the variance - and other with one factor solution with 13 items, with really satisfactory reliability of 0,86, called "depression" and explaining 38% of the total variance.

  13. Stop Thinking and Start Doing: Switching from Cognitive Therapy to Behavioral Activation in a Case of Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottonari, Kathryn A.; Roberts, John E.; Thomas, Sherilyn N.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent investigations have demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are both efficacious treatments for depression (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Dimidjian et al., 2006; Dobson, 1989; Gloaguen, Cottraux, Cucherat, & Blackburn, 1998; Hollon, Thase, & Markowitz, 2002; Jacobson et al., 1996). This…

  14. The Effect of Sports Training with Cognitive Therapy about Mild Depression in University Students%运动游戏与认知治疗抑郁倾向大学生的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳文珍

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To Study the effect of group sports training consultation on psychological health status of college students. Methods: Sixty-two college students were trained to do excises by means of low rhythm of the heart with cognitive therapy. Results: After the training and cognitive therapy, the score of Beck Depression Inventory significantly lowered. Conclusion: The sports training combined with cognitive therapy was effective in improving college student's depression.

  15. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  16. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  17. Biomarkers of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent and devastating non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Impaired cognition has a major impact on either quality of life or mortality in patients with PD. Notably, the rate of cognitive decline and pattern of early cognitive deficits in PD are highly variable between individuals. Given that the underlying mechanisms of cognitive decline or dementia associated with PD remain unclear, there is currently no mechanism-based treatment available. Identification of biological markers, including neuroimaging, biofluids and common genetic variants, that account for the heterogeneity of PD related cognitive decline could provide important insights into the pathological processes that underlie cognitive impairment in PD. These combined biomarker approaches will enable early diagnosis and provide indicators of cognitive progression in PD patients. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of biomarkers for cognitive impairments in PD.

  18. Kashin Beck Disease: more than just osteoarthrosis. A cross-sectional study regarding the influence of body function-structures and activities on level of participation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, Karin; Engelbert, H. H. Raoul; Visser, M. Milanka; Yu, Changlong; Vos, de Rien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body function, activities and pain on the level of activity in adults with Kashin Beck Disease (KBD). Seventy-five KBD patients with a mean age of 54.8 years (SD 11.3) participated. Anthropometrics, range of joint motion (ROM) and muscle

  19. Adaptation and latent structure of the Swahili version of beck depression inventory-II in a low literacy population in the context of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, Amina; Kalu, Raphael Birya; Katana, Khamis; Kabunda, Beatrice; Hassan, Amin S.; Newton, Charles R.; Van De Vijver, Fons

    2016-01-01

    Objective We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure. Methods In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II

  20. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so

  1. [Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe]/ Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe. In: Leder ist Brot. Beiträge zur norddeutschen Landes- und Archivgeseten. Schwerin 2011. S. 125-135

  2. Cognition in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Gerard P; Healey, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews major developments from 2000 to early 2007 in the psychological analysis of cognition in organizations. Our review, the first in this series to survey cognitive theory and research spanning the entire field of industrial and organizational psychology, considers theoretical, empirical, and methodological advances across 10 substantive domains of application. Two major traditions, the human factors and organizational traditions, have dominated cognitively oriented research in this field. Our central message is that the technological and human systems underpinning contemporary organizational forms are evolving in ways that demand greater cooperation among researchers across both traditions. Such cooperation is necessary in order to gain theoretical insights of sufficient depth and complexity to refine the explanation and prediction of behavior in organizations and derive psychologically sound solutions to the unprecedented information-processing burdens confronting the twenty-first century workforce.

  3. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  4. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients : characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; Alizadeh, B. Z.; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive subtypes

  5. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients : characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P J; Alizadeh, B Z; Aleman, A; van den Heuvel, E R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive subtype

  6. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  7. [Ancient mental healing and cognitive behavior therapy in comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, B; Laux, J

    1988-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a relatively new psychotherapeutic approach, the theoretical antecedents actually date back two thousand years, to the period of the hellenistic philosophers. The Stoic Epictetus is often acknowledged as the main philosophical father of CBT and especially of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Beck and Ellis frequently noted that they have drawn upon the writings of the ancient philosophers in developing their psychotherapeutic techniques. This paper reviews some implications of hellenistic philosophy for CBT. We like to show that the teachings of the ancient 'healer of souls' are remarkably consistent with the current theoretical framework and techniques of CBT.

  8. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR PTSD IN COLOMBIAN COMBAT VETERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BOTERO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  9. An introduction to good practices in cognitive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Heathcote; S.D. Brown; E.-J. Wagenmakers

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive modeling can provide important insights into the underlying causes of behavior, but the validity of those insights rests on careful model development and checking. We provide guidelines on five important aspects of the practice of cognitive modeling: parameter recovery, testing selective i

  10. Neurocognition and cognitive biases in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Cristina P; Sacks, Stephanie A; Weisman de Mamani, Amy G

    2012-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to exhibit a number of information processing biases that may play a role in the development and exacerbation of symptoms and may impair overall functioning. However, little is known about the factors that are associated with these cognitive biases. Recently, researchers have begun to consider whether neurocognitive deficits, common in schizophrenia, may be risk factors for the development of cognitive biases. In the present study, we assessed neurocognition (verbal learning, delayed verbal recall memory, and verbal recognition memory) and cognitive biases (knowledge corruption and impaired cognitive insight) in 72 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. As hypothesized, poorer delayed verbal recall memory was associated with increased knowledge corruption. Contrary to expectations, verbal learning and verbal memory were not associated with cognitive insight. These findings suggest that an inadequate recall memory system may put patients with schizophrenia at greater risk for cognitive distortions.

  11. Organization, Evolution, Cognition and Dynamic Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    Using insights from 'embodied cognition' and a resulting 'cognitive theory of the firm', I aim to contribute to the further development of evolutionary theory of organizations, in the specification of organizations as 'interactors' that carry organizational competencies as 'replicators', within indu

  12. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we report investigations of structural and electronic properties of ZnO in wurtzite (WZ), rock salt (RS) and zinc-blende (ZB) phases. Calculations have been done with full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method developed within the frame work of Density Functional Theory (DFT). For structural properties investigations, Perdew and Wang proposed local density approximations (LDA) and Perdew et al. proposed generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA and GGA; however, in RS phase, energy gap is significantly overestimated compared to experimental measurements. The Zn-d band was found to be more narrower with mBJ potential than that of LDA and GGA. On the other hand, our evaluated crystal field splitting energy values overestimate the experimental values. © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

  13. Factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) with Puerto Rican elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Dávila-Martínez, Mariel G; Collazo-Rodríguez, Luis C

    2006-06-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; (1) is one of the most useful measures for depressive symptomatology in many countries (2). The psychometric properties of this inventory, however, have not been reported with Puerto Rican elderly. This paper reports, exploratory psychometric results with a sample of 410 elderly Puerto Rican (65 years and older; men=94, women=316). The assessment of the construct validity of the BDI-II yielded four factors accounting for 52% of total variance and an internal reliability coefficient (alpha Cronbach) of .89. A factor analysis with the 21 items of the BDI-II was performed using principal component analysis as the extraction method and Varimax rotation. This analysis revealed that the BDI-II was a good measure of the dimensions of depressive symptomatology in the present sample, which resembled prior findings reported with the general Puerto Rican Population (3). This study also reports further data supporting the reliability, validity, and practical utility of the BDI-II for the Puerto Rican population including elders. Implications for potential research with minorities and clinical uses of the BDI-II are also discussed.

  14. Optical response of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenides for solar cell applications using the modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Ushma [Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Joshi, Ritu; Venugopalan, K. [M.L. Sukhadia Univ., Udaipur (India). Dept. of Physics; Kothari, D.C. [Mumbai Univ. (India). National Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology; Tiwari, Harpal [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Energy bands and density of states (DOS) of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenides like MoS{sub 2}, MoSeS, MoSe{sub 2}, MoTe{sub 2}, MoTeS, and MoTe{sub 0.5}S{sub 1.5} are reported for the first time using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential within full potential-linearised augmented plane wave technique. From the partial DOS, a strong hybridisation between the Mo-d and chalcogen-p states is observed below the Fermi energy E{sub F}. In addition, the dielectric constants, absorption coefficients, and refractivity spectra of these compounds have also been deduced. The integrated absorption coefficients derived from the frequency-dependent absorption spectra within the energy range of 0-4.5 eV show a possibility of using molybdenum dichalcogenides, particularly MoTe{sub 0.5}S{sub 1.5}, in solar cell applications. Birefringence and degree of anisotropy are also discussed using the data on refractivity and imaginary components of the dielectric constant.

  15. Factorial Structure of Depressive Symptoms in Anglophone Caribbean University Students: Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó establecer propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-Segunda Edición (BDI-II con estudiantes de una universidad del Caribe (n=400, 76% mujeres, edad media=25.2. Además, administramos la Escala de Elasticidad de Ego-89, La Escala de Tensión Percibida, La Escala de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo (Versión de Rasgo y La Escala de Depresión de Zung. El análisis factorial confirmativo comparó la estructura observada con las estructuras oblicuas propuestas en los modelos de dos factores. Las estimaciones factoriales y los índices de calidad de ajuste sugirieron adecuado ajuste para modelos de dos factores. La consistencia interna (=.86 y la fiabilidad test-retest (n=57, r=.78 eran fuertes. Las correlaciones de validez eran significativas en las direcciones teóricamente esperadas. Los resultados apoyan el uso del BDI-II con estudiantes del Caribe.

  16. LA DESESPERANZA APRENDIDA Y SUS PREDICTORES EN JÓVENES: ANÁLISIS DESDE EL MODELO DE BECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José González Tovar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la desesperanza ha sido asociado a diversos modelos del riesgo suicida; de ahí que la importancia de caracterizar este fenómeno y establecer aspectos que permitan explicar el comportamiento de las variables que lo integran resulta ser de gran importancia. El presente estudio aborda el fenómeno desde la perspectiva de la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck, aplicada a una muestra de hombres y mujeres de 15 a 29 años. El procesamiento de los datos se hizo mediante el análisis de regresión logística a fin de generar un modelo que explique los predictores del riesgo suicida. Los resultados permiten concluir que la presencia de riesgo, en lo que respecta a la pérdida de motivación y expectativas negativas sobre el futuro, son predictores consistentes de la desesperanza y el riesgo suicida, analizados a partir de la edad y el sexo de los sujetos.

  17. Relationship between selenium concentration in child hair and the distribution of Kashin-Beck Disease in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shunjiang; YANG Linsheng; WANG Wuyi; LI Yonghua; LI Hairong; XIRAO Ruodeng

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this study is to determine the relationship between selenium(Se)concentrations in child hair and the distribution of Kashin-Beck disease(KBD)in Tibet.The hair of children in typical KBD-affected areas and non-disease areas was collected,and its Se concentrations were measured by atomic fluorescent spectrometry.The Se concentrations in child hair were (0.13±0.04)and (0.1 8±0.07)μg/g respectively in KBD areas and non-disease areas respectively,which are significantly difierent.In areas supplemented with Se in Tibet,the Se concentration of hair in KBD-affected areas was higher than that in non-diseased areas,being(0.28±0.03)and(0.18±0.04)μg/g respectively.There is a close relationship between the Se concentrations in hair and KBD distribution.Se supplement increase the Se concentrations in the human body.Appropriate Se supplementation is important to prevent KBD in Tibet.

  18. Exploring Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles Altered in Kashin-Beck Disease Using Infinium Human Methylation 450 Bead Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao Wei; Shi, Bo Hui; Lyu, Ai Li; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Tian Tian; Guo, Xiong

    2016-07-01

    To understand how differentially methylated genes (DMGs) might affect the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Genome-wide methylation profiling of whole blood from 12 matched KBD and controls pairs was performed using a high-resolution Infinium 450 K methylation array. In total, 97 CpG sites were differentially methylated in KBD compared to the normal controls; of these sites, 36 sites were significantly hypermethylated (covering 22 genes) and 61 sites were significantly hypomethylated (covering 34 genes). Of these genes, 14 significant pathways were identified, the most significant P value pathway was type I diabetes mellitus pathway and pathways associated with autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases were included in this study. Subsequently, 4 CpG sites in HLA-DRB1 were validated using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) in articular cartilage, and the results showed significant differences in the methylation status between KBD and controls, consistent with the results of the high-resolution array. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation exist between KBD and the controls, and the biological pathways support the autoimmune disease and inflammatory disease hypothesis of KBD.

  19. Opto-electronic response of Spinel SiZn2O4 to a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Manzar; Mohammad, Saleh; Hayatullah; Haneef, Muhammad; Khan, Mahmood; Murtaza, G.

    2013-09-01

    A first-principles technique capable of describing the nearly excited states of semiconductors and insulators, namely the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential approximation, is used to investigate the electronic band structure and the optical properties of the spinel oxide SiZn2O4. The band gap predicted using the mBJ approximation is significantly more accurate than those previously proposed theoretical works using the common localized density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Band-gap-dependent optical parameters, like the dielectric constant, index of refraction, reflectivity and optical conductivity, are calculated and analyzed. The result for the dielectric constant shows that the numerical value of the static dielectric constant, after dropping at the steady rate, becomes less than zero, and the material exhibits a metallic behavior. The refractive index also drops below unity for photons higher than 18 eV, which indicates that the velocities of the incident photons are greater than the velocity of light. However, these phenomena can be explained by the fact that a signal must be transmitted as a wave packet rather than a monochromatic wave. This comprehensive theoretical study of the optoelectronic properties predicts that the materials can be used effectively in the optical devices.

  20. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia’s general population and coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henndy Ginting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa la validez y determina los puntos de corte del Inventario de Depresión de Beck -II (BDI-II en Indonesia. La versión indonesia del BDI-II (BDI-II Indo se administró a 720 personas sanas de la población general, a 215 pacientes con Enfermedad Coronaria (EC y a 102 pacientes con depresión. El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró similitud factorial de las tres muestras. Las correlaciones entre el Indo BDI-II y otras medidas de auto-percepción relacionadas con la depresión fueron significativas, mostrando la validez de constructo del Indo BDI-II. Además, la diferencia de puntuación del Indo BDI-II entre los participantes deprimidos y no deprimidos fue altamente significativa. La consistencia interna y la fiabilidad re- test fueron suficientemente altas. La curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic indicó que el punto de corte de la BDI-II para el nivel de gravedad leve de depresión la población de Indonesia es igual a 17. En conclusión, el Indo BDI-II es una medida válida de depresión, tanto para la población general indonesia como en pacientes con EC.

  1. Biological reduction of iron to the elemental state from ochre deposits of Skelton Beck in Northeast England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanathu K S M Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochre, consequence of acid mine drainage, is iron oxides-rich soil pigments that can be found in the water drainage from historic base metal and coal mines. The anaerobic strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella denitrificans were used for the microbial reduction of iron from samples of ochre collected from Skelton Beck (Saltburn Orange River, NZ 66738 21588 in Northeast England. The aim of the research was to determine the ability of the two anaerobic bacteria to reduce the iron present in ochre and to determine the rate of the reduction process. The physico-chemical changes in the ochre sample after the microbial reduction process were observed by the production of zero-valent iron which was later confirmed by the detection of elemental Fe in XRD spectrum. The XRF results revealed that 69.16% and 84.82% of iron oxide can be reduced using G. sulfurreducens and S. denitrificans respectively after 8 days of incubation. These results could provide the basis for the development of a biohydrometallurgical process for the production of elemental iron from ochre sediments.

  2. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches an...

  3. Language production, cognition, and the lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Gala, Núria; Bel-Enguix, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    The book collects contributions from well-established researchers at the interface between language and cognition. It provides an overview of the latest insights into this interdisciplinary field from the perspectives of natural language processing, computer science, psycholinguistics and cognitive science. One of the pioneers in cognitive natural language processing is Michael Zock, to whom this volume is dedicated. The structure of the book reflects his main research interests: lexicon and lexical analysis, semantics, language and speech generation, reading and writing technologies, langu

  4. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  5. Gestural coupling and social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Krueger, Joel William

    2012-01-01

    of congenital bilateral facial paralysis-can be a fruitful source of insight for research exploring the relation between high-level cognition and low-level coupling. Lacking a capacity for facial expression, individuals with MS are deprived of a primary channel for gestural coupling. According to SI, they lack...

  6. How older people nurses assess cognitive function through daily observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Cruijsen, M. Van der; Schlattmann, N.; Simmes, F.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To obtain knowledge and insight into how older people nurses observe the cognitive function of their patients. BACKGROUND: In cases of cognitive decline not due to delirium, the daily observation of cognitive function by nurses has not been standardised in hospital wards specialised in the care

  7. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Farup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria, cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests, and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression.

  8. Optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of Zintl YLi3 A 2 (A = Sb, Bi) compounds through modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, T.; Uğur, G.; Khenata, R.; Uğur, Ş.; Soyalp, F.; Murtaza, G.; Rai, D. P.; Bouhemadou, A.; Omran, S. Bin

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigate the structural, optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of the YLi3 X 2 (X = Sb, Bi) compounds using the full potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-APW+lo) method. The exchange-correlation potential is treated with the generalized gradient approximation/local density approximation (GGA/LDA) and with the modified Becke-Johnson potential (TB-mBJ) in order to improve the electronic band structure calculations. In addition, the estimated ground state properties such as the lattice constants, external parameters, and bulk moduli agree well with the available experimental data. Our band structure calculations with GGA and LDA predict that both compounds have semimetallic behaviors. However, the band structure calculations with the GGA/TB-mBJ approximation indicate that the ground state of the YLi3Sb2 compound is semiconducting and has an estimated indirect band gap (Γ-L) of about 0.036 eV while the ground state of YLi3Bi2 compound is semimetallic. Conversely the LDA/TB-mBJ calculations indicate that both compounds exhibit semiconducting characters and have an indirect band gap (Γ-L) of about 0.15 eV and 0.081 eV for YLi3Sb and YLi3Bi2 respectively. Additionally, the optical properties reveal strong responses of the herein materials in the energy range between the IR and extreme UV regions. Thermoelectric properties such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermo power factors are also calculated.

  9. Is It the Appropriate Time to Stop Applying Selenium Enriched Salt in Kashin-Beck Disease Areas in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Ning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify significant factors of selenium (Se nutrition of children in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD endemic areas and non-KBD area in Shaanxi Province for providing evidence of whether it is the time to stop applying Se-enriched salt in KBD areas. A cross-sectional study contained 368 stratified randomly selected children aged 4–14 years was conducted with 24-h retrospective questionnaire based on a pre-investigation. Food and hair samples were collected and had Se contents determined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Average hair Se content of 349.0 ± 60.2 ng/g in KBD-endemic counties was significantly lower than 374.1 ± 47.0 ng/g in non-KBD counties. It was significantly higher in the male children (365.2 ± 52.3 ng/g than in the female (345.0 ± 62.2 ng/g, p = 0.002 and significantly higher in the 4.0–6.9 years group (375.2 ± 58.9 ng/g than the 7.0–14.0 years group (347.0 ± 56.1 ng/g, p < 0.01. Gender, living area, Se intake without supplements, Se-enriched salt, oil source and protein intake were identified as significant factors of hair Se contents. Cereals, meat and milk were commonly included as significant food categories that mainly contributed to Se intake without supplement of the whole population. Balanced dietary structure without Se supplement could effectively enhance and maintain children’s Se nutrition. It may be the time to stop applying Se-enriched salt in KBD areas in Shaanxi Province.

  10. Dimensional and hierarchical models of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in an Arab college student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of depressive symptomatology from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objectives of the study were: (i using the responses of a sample of Arab college students to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in CFA, to compare the "goodness of fit" indices of the original dimensional three-and two-factor first-order models, and their modifications, with the corresponding hierarchical models (i.e., higher - order and bifactor models; (ii to assess the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II, including convergent/discriminant validity with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25. Method Participants (N = 624 were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the questionnaires in class. CFA was done by AMOS, version 16. Eleven models were compared using eight "fit" indices. Results In CFA, all the models met most "fit" criteria. While the higher-order model did not provide improved fit over the dimensional first - order factor models, the bifactor model (BFM had the best fit indices (CMNI/DF = 1.73; GFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.034. All regression weights of the dimensional models were significantly different from zero (P Conclusion The broadly adequate fit of the various models indicates that they have some merit and implies that the relationship between the domains of depression probably contains hierarchical and dimensional elements. The bifactor model is emerging as the best way to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression. The psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II lend support to our CFA results.

  11. The Prevention Effect of Selenium on Prevalence of Children Kaschin-Beck Disease in Active Endemic Areas in Qinghai Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-jun; Yang, Pei-zhen; Xu, Xiao-qing; Liu, Yu-fang; Yu, Hui-zhen; Ma, Xiao; Du, Rui; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium deficiency is an important environmental risk factor of Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), and appropriate selenium supplement can reduce the prevalence of KBD. Guide and Xinghai counties, active endemic areas of KBD in Qinghai Plateau, are characteristic with low level of selenium. The aim of this article was to explore the relationship between selenium content and prevalence of children KBD in some active endemic areas from Guide and Xinghai counties. The historical data of KBD were collected, including the detectable rates of KBD and selenium contents of the hair of children, and then the relationship between the prevalence of KBD and selenium contents of hair was analyzed. In KBD endemic areas of Guide County, the detectable rates of X-ray and metaphysic lesion were declined from 25.00 and 16.96% in 2000 to 13.75 and 13.75% in 2010, respectively. Similarly, in KBD endemic areas of Xinghai County, the detectable rates of X-ray and metaphysic lesion were declined from 46.51 and 40.31% in 2000 to 10.64 and 8.51% in 2010, respectively. The selenium contents of hair in Xinghai county were increased from 130.01 ± 48.08 μg/kg in 2003 to 211.8 ± 86.64 μg/kg in 2010(t = 2.98, P prevalence of KBD and selenium contents of hair (r = -0.785). There was a close relationship between selenium content and prevalence of KBD. Selenium could reduce the prevalence of KBD, so it is very necessary to supplement selenium appropriately for KBD prevention.

  12. The promise of cognitive behavior therapy for treatment of severe mental disorders: a review of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), as exemplified by the model of psychotherapy developed and refined over the past 40 years by A.T. Beck and colleagues, is one of the treatments of first choice for ambulatory depressive and anxiety disorders. Over the past several decades, there have been vigorous efforts to adapt CBT for treatment of more severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia and the more chronic and/or treatment refractory mood disorders. These efforts have primarily studied CBT ...

  13. Reducing Delusional Conviction Through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser eKhazaal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038

  14. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  15. Baths and becks \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A report on two prominent dialectal variables in England. Using rather informally collected data, The author looks here at two well-known variables in the English of England: first, whether there is a short or long vowel in words such as grass and bath; second, what regional words people know for streams. The treatment of these variables is consistent over time, and seems to have little to do with social status or carefulness of speech.\\ud

  16. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided in

  17. [Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hortmuth, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus:Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410 AD. (Vordingborg, 2009).

  18. Cognitive, Emotive, and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y.C.L. Kwok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component, social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component, emotional competence (emotive component, and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Insight in Schizophrenia : Involvement of Self-Reflection Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; de Vos, Annerieke E.; Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Nolen, Willem A.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insight is a common feature in psychosis and an important predictor of variables such as functional outcome, prognosis, and treatment adherence. A cognitive process that may underlie insight in psychosis is self-reflection, or the conscious evaluation of one's traits and charact

  20. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  1. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  2. X-ray image characteristics and related measurements in the ankles of 118 adult patients with Kashin-Beck disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yi; Zhou Zongke; Shen Bin; Yang Jing; Kang Pengde; Zhou Xuan; Zou Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic,degenerative osteoarthropathy that causes severe skeletal deformation.Although many researchers have proven that almost all KBD patients who showed an increaseing proximo-distal gradient had radiographic abnormalities of the ankle,few detailed description of radiographic changes in the ankles of patients with KBD has been reported,especially for variable measurements of ankle changes.The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the radiographic characteristics of the ankles of adult KBD patients.Methods One hundred and eighteen adult KBD patients from september to October 2010 in Rongtang county in China were examined with lateral radiographs of the right ankle.The morphological abnormalities in the talus,calcaneus,navicular bone,distal tibia,and joint space were analyzed,and the calcaneus length,height,length-height ratio,tuber angle,front angle,plantar angle,and distal tibia anteroposterior (AP) length were measured using Riepert's method.Results Eighty-one patients (68.6%) had abnormal ankle radiographs; 72 (88.9%) patients had talus changes,69 (85.2%) patients had calcaneus changes,28 (34.6%) patients had navicular bone changes,and 48 (59.2%) patients had distal tibia changes.For 118 KBD patients,the average calcaneus length was 7.4 cm,height was 4.3 cm,and the length-height ratio was 1.7.The calcaneus tuber angle was 28.2°,front angle was 38.0° and the plantar angle was 74.2°.The distal tibia anteroposterior length was 4.05 cm.Compared with 50 normal adults (control group),significant differences were found for the calcaneus length,the calcaneus length-height ratio,and the distal tibia AP length.Conclusions Patients with KBD have characteristic abnormalities on ankle radiographs; talus depression and deformity,calcaneus shortening deformity,and distal tibia deformity with AP length widening were the most typical changes.

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Calugi, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN), based on Beck's cognitive theory, was developed in a "generic" form in the early eighties. In recent years, however, improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in maintaining eating disorder psychopathology has led to the development of a "specific" form of CBT, termed CBT-E (E = enhanced), designed to treat all forms of eating disorders, including AN, from outpatient to inpatient settings. Although more studies are required to assess the relative effectiveness of CBT-E with respect to other available treatments, the data indicate that in outpatient settings it is both viable and promising for adults and adolescents with AN. Encouraging results are also emerging from inpatient CBT-E, particularly in adolescents, and clinical services offering CBT-E at different levels of care are now offered in several countries around the world. However, CBT-E requires dissemination in order to become widely available to patients.

  4. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  5. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Nilius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36. Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomography (CT that had undergone 22 sessions, were involved in the clinical sample (n = 21. The control sample (n = 15 consisted of patients without any neurological diagnosis and who did not undergo cognitive sessions. Results: The effect of cognitive rehabilitation was measured by Addenbrooke's cognitive test, revised in 2010 (ACE-R; affective changes were measured by Beck´s scale of depression BDI-2 and by a scale used to detect anxiety and depression: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjective change and improvement were observed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI psychiatric scale. Changes in the functional state of patients were measured by means of the activities of daily living scale (ADL, including the instrumental version (IADL. The effect was examined in the form of entry and output tests, which were verified by statistical analysis, a significant level being p > 0.05. Conclusions: Significant differences in verbal tests and ACE-R were observed in the clinical sample of patients. Some significant changes were observed in the field of affective symptoms, according to the HADS and BDI-2. The clinical sample showed a significant improvement in subjective clinical state (CGI. The ADL and IADL questionnaires seem to have been inadequate for purpose due to their low sensitivity. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive disorder can be seen and verified in comparison with the control sample

  6. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients are disproport......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...... for cognitive neuropsychology are opened up. The questions addressed in this symposium is whether the questions posed by cognitive neuropsychology are still relevant, and whether new methods can spark a new interest in the field, or if the time has passed when the observation of single and double dissociations...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk...

  7. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  8. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia.

  9. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self...

  10. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decline tend to occur in parallel as the disease progresses. Significant cognitive impairment in PD is often associated with: Caregiver distress Worse day-to-day function Diminished quality of life Poorer treatment outcomes Greater medical costs due to ...

  11. Spatial cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  12. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    user models and user interaction models. Research in cognitive information processing is inherently multi-disciplinary and involves natural science and technical disciplines, e.g., control, automation, and robot research, physics and computer science, as well as humanities such as social sciences......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...

  13. The Effect of Group Cognitive Therapy on Reducing Depression in the Female Patients with Severe Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Mohammadi Heris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence of mental health problems among psychiatric patients with severe obsessivecompulsive disorder is depression that is one of the methods of non-pharmacological treatment of group cognitive therapy. In this study, the effect of cognitive therapy in reducing depression of female patients suffering from severe obsessive-compulsive disorder examined. Methods: In this study, patients were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and both groups were tested by Beck Depression Inventory before the intervention (second revision. The experimental group participated in ten sessions of cognitive therapy while the control group received no intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups were evaluated by the test. Results: The data obtained using dependent and independent T test were evaluated. A positive impact in the cognitive therapy group showed decreased depression. Conclusion: The method of group cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depression in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive.

  14. Cognitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Levesque, Hector J.; Lakemeyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Ray Reiter. It is also an overview of cognitive robotics, as we understand it to have been envisaged by him.1 Of course, nobody can control the use of a term or the direction of research. We apologize in advance to those who feel that other approaches to cognitive robotics and related problems are inadequately represented here.

  15. Rendimiento diagnóstico y estructura factorial del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sanz; María Paz García-Vera

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio tenía dos objetivos. Primero, analizar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la versión española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II) en una muestra de pacientes con trastornos psicológicos y, segundo, examinar si las soluciones unifactoriales y bifactoriales del BDI-II encontradas previamente en muestras similares son replicables y, de ser así, analizar la contribución relativa del factor general y de los dos factores específicos a la varianza del BDI-II. El BDI-II, junto con...

  16. Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Abubakar; Raphael Birya Kalu; Khamis Katana; Beatrice Kabunda; Hassan, Amin S; Newton, Charles R; Fons Van de Vijver

    2016-01-01

    Objective We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure. Methods In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric prope...

  17. Inner rehearsal modeling for cognitive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jerome J.; Bergen, Karianne; Dasey, Timothy J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic approach involving cognitive process modeling, for use in intelligent robot decisionmaking. The principle of inner rehearsal, a process believed to occur in human and animal cognition, involves internal rehearsing of actions prior to deciding on and executing an overt action, such as a motor action. The inner-rehearsal algorithmic approach we developed is posed and investigated in the context of a relatively complex cognitive task, an under-rubble search and rescue. The paper presents the approach developed, a synthetic environment which was also developed to enable its studies, and the results to date. The work reported here is part of a Cognitive Robotics effort in which we are currently engaged, focused on exploring techniques inspired by cognitive science and neuroscience insights, towards artificial cognition for robotics and autonomous systems.

  18. Cognitive behavioral approaches to the patients suffering from depression due to maladjustment in the work place: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Tomotake, Masahito; Okura, Masao; Okabe, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two cases of depression in which Beck's cognitive therapy was effective. Case 1was a 32-year-old man who had been troubled with the recurrent depression for about eight years in spite of regular medication. Case 2was a 30-year-old man who had been chronically depressed for one year. Maladjustment in the work place was involved in the development of their depressive symptoms. Through the psycho-therapeutic sessions, they were encouraged to identify their cognitive distortion...

  19. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.

  20. Cognitive Distortions in Depressed Women: Trait, or State Dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BATMAZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: According to the cognitive theory developed by Beck, cognitive distortions are important mediators for the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders. It has not been researched if these cognitive distortions are more frequently encountered during the depressive episode, or if they are trait-like features. This study aims to investigate this. The hypothesis of the study is that cognitive distortions are state dependent. Method: Three groups of outpatients (n=178 patients in acute major depressive episode, n=168 depressive patients in remission, n=177 healthy controls presenting to the psychiatry clinics of three different state hospitals were recruited for the study. The participants were diagnostically interviewed by the MINI according to the DSM-IV criteria. The participants were asked to complete the Cognitive Distortions Scale and the severity of their depression was measured by the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. Results: According to the cognitive distortion subscales, except for the self-blame subscale, the acute depressive group scored the highest. Also it was found that the cognitive distortions of the depressive populations, except for the self-blame related ones, statistically differed from the healthy controls’. Self-blame related distortions were mood state dependent. Conclusion: The results have revealed that self-criticism, helplessness, hopelessness and preoccupation with danger related distortions had trait-like features, whereas selfblame related distortions were state dependent. This has clinical implications for the psychotherapeutic treatment of cognitive distortions in depression. Specifically, self-criticism related distortions should be managed during cognitive therapy for depression since the other subscales seem rather problematic.

  1. Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifa A Hamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG, neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric testing (Mini-mental State Examination [MMSE], Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 4 th edition [SBIS] and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R] and by recording P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs, a neurophysiological analog for cognitive function. Results: Compared with healthy subjects (n = 20, patients had lower total scores of cognitive testing (MMSE, SBIS and WMS-R (P = 0.001, higher Beck Depression Inventory 2 nd edition scores (P = 0.0001 and prolonged latencies (P = 0.01 and reduced amplitudes (P = 0.001 of P300 component of ERPs. Correlations were identified between total scores of cognitive testing and age (r = -0.470, P = 0.010, duration of illness (r = -0.788, P = 0.001 and depression scores (r = -0.323, P = 0.045. Using linear regression analysis and after controlling for age and depression scores, a significant correlation was identified between total scores of cognitive testing and duration of illness (β = -0.305, P = 0.045. Conclusion: Patients with mild/moderate MG may have cognitive dysfunction. This is important to determine prognosis and managing patients.

  2. Insight with hands and things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Vallée-Tourangeau, Gaëlle; Sirota, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether different task ecologies influenced insight problem solving. The 17 animals problem was employed, a pure insight problem. Its initial formulation encourages the application of a direct arithmetic solution, but its solution requires the spatial arrangement of sets involving some degree of overlap. Participants were randomly allocated to either a tablet condition where they could use a stylus and an electronic tablet to sketch a solution or a model building condition where participants were given material with which to build enclosures and figurines. In both experiments, participants were much more likely to develop a working solution in the model building condition. The difference in performance elicited by different task ecologies was unrelated to individual differences in working memory, actively open-minded thinking, or need for cognition (Experiment 1), although individual differences in creativity were correlated with problem solving success in Experiment 2. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the prevailing metatheoretical commitment to methodological individualism that places the individual as the ontological locus of cognition.

  3. Offloading Cognition onto Cognitive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dror, Itiel

    2008-01-01

    "Cognizing" (i.e., thinking, understanding, knowing, and having the capacity to do what cognizers can do) is a mental state. Systems without mental states, such as cognitive technology, can sometimes also do some of what cognizers can do, but that does not make them cognizers. Cognitive technology allows cognizers to offload some of the functions they would otherwise have had to execute with their own brains and bodies alone; it also extends cognizers' performance powers beyond those of brains and bodies alone. Language itself is a form of cognitive technology that allows cognizers to offload some of their brain functions onto the brains of other cognizers. Language also extends cognizers' individual and joint performance powers, distributing the load through interactive and collaborative cognition. Reading, writing, print, telecommunications and computing further extend cognizers' capacities. And now the web, with its distributed network of cognizers, digital databases and sofware agents, has become the Cogn...

  4. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Jo Chiang; Tsai-Hui Chen; Hsiu-Tsu Hsieh; Jui-Chen Tsai; Keng-Liang Ou; Kuei-Ru Chou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression In...

  5. Implicit and explicit self-related processing in relation to insight in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback

  6. 贝克抑郁量表第2版中文版在大一学生中的试用%Application of Chinese Version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ to Chinese First-year College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文辉; 吴多进; 彭芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:评估贝克抑郁量表第2版(BDI-Ⅱ)中文版在我国大一学生中的信度和效度.方法:972名大一学生完成BDI-Ⅱ中文版和流调中心用抑郁量表(CES-D)的测试,并随机抽取65名大学生1周后完成BDI-Ⅱ的重测.结果:BDI-Ⅱ中文版的Cronbach α系数为0.85,各条目间的相关系数在0.08~0.39之间,各条目与BDI-Ⅱ总分的相关系数在0.34~0.57之间,重测相关系数为0.73(Ps<0.05);BDI-Ⅱ总分与CES-D总分呈正相关(r=0.70,P<0.01).认知-情感和躯体症状2因子结构模型的验证性因素分析各指标为IFI=0.967 、CFI=0.967、x2/df=3.820、RMSEA=0.054.结论:贝克抑郁量表第2版中文版在大一学生中具有良好的信度和效度,能够作为我国大一学生抑郁症状筛查的自评工具.%Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ (BDI-Ⅱ) of Chinese first-year college students. Methods: A convenient sample of 972 college students in their first year completed the Chinese version of BDI-Ⅱ and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and 65 students received the retest of the BDI-Ⅱ after 1 week. Results: The Cronb-ch alpha coefficient of BDI-Ⅱ was 0.85. The intercorrelations of 21 items ranged from 0.08 to 0.39, and item-total correlations ranged from 0.34 to 0.57 (Ps<0.05). The test-retest coefficient was 0.73 (P<0.01). BDI-Ⅱ total score was related with the CES-D total score (r=0.70, P<0.01). The goodness-of-fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis were found (IFI=0.967, CFI=0.967, x2/df=3.820, RMSEA=0.054) for the two-factor structure model of cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ shows good reliability and validity, and could be reliably used as a self-administer inven-tory to assess depressive symptoms for Chinese first-year college students.

  7. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Cognitive changes after carotid artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Krick, C.; Backens, M. [University of the Saarland, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Supprian, T.; Falkai, P.; Reith, W. [University of the Saarland, Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Homburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We aimed to test changes in cognitive performance after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Ten patients were neuropsychologically tested at least 24 h before and 48 h after CAS. To diminish thromboembolic events, we used a proximal protection device. The following neuropsychological tests were selected: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), symbol digit test and subtests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (verbal fluency, constructional practice, word list memory and delayed recall). Affective state was determined by the Beck Depression Score (BDS). No patient suffered from depression (BDS <1) or dementia (MMSE 29.9{+-}1.5). Nine of the ten patients (P=0.12) showed increased speed in the Number Connection Test (NCT) (corresponding to trail making test). Most patients showed better or similar results concerning delayed recall (P=0.31). No change was observed in the symbol digit test, word list memory, verbal fluency or constructional practice. Better results concerning NCT and delayed recall after carotid stenting might be due to improved brain perfusion. After CAS, cognitive and memory performance seem to improve. Further studies with different time intervals and more refined testing, as well as perfusion-weighted imaging, are needed. (orig.)

  9. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  10. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  11. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of patients with schizophrenia : Characteristics and profile congruency with affected family member

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their unaffected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. Objectives/aims: To investigate c

  12. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    dysfunction in MDD. Several other novel agents may be repurposed as cognitive enhancers for MDD treatment, including minocycline, insulin, antidiabetic agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, S-adenosyl methionine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, modafinil...

  13. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  14. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  15. [Behavioral and cognitive strategies in stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légeron, P

    1993-03-01

    Stress is a specific response of the individual to all nonspecific demands. However, this process of adaptation is very complex and varies considerably from person to person. The stress response or "stress reactivity" is triggered by various stressors, ranging from live events to daily hassles and including chronic stressors. These stressors need to be identified. The stress response is not univocal: it has physiological, cognitive and behavioral components. Most of the time, physiological, cognitive and behavioral responses are maladaptive and harmful for the individual. Stress management is directed at teaching individuals specific skills to modify parts of these responses in order to reduce stress. Relaxation therapies are the cornerstone of any stress management program. They mostly include autogenic training and progressive relaxation training, sometimes biofeedback. The relaxation response is a learned response. There are a variety of different methods of inducing this response. They share the common goal of countering the physiological aspects of the stress reaction. All the relaxation techniques involve long and exacting training. But proper training leads to a gradual reduction in time and effort required to relax. When properly pursued, these techniques produce a state of relaxation quickly and on demand. Cognitive approaches to stress management derive from the constatation that the individual's interpretation of events or situations which have been labeled stressful, the individual's anticipation of the consequences of the stressor and the individual's view of his or her ability to cope with the stressor or the stress reaction are fundamental in the stress process. There are a variety of cognitive theories and techniques, ranging from Beck's cognitive therapy to Ellis' Rational-Emotive Therapy. Initial phases of these therapies are directed at teaching the individual to recognize, record, analyse and modify maladaptive cognitions. The second phase is

  16. Mediodorsal thalamus and cognition in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Baxter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.

  17. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  18. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and cau

  19. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  20. Adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II): 3. Propiedades psicométricas en pacientes con trastornos psicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    JESÚS SANZ; MARÍA PAZ GARCÍA-VERA; REGINA ESPINOSA; MARÍA FORTÚN; CARMELO VÁZQUEZ

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan datos sobre la fiabilidad y validez de la adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer y Brown, 1996), obtenidos con una muestra de 305 pacientes ambulatorios con diversos diagnósticos psicopatológicos según el DSM-IV. El coeficiente alfa de fiabilidad fue alto (alfa = 0,89). Las correlaciones con otras medidas autoaplicadas y heteroaplicadas de depresión fueron elevadas y significativamente mayores que la correlación con una medida de ansi...

  1. The effects of cognitive therapy versus 'no intervention' for major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Christian Jakobsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used The Cochrane systematic review methodology with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized trials comparing the effects of cognitive therapy versus 'no intervention' for major depressive disorder. Participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder to be eligible. Altogether, we included 12 trials randomizing a total of 669 participants. All 12 trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression showed that cognitive therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms (four trials; mean difference -3.05 (95% confidence interval (Cl, -5.23 to -0.87; P<0.006 compared with 'no intervention'. Trial sequential analysis could not confirm this result. Meta-analysis on the Beck Depression Inventory showed that cognitive therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms (eight trials; mean difference on -4.86 (95% CI -6.44 to -3.28; P = 0.00001. Trial sequential analysis on these data confirmed the result. Only a few trials reported on 'no remission', suicide inclination, suicide attempts, suicides, and adverse events without significant differences between the compared intervention groups. DISCUSSION: Cognitive therapy might be an effective treatment for depression measured on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory, but these outcomes may be overestimated due to risks of systematic errors (bias and random errors (play of chance. Furthermore, the effects of cognitive therapy on no remission, suicidality, adverse events, and quality of life are unclear. There is a need for randomized trials with low risk of

  2. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  3. Metacognition: A new cognitive paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concept of metacognition, defined as: (a knowledge about ones own cognitive activity, (b strategies to monitor and regulate cognitive activity and behavior, and (c subjective or metacognitive experiences which comes from some changes or temporary difficulties in cognitive functioning. While describing different conceptualizations of metacognition, its development, fields of application, relation with intelligence, and its constrictions and ambiguity, we attempt to present new and emerging metacognitive paradigm, which is, for a relatively short period, succeeded to improve, expand, and redefine wide range of theoretical and practical fields in psychology, on new and original way. How do we become conscious of our own cognitive processes? What role and significance that consciousness has, what is the functional level above thinking processes and how that level, which monitor and control cognitive activity, works. Metacognition is concept that presents, as so far, the most important insight in those human mind areas, which, although very important, remained on the margin of psychological investigations until now.

  4. Kohler's Insight Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholtz, George

    1985-01-01

    Psychology textbooks frequently present Wolfgang Kohler's two-stick experiment with chimpanzees as having demonstrated insight in learning. Studies that replicated Kohler's work support his findings but not his interpretation in terms of insightful solution. The uncritical inclusion of Kohler's insight interpretation in texts is not warranted in…

  5. MAP’ing CNS Development and Cognition: An ERKsome Process

    OpenAIRE

    Samuels, Ivy S.; Saitta, Sulagna C.; Landreth, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    The ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade plays critical roles in brain development, learning, memory, and cognition. It has recently been appreciated that mutation or deletion of elements within this signaling pathway leads to developmental syndromes in humans that are associated with impaired cognitive function and autism. Here, we review recent studies that provide insight into the biological roles of the ERKs in the brain that may underlie the cognitive deficits seen in these syndromes.

  6. 50 YEARS OF THE BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR USING THE SPANISH ADAPTATION OF THE BDI-II IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first Spanish adaptation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-I was published in 2011, which happened to be the 50th anniversary of the publication of its first edition. In this time, the BDI has become the most widely-used self-report questionnaire in Spain and in the world for evaluating the severity of depression. In this study, the basic characteristics of the BDI-II are presented and compared with its earlier versions (BDI-I and BDI-IA, the process of its adaptation to the Spanish population is described, the psychometric properties of this adaptation are summarized and its use in clinical practice is discussed. Concerning this use, guidelines and cut-off scores are proposed for measuring the severity of depression, evaluating the clinical significance of therapeutic change, screening for depression and assisting in the differential diagnosis of depressive disorders.

  7. Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M; Whiteford, Natalie T; Gelhorn, Heather L

    2013-08-01

    Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnic groups was evaluated in a large sample of college students, using pooled data from 11 universities from diverse geographical regions in the United States (N = 7,369). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of several possible factor structures, and the results from these analyses indicated that the BDI-II was most adequately represented by a hierarchical four-factor structure, composed of three first-order factors and one second-order factor. Results based on analyses of covariance structures indicated there was factorial invariance for this hierarchical four-factor structure across groups, suggesting that the BDI-II provides an assessment of severity of depressive symptoms that is equivalent across gender, race, and ethnicity in college students.

  8. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  9. Nonquantum Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha

    2012-01-01

    The Hilbert space structure of classical field theory is proposed as a general theoretical framework to model human cognitive processes which do not often follow classical (Bayesian) probability principles. This leads to an extension of the circumplex model of affect and a Poincar\\'{e} sphere representation. A specific toy field theoretic model of the brain as a coherent structure in the presence of noise is also proposed that agrees qualitatively with Pavlovian fear conditioning studies.

  10. Organization, Evolution, Cognition and Dynamic Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2007-01-01

    Using insights from ‘embodied cognition’ and a resulting ‘cognitive theory of the firm’, I aim to contribute to the further development of evolutionary theory of organizations, in the specification of organizations as ‘interactors’ that carry organizational competencies as ‘replicators’, within indu

  11. Cognition and Error in Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    The author integrates work from cognitive and developmental psychology with studies in writing in order to explain why the quality of student writing sometimes appears to regress to earlier or less proficient levels. Insights from this combined analysis are applied to explain how and why to use specific Writing Across the Curriculum strategies to…

  12. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics.

  13. Function of hippocampus in "insight" of problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of "insight" in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of "insight" remain unknown. Theoretically, "insight" means the reorientation of one's thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted "fixation" and forming of novel, task-related associations among the old nodes of concepts or cognitive skills. Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. In this research, the neural correlates of "insight" were investigated using Japanese riddles, by imaging the answer presentation and comprehension events, just after participants failed to resolve them. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demonstrated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this "insight" event. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of "insight" in problem solving.

  14. Toward understanding the insight paradox: internalized stigma moderates the association between insight and social functioning, hope, and self-esteem among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T

    2007-01-01

    Research has paradoxically linked awareness of illness to both better function outcomes and lesser hope and self-esteem. One possible explanation for these findings is that acceptance of having schizophrenia may impact outcomes differently depending on the meanings the person attaches to this acceptance, particularly whether he or she accepts stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness. To explore this possibility we performed a cluster analysis of 75 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders based on single measures of insight using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, internalized stigma using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and compared groups on concurrent assessments of hope and self-esteem. Three groups were produced by the cluster analyses: low in sight/mild stigma (n = 23), high insight/minimal stigma (n = 25), and high insight/moderate stigma (n = 27). As predicted, analysis of variance-comparing groups revealed that the high insight/moderate stigma group had significantly the lowest levels of hope on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and self-esteem using the Multidimensional Self-esteem Inventory. As predicted, the high insight/minimal stigma group also had significantly less impaired social function than the other groups. Implications for assisting persons to come to cope with awareness of illness and stigma are discussed.

  15. The cognitive neuroscience of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2004-12-01

    This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit. By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article. The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

  16. Mechanisms of attention: Psychophysics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Sensory physiologists and psychologists have recognized the importance of attention on human performance for more than 100 years. Since the 1970s, controlled and extensive experiments have examined effects of selective attention to a location in space or to an object. In addition to behavioral studies, cognitive neuroscientists have investigated the neural bases of attention. In this paper, I briefly review some classical attention paradigms, recent advances on the theory of attention, and some new insights from psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience. The focus is on the mechanisms of attention, that is, how attention improves human performance. Situations in which the perception of objects is unchanged, but performance may differ due to different decision structures, are distinguished from those in which attention changes the perceptual processes. The perceptual template model is introduced as a theoretical framework for analyzing mechanisms of attention. I also present empirical evidence for two attention mechanisms, stimulus enhancement and external noise exclusion, from psychophysics, neurophysiology and brain imaging.

  17. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... that there is not anything special about the biological boundary of the skin and skull per se, rather than some positive claim about where the boundaries of extended or distributed cognitive systems really are. I also examine the role of the concept of cognition in the theoretical frameworks of Distributed Cognition, Joint...

  18. Complexity, cognition and the city

    CERN Document Server

    Portugali, Juval

    2011-01-01

    Complexity, Cognition and the City aims at a deeper understanding of urbanism, while invoking, on an equal footing, the contributions both the hard and soft sciences have made, and are still making, when grappling with the many issues and facets of regional planning and dynamics. In this work, the author goes beyond merely seeing the city as a self-organized, emerging pattern of some collective interaction between many stylized urban "agents" – he makes the crucial step of attributing cognition to his agents and thus raises, for the first time, the question on how to deal with a complex system composed of many interacting complex agents in clearly defined settings. Accordingly, the author eventually addresses issues of practical relevance for urban planners and decision makers. The book unfolds its message in a largely nontechnical manner, so as to provide a broad interdisciplinary readership with insights, ideas, and other stimuli to encourage further research – with the twofold aim of further pushing ba...

  19. Grounding clinical and cognitive scientists in an interdisciplinary discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In most clinical approaches the body receives little attention. In cognitive science, in contrast, the embodied and grounded perspective, which emphasizes the importance of the body, has been intensively explored over the last decade. The present article aims to engage theorists of embodied cognition and clinical experts in a discussion encouraging them to consider the insights that may arise from each other’s approaches. In a review of the cognitive and clinical literature substantial overlap is revealed between cognitive and clinical domains. PMID:24062713

  20. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  1. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  2. The Training of Microcomputer Users: Insights from Two Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Walter D.; Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    1992-01-01

    Research in human computer interaction and instructional design can provide insights into effective methods for training microcomputer users. Suggestions include utilizing error recognition and recovery, development of mental models, simplification of documentation, and using cognitive approaches that allow transfer of knowledge to new situations.…

  3. An investigation into the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on patients with chronic depression: a small case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn GL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gemma Louise HornUniversity of Dundee, Scotland, UKBackground: National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and antidepressants to treat chronic depression. The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP is the only therapy model specifically designed for the treatment of chronic depression.Objectives: To determine the clinical response to the CBASP of patients in a specialist clinical service for affective disorder and to ascertain their views on the value of the CBASP for their condition.Methods: Qualitative data from interviews including a questionnaire and objective data from Becks Depression Inventory II symptom rating scales were used to monitor the progress of a small case series of five patients with chronic, treatment refractory depression as they received the CBASP over a 10-month period.Results: Common themes from patient interviews show very positive engagement and attitudes to the CBASP from the questionnaire. Rating scales from Becks Depression Inventory II pre- and posttreatment showed very little change for three patients with improvements between 2 and 7 points but deterioration in symptoms of 2 points for the fourth patient.Conclusion: The CBASP is a well-liked and positive therapy that helps patients manage their lives and deal with personal relationships, although objective data indicate little change in symptom severity.Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, chronic depression, CBASP

  4. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Decreasing Depression among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad nazariy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depending on its etiology, many methods have been established for the treatment of depression among adolescents; cognitive therapy is one of them. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of cognitive group therapy on decreasing depression among high school students. Methods: From the male students of a boarding high school in Tarom district of Gazvin province, a sample of 16 students were randomly selected and assigned into experimental and control groups. The measurement tool was Beck depression inventory. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. The mean scores of the two groups were compared through independent t-test. Results: The results of the study showed significant differences between the mean scores of the pre-tests and post-tests of the experimental and control groups, so that cognitive group therapy had reduced the depression mean score in the experimental group (-2.1 vs. -0.25. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that cognitive group therapy can reduce the depression among students. These findings can be used for therapeutic planning within the cognitive paradigm to reduce or prevent depression among student

  5. Presence or absence of cognitive complaints in Parkinson's disease: mood disorder or anosognosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Pollyanna Celso F; Aquino, Camila Catherine; Felício, André C; Doná, Flávia; Medeiros, Leonardo M I; Silva, Sônia M C A; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique F; Borges, Vanderci

    2016-06-01

    We intended to evaluate whether non-demented Parkinsons's disease (PD) patients, with or without subjective cognitive complaint, demonstrate differences between them and in comparison to controls concerning cognitive performance and mood. We evaluated 77 subjects between 30 and 70 years, divided as follows: PD without cognitive complaints (n = 31), PD with cognitive complaints (n = 21) and controls (n = 25). We applied the following tests: SCOPA-Cog, Trail Making Test-B, Phonemic Fluency, Clock Drawing Test, Boston Naming Test, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Beck Depression Inventory. PD without complaints presented lower total score on Scales for outcome of Parkinson's disease-cognition as compared to controls (p = 0.048). PD with complaints group showed higher scores on HADS (p = 0.011). PD without complaints group showed poorer cognitive performance compared to controls, but was similar to the PD with complaints group. Moreover, this group was different from the PD without complaints and control groups concerning mood.

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Cognitive Model of Depression: Cognitive Experiences Converge between Egypt and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Dobson, Keith S; Adel, Ashraf; Hanna, Niveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Models of depression that arise in the West need to be examined in other regions of the world. This study examined a set of foundational hypotheses generated by Beck’s cognitive model of depression among depressed individuals in Egypt and Canada. Method We recruited 29 depressed and 29 non-depressed Egyptians and compared their results with those of 35 depressed and 38 non-depressed Canadians. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview, scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, and scores on the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. Participants completed questionnaires designed to measure the frequency of negative and positive automatic thoughts (ATQ–N, BHS, and ATQ–P), and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS). Results Depressed individuals in both countries had significantly more negative thoughts about self and future, greater frequency of dysfunctional attitudes, and diminished positive self-thoughts in comparison to non-depressed individuals. Egyptians generally showed significantly more dysfunctional attitudes than their Canadian counterparts. Discussion The four hypotheses that were tested were supported among the depressed Egyptian sample, which is consistent with the cognitive model. Implications for the cognitive-behavioral model and treatment for this group of sufferers are discussed. PMID:27010706

  7. A Comparative Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Tamannaeifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT is a new method of psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD. The aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 19 depressive out-patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy. Twelve therapeutic sessions administered in consulting center of Tehran University twice a week. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS before and after the treatments. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results show no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of depression and rumination. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that ACT is an effective treatment, the effectiveness of which appears equivalent to that of CT.

  8. An evaluation of the cognitive and mood effects of an energy shot over a 6h period in volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2013-08-01

    Energy drinks are widely available mostly containing glucose, and several have been demonstrated to improve alertness and cognitive function; these effects generally being identified 30-60min after administration. The present study assessed whether an energy shot without carbohydrates would affect major aspects of cognitive function and also mood in volunteers over a 6h time period. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,crossover study compared the acute effects of the energy shot with a matching placebo in 94 healthy volunteers. Cognitive function was assessed with a widely used set of automated tests of attention and memory. Mood was assessed with the Bond-Lader, Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Index, Chalder Fatigue Scales (CFS), and the POMS. The volunteers were requested to limit their sleep to between 3 and 6h the night before each testing day. Compared to the placebo, the energy shot significantly improved 6 validated composite cognitive function measures from the CDR System as well as self-rated alertness; the benefits on 4 of the cognitive measures still remaining at 6h. The overall effect sizes of the performance improvements were in the small to medium range and thus notable in this field. In conclusion, an energy shot can significantly improve important aspects of cognitive function for up to 6h compared to placebo in partially sleep-deprived healthy volunteers.

  9. Cognitive approach to information retrieval and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive approach (viewpoint/standpoirit in the retrieval and communication of information, as well as in librarianship and information science has started gaining importance in the 70's. Today, it is present in literary and objective knowledge studies, as well as in studies of users,information brokers and systems of information retrieval.Cognitive approach exercises strong impact on several scientific disciplines which are grouped under the roof of cognitive science. The cognitive approach has caused split and the formation of a new paradigm, i.e. the cognitive paradigm, in many scientific disciplines.In the frames of the definition of Kuhn's concept of paradigm, it is evident that librarianship and information science are on the pre-paradigmatic level. I Iowever,some authors mention the existence of at least two paradigms in library and information science, i.e. physical and cognitive paradigm.The hištorical overview of cognitive oriented research works of Brookes, De Mey,Belkin, Ingwersen and others enables the insight into the development of library and information scientific thought up to the present.

  10. Genome-wide gene expression analysis suggests an important role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of endemic osteochondropathy Kashin-Beck disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear now. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles of articular cartilage derived respectively from KBD patients and normal controls. Total RNA were isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 1A 22 k whole genome microarray chip. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate our microarray data. We detected 57 up-regulated genes (ratios ≥2.0 and 24 down-regulated genes (ratios ≤0.5 in KBD cartilage. To further identify the key genes involved in the pathogenesis of KBD, Bayesian analysis of variance for microarrays (BAM software was applied and identified 12 potential key genes with an average ratio 6.64, involved in apoptosis, metabolism, cytokine & growth factor and cytoskeleton & cell movement. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software was used to identify differently expressed gene ontology categories and pathways. GSEA found that a set of apoptosis, hypoxia and mitochondrial function related gene ontology categories and pathways were significantly up-regulated in KBD compared to normal controls. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that chronic hypoxia-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis might play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Our efforts may help to understand the pathogenesis of KBD as well as other osteoarthrosis with similar articular cartilage lesions.

  11. Near-edge band structures and band gaps of Cu-based semiconductors predicted by the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Youwei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A. [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Sate Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2013-11-14

    Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV.

  12. Psychometric Properties and Correlates of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in Family Caregivers of Nigerian Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, Olutayo; Ajao, Olayinka; Alimi, Taiwo; Esan, Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the construct and correlates of hopelessness among family caregivers of Nigerian psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 264 family caregiver-patients’ dyads recruited from two university teaching hospitals psychiatric clinics in Southwestern Nigeria. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor 9-item model of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) among the family caregivers. Confirmatory factor analysis of the model revealed satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.97, comparative fit index = 0.96, Chi-square/degree of freedom (CMIN/DF) = 1.60, root mean square error of approximation = 0.048, expected cross-validation index = 0.307, and standardized root mean residual = 0.005). Reliability of the scale was modestly satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha 0.72). Construct validity of scale was supported by significant correlations with the family caregivers’ scores on the Zarit Burden Interview, mini international neuropsychiatric interview suicidality module, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The greatest variance in the family caregivers’ scores on the BHS was contributed by their scores on the psychological distress scale (GHQ-12). Conclusions: The BHS has adequate psychometric properties among Nigerian psychiatric patients’ family caregivers. There is the need to pay attention to the psychological well-being of the family caregivers of Nigerian psychiatric patients.

  13. Constraint on selenium bioavailability caused by its geochemical behavior in typical Kaschin-Beck disease areas in Aba, Sichuan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yaoyao; Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhao, Wanfu; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qian

    2014-09-15

    Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteoarthropathy, is distributed in the low-selenium (Se)-belt that stretches from northeast to southwest China. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between low bioavailabitity of Se and KBD. The present study examined the behavior of Se and other elements in areas with varying levels of KBD prevalence using pedological and geochemical methods. Rhizosphere soil samples obtained from the KBD-stricken Aba area were classified into Ustic Isohumisols (J2), Udic Luvisols (L4), Stagnic Gleysols (I2), and Cryic Cambisols (M1) and the integrated constraints on selenium bioavailability in these soils were analyzed. We found that Se concentration in soil profiles from a typical KBD area ranged between 0.08 μg · g(-1) and 0.215 μg · g(-1), indicating absent and marginal bioavailability, respectively. This suggested that low Se bioavailability may be a feature that soils inherit from their Se-deficient parent materials. Moreover, the soil types examined showed different geochemical behaviors such as eluviation for soluble Se(VI), migration of Se(IV) for its adsorption on clay and sesquioxide, and extreme redox conditions. In conclusion, a higher level of Se bioavailability in environment might be related to a lower risk of KBD, and our results offer a foundation for scientific theory on ecological geochemistry and improve our understanding of KBD.

  14. Improved half-metallic gap of zincblende half-metal superlattices with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, San-Dong

    2016-08-01

    Binary transition-metal pnictides and chalcogenides half-metallic ferromagnetic materials with zincblende structure, being compatible with current semiconductor technology, can be used to make high-performance spintronic devices. Here, we investigate electronic structures and magnetic properties of composite structure ((CrX)2 /(YX)2 (X=As, Sb; Se, Te and Y=Ga; Zn) superlattices) of zincblende half-metallic ferromagnetism and semiconductor by using Tran and Blaha's modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. Calculated results show that they all are half-metallic ferromagnets with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and mBJ, and the total magnetic moment per formula unit follows a Slater-Pauling-like "rule of 8". The key half-metallic gaps by using mBJ are enhanced with respect to GGA results, which is because mBJ makes the occupied minority-spin p-bands move toward lower energy, but toward higher energy for empty minority-spin Cr-d bands. When the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is included, the spin polarization deviates from 100%, and a most reduced polarization of 98.3% for (CrSb)2 /(GaSb)2, which indicates that SOC has small effects, of the order of 1%, in the considered four kinds of superlattice.

  15. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz, Iran in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a debilitating disease which is caused by social and environmental factors in additionto genetic factors. University students are among the young and vulnerable population to depression and theirpopulation is increasing with increase in universities and higher education institutions. Therefore, any disturbance instudent's mental and physical health is a serious threat for the next generation. In this study, we aimed to estimate theprevalence of depression and its related factors in students of School of Health and Nutrition at Tabriz University ofMedical Sciences, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey on 175 students selected by stratified random sampling, educating indifferent fields at School of Health and Nutrition in 2009. The data collection tool was the short form of the standardBeck Depression Inventory (BDI which is used for screening depression. The collected data were analyzed by softwareStata Statistical Software, Release 10.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. RESULTS: The results showed that 62.7% of the students had depression and from these 10.9% suffered from severedepression. Significantly higher depression rates were seen in students with worrisome about the future. Marriedstudents, those interested in their field of study, those performing prayers and regularly reading the Quran hadsignificantly lower rates of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high prevalence of depression, screening strategies should be implemented to identifydepressed students. Counseling services should be available and accessible to students at risk.

  16. First principles phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure calculations for cadmium telluride under induced pressure: density functional theory, LDA, GGA and modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabita, Kh; Maibam, Jameson; Indrajit Sharma, B.; Brojen Singh, R. K.; Thapa, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report first principles phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure for cadmium telluride (CdTe) under induced pressure in the light of density functional theory using the local density approximation (LDA), generalised gradient approximation (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. The structural phase transition of CdTe from a zinc blende (ZB) to a rock salt (RS) structure within the LDA calculation is 2.2 GPa while that within GGA is found to be at 4 GPa pressure with a volume collapse of 20.9%. The elastic constants and parameters (Zener anisotropy factor, Shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, Kleinmann parameter and Debye’s temperature) of CdTe at different pressures of both the phases have been calculated. The band diagram of the CdTe ZB structure shows a direct band gap of 1.46 eV as predicted by mBJ calculation which gives better results in close agreement with experimental results as compared to LDA and GGA. An increase in the band gap of the CdTe ZB phase is predicted under induced pressure while the metallic nature is retained in the CdTe RS phase.

  17. In vitro effects of sodium hyaluronate on the proliferation and the apoptosis in chondrocytes from patients with Kashin-Beck disease and osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongqiang Gao; Xiong Guo; Chen Duan; Weijuan Ma; Peng Xu; Ruiyu Liu; Qisheng Gu; Junchang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To identify the in vitro effects of sodium hyaluronate(HA) on the proliferation and the apoptosis of chondrocytes from patients with Kashin-Beck disease(KBD) and osteoarthritis(OA). Methods:Samples of articular cartilages from KBD and OA patients, as well as healthy volunteers(6 subjects in each of the 3 groups) were dissected, digested with collagenase and the cells cultured in monolayers. Chondrocytes from each sample were assigned to an untreated group and two HA-treated groups: H0(no HA), H100(HA, 0.1 g/L) and H500(HA, 0.5 g/L). The first passage chondrocytes were used to observe proliferation using the MTT assay, and apoptosis by flow cytometry through Annexin V/PI staining. Results:HA promoted proliferation of chondrocytes in all the three groups, and in KBD and OA groups, for cells cultured for 4 and 6 days, H500 significantly promoted the cell proliferation. The apoptotic rates of both KBD and OA group chondrocytes were in the order H500 < HA100 < H0. Conclusion:Sodium hyaluronate administration has a dose-dependendent vitro effect to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of chondrocytes from patients with KBD and OA.

  18. Application of Beck self-rating depression scale among patients with infertility%Beck抑郁自评问卷在不孕症患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽; 张婷婷; 王姿雅; 徐博文

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To research the reliability and validity of Beck self- rating depression scale among patients with infertility,provide a basis for choosing depression self - assessment tool for patients with infertility.Methods: Beck self - rating depression scale was used to investigate 176 patients with infertihty, factor analysis was used to research the reliability and validity of Beck self - rating depression scale.Results: Beck self- rating depression scale chose four factors including pessimism, depression, diminished capacity and low self- evaluation; the Cronbach α coefficients of four dimensions were 0.583, 0.554, 0.398 and 0.529, respectively; the total Cronbach α coefficient was 0.718; the correlation coefficient between dimensions and total score of the questionnaire was 0.43 ~ 0.809 ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: The reliability and validity of Beck self - rating depression scale are good, Beck self - rating depression scale can reflect the depression status of infertile cases effectively; the depression status of infertile cases is high, necessary preventive measures should be adopted to intervene the adverse psychological state early.%目的:研究Beck抑郁自评问卷在不孕症患者中使用的信度和效度,为不孕症患者抑郁状态自评工具的选择提供依据.方法:应用Beck抑郁白评问卷(BDI),对176例不孕症患者进行调查,采用因素分析方法研究BDI的信度和效度.结果:BDI提取了悲观情绪、抑郁情绪、能力减退、自我评价低4个因子;该问卷Cronbach α系数4个构面分别是0.583,0.554、0.398、0.529,总Cronbach α系数为0.718;各分维度与问卷总分的相关在0.43~0.809之间(P<0.01).结论:Beck抑郁自评问卷具有较好的信度和效度,可以有效反映不孕症患者的抑郁状态.不孕症患者抑郁状态较高,应采取必要的预防措施对其不良心理状态进行早期干预.

  19. Perspectives on modeling in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffrin, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    This commentary gives a personal perspective on modeling and modeling developments in cognitive science, starting in the 1950s, but focusing on the author's personal views of modeling since training in the late 1960s, and particularly focusing on advances since the official founding of the Cognitive Science Society. The range and variety of modeling approaches in use today are remarkable, and for many, bewildering. Yet to come to anything approaching adequate insights into the infinitely complex fields of mind, brain, and intelligent systems, an extremely wide array of modeling approaches is vital and necessary.

  20. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The researc...

  1. What Captures Gaze in Visual Design - Insights from Cognitive Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is vital for user behaviour and thus of utmost importance to design. Consequently, tracking and interpreting gaze data has been the target of increasing amounts of research in design science. This research is in part facilitated by new methods, such as eye-tracking, becoming more...

  2. Science rationality and inference: An insight from cognitive psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo O. López Alonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta exposición es analizar los procesos inferenciales conductores de la ciencia que llevan a ésta a constituirse en un sistema racional asertivo más allá de sus contrapartes irracionales. La racionalidad es un aspecto central y crítico para la ciencia, sin embargo, puede reflejar una necesidad psicológica y cognitiva de la organización del pensamiento destinada a establecer un balance entre categorías estables del entendimiento y el flujo inestable y dinámico de inferencias dirigidas a representar los diversos problemas científicos. Se supone la existencia de procesos dinámicos entre inferencias implícitas y explícitas, en la resolución racional e irracional de desequilibrios entre las representaciones científicas y las diferentes heurísticas de los científicos. Se analizan algunas categorías de razonamiento modal que se consideran como substratos inferenciales utilizados para justificar y moldear el conocimiento y también se ven las inferencias implícitas y explícitas como procesos sistémicos y de complejidad destinados a atender las necesidades racionales de orden, coherencia, cierre lógico, reversibilidad, etc.

  3. Designing: insights from weaving theories of cognition and design theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subrahmanian, E.; Reich, Y.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Meijer, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of ‘What is designing?’ from an unconventional perspective and aims to advance our understanding of what design really is. Designing has been studied from different perspectives but the underlying theoretical basis of studying the act has often been dispersed and not c

  4. Temporal decision-making: insights from cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C

    2009-01-01

    Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

  5. Measuring cognitive errors using the Cognitive Distortions Scale (CDS: psychometric properties in clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Özdel

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess thinking errors using case examples in two domains: interpersonal and personal achievement. Although its validity and reliability has been previously demonstrated in non-clinical samples, its psychometric properties and scoring has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Distortions Scale in two Turkish samples and to examine the usefulness of the categorical scoring system. A total of 325 individuals (Sample 1 and Sample 2 were enrolled in this study to assess those psychometric properties. Our Sample 1 consisted of 225 individuals working as interns at the Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital and Sample 2 consisted of 100 patients diagnosed with depression presenting to the outpatient unit of the same Hospital. Construct validity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire. Factor analyses supported a one-factor model in these clinical and non-clinical samples. Cronbach's α values were excellent in both the non-clinical and clinical samples (0.933 and 0.918 respectively. Cognitive Distortions Scale scores showed significant correlation with relevant clinical measures. Study Cognitive Distortions Scale scores were stable over a time span of two weeks. This study showed that the Cognitive Distortions Scale is a valid and reliable measure in clinical and non-clinical populations. In addition, it shows that the categorical exists/does not exist scoring system is relevant and could be used in clinical settings.

  6. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; GROUP Investigators, [No Value

    2014-01-01

    Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive subtypes in sibling

  7. [Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der Lübecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Zicht] / Dennis Hormuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus : Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der LÜbecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Sicht. In: Stadtgründung und Stadterweiterung. Beiträge von Archäologie und Stadtgeschichtsforschung (=Beiträge zur Geschichte der Städte Mitteleuropas XXII). Linz, 2011. S. 75-104

  8. Fundamentos, modelos conceituais, aplicações e pesquisa da terapia cognitiva Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Knapp

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Há um interesse crescente no modelo cognitivo de psicoterapia estimulado por grande número de resultados de pesquisa, demonstrando sua eficácia em uma série de transtornos psiquiátricos e distúrbios médicos. Este artigo de revisão objetiva dar um panorama dos fundamentos históricos e filosóficos das abordagens cognitivo-comportamentais contemporâneas, e apontar similaridades e diferenças entre elas. O modelo cognitivo, conforme delineado por Aaron Beck, e alguns dos procedimentos e técnicas cognitivas e comportamentais utilizados em transtornos emocionais serão apresentados. Ao final, resultados de pesquisas e metanálises em relação à eficácia das terapias cognitivas e cognitivo-comportamentais em vários transtornos psiquiátricos e distúrbios médicos serão relatados brevemente. MÉTODO: Por meio da revisão de artigos e livros-texto, principalmente dos trabalhos de Aaron Beck dos quais foi extraída a presente revisão, foram descritas as origens e os fundamentos das abordagens cognitivo-comportamentais no tratamento dos transtornos psiquiátricos e médicos. Através de buscas no Medline de ensaios clínicos randomizados e metanálises, foram apontadas as evidências de eficácia dessa modalidade de tratamento psicoterápico. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: As terapias cognitivo-comportamentais em geral, e a terapia cognitiva beckiana em especial, apresentam um fundamento teórico e um conjunto de técnicas cuja eficácia baseada em evidências foi demonstrada no tratamento de diversos quadros mentais e físicos.OBJECTIVE: There is growing interest in the cognitive model of psychotherapy stimulated by an extensive body of research findings demonstrating its effectiveness for a varied set of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. This review article aims to give an overview of the historical and philosophical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, pointing out

  9. Cognitive aesthetics of alchemical imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Angela M

    2013-02-01

    Jung's contribution to the understanding of the relevance of psychology to alchemy has become increasingly invalidated by the ahistorical nature of his approach, just as his tendency to ignore the importance of cognitive aesthetics for an improved comprehension of the functions of alchemical images has prevented Jungians from further extending Jung's insight of the importance of alchemy for psychology. This paper explores the history of the development of alchemical illustrations in Western Europe from the 14(th) to the 16(th) century, tracing the emergent processes over time. It is only when we take into consideration the historical dimension and the aesthetics of alchemical imagery that it becomes possible to demonstrate how the increasing use of certain aesthetic techniques such as the disjunction and recombination of separate metaphorical elements of previous illustrations, the use of compressive combinations and the use of framing devices worked to gradually increase the cognitive function and the symbolical power of the images. If alchemy is still relevant to psychotherapy it is exactly because it helps us to understand the importance of cognitive aesthetics in our approach to the images, metaphors and narratives of our patients.

  10. Genome-wide pathway-based association study implicates complement system in the development of Kashin-Beck disease in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong; Zhang, Yingang; Wang, Sen; Yang, Tielin; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiangding; Tan, Lijun; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy. The pathogenesis of KBD remains unknown. To identify relevant biological pathways for KBD, we conducted a genome-wide pathway-based association study (GWPAS) following by replication analysis, totally using 2743 Chinese Han adults. A modified gene set enrichment algorithm was used to detect association between KBD and 963 biological pathways. Cartilage gene expression analysis and serum complement measurement were performed to evaluate the functional relevance of identified pathway with KBD. We found that the Complement and Coagulation Cascades (CACC) pathway was significantly associated with KBD (P value=3.09×10(-5), false-discovery rate=0.042). Within the CACC pathway, the most significant association was observed at rs1656966 (P value=1.97×10(-4)) of KNG1 gene. Further replication study observed that rs1656966 (P value=0.037) was significantly associated with KBD in an independent validation sample of 1026 subjects. Gene expression analysis observed that CFD (ratio=3.39±2.68), A2M (ratio=3.67±5.63), C5 (ratio=2.65±2.52) and CD46 (ratio=2.29±137) genes of the CACC pathway were up-regulated in KBD articular cartilage compared to healthy articular cartilage. The serum level of complement C5 in KBD patients were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P value=0.038). Our study is the first to suggest that complement system-related CACC pathway contributed to the development of KBD.

  11. Rendimiento diagnóstico y estructura factorial del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tenía dos objetivos. Primero, analizar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la versión española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II en una muestra de pacientes con trastornos psicológicos y, segundo, examinar si las soluciones unifactoriales y bifactoriales del BDI-II encontradas previamente en muestras similares son replicables y, de ser así, analizar la contribución relativa del factor general y de los dos factores específicos a la varianza del BDI-II. El BDI-II, junto con el módulo de los trastornos del estado de ánimo de la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para los Trastornos del Eje I del DSM-IV (SCID-I VC y un listado de cotejo de síntomas depresivos completado por el clínico, fueron aplicados a una muestra española de 322 pacientes adultos ambulatorios con diversos trastornos psicológicos. Tomando como criterio el diagnóstico clínico basado en la SCID-I VC y el listado de cotejo de síntomas depresivos, el BDI-II demostró un rendimiento diagnóstico aceptable para discriminar entre pacientes con trastorno depresivo mayor y pacientes sin depresión. Los análisis factoriales indicaron que el BDI-II mide una dimensión general de depresión compuesta por dos factores relacionados (somático y cognitivo, pero estos factores apenas explicaban varianza adicional más allá de la puntuación global.

  12. Adaptation and Latent Structure of the Swahili Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low Literacy Population in the Context of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    Full Text Available We set out to adapt the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in Kenya and examine its factorial structure.In the first phase we carried out in-depth interviews involving 29 adult members of the community to elicit their understanding of depression and identify aspects of the BDI-II that required adaptation. In the second phase, a modified version of BDI-II was administered to 221 adults randomly selected from the community to allow for the evaluation of its psychometric properties. In the third phase of the study we evaluated the discriminative validity of BDI-11 by comparing a randomly chosen community sample (n = 29 with caregivers of adolescents affected by HIV (n = 77.A considerable overlap between the BDI symptoms and those generated in the interviews was observed. Relevant idioms and symptoms such as 'thinking too much' and 'Kuchoka moyo (having a tired heart' were identified. The administration of the BDI had to be modified to make it suitable for the low literacy levels of our participants. Fit indices for several models (one factorial, two-factor model and a three factor model were all within acceptable range. Evidence indicated that while multidimensional models could be fitted, the strong correlations between the factors implied that a single factor model may be the best suited solution (alpha [0.89], and a significant correlation with locally identified items [r = 0.51] confirmed the good psychometric properties of the adapted BDI-II. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that somatization was more prevalent. Lastly, caregivers of HIV affected adolescents had significantly higher scores compared to adults randomly selected from the community F(1, 121 = 23.31, p < .001 indicating the discriminative validity of the adapted BDI = II.With an adapted administration procedure, the BDI-II provides an adequate measure of depressive symptoms which can be used alongside other measures for proper diagnosis in a low literacy population.

  13. Reliability and validation of the joint dysfunction index as a new assessment instrument for therapeutic efficacy for Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang-Fang; Xia, Chuan-Tao; Fang, Hua; Wang, Di-Miao; Guo, Xiong

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the joint dysfunction index (JDI) for assessment of therapeutic efficacy for Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). In an initial survey, completed questionnaires were obtained from 276 of 281 patients (98.2 %). A follow-up survey was completed with 64 KBD patients among 276 cases. A third survey selected 60 KBD patients who underwent intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate in the knees ascertained from the findings of the second questionnaire. Reliability was assessed using test-retest, "split-half" reliability and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Factor analysis and item-to-domain correlation were used to analyze validity. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to measure the sensitivity of scale. Feasibility assessment included consideration of completion time, rate of recovery, and time of completion. Reliability analysis comprised a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.404-0.546 and a kappa test of 0.404-0.546. Internal consistency analysis comprised a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.689 and a split-half coefficient of 0.677. Principal component factor analysis for validity testing extracted a common factor with a cumulative variance contribution of 45.44 %. The JDI score from 276 KBD cases revealed no significant difference associated with age, gender, education, or the body mass index. Sensitivity analysis showed that there was no significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment values, with a CV of 96.55-172.06 %. In conclusion, the JDI can be used to evaluate the efficacy of agents used to treat KBD.

  14. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI: Their validity as screening measures for major depression in a group of Puerto Rican adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Rivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio cuasi-experimental evalúa la eficiencia del Inventario de Depresión en Niños (CDI y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI, en sus versiones en español, como medidas de cernimiento para el trastorno de depresión mayor (TDM en una muestra clínica de adolescentes puertorriqueños. La muestra incluía 130 adolescentes con edades entre 13 y 18 años. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el mejor punto de corte para identificar TDM fue una puntuación de 20 con un índice de sensibilidad de 0,69, especificidad de 0,43, un valor predictivo positivo de 0,64 y un valor predictivo negativo de 0,49. El mejor punto de corte para el BDI fue una puntuación de 12 con un índice de sensibilidad de 0,65, especificidad de 0,50, un valor predictivo positivo de 0,67 y un valor predictivo negativo de 0,47. Se puede concluir que el CDI y el BDI pueden ser útiles como instrumentos de cernimiento para identificar TDM en muestras clínicas de adolescentes puertorriqueños. Los resultados obtenidos difieren de los puntos de corte e índices de sensitividad y especificidad obtenidos por Kovacs para el CDI. Los resultados evidencian que la sensibilidad y especificidad para identificar un trastorno pueden diferir de una población a otra por lo cual no se puede asumir equivalencia psicométrica.

  15. The electronic structure and optical properties of XSi(X = Fe,Ru,Os): A first principles investigation within the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential plus LDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jia, E-mail: jiali@hebut.edu.cn; Zhang Zhidong; Ji Qing; Zhang Hui; Luo Hongzhi

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reproduce of band gap for XSi(X = Fe,Ru,Os) with gap of {approx}10{sup -1} eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using the mBJ + LDA first principles in comparison with GGA and LDA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical optical conductivity is in agreement with the measurement. - Abstract: The electronic structure, optical reflectivity spectra and optical conductivity of semiconducting transition-metal silicides FeSi, RuSi and OsSi have been investigated by using first principles calculation within the recent developed modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential plus local-density approximation (mBJ + LDA). The electronic structures produced by mBJ + LDA, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and LDA are rather similar although the band gap has been enlarged more or less by the mBJ + LDA compared to the GGA and LDA for the three compounds. The mBJ + LDA, GGA and LDA all have overestimated the band gap for FeSi and OsSi compared to the experiment. For RuSi, the theoretical gap values are basically close to the experimental values and the improvement of gap by mBJ + LDA is only 0.04 eV in comparison with the GGA. The mBJ + LDA and GGA also produce similar results with respect to their optical properties including the reflectivity spectra and optical conductivity except that for the reflectivity spectra of FeSi, the GGA result is little better consistent with the experimental measurement than the mBJ + LDA result. The optical conductivity calculated by mBJ + LDA and GGA both exhibits the absorption edge, in well correspondence to the optical measurement.

  16. Neuroimaging, cognition, light and circadian rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eGaggioni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In humans, sleep and wakefulness and the associated cognitive processes are regulated through interactions between sleep homeostasis and the circadian system. Chronic disruption of sleep and circadian rhythmicity is common in our society and there is a need for a better understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating sleep, wakefulness and associated cognitive processes. This review summarizes recent investigations which provide first neural correlates of the combined influence of sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity on cognitive brain activity. Markers of interindividual variations in sleep-wake regulation, such as chronotype and polymorphisms in sleep and clock genes, are associated with changes in cognitive brain responses in subcortical and cortical areas in response to manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle. This review also includes recent data showing that cognitive brain activity is regulated by light, which is a powerful modulator of cognition and alertness and also directly impacts sleep and circadian rhythmicity. The effect of light varied with age, psychiatric status, PERIOD3 genotype and changes in sleep homeostasis and circadian phase. These data provide new insights into the contribution of demographic characteristics, the sleep-wake cycle, circadian rhythmicity and light to brain functioning.

  17. White matter and cognition: making the connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M; Fields, R Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the cerebral cortex has long been regarded by neuroscientists as the major locus of cognitive function, the white matter of the brain is increasingly recognized as equally critical for cognition. White matter comprises half of the brain, has expanded more than gray matter in evolution, and forms an indispensable component of distributed neural networks that subserve neurobehavioral operations. White matter tracts mediate the essential connectivity by which human behavior is organized, working in concert with gray matter to enable the extraordinary repertoire of human cognitive capacities. In this review, we present evidence from behavioral neurology that white matter lesions regularly disturb cognition, consider the role of white matter in the physiology of distributed neural networks, develop the hypothesis that white matter dysfunction is relevant to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and the newly described entity chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and discuss emerging concepts regarding the prevention and treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with white matter disorders. Investigation of the role of white matter in cognition has yielded many valuable insights and promises to expand understanding of normal brain structure and function, improve the treatment of many neurobehavioral disorders, and disclose new opportunities for research on many challenging problems facing medicine and society.

  18. Kriisi fataalne oht / Ulrich Beck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Sotsioloogi arvates peitub praeguses majanduskriisis võimalus tuua Euroopa Liit uutele alustele, võttes aluseks printsiibi, et poliitika on rahvuslikul tasemel seda edukam, mida euroopalikum, kosmopoliitlikum ta on

  19. En kommentar til Becks model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipps, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg

    2014-01-01

    Flipped classroom – en trend vi må forholde os til Online læringsressourcer har de sidste par år fået mange til at indse at teknologien har noget radikalt andet at byde på, og dette har skabt en populær didaktik kaldet flipped classroom som vi både ser vinde indpas i folkeskolen og på...... Professionshøjskolen Metropol hvor vi er ansat. Kommentaren her retter sig mod en tidligere bragt artikel i MONA, “Det virtuelle læringsrums topologi” af Claus Jessen. Vi argumenterer for at den didaktiske model flipped classrooms brug af video, frem for tavleundervisning, kan frigøre undervisningstid til at arbejde...

  20. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  1. Luto pela morte de um filho: utilização de um protocolo de terapia cognitivo-comportamental Bereavement for a child: a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de tratamento de luto, decorrente da perda de um filho, com protocolo cognitivista comportamental. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 28 anos, casada, que perdeu seu filho mais velho em um acidente 6 semanas antes do primeiro atendimento. A terapia, composta por 12 sessões, envolveu o trabalho das alterações emocionais e cognitivas, a aprendizagem de novas habilidades, o desenvolvimento de estratégias para lidar com as principais queixas somáticas e o treinamento para manejo dos problemas comportamentais. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando-se os seguintes instrumentos: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, os testes de atenção concentrada (AC e sustentada (AS e o Questionário de Saúde Geral de Goldberg (QSG. COMENTÁRIOS: paciente apresentou redução do quadro de depressão, ansiedade e desesperança. Todos os fatores do QSG apresentaram decréscimo, e houve aumento nas medidas de atenção concentrada e sustentada. O tratamento se mostrou efetivo em relação aos fatores apresentados.OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a patient treated for grief and bereavement for a child using a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: Female patient, 28 years old, married, who had lost her older son in an accident 6 weeks prior to the first treatment session. The protocol comprised 12 sessions and involved treatment of cognitive and emotional symptoms, the learning of new abilities, development of strategies to deal with the main somatic complaints and training aimed at the handling of behavioral problems. Results were evaluated using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, concentrated and sustained attention tests, and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GGHQ. COMMENTS: The patient presented an improvement of depression, anxiety and hopelessness

  2. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  3. Cognition and belief in paranormal phenomena: gestalt/feature-intensive processing theory and tendencies toward ADHD, depression, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Matthews, Justin; Asten, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Belief in paranormal phenomena and cryptids--unknown animals such as Bigfoot--may predispose individuals to interpret real-world objects and events in the same way that eyewitness identification can be biased by unrelated information (P. James and N. Thorpe, 1999). Psychological tendencies toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dissociation, and depression, even at subclinical levels, may be associated systematically with particular paranormal or cryptozoological beliefs. The authors evaluated these psychological tendencies using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (C. K. Conners, D. Erhardt, and E. Sparrow, 1999), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (L. Coleman & J. Clark, 1999), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, 1996). They performed regression analyses against beliefs in ghosts, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and cryptids. ADHD, dissociation, and depression were associated with enhanced tendencies toward paranormal and cryptozoological beliefs, although participants who believed in each of the phenomena differed from one another in predictable and psychologically distinguishable ways. Cognitively biasing influences of preexisting psychological tendencies may predispose individuals to specific perceptual and cognitive errors during confrontation of real-world phenomena.

  4. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  5. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  6. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  7. Insight and gender in schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Jesus; Nieto, Lourdes; Ochoa, Susana; Pousa, Esther; Usall, Judith; Baños, Iris; González, Beatriz; Ruiz, Isabel; Ruiz, Ada I

    2016-09-30

    This study aimed to evaluate gender differences in the deficit of insight in psychosis and determine influences of clinical, functional, and sociodemographic variables. A multicenter sample of 401 adult patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who agreed to participate was evaluated in four centers of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia). Psychopathological assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Lindenmayers' Factors. Insight and its dimensions were assessed by means of the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder. Significant differences were apparent neither between men and women in the three dimensions of insight, nor in the total awareness, nor in the total attribution subscales. However, statistically significant differences were found in awareness and attribution of particular symptoms. Women showed a worse awareness of thought disorder and alogia and a higher misattribution of apathy. Higher cognitive and positive symptoms, early stage of the illness, and having been married explained deficits of insight dimensions in women. In men, other variables such as lower functioning, higher age, other psychosis diagnosis, and, to a lower extent, higher scores in cognitive, positive, and excitative symptoms, explained deficits of insight dimensions. These data could help to design gender-specific preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  8. Study of wurtzite and zincblende GaN/InN based solar cells alloys: First-principles investigation within the improved modified Becke-Johnson potential

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-09-01

    Wurtzite GaInN alloys with flexible energy gaps are pronounced for their potential applications in optoelectronics and solar cell technology. Recently the unwanted built-in fields caused by spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in wurtzite (WZ) GaInN, has turned the focus towards zinc-blende (ZB) GaInN alloys. To comprehend merits and demerits of GaInN alloys in WZ and ZB structures, we performed a comparative study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ga1-xInxN alloys with different In concentration using first-principles methodology with density function theory with generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. Investigations pertaining to total energy of GaInN for the both phases, demonstrate a marginal difference, reflecting nearly equivalent stability of the ZB-GaInN to WZ-GaInN. The larger ionic radii of indium (In), result in larger values of lattice parameters of Ga1-xInxN with higher In concentration. For In deficient Ga1-xInxN, at first, the formation enthalpies increase rapidly as the In content approaches to 45% in WZ and 47% in ZB, and then decreases with the further increase in In concentration. ZB-Ga1-xInxN alloys exhibit comparatively narrower energy gaps than WZ, and get smaller with increase in In contents. The smaller values of effective masses of free carriers, in WZ phase, than ZB phase, reflect higher carrier mobility and electrical conductivity of WZ-Ga1-xInxN. Moreover wide energy gap of WZ-Ga1-xInxN results in large values of the absorption coefficients comparatively and smaller static refractive indices compared to ZB-Ga1-xInxN. Comparable electronic and optical characteristics of the ZB-Ga1-xInxN to WZ-Ga1-xInxN endorses it a material of choice for optoelectronics and solar cell applications besides the WZ-Ga1-xInxN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of depression and validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Children's Depression Inventory-Short amongst HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a remarkable dearth of evidence on mental illness in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, particularly in the African setting. Furthermore, there are few studies in sub-Saharan Africa validating the psychometric properties of diagnostic and screening tools for depression amongst adolescents. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of depression amongst a sample of HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi. The secondary aim was to develop culturally adapted Chichewa versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and Children's Depression Inventory-II-Short (CDI-II-S and conduct a psychometric evaluation of these measures by evaluating their performance against a structured depression assessment using the Children's Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We enrolled 562 adolescents, 12–18 years of age from two large public HIV clinics in central and southern Malawi. Participants completed two self-reports, the BDI-II and CDI-II-S, followed by administration of the CDRS-R by trained clinicians. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for various BDI-II and CDI-II-S cut-off scores were calculated with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The area under the curve (AUC was also calculated. Internal consistency was measured by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and correlation between self-reports and CDRS-R by Spearman's correlation. Results: Prevalence of depression as measured by the CDRS-R was 18.9%. Suicidal ideation was expressed by 7.1% (40 using the BDI-II. The AUC for the BDI-II was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78–0.89 and for the CDI-II-S was 0.75 (95% CI 0.70–0.80. A score of ≥13 in BDI-II achieved sensitivity of >80%, and a score of ≥17 had a specificity of >80%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 (BDI-II and 0.66 (CDI-II-S. The correlation between the BDI-II and CDRS-R was 0.42 (p<0.001 and between the CDI

  10. The relevance of food composition data for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet: pilot study in the context of Kashin-Beck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermience, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease (KBD is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy. This disease principally occurs in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People's Republic of China. The etiology of the disease remains obscure although environmental factors are assumed to be involved. Diet, in particular, differentiates the rural community, affected by KBD, from the other communities (nomads and city-dwellers, who remain unaffected. In anticipation of a nutrition survey, this study aimed to measure the mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Al, Sr, Mo, Cd, As, Pb, Hg, Cr, and Co of eight Tibetan staple foods and to compare the results against two food composition tables (FCTs. Foods were sampled in twenty households selected from both an endemic and a non-endemic area of rural Tibet. Ten minerals involved in bone metabolism were measured using atomic and molecular spectrometric methods. Results revealed that a very limited number of food/constituent pairs showed a variation in mineral composition during a single year of testing for a given region. In addition, results showed significant differences in mineral content between the endemic and the non-endemic area, especially for wheat flour. Following our analysis of the mineral content of the Tibetan food samples, results were statistically compared with similar foods listed in two food composition tables: the USDA National Nutrient Database (USDA Food Search for Windows, Version 1.0, database version SR23, and the China Food Composition Table (book 1, 2nd edition. More than 50 to 60% of p-values < 0.05 were highlighted, suggesting the inappropriateness of using FCTs as a reference for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet, and emphasizing the need for analysis of traditional foods. Differences were found to be more or less marked depending on the element considered, and calcium content seemed to show the greatest difference. Although it is obviously too early for definite

  11. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... issue and provides guidance to scholars and managers alike....

  12. Rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial, posttreatment outcomes, and six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Szentagotai, Aurora; Lupu, Viorel; Cosman, Doina

    2008-06-01

    A randomized clinical trial was undertaken to investigate the relative efficacy of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of 170 outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the following: 14 weeks of REBT, 14 weeks of CT, or 14 weeks of pharmacotherapy (fluoxetine). The outcome measures used were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. No differences among treatment conditions at posttest were observed. A larger effect of REBT (significant) and CT (nonsignificant) over pharmacotherapy at 6 months follow-up was noted on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression only.

  13. Association between serum bicarbonate and pH with depression, cognition and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common feature in chronic renal failure patients, worsening progressively as renal function declines. There are conflicting data in hemodialysis (HD) patients with regard to acidosis, alkalosis and mortality. In HD patients, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep disorders and impaired quality of life are very common. Besides, these conditions are related with increased morbidity and mortality. However, no previous study investigated the relationship between pH, venous bicarbonate and anion gap with depression, sleep problems and cognitive function in HD patients. In this study we investigated these relationships. In total, 65 HD patients were included. The demographic parameters and laboratory parameters including bicarbonate, pH and anion gap was measured for all patients. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality and cognitive function, were measured by Beck depression inventory, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and by Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. We found that, sleep quality but not cognitive function or depression was independently related with venous pH and bicarbonate. Anion gap has no independent relationship with sleep quality, cognitive function and depression. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels were independently related with sleep quality in HD patients. However, there was no association between metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels with cognitive function and depression.

  14. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  15. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  16. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constra

  17. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL INSIGHT INTO ARTISTIC DESCRIPTION OF MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valeryevna Sivakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to such an interesting and diverse in science phenomenon as psychological insight. In two directions of philology – Literature Studies and Linguistics – psychological insight is understood differently. That is why the authors take into account both definitions in order to create a complete picture.Based on consideration of the notion of psychological insight from the point of view of Literature Studies and Linguistics, the authors highlight its common philological criteria (soul and feelings of the character, description of the inner world of the character through the details, fragments of the text showing events, thoughts and motivates of the character; cognitive and pragma-linguistic features (supposition, influence upon the reader; methods and ways of its representation in the works of art (the author’s direct indication of the feelings in the character’s soul, inner details: inner monologue and author’s psychological narration, inner speech, memory images and imagination, description of dreams. The article also analyzes the examples of psychological impact of music on consciousness and subconsciousness of the characters of the texts

  19. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin

    2015-01-01

    trial 156 patients will be included (n = 78 in blended cognitive behavioural therapy, n = 78 in face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy) based on a power of 0.80, calculated by using a formula to estimate the power of a cost-effectiveness analysis: [Formula: see text]. Measurements will take place...... at baseline, midway treatment (7 weeks), immediately after treatment (15 weeks) and 12-month follow-up. At baseline a diagnostic interview will be administered. Primary clinical outcomes are changes in anxiety symptom severity as measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. An incremental cost......-effectiveness ratio will be calculated to obtain the costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measured by the EQ-5D (5-level version). Health-economic outcomes will be explored from a societal and health care perspective. DISCUSSION: This trial will be one of the first to provide information on the cost...

  20. Cognitive Interviewing: A Qualitative Tool for Improving Questionnaires in Sport Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…

  1. Cognitive apprenticeship in health sciences education: a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kayley; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Khanova, Julia; Roth, Mary T

    2016-08-20

    Cognitive apprenticeship theory emphasizes the process of making expert thinking "visible" to students and fostering the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes required for expertise. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the use of cognitive apprenticeship theory with the primary aim of understanding how and to what extent the theory has been applied to the design, implementation, and analysis of education in the health sciences. The initial search yielded 149 articles, with 45 excluded because they contained the term "cognitive apprenticeship" only in reference list. The remaining 104 articles were categorized using a theory talk coding scheme. An in depth qualitative synthesis and review was conducted for the 26 articles falling into the major theory talk category. Application of cognitive apprenticeship theory tended to focus on the methods dimension (e.g., coaching, mentoring, scaffolding), with some consideration for the content and sociology dimensions. Cognitive apprenticeship was applied in various disciplines (e.g., nursing, medicine, veterinary) and educational settings (e.g., clinical, simulations, online). Health sciences education researchers often used cognitive apprenticeship to inform instructional design and instrument development. Major recommendations from the literature included consideration for contextual influences, providing faculty development, and expanding application of the theory to improve instructional design and student outcomes. This body of research provides critical insight into cognitive apprenticeship theory and extends our understanding of how to develop expert thinking in health sciences students. New research directions should apply the theory into additional aspects of health sciences educational research, such as classroom learning and interprofessional education.

  2. Voces silentes y contrapuntos heterotópicos sobre el fenómeno inmigratorio: recuperaciones de los Beck Bernard y de Laura Pariani desde la academia argentina = Silent voices and heterotopic counterpoints about the immigration phenomenon: the Beck Bernard’s and Laura Pariani’s recovery from the Argentine academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crolla, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las nuevas identidades migrantes, la cuestión de la circulación en una época de la historia que parece marcada por el flujo, la relativización de las coordenadas espacio-temporales, el reciclaje de modelos y la construcción/deconstrucción de culturas en movimiento o de la movilidad, dan necesariamente como resultado la emergencia de fenómenos que se constituyen en y por la interculturalidad y las transmigraciones. Interrogarse sobre el habla (discurso del sujeto “gringo” que se constituyó en la pampa santafesina mediante textos y discursos, es lo que desde hace un tiempo proponemos estudiar en todas sus facetas. Y al mismo tempo las nuevas migraciones hacia y desde Italia desde nuestra “zona” cultural. El trabajo pretende “escuchar” las voces silenciadas sobre el fenómeno inmigratorio a partir de la recuperación de textos que operan miradas destacadas: los Beck Bernard en relación a la Pampa Gringa y los textos de la escritora italiana Laura Pariani sobre la inmigración italiana desde y hacia latinoamérica

  3. Relationship between short humerus disease and Kashin Beck disease in Kaschin-Beck disease areas in Tibet%西藏大骨节病病区肱骨短小症与大骨节病关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群伟; 龚弘强

    2016-01-01

    Three new points of view were reported in this study:1.Found out the distribution of KaschinBeck disease (KBD) in Tibet,the complexity of bone disease composition,and the types of osteopathy coexisted which need to be identified;2.The clinical symptoms of KBD in Tibet were significantly different from those in other areas of our country;3.The new clinical subtypes of KBD were found in Tibet,which had humeral shortness and short stature,but with normal hands and feet.This discovery made us understand KBD more profoundly and comprehensively,and promoted the research and prevention work of KBD.%作者报告三个全新的观点:1.西藏大骨节病病区骨病构成十分复杂,有多种骨病并存,应注意鉴别;2.西藏大骨节病的临床表现与内地有本质区别;3.在西藏存在大骨节病新的临床亚型,即以“肱骨短小、身材矮小和手足正常”为主要临床表现的特殊类型.本发现使得对大骨节病的认识更为深刻而全面,对大骨节病的研究和防治具有重要意义.

  4. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  5. Are self-reports valid for schizophrenia patients with poor insight? Relationship of unawareness of illness to psychological self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris; Fiszdon, Joanna; Richardson, Randall; Lysaker, Paul; Bryson, Gary

    2007-05-30

    This investigation aimed to determine whether impaired insight influences the validity of self-report test scores in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 274 outpatients enrolled in work rehabilitation completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Self-report scores were compared to clinician's ratings on comparable personality and symptom dimensions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The influence of insight was determined using the Scale for Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). In the first analysis, clinician SUMD ratings of patient insight were associated with self-report accuracy. In a second analysis, patients were categorized into good and poor insight groups based on SUMD ratings and compared on self-report and clinician report variables. Results suggest that poor insight patients accurately report less Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and more Psychoticism than good insight patients, but individuals with poor insight wish to present themselves as more extraverted than they actually are, and they are likely to be more certain of their perceptions than they should be. It appears that self-report measures may be valid for most personality and symptom domains.

  6. Impact of Depression, Fatigue, and Global Measure of Cortical Volume on Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Nunnari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the influence of demographic and clinical variables, such as depression, fatigue, and quantitative MRI marker on cognitive performances in a sample of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods. 60 MS patients (52 relapsing remitting and 8 primary progressive underwent neuropsychological assessments using Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N, the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II, and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. We performed magnetic resonance imaging to all subjects using a 3 T scanner and obtained tissue-specific volumes (normalized brain volume and cortical brain volume. We used Student’s t-test to compare depressed and nondepressed MS patients. Finally, we performed a multivariate regression analysis in order to assess possible predictors of patients’ cognitive outcome among demographic and clinical variables. Results. 27.12% of the sample (16/59 was cognitively impaired, especially in tasks requiring attention and information processing speed. From between group comparison, we find that depressed patients had worse performances on BRB-N score, greater disability and disease duration, and brain volume decrease. According to multiple regression analysis, the BDI-II score was a significant predictor for most of the neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the presence of depressive symptoms is an important determinant of cognitive performance in MS patients.

  7. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  8. Evaluation of Cognitive Schemas Based on the Presence of Anxiety Disorder among Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri ASLAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between psychological factors and cardiac diseases has been concerned for a long but our knowledge about the cognitive profiles which could be important etiological factor in cardiac disease and comorbid psychiatric disorders is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive profiles of coronary artery disease patients with or without comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: A total of 35 coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorder and 20 coronary artery disease patients without comorbid anxiety disorders were enrolled into the study. Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 were applied to each participant. Results: Disconnection, rejection, impaired autonomy self-manifestation, extreme vigilance, unrelenting standards, other-directedness, and impaired limits schema domain scores were significantly higher in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorder comorbidity compared to coronary artery disease patients without anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Our study has revealed significant differences in cognitive profiles of coronary artery disease patients with comorbidity of anxiety disorders. These findings show the importance of cognitive profiles which were observed in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorders. Schema-focused approach might be useful in the treatment of such patients. Further studies with schema-focused therapy approaches are needed to illustrate the issue.

  9. Quality of life, fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Sarnes, Antonia A; Maul, Monika; Hottenrott, Tilman; Baumgartner, Annette; Rauer, Sebastian; Stich, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The prognosis and impact of residual symptoms on quality of life in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is subject to debate. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life, fatigue, depression, cognitive impairment and verbal learning in patients with definite LNB and healthy controls in a case-control study. We retrospectively identified all patients diagnosed with definite LNB between 2003 and 2014 in our tertiary care center. Healthy controls were recruited from the same area. Patients and healthy controls were assessed for quality of life [Short Form (36) with subscores for physical and mental components (PCS, MCS)], fatigue (fatigue severity scale), depression (Beck depression inventory), verbal memory and learning and cognitive impairment (mini-mental state examination). 53 patients with definite LNB could be identified, of which 30 partook in the follow-up assessment. Estimates for quality of life, fatigue, depression, verbal memory and cognitive impairment did not differ statistically significantly between 30 patients with LNB and 35 healthy controls. Patients with residual symptoms had lower scores for quality of life (PCS) compared to patients without residual symptoms. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a considerable proportion of patients with antibiotically treated LNB develop a 'post Lyme syndrome' consisting of debilitating fatigue or cognitive impairment or have severe limitations of quality of life. However, some patients experience residual symptoms of LNB.

  10. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Vares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.

  11. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Dual Tasking for the Differentiation between Depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Florian G.; Hobert, Markus A.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Hahn, Tim; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment from depression in elderly adults is a clinically relevant issue which is not sufficiently solved. Gait and dual task (DT) parameters may have the potential to complement current diagnostic work-up, as both dementia and depression are associated with changes of gait and DT parameters. Methods: Seven hundred and four participants of the TREND study (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) aged 50–80 years were assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Plus test battery for testing cognition and Beck's Depression Inventory for evaluation of depression. Based on these results, four groups were defined: acute depressed (N = 53), cognitively mildly impaired (N = 97), acute depressed, and cognitively mildly impaired (N = 15), and controls (N = 536). Participants underwent a 20 m walk and checking boxes task under single (ST) and DT conditions. ST and DT performance and dual task costs (DTC) were calculated. Due to the typical age of increasing incidence of depressive and also cognitive symptoms, the 7th decade was calculated separately. Results: ST speeds of gait and checking boxes, DT walking speed, and walking DTC were significantly different between groups. Healthy controls were the fastest in all paradigms and cognitively mildly impaired had higher DTC than depressed individuals. Additionally, we constructed a multivariate predictive model differentiating the groups on a single-subject level. Conclusion: DT parameters are simply and comfortably measureable, and DTC can easily be determined. The combination of these parameters allows a differentiation of depressed and cognitively mildly impaired elderly adults.

  13. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kean J; Babeva, Kalina N; Feng, Michelle C; Hummer, Justin F; Davison, Gerald C

    2014-01-01

    Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses), yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor). Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., "uh" or "umm") and filler words (e.g., "like" or "you know"). Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  14. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  15. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  16. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  17. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction Greg Trafton, Ph.D Naval Research Laboratory Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT...that cognition is for action (embodied cognition) • We are building embodied models for cognitive robotics and human-robot interaction • Online

  18. Cognition as coordinated non-cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W; Breazeal, Cynthia; Smith, Linda B

    2007-06-01

    We propose that cognition is more than a collection of independent processes operating in a modular cognitive system. Instead, we propose that cognition emerges from dependencies between all of the basic systems in the brain, including goal management, perception, action, memory, reward, affect, and learning. Furthermore, human cognition reflects its social evolution and context, as well as contributions from a developmental process. After presenting these themes, we illustrate their application to the process of anticipation. Specifically, we propose that anticipations occur extensively across domains (i.e., goal management, perception, action, reward, affect, and learning) in coordinated manners. We also propose that anticipation is central to situated action and to social interaction, and that many of its key features reflect the process of development.

  19. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  20. Why people use and don't use technologies: Introduction to the special issue on assistive technologies for cognition/cognitive support technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marcia J; Federici, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This special issue focuses on assistive technologies for cognition/cognitive support technologies as well as the ways in which individuals are assessed and trained in their use. We provide eleven diverse articles that give information on products, why they are used and not used, and best professional practices in service provision. Our goal is to highlight a broad topic that has received limited research investigation and offer an insight into how different countries and programs are promoting access to and use of assistive technologies for cognition/cognitive support technologies.

  1. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  2. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  3. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  4. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a community sample Validação da versão brasileira em português do Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II numa amostra da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Gomes-Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI is used worldwide for detecting depressive symptoms. This questionnaire has been revised (1996 to match the DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode. We assessed the reliability and the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BDI-II for non-clinical adults. METHODS: The questionnaire was applied to 60 college students on two occasions. Afterwards, 182 community-dwelling adults completed the BDI-II, the Self-Report Questionnaire, and the K10 Scale. Trained psychiatrists performed face-to-face interviews with the respondents using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Descriptive analysis, signal detection analysis (Receiver Operating Characteristics, correlation analysis, and discriminant function analysis were performed to investigate the psychometric properties of the BDI-II. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of the BDI-II was 0.89, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was 0.93. Taking the SCID as the gold standard, the cut-off point of 10/11 was the best threshold for detecting depression, yielding a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 87%. The concurrent validity (a correlation of 0.63-0.93 with scales applied simultaneously and the predictive ability of the severity level (over 65% correct classification were acceptable. CONCLUSION: The BDI-II is reliable and valid for measuring depressive symptomatology among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian non-clinical populations.OBJETIVOS: O Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB é utilizado mundialmente para detectar sintomas depressivos. Este questionário foi revisado (1996 para se adequar aos critérios do DSM-IV para episódio depressivo maior. Avaliamos a confiabilidade e validade da versão I em português-brasileiro do IDB-I em uma amostra não clínica de adultos. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi aplicado em duas

  5. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  6. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  7. Changes in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Panic Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Kyemyoung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed.

  8. Teaching insights from adult learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Cassandra Volpe

    2007-01-01

    How do undergraduate and graduate students learn? How can we use what we know about the learning process to teach more effectively? While the research has yet to connect fundamental processes in the brain to what we do as teachers with certainty, the past half-century of work on adult learning has produced several useful theories that can inform instructional choices. This article provides an overview of three learning models that yield insights into teaching practice--novice/expert behaviors, cognitive development, and learning styles--along with ways in which instructors can draw on these models in course planning and classroom teaching. Application of the theories toward refinement, reduction, and replacement of live animals in the veterinary medical curriculum is also discussed.

  9. An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential%An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masood Yousaf; M.A. Saeed; R. Ahmed; M.M. Alsardia; Ahmad Radzi Mat Isa; A. Shaari

    2012-01-01

    We report the electronic band structure and optical parameters of X-Phosphides (X=B, AI, Ga, In) by first-principles technique based on a new approximation known as modified Becke-Johnson (roB J). This potential is considered more accurate in elaborating excited states properties of insulators and semiconductors as compared to LDA and GGA. The present calculated band gaps values of BP, AlP, GaP, and InP are 1.867 eV, 2.268 eV, 2.090 eV, and 1.377 eV respectively, which are in close agreement to the experimental results. The band gap values trend in this study is as: E9 (mBJ-GGA/LDA) 〉 E9 (GGA) 〉 Eg (LDA). Optical parametric quantities (dielectric constant, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity) which based on the band structure are aiso presented and discussed. BP, AlP, GaP, and InP have strong absorption in between the energy range 4-9 eV, 4-7 ev, 3-7 eV, and 2-7 eV respectively. Static dielectric constant, static refractive index and coefficient of reflectivity at zero frequency, within mBJ-GGA, are also calculated. BP, AIP, GaP, and InP show significant optical conductivity in the range 5.2-10 eV, 4.3-8 eV, 3.5- 7.2 eV, and 3.2-8 eV respectively. The present study endorses that the said compounds can be used in opto-electronic applications, for different energy ranges.

  10. Situated Entrepreneurial Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dew, Nicholas; Grichnik, Dietmar; Mayer-Haug, Katrin; Read, Stuart; Brinckmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12051 This paper reviews and integrates research from both within and outside the entrepreneurship field under the label of ‘situated cognition’. Situated cognition is the notion that cognitive activity inherently involves perception and action in the context of a human body situated in a real-world environment. The review concentrates on three areas of the situated cognition literature that hav...

  11. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  12. Embodied Cognition of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T Vallet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging (these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications.

  13. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  14. COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A. H. M. Cleutjens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD has been considered a disease of the lungs, often caused by smoking. Nowadays, COPD is regarded as a systemic disease. Both physical effects and effects on brains, including impaired psychological and cognitive functioning, have been demonstrated. Patients with COPD may have cognitive impairment, either globally or in single cognitive domains, such as information processing, attention and concentration, memory, executive functioning, and self-control. Possible causes are hypoxemia, hypercapnia, exacerbations, and decreased physical activity. Cognitive impairment in these patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities, such as gray-matter pathologic changes and the loss of white matter integrity which can be induced by smoking. Cognitive impairment can have a negative impact on health and daily life and may be associated with widespread consequences for disease management programs. It is important to assess cognitive functioning in patients with COPD in order to optimize patient-oriented treatment and to reduce personal discomfort, hospital admissions, and mortality. This paper will summarize the current knowledge about cognitive impairment as extrapulmonary feature of COPD. Hereby, the impact of smoking on cognitive functioning and the impact of cognitive impairment on smoking behaviour will be examined.

  15. Is social cognition embodied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alvin; de Vignemont, Frederique

    2009-04-01

    Theories of embodied cognition abound in the literature, but it is often unclear how to understand them. We offer several interpretations of embodiment, the most interesting being the thesis that mental representations in bodily formats (B-formats) have an important role in cognition. Potential B-formats include motoric, somatosensory, affective and interoceptive formats. The literature on mirroring and related phenomena provides support for a limited-scope version of embodied social cognition under the B-format interpretation. It is questionable, however, whether such a thesis can be extended. We show the limits of embodiment in social cognition.

  16. Extraction of Phenylethanoid Glucosides in Cistanches salsa Beck and It Application in Cigarette%肉苁蓉中苯乙醇糖苷提取及在卷烟中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋蓉; 吴迪; 祖萌萌; 纪旭东; 张峻松

    2012-01-01

    考察了乙醇浓度、提取时间、提取温度对肉苁蓉提取量的影响。实验结果表明:肉苁蓉提取量随着乙醇浓度的升高先是逐渐升高然后又呈现下降的趋势;当乙醇浓度和提取温度一定时,肉苁蓉提取得率随提取时间的延长而增加,当固定肉苁蓉的提取时间和提取用乙醇的浓度,肉苁蓉提取随着提取温度的增加,通过实验表明肉苁蓉提取条件为:乙醇浓度为70%,提取时间为4h,提取温度为70℃。以V(乙酸乙酯):V(甲醇)=15:1的混合溶剂为洗脱剂,用柱层析法分离得到苯乙醇糖苷。通过卷烟加香试验发现,肉苁蓉苯乙醇糖苷能有效地掩盖卷烟杂气,使烟气柔和、余味舒适、回甜感好、香气细腻,对改进烟气质量作用明显。%The affluence of alcohol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature on the yield of the Cistanches salsa Beck were investigated. The yield of the Cistanches salsa Beck increased with the concentration of alcohol increasing at first, and then decreased as the alcohol concentration keep on increasing. The yield also increased with the extraction time when the alcohol concentration and extraction h temperature were fixed. As the alcohol concentration and extraction time were 4h. The optimum technology of extracting Cistanches salsa Beck was as follows: The extraction time is 4h, the extraction temperature is 70℃ and the alcohol concentration is 70%. The phenylethanoid glucosides in Cistanches salsa Beck were separated with column chromatography, and use V ( ethyl acetate ) :V ( methyl alcohol ) =15:1 for eluent. The phenylethanoid glucosides of Cistanches salsa Beck was applied in cigarettes as tobacco flavorant. The results indicated that it could efficiently reduce offensive odor, make tobacco smoke smooth and fine, and improve smoking quality of the cigarettes.

  17. Modeling for Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  18. Exploration and Exploitation within Firms : The Impact of CEOs' Cognitive Style on Incremental and Radical Innovation Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have provided valuable insights into how environmental and organizational factors may influence levels of explorative and exploitative innovation in firms. At the same time, scholars suggest that individual characteristics, such as cognitive and behavioural inclinations of top execu

  19. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  20. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  1. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence.

  2. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  3. Creative Cognition and Brain Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E.; Benedek, Mathias; Silvia, Paul J.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Creative thinking is central to the arts, sciences, and everyday life. How does the brain produce creative thought? A series of recently published papers has begun to provide insight into this question, reporting a strikingly similar pattern of brain activity and connectivity across a range of creative tasks and domains, from divergent thinking to poetry composition to musical improvisation. This research suggests that creative thought involves dynamic interactions of large-scale brain systems, with the most compelling finding being that the default and executive control networks, which can show an antagonistic relationship, actually cooperate during creative cognition and artistic performance. These findings have implications for understanding how brain networks interact to support complex cognitive processes, particularly those involving goal-directed, self-generated thought. PMID:26553223

  4. Breathing new life into cognitive science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I take an unusual starting point from which to argue for a unified cognitive science, namely a position defined by what is sometimes called the ‘life-mind continuity thesis’. Accordingly, rather than taking a widely accepted starting point for granted and using it in order to propose answers to some well defined questions, I must first establish that the idea of life-mind continuity can amount to a proper starting point at all. To begin with, I therefore assess the conceptual tools which are available to construct a theory of mind on this basis. By drawing on insights from a variety of disciplines, especially from a combination of existential phenomenology and organism-centered biology, I argue that mind can indeed be conceived as rooted in life, but only if we accept at the same time that social interaction plays a constitutive role for our cognitive capacities.

  5. Teaching English locative prepositions: a cognitive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Bratož

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are notoriously hard to learn, and frequently subject to negative transfer. In addition, prepositional meanings are commonly extended from the spatial to abstract domains and are, as a consequence, often unpredictable and arbitrary. Traditional approaches to second language preposition teaching have, therefore, suggested that the best way to learn prepositions would be through rote learning. On the other hand, a cognitive linguistics approach argues that the multiple uses of prepositions can be seen as related in systematic ways. Several pedagogical implications of applying cognitive linguistics findings in second language teaching and learning will be discussed, suggesting ways of translating theory into practical consideration and effective teaching materials. The second part of the article presents an instructional model for teaching the locative prepositions in, on and at from a cognitive perspective, and discusses the results of a study conducted to observe the learners’ response to instruction, based on cognitive linguistics findings. In addition, the benefits of focusing on the cross-linguistic differences between the native and target language, in an explicit and systematic way, will be discussed. In this context, reference will be made to several insights and ideas promoted by the CEFR. The article will end by considering some suggestions and ideas for future research.

  6. Insight of patients and their parents into schizophrenia: Exploring agreement and the influence of parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Alexandra; Norton, Joanna; Bortolon, Catherine; Robichon, Melissa; Rolland, Camille; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2015-08-30

    Poor insight is found in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients and has been associated with multiple factors of which cognitive functioning, social and environmental factors. Few studies have explored associations between patient insight and that of their biological parents', and the influence of parental factors. Insight was assessed in 41 patients and their biological parents with Amador's Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Parents' knowledge about schizophrenia and critical attitudes were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Both groups underwent cognitive assessments for working memory and executive functioning. Insight in patients and their parents was not associated for any of the SUMD dimensions but a significant correlation was found between patient and parent awareness of treatment effect for patient-parent dyads with frequent daily contact. Low parental critical attitude was associated with higher patient awareness of symptoms and a high parental memory task score with high patient insight. Our study is the first to suggest a possible influence of parental factors such as critical attitudes and cognitive performance on patient insight.

  7. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear...... cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our...... for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human...

  8. Measuring hope among families impacted by cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Amanda E; Terhorst, Lauren; Gentry, Amanda; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2016-07-01

    The current exploratory investigation aims to establish the reliability and validity of a hope measure, the Herth Hope Index, among families impacted by early cognitive impairment (N = 96). Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the measure. Bivariate analyses were used to examine construct validity. The sample had moderately high hope scores. A two-factor structure emerged from the factor analysis, explaining 51.44% of the variance. Both factors exhibited strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas ranged from .83 to .86). Satisfaction with social support was positively associated with hope, supporting convergent validity. Neurocognitive status, illness insight, and depression were not associated with hope, indicating discriminant validity. Families impacted by cognitive impairment may maintain hope in the face of a potentially progressive illness, regardless of cognitive status. The Herth Hope Index can be utilized as a reliable and valid measure of hope by practitioners providing support to families impacted by cognitive impairment.

  9. The social life of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics).

  10. New Views on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Reviews recent empirical findings toward three cognitive developmental perspectives: the fears of infancy, the discontinuous quality of stages in cognitive functioning, and the capacity for resilience in cognitive development. (DEP)

  11. Towards a common framework of grounded action cognition: Relating motor control, perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Antje; Weber, Arne; Synofzik, Matthis; Vosgerau, Gottfried; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The relation between motor control and action cognition - including action-related thoughts and action-related perception - has been subject to controversial discussions in the last three decades. During these decades, cognitive neuroscience has been increasingly confronted with a huge variety of different accounts trying to understand and explain the relation between these systems, their interdependencies and the mediating mechanisms by establishing notions such as "internal models", "simulation" or "shared representation". These accounts, however, include a large array of partly overlapping, partly contradictory theories using similar terms for different mechanisms and different terms for similar mechanisms. In the absence of a systematic work-up and comparison, this array of accounts and theories leads to confusion in the field, duplication of experimental work, and unconnected parallelism of theory formation within and between different disciplines. Here we provide a systematic comparison of current models and prospective theories that deal with the relation between cognition, perception and motor control mechanisms. In a second step, we propose "grounded action cognition" as a comprehensive metatheoretical framework which defines different hypothetical possibilities of the relations between these domains, offers systematic insights into current models and theories and last but not least may help to increase comparability of empirical research in the domain of action and action cognition.

  12. Embodiment and social cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedenthal, P.M.; Eelen, J.; Maringer, M.; Decety, J.; Cacioppo, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews models of the conceptual system on which most research in social cognition research was based until very recently. It then outlines the principles of another account, which is the theory of embodied or grounded cognition. Relevant research findings are presented to demon

  13. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  14. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...

  15. Corpora and cultural cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can...

  16. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, ELEANOR E.; RAU, LUCY

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY OF 6 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (120) IN GRADE 5. SCORES ON THE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TEST, IOWA ACHIEVEMENT TEST, AND CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY WERE USED AS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. (JK)

  18. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  19. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  20. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  1. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  2. Effectiveness, relapse prevention and mechanisms of change of cognitive therapy vs. interpersonal therapy for depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roefs Anne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment might be a good investment for improving everyday mental health care. However, the mechanisms underlying therapeutic change remain largely unknown. The objective of the current study is to assess both the effectiveness of two commonly used psychotherapies for depression in terms of reduction of symptoms and prevention of relapse on short and long term, as well as identifying underlying mechanisms of change. Methods In a randomised trial we will compare (a Cognitive Therapy (CT with (b Interpersonal therapy (IPT, and (c an 8-week waiting list condition followed by treatment of choice. One hundred eighty depressed patients (aged 18-65 will be recruited in a mental health care centre in Maastricht (the Netherlands. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three intervention groups. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is depression severity measured by the Beck Depression Intenvory-II (BDI-II. Other outcomes include process variables such as dysfunctional beliefs, negative attributions, and interpersonal problems. All self-report outcome assessments will take place on the internet at baseline, three, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve and twenty-four months. At 24 months a retrospective telephone interview will be administered. Furthermore, a rudimentary analysis of the cost-effectiveness will be embedded. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion By comparing CT and IPT head-to-head and by investigating multiple potential mediators and outcomes at multiple time points during and after therapy, we

  3. Cognitive computing and big data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Bowles, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    MASTER THE ABILITY TO APPLY BIG DATA ANALYTICS TO MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED DATA Cognitive computing is a technique that allows humans and computers to collaborate in order to gain insights and knowledge from data by uncovering patterns and anomalies. This comprehensive guide explains the underlying technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, and big data analytics. It then demonstrates how you can use these technologies to transform your organization. You will explore how different vendors and different industries are a

  4. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  5. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  6. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  7. Hydration and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sécher, M; Ritz, P

    2012-04-01

    A clinical link exists between severe dehydration and cognitive performance. Using rapid and severe water loss induced either by intense exercise and/or heat stress, initial studies suggested there were alterations in short-term memory and cognitive function related to vision, but more recent studies have not all confirmed these data. Some studies argue that water loss is not responsible for the observations made, and studies compensating water losses have failed to prevent the symptoms. Studies in children have suggested that drinking extra water helps cognitive performance, but these data rely on a small number of children. In older adults (mean age around 60) the data are not strong enough to support a relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive function. Data on frail elderly and demented people are lacking. Methodological heterogeneity in these studies are such that the relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive performance cannot be supported.

  8. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...... of documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...... imagination. The article analyses case studies of documentaries dealing with climate change and the environment and documentaries dealing with social history....

  9. Situated clinical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  10. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    language” allowed for a tighter cognitive coordination and therefore for a greater accuracy. In all the findings of this project suggest that via social uses of language human cognitive processes are played out and coordinated in intersubjective and social arenas and that such processes of coordination......The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... by bodily structures and activities as well as by social and intersubjective dynamics of coordination. The current investigation adds to the picture the role of language using theoretical analysis, corpus linguistics and experimental behavioural techniques. The aim was indeed to develop a framework...

  11. Cognitive and Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton

    People with cognitive disabilities are gaining in a long struggle for recognition of their right to control their lives. In the information society access to the Web is essential to this control. Cognitive barriers to this access are diverse, reflecting the complexity of human cognitive faculties. These barriers are not well managed in current accessibility practice and policy, in part because cognitive accessibility, like usability, cannot be reduced to a checklist of simple attributes. Advances in representing the meaning as well as the form of information, and in supporting configurable presentation and interaction methods, will yield progress. Increased inclusion of people with cognitive disabilities in the processes of technology development and policy making will also pay off.

  12. An Introduction to Cognitive Musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Niels Trusbak

    2015-01-01

    This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive, and neuros......This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive...

  13. Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognitive Performance and Depression in Men with Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive function and depression in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome. Materials and Methods We carried out a prospective, placebo-controlled trial involving 106 men with total testosterone levels testosterone undecanoate) or a placebo (advice to modify lifestyle), the study population was divided into a TRT group (n=54) and a control group (n=52). Results The age among patients in the TRT and control groups was 56.7±12.6 years and 57.8±11.4 years, respectively (p> 0.05). At baseline, no significant differences between the TRT and control groups were noted regarding serum testosterone or prostate-specific antigen levels, or regarding the scores for aging symptoms (Aging Males' Symptoms scale), erectile function (5-item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire), cognitive function (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). At 8 months after intervention total serum testosterone levels and erectile function scores had significantly increased (ptestosterone deficiency syndrome if low testosterone levels are associated with depression or cognitive impairment. PMID:28053949

  14. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME: Neuropsychological Profile and Related Factors with Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motamedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to verify possible cognitive dysfunction in the patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME and its correlation to factors related to epilepsy and patients demographic variables.Thirty two consecutive patients with JME and 32 healthy controls were evaluated in neuropsychological domains including orientation, mental control, logical memory, forward and backward digit spans, visual memory, associative learning, and memory quotient (using Persian version of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-Revised, preservative errors (using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Stroop Test (color and word, IQ score (using Raven's Progressive Matrices test, and depression (using the Persian version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. SPSS 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA software was used for statistical analysis. Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for independent normally and non-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Our study showed significant differences between patients with JME and control group with respect to scores of mental control (p=0.015, forward digit span (p=0.004, total digit span (p=0.008 and IQ (p=0.003. In addition, age, education level, duration of epilepsy and medication showed an impact on several cognitive functions in the patients with JME.It is indicated that JME is associated with impairment in specific cognitive domains, despite any evidence in favor of depression.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Cognitive Triad Inventory (CTI – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwerski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to translate and evaluate the Polish version of the Cognitive Triad Inventory (CTI, an instrument developed to measure the cognitive triad conceptualized by Beck as an important variable in depression. Subject or material and methods. A sample of N=86 adults included depressed, non-depressed and prisoners completed a survey test battery comprised of CTI, CES-D, and STAI. Results. This study provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the Polish CTI. Exploratory factor analysis showed the one-factor model to best fit the data, as in the American version. Discussion. The division into self, world, and future is an unwieldy taxonomy with highly overlapping categories. Because the three-factor model did not fit the data very well it is suggested that it would be reasonable to label that one CTI factor “Self-Relevant Negative Attitude”. Conclusions. This study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the CTI on both clinical and nonclinical samples, and confirms that CTI may be used to measure the cognitive triad. Evaluation of suicidal ideation was also discussed.

  16. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  17. Insights into business student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Lannon, Michael; Trappe, Tonya

    1993-01-01

    With Challenging reading and listening texts from a range of authentic business sources, New Insights into Business will really engage your students. The thorough language and vocabulary syllabus together with the strong focus on business skills development gives students everything they need to function effectively in the workplace. New Insights into Business is a self-contained course and is also an ideal follow-on to First Insights into Business.

  18. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-04-24

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders.

  19. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, L.; Sellaro, R.; van Hemert, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Colzato, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Objective: Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient chan

  20. Cognitive aging in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Behavior of wild-type, mutant and gamma-irradiated zebrafish (Danio rerio was documented using image-analysis technique. Conditioned responses to spatial, visual and temporal cues were investigated in young, middle-aged and old animals. The results demonstrate that zebrafish aging is associated with changes in cognitive responses to emotionally positive and negative experiences, reduced generalization of adaptive associations, increased stereotypic and reduced exploratory behavior and altered temporal entrainment. Genetic upregulation of cholinergic transmission attenuates cognitive decline in middle-aged achesb55/+ mutants, compared to wild-type siblings. In contrast, the genotoxic stress of gamma-irradiation accelerates the onset of cognitive impairment in young zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings would allow the use of powerful molecular biological resources accumulated in the zebrafish field to address the mechanisms of cognitive senescence, and promote the search for therapeutic strategies which may attenuate age-related cognitive decline.

  1. Charles Bonnet syndrome and cognitive impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gregor; Burns, Alistair

    2014-05-22

    ABSTRACT Background: Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is defined as complex persistent visual hallucinations in the absence of mental disorder. It is common in conditions causing significant visual impairment. Many authors advise reassurance, considering the condition benign. However, others have suggested that CBS may in some patients represent the early stages of dementia. This review seeks to systematically examine the evidence for any link between CBS and cognitive impairment. Methods: Literature search using OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase. Results: Three studies where cognitive functioning was the primary focus of the research were found. All were small, did not properly apply diagnostic criteria, and reported conflicting results. Eight other studies commented on cognitive functioning, but none used tests sufficiently sensitive to detect changes seen in early dementia. One hundred and thirty four case reports were scrutinized, and reports found of 16 patients with CBS where dementia emerged. High rates of partial insight at diagnosis of CBS were seen in these patients. Conclusions: There have been no adequately powered studies, using accepted diagnostic criteria, where changes in cognitive functioning were the primary outcome. Existing studies are of limited methodological quality and allow no conclusion regarding a relationship between cognitive impairment and CBS to be reached. Numerous case reports of dementia developing in patients with CBS and partial insight raise the possibility of a link between these conditions. There is a clear need for properly constructed studies to investigate this.

  2. Principles of minimal cognition : Casting cognition as sensorimotor coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Marc van; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend

  3. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHA

  4. Where Is Cognition? Emotion and Cognition in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the brain is the seat of cognition, that cognitive processes are neutral processes, and that, in the brain, affect and cognition are distinguishable but inseparable. This perspective allows a reconceptualization of the affective filter in terms of the brain's stimulus appraisal system, which interacts with cognition to promote or…

  5. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Leitman, David I

    2008-07-01

    Social cognition in schizophrenia is a rapidly emerging area of study. Because the number and diversity of studies in this area have increased, efforts have been made to better define terms and provide organizing frameworks. A key challenge confronting the study of social cognition in schizophrenia is building bridges between clinical scientists and social neuroscientists. The articles in this theme summarize data-based studies that have attempted to build or strengthen such bridges to better understand the neural bases of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...... categories, reflecting the requirements for certification as a cognitive coach are measured four times during students’ educational sessions: structure making, problem identification, problem analysis, goal setting, problem solving, homework assignment, evaluation, and empathic skills. Pre- and post course...... ratings on students’ social and emotional skills (Oestrich, 2007) will also be reported. Educational perspectives for future programmes are discussed....

  7. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  8. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  9. Confronting Complexity: Insights from the Details of Behavior over Multiple Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2008-01-01

    Young children tend to generalize novel names for novel solid objects by similarity in shape, a phenomenon dubbed "the shape bias". We believe that the critical insights needed to explain the shape bias in particular, and cognitive development more generally, come from Dynamic Systems Theory. We present two examples of recent work focusing on the…

  10. Systemic sclerosis: Recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Muriel; Avouac, Jérôme; Kahan, André; Allanore, Yannick

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an orphan connective tissue disease characterized by alterations of the microvasculature, disturbances of the immune system and massive deposition of collagen and other matrix substances in the skin and internal organs. A major achievement of the recent years has been the validation of new classification criteria, allowing earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment of systemic sclerosis, before irreversible fibrosis and organ damage appeared ("window of opportunity"). Raynaud's phenomenon is usually the first sign of the disease and is considered as the main sentinel sign for the identification of very early systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis is clinically heterogeneous and disease course remains unpredictable. Its prognosis depends on cardiopulmonary involvement and recent studies aim to identify serum or genetic biomarkers predictive of severe organ involvement. Moreover, the prospective follow-up of large cohorts has provided and will offer critical material to identify strong prognostic factors. Whereas the outcomes of vascular manifestations of the disease has been recently improved due to targeted therapy, recent data have highlighted that mortality has not changed over the past 40 years. This reflects the absence of efficacy of current available drugs to counteract the fibrotic process. Nevertheless, several targeted immunity therapies, commonly with proven efficacy in other immune diseases, are about to be investigated in systemic sclerosis. Indeed, promising results in small and open studies have been reported. This article deals with recent insights into classification criteria, pathogenesis, organ involvements, outcome and current and possible future therapeutic options in systemic sclerosis.

  11. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  12. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  13. Adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II: 3. Propiedades psicométricas en pacientes con trastornos psicológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS SANZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan datos sobre la fiabilidad y validez de la adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer y Brown, 1996, obtenidos con una muestra de 305 pacientes ambulatorios con diversos diagnósticos psicopatológicos según el DSM-IV. El coeficiente alfa de fiabilidad fue alto (alfa = 0,89. Las correlaciones con otras medidas autoaplicadas y heteroaplicadas de depresión fueron elevadas y significativamente mayores que la correlación con una medida de ansiedad, lo que avala la validez convergente y discriminante del BDI-II, respectivamente. Respecto a la validez de criterio, los resultados demostraron que los pacientes diagnosticados con un trastorno depresivo mayor tenían niveles de depresión más elevados, medidos con el BDI-II, que los pacientes de otros grupos diagnósticos, aunque no hubo diferencias con los pacientes con trastornos de personalidad. Finalmente, la validación factorial del BDI-II proporcionó una solución bifactorial (factor somático- motivacional y factor cognitivo que coincide con la hallada en estudios previos. Se concluye que el BDI es un instrumento válido de detección y cuantificación de síntomas depresivos en pacientes, si bien su utilidad como herramienta para el diagnóstico diferencial de la depresión es una cuestión pendiente de investigación.

  14. Monitoring and optimising cognitive function in cancer patients: Present knowledge and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Schagen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning are emerging as a key focus of cancer survivorship research. Many patients with central nervous system (CNS or non-CNS tumours develop cognitive problems during the course of their disease that can result in diminished functional independence. We review the state of knowledge on the cognitive functioning of patients with primary and secondary brain tumours at diagnosis, during and after therapy, and discuss current initiatives to diminish cognitive decline in these patients. Similarly, attention is paid to the cognitive sequelae of cancer and cancer therapies in patients without CNS disease. Disease and treatment effects on cognition are discussed, as well as current insights into the neural substrates and the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in these patients. In addition, rehabilitation strategies for patients with non-CNS disease confronted with cognitive dysfunction are described. Special attention is given to knowledge gaps in the area of cancer and cognition, in CNS and non-CNS diseases. Finally, we point to the important role for cooperative groups to include cognitive endpoints in clinical trials in order to accelerate our understanding and treatment of cognitive dysfunction related to cancer and cancer therapies.

  15. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse......-documented that unsupervised learning discovers statistical regularities. However human cognition is too complicated and not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, in our approach we represent human cognitive processes as a classification rule in supervised learning. Thus we have devised a testable protocol to test...

  16. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  17. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  18. Creativity and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    1980-01-01

    The article focuses on research on improving creativity, including early efforts to enhance, operationalize, and define creativity. Studies dealing with behavioral management of creativity are discussed, as are those concerning the effects of self-statements and cognition. (CL)

  19. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  20. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rothganger, Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Brian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warrender, Christina E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  1. 氟中毒与大骨节混合病区居民骨关节症状体征调查%A survey of residents' symptoms and signs in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 黄长青; 唐红艳; 王成海; 张晓东; 何广辉

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study residents' symptoms and signs in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck,to provide scientific basis for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fluorosis and bone in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck. Methods Two villages as investigational spots were selected by stratified cluster sampling technique from the areas with fluorosis and kashin - beck in Jilin province,residents with bone and joint symptoms were examined in the selected spots; The dates were analyzed with SPSS13.0. Results 43 cases were surveyed, the pain of finger joints was the most of all the symptoms, accounting for 74.42% ; The added thick performance of bone joint was the most of all physical signs, accounting for 81.40% ; The differences of gender on all symptoms and physical signs only in hip pain were statistically significant ( P 0.05) ;There were significant differences in elbow pain , the middle finger cannot touch contralateral auricle after the head, and the middle finger cannot touch inferior angle scapula after back . ( P < 0.05) ; Significant difference of pain in the shoulders, knees,ankles, fingers, finger tips bend to palm,fingertip cannot touch distal palm transverse striation and added thick( P <0. 001). Conclusions Two or more diseases of skeletal fluorosis, kashin - beck, osteoarthritis and other joint disease existed in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck. The Survey and diagnostic method of skeletal fluorosis in the areas with fluorosis and kaschin - beck should be distinguished from simple fluorosis area.%目的 了解氟中毒与大骨节病混合病区居民骨关节症状、体征,为混合病区氟骨症的诊断和鉴别诊断提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样,在全省氟中毒和大骨节病混合病区中抽取2个屯做为调查点,对病区屯有骨关节症状、体征的居民进行调查;数据用SPSS13.0进行统计处理.结果 共调查43例,所有症状中,指关节痛最多,占74.42%,所有

  2. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  3. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  4. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  5. Summary: Cognition in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 79th Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology on Cognition held on May 28–June 2, 2014 was to survey recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and assess future prospects. The symposium succeeded beyond the dreams of the organizers and the participants were treated to an extraordinarily rich feast of 58 long talks, six short talks, and 137 posters. Equally important to the success of the symposium was the perfect setting for informal scientific exchange between 260 ...

  6. Social cognitive impairment and autism: what are we trying to explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan

    2016-01-19

    Early psychological theories of autism explained the clinical features of this condition in terms of perceptual and sensory processing impairments. The arrival of domain-specific social cognitive theories changed this focus, postulating a 'primary' and specific psychological impairment of social cognition. Across the years, evidence has been growing in support of social cognitive and social attention explanations in autism. However, there has also been evidence for general non-social cognitive impairments in representational understanding, attention allocation and sensory processing. Here, I review recent findings and consider the case for the specificity and primacy of the social cognitive impairment, proposing that we should focus more explicitly on clinically valid features for insights on the integration of 'social' and 'non-social' cognition.

  7. Modeling cognitive trajectories within longitudinal studies: a focus on older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerman, Joshua R; Hall, Charles B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Lipton, Richard B

    2010-10-01

    The natural history of life span cognitive performance and its late-life determinants have been studied from an array of perspectives. Significant insights come from psychological disciplines, including cognitive, developmental, and neuropsychology, as well as from medical specialties, such as geriatrics, neurology, psychiatry, neuroradiology, and neuropathology, that contribute to the growing interdisciplinary scientific field: cognitive neuroscience of aging. This survey of longitudinal studies of aging suggests that disease-oriented investigations commonly do not adequately consider normative cognitive changes, whereas developmental studies do not sufficiently measure and model nonnormative cognitive aging. This article argues for an integrative perspective that considers both of these influences on cognitive trajectories and presents a series of methodological concerns that have not been addressed comprehensively. Interdisciplinary methods from longitudinal observational studies should be leveraged to enable translational interventions to promote brain longevity.

  8. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  9. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Bilingualism Gives a Cognitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have shown bilingualism has an influence on cognition, both negative and positive. This essay aims to discuss the cognitive disadvantages and advantages bilingualism brings, by emphasizing how it affect children ’s cognitive devel-opment. It will first briefly introduce the disadvantages such as a lower verbal fluency and vocabulary deficit, and then analyse the advantages on non-verbal cognition and attention controlling, a more sensitive metalinguistic awareness and a lower decline rate of cognitive processing.

  11. The Cognitive View on Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静

    2006-01-01

    Metaphor is not the patent in rhetoric field, but extends to linguistics and cognitive psychology. This paper explores the metaphor from a brand new perspective of cognition. It begins with the cognitive basis of metaphor, and then has a tentative approach to the relationship between metaphor and cognition from different angels such as metaphor and cognitive model; metaphor and mental perception, also the influence of metaphor on the society.The author finally discusses the acquisition of metaphor.

  12. The promise of cognitive behavior therapy for treatment of severe mental disorders: a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Kingdon, David; Turkington, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), as exemplified by the model of psychotherapy developed and refined over the past 40 years by A.T. Beck and colleagues, is one of the treatments of first choice for ambulatory depressive and anxiety disorders. Over the past several decades, there have been vigorous efforts to adapt CBT for treatment of more severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia and the more chronic and/or treatment refractory mood disorders. These efforts have primarily studied CBT as an adjunctive therapy, i.e., in combination with pharmacotherapy. Given the several limitations of state-of-the-art pharmacotherapies for these severe mental disorders, demonstration of clinically meaningful additive effects for CBT would have important implications for improving public health. This paper reviews the key developments in this important area of therapeutics, providing a summary of the current state of the art and suggesting directions for future research.

  13. Personal semantic memory: insights from neuropsychological research on amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of personal semantic memory, knowledge that is specific and unique to individuals, by reviewing neuropsychological research on stable amnesia secondary to medial temporal lobe damage. The results reveal that personal semantic memory does not depend on a unitary set of cognitive and neural mechanisms. Findings show that autobiographical fact knowledge reflects an experience-near type of personal semantic memory that relies on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval, albeit less so than personal episodic memory. Additional evidence demonstrates that new autobiographical fact learning likely relies on the medial temporal lobe, but the extent to which remains unclear. Other findings show that retrieval of personal traits/roles and new learning of personal traits/roles and thoughts/beliefs are independent of the medial temporal lobe and thus may represent highly conceptual types of personal semantic memory that are stored in the neocortex.

  14. Culture and Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cole

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which cultural contributions to human nature have been treated within the field of  cognitive science. I was initially motivated to write about this topic when invited to give a talk to a Cognitive Science department at a sister university in California a few years ago. My goal, on that occasion, was to convince my audience, none of whom were predisposed to considering culture an integral part of cognitive science, that they would indeed benefit from recognizing some affinities between the ideas of some of the founders of cognitive science and ideas about culture emanating from the Soviet (now Russian cultural-historical school. My task in presenting this argument to the readers of  Outlines is most likely the mirror image of that earlier effort. On the one hand, the ideas of the cultural-historical school are well known to this readership and you do not need to be lectured on the topic by an American whose knowledge of the topic is no greater than your own. At best, the ways in which I have appropriated those ideas and put them to work might provide an opportunity to reflect on the strange fate of ideas when they move between national traditions of thought. On the other hand, owing to a double twist of fate (after all, what was an American doing in Moscow in 1962 doing post-doctoral work in psychology I was also present during the discussions leading to the founding of Cognitive Science in the early 1970’s and subsequently became a member of the Cognitive Science Program at UCSD in the early 1980’s, arguably one of the pioneering efforts to institutionalize this new discipline.My hope is this unusual confluence of experiences, and the ideas that they have generated, will be of some use to those who see value in a dialogue between these different intellectual projects. With this goal in mind, I will begin by providing my own brief history of key ideas associated with the origins of

  15. Abnormal organization of white matter networks in patients with subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Yi-He; Li, Xuan-Yu; Hao, Xu-Yang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Sheng, Can; Li, Yu-Xia; Sun, Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Song, Yang; Li, Kun-Cheng; Yan, Tian-Yi; Tang, Xiao-Ying; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis has been widely used in studying Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how the white matter network changes in cognitive impaired patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) (a symptom emerging during early stage of AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (a pre-dementia stage of AD) is still unclear. Here, structural networks were constructed respectively based on FA and FN for 36 normal controls, 21 SCD patients, and 33 aMCI patients by diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory. Significantly lower efficiency was found in aMCI patients than normal controls (NC). Though not significant, the values in those with SCD were intermediate between aMCI and NC. In addition, our results showed significantly altered betweenness centrality located in right precuneus, calcarine, putamen, and left anterior cingulate in aMCI patients. Furthermore, association was found between network metrics and cognitive impairment. Our study suggests that the structural network properties might be preserved in SCD stage and disrupted in aMCI stage, which may provide novel insights into pathological mechanisms of AD. PMID:27418146

  16. Disintegration of social cognitive processes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakuła, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid development of research on social cognition (SC impairments in schizophrenia, efforts are still made to generate new, broader theoretical models which include the neural network approach to those dysfunctions. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the structure of SC in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy subjects. Methods. The studied groups consisted of 55 subjects: 30 patients with paranoid schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, and 25 control healthy subjects matched for age, gender and education to the clinical group. In order to assess processes of SC, a battery of tests was administered: Theory of Mind Picture Stories to assess theory of mind, trials “Faces” (from Ekman and Friesen’s set of emotional expressions and “Figures” (from the publication by Argyle to evaluate recognition of emotions from facial and gesture expression. The methods included also an assessment of self-criticism (insight relating to the subject’s processes of SC. Results. The level of efficacy of SC was lower in the patients compared to the controls. In the clinical group, theory of mind was the most important factor for the overall level of SC and its impairments. There was inadequate, decreased patients’ self-criticism regarding their execution of SC tests. The insight did not correlate with any other SC variables in the clinical group. In general, the group characterized by lower integration of social cognitive processes, also obtained lower scores in individual dimensions of SC. Conclusions. The structure of social cognitive processes in schizophrenic group, unlike in healthy subjects, shows characteristics of generalized disintegration.

  17. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area.

  18. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  19. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ivy N; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-12-15

    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease.

  20. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society.

  1. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?'

  2. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  3. Designers' cognition in traditional versus digital media during conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Bilda, Zafer

    2001-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designers’ cognitive process...

  4. Cognitive representations in raters' assessment of teacher portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, M.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolios are frequently used to assess teachers' competences. In portfolio assessment, the issue of rater reliability is a notorious problem. To improve the quality of assessments insight into raters' judgment processes is crucial. Using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach we studied cognitive processes underlying raters' judgments and the reliability of these judgments. Six raters systematically assessed 18 portfolios. The interrater reliability of 12 portfolios was satisfactory....

  5. Six views of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    The emerging viewpoint of embodied cognition holds that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in the body's interactions with the world. This position actually houses a number of distinct claims, some of which are more controversial than others. This paper distinguishes and evaluates the following six claims: (1) cognition is situated; (2) cognition is time-pressured; (3) we off-load cognitive work onto the environment; (4) the environment is part of the cognitive system; (5) cognition is for action; (6) off-line cognition is body based. Of these, the first three and the fifth appear to be at least partially true, and their usefulness is best evaluated in terms of the range of their applicability. The fourth claim, I argue, is deeply problematic. The sixth claim has received the least attention in the literature on embodied cognition, but it may in fact be the best documented and most powerful of the six claims.

  6. Preliminary thoughts on the relevance of the research field of cognition for Practical Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi P. Kruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research from the vantage point of Practical Theology, the author focusses on the importance and the possible value of the concept of cognition for further research. The philosophical roots of the concepts of knowledge and understanding are highlighted in a qualitative manner by means of a short selection from the insights of philosophers from the era of the Greek Philosophy to the nineteenth century. The insights of Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes and Kant are utilised. The purpose was to indicate the importance of the concepts of knowing and cognition from an early stage. Research from the field of cognitive science also received attention in this research. The purpose of this discussion is to indicate that cognition is not a mere intellectual activity. Cognition is important in the processes of perspective-making and moral choices. Cognitive distortions could possibly endanger people�s ability to have the right cognition about people, events and life itself. The concept of phronesis, as the concept that comes the nearest to the essence of cognition, is also investigated from the vantage point of Philippians 2:5 and Romans 12:3. Wisdom thinking is really important in research on the acts of people from a practical theological vantage point. Cognition must be regarded as people�s attempt to make sense out what they already know and also out of what they are observing. In the final part of the article, fields for possible further investigation are highlighted in order to make the statement that practical theologians can consider the fact to reclaim the field of investigation on cognition in further research. The importance of cognition for liturgy, homiletics, pastoral care and youth ministry is indicated.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article is undertaken from a practical theological vantage point in order to highlight the importance of the concept of cognition for further research. In

  7. Sociolinguistic variables and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Erik R

    2011-11-01

    Sociolinguistics has examined mental organization of language only sporadically. Meanwhile, areas of linguistics that deal with cognitive organization seldom delve deeply into language variation. Variation is essential for understanding how language is structured cognitively, however. Three kinds of evidence are discussed to illustrate this point. First, style shifting demonstrates that language users develop detailed associations of when to produce specific linguistic forms, depending on the pragmatic context. Second, variation in fine-grained phonetic cues shows that cognitive organization applies to linguistic forms not otherwise known to be under speakers' control. Finally, experiments on dialect comprehension and identification demonstrate that listeners have detailed cognitive associations of language variants with groups of people, whether or not they can produce the same variants themselves. A model is presented for how sociolinguistic knowledge can be viewed in relation to other parts of language with regard to cognitive and neural representations. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 701-716 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.152 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Immunology's theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary immunology has established its fundamental theory as a biological expression of personal identity, wherein the "immune self" is defended by the immune system. Protection of this agent putatively requires a cognitive capacity by which the self and the foreign are perceived and thereby discriminated; from such information, discernment of the environment is achieved and activation of pathways leading to an immune response may be initiated. This so-called cognitive paradigm embeds such functions as "perception," "recognition," "learning," and "memory" to characterize immune processes, but the conceptual character of such functions has meanings that vary with the particular theory adopted. When different formulations of cognition are considered, immunology's conceptual infrastructure shifts: Extensions of conventional psychological understanding of representational cognition based on a subject-object dichotomy support notions of immune agency; alternatively, formulations of perception that dispense with representations and attendant notions of agency reconfigure the predicate epistemology dominating current immune theory. Reviewing immunological literature of the past five decades, these two understandings of perception--representational and non-representational (considered here from ecological, enactivist, and autopoietic perspectives)--offer competing views of immune cognitive functions. These, in turn, provide competing philosophical understandings of immunology's conceptual foundations, which reflect parallel controversies dominating current debates in philosophy of mind and attendant discussions about personal identity.

  9. Cognitive aspects of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairments are a central feature of schizophrenia and are present in most, if not all, cases. There are multiple domains of impairment seen and the level of severity of impairment is considerable. Impairments can be detected prior to the onset of clinical symptoms and the course of impairments involves some subtle early worsening followed by stability in most cases. Cognitive impairments are associated with functional disability, particularly in domains of vocational functioning and independence of residence. Both pharmacological and cognitive remediation interventions have been employed for the treatment of these impairments, with greater progress to date being made in cognitive remediation interventions. While much is known about cognitive impairments, treatment efforts are still in an early stage of development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:599-608. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1253 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Dr. Harvey has received consulting fees from Abbott Labs, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Genentech, Johnson and Johnson, Pharma Neuroboost, Roche Parma, Sunovion Pharma, and Takeda Pharma during the past year. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Uncovering the truth behind Vygotsky's cognitive apprenticeship: engaging reflective practitioners in the 'master-apprentice' relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In recent years theories of situated cognition sharing the idea that learning and doing are inseparable as part of a process of enculturation, largely based upon the work of Vygotsky in developing a model of ‘cognitive apprenticeship’, have received much attention in education (Vygotsky, 1978) as an insightful model underpinning forms of learning and teaching. The master-apprentice relationship using techniques of apprenticeship such as modelling, scaffolding and reflection has since been use...

  11. From savannas to settlements: exploring cognitive foundations for the design of urban spaces

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gordon Brown; Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban configurations in developing countries have become the subject of urban design, with good design promoting economic benefits. Yet, the common practice of urban design lacks a principled scientific foundation. In this respect, cognitive neuroscience could provide a unique perspective and potential foundational insights regarding how embodied cognition links configuration with movement. Although the neural networks that underlie navigation abilities in the brain have been extensively stu...

  12. From Savannas to Settlements: Exploring Cognitive Foundations for the Design of Urban Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M. Gordon; Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban configurations in developing countries have become the subject of urban design, with good design promoting economic benefits. Yet, the common practice of urban design lacks a principled scientific foundation. In this respect, cognitive neuroscience could provide a unique perspective and potential foundational insights regarding how embodied cognition links configuration with movement. Although the neural networks that underlie navigation abilities in the brain have been extensively stud...

  13. Deficits of cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder: Measured by textual micro-counseling dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nengzhi; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-04-30

    Cognitive restructuring is an important strategy in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The present study aimed to observe cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using textual micro-counseling dialogue situations. A set of textual micro-counseling dialogues was used to trigger cognitive restructuring in 25 MDD patients and 27 healthy adults. The participants read descriptions ("problems") and explanations ("solutions") for psychologically distressing situations. High-, low-, and zero-restructuring solutions were randomly matched to the problems. The participants evaluated the adaptability and emotional valence of the problems and the insightfulness, adaptability, novelty, and emotional valence of the solutions. Insightfulness ratings for high-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of low-restructuring solutions in healthy adults, while adaptability ratings for low-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of high-restructuring solutions in MDD patients. Insightfulness ratings for the solutions were significantly predicted by novelty and adaptability in healthy adults and emotional valence in MDD patients. Lower insightfulness in high-restructuring solutions and higher adaptability in low-restructuring solutions in MDD patients may reflect deficits in cognitive control.

  14. Cognitive neuropsychiatry and delusional belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max

    2007-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a new field of cognitive psychology which seeks to learn more about the normal operation of high-level aspects of cognition such as belief formation, reasoning, decision making, theory of mind, and pragmatics by studying people in whom such processes are abnormal. So far, the high-level cognitive process most widely studied in cognitive neuropsychiatry has been belief formation, investigated by examining people with delusional beliefs. This paper describes some of the forms of delusional belief that have been examined from this perspective and offers a general two-deficit cognitive-neuropsychiatric account of delusional belief.

  15. Intuition, insight, and the right hemisphere: Emergence of higher sociocognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Intuition is the ability to understand immediately without conscious reasoning and is sometimes explained as a ‘gut feeling’ about the rightness or wrongness of a person, place, situation, temporal episode or object. In contrast, insight is the capacity to gain accurate and a deep understanding of a problem and it is often associated with movement beyond existing paradigms. Examples include Darwin, Einstein and Freud’s theories of natural selection, relativity, or the unconscious; respectively. Many cultures name these concepts and acknowledge their value, and insight is recognized as particularly characteristic of eminent achievements in the arts, sciences and politics. Considerable data suggests that these two concepts are more related than distinct, and that a more distributed intuitive network may feed into a predominately right hemispheric insight-based functional neuronal architecture. The preparation and incubation stages of insight may rely on the incorporation of domain-specific automatized expertise schema associated with intuition. In this manuscript the neural networks associated with intuition and insight are reviewed. Case studies of anomalous subjects with ability–achievement discrepancies are summarized. This theoretical review proposes the prospect that atypical localization of cognitive modules may enhance intuitive and insightful functions and thereby explain individual achievement beyond that expected by conventionally measured intelligence tests. A model and theory of intuition and insight’s neuroanatomical basis is proposed which could be used as a starting point for future research and better understanding of the nature of these two distinctly human and highly complex poorly understood abilities.Keywords: intuition, insight, nonverbal decoding, nonverbal sequencing

  16. Dehydration and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Ann C; Grandjean, Nicole R

    2007-10-01

    Human neuropsychology investigates brain-behavior relationships, using objective tools (neurological tests) to tie the biological and behavior aspects together. The use of neuropsychological assessment tools in assessing potential effects of dehydration is a natural progression of the scientific pursuit to understand the physical and mental ramifications of dehydration. It has long been known that dehydration negatively affects physical performance. Examining the effects of hydration status on cognitive function is a relatively new area of research, resulting in part from our increased understanding of hydration's impact on physical performance and advances in the discipline of cognitive neuropsychology. The available research in this area, albeit sparse, indicates that decrements in physical, visuomotor, psychomotor, and cognitive performance can occur when 2% or more of body weight is lost due to water restriction, heat, and/or physical exertion. Additional research is needed, especially studies designed to reduce, if not remove, the limitations of studies conducted to date.

  17. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner.

  18. Cognitive stimulation in brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, K L; Paulus, P B; Roland, E J; Yang, H C

    2000-11-01

    Research on group brainstorming has demonstrated that it is less effective for generating large numbers of ideas than individual brainstorming, yet various scholars have presumed that group idea sharing should enhance cognitive stimulation and idea production. Three experiments examined the potential of cognitive stimulation in brainstorming. Experiments 1 and 2 used a paradigm in which individuals were exposed to ideas on audiotape as they were brainstorming, and Experiment 3 used the electronic brainstorming paradigm. Evidence was obtained for enhanced idea generation both during and after idea exposure. The attentional set of the participant and the content of the exposure manipulation (number of ideas, presence of irrelevant information) influenced this effect. These results are consistent with a cognitive perspective on group brainstorming.

  19. Effectiveness of resilience training versus cognitive therapy on reduction of depression in female Iranian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamirinejad, Somayeh; Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golzari, Mahmoud; Borjali, Ahmad; Akaberi, Arash

    2014-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness among women. Its prevalence in women is two to three times that of men. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of resilience training on the reduction of depression in female college students. This semi-empirical study was carried out with two experimental groups and one control group. The research sample was women with symptoms of depression who were 18-22 years of age and living in a college dormitory. One experimental group was given eight 90-minute resilience training sessions, while the other received eight 90-minute cognitive therapy sessions. The control group didn't receive any interventions. The three groups under study were evaluated using the Beck II depression inventory before and after the interventions and two months after the treatment had ended. The three groups didn't have significant differences in age, marital status, or depression scores on the pretest. The resilience training group and cognitive therapy group showed a significant decrease in the average depression score from pretest to posttest and from pretest to follow-up. The main effect of groups, stage, and interaction between groups and stage also were significant (all were p depression but there was a significant difference between these two treatment groups and the control group. The effectiveness of resilience training was just as good as the effectiveness of cognitive therapy. The effects of resilience training on depression remained stable from the posttest to the follow-up, like that of cognitive therapy.

  20. Rapid instructed task learning: A new window into the human brain’s unique capacity for flexible cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Laurent, Patryk; Stocco, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The human ability to flexibly adapt to novel circumstances is extraordinary. Perhaps the most illustrative yet underappreciated form of this cognitive flexibility is rapid instructed task learning (RITL) – the ability to rapidly reconfigure our minds to perform new tasks from instruction. This ability is important for everyday life (e.g., learning to use new technologies), and is used to instruct participants in nearly every study of human cognition. We review the development of RITL as a circumscribed domain of cognitive neuroscience investigation, culminating in recent demonstrations that RITL is implemented via brain circuits centered on lateral prefrontal cortex. We then build on this and other insights to develop an integrative theory of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control, identifying theoretical principles and mechanisms that may make RITL possible in the human brain. Insights gained from this new theoretical account have important implications for further developments and applications of RITL research. PMID:23065743