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Sample records for beaver castor canadensis

  1. Beaver (Castor canadensis) in heavily browsed environments

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    Baker, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) populations have declined or failed to recover in heavily browsed environments. I suggest that intense browsing by livestock or ungulates can disrupt beaver-willow (Salix spp.) mutualisms that likely evolved under relatively low herbivory in a more predator-rich environment, and that this interaction may explain beaver and willow declines. Field experiments in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, found the interaction of beaver and elk (Cervus elaphus) herbivory suppressed compensatory growth in willow. Intense elk browsing of simulated beaver-cut willow produced plants which were small and hedged with a high percentage of dead stems, whereas protected plants were large and highly branched with a low percentage of dead stems. Evaluation of a winter food cache showed beaver had selected woody stems with a lower percentage of leaders browsed by elk. A lack of willow stems suitable as winter beaver food may cause beaver populations to decline, creating a negative feedback mechanism for beaver and willow. In contrast, if browsing by livestock or ungulates can be controlled, and beaver can disperse from a nearby source population, then beaver may build dams in marginal habitat which will benefit willow and cause a positive riparian response that restores proper function to degraded habitat. In a shrub-steppe riparian ecosystem of northwestern Colorado, USA, rest from overgrazing of livestock released herbaceous vegetation initiating restoration of a beaver-willow community. Thus, competition from livestock or ungulates can cause beaver and willow to decline and can prevent their restoration in heavily browsed riparian environments, but beaver and willow populations can recover under proper grazing management.

  2. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

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    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  3. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

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    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  4. Characterization of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) papillomavirus genome.

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    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert D; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-10

    The papillomaviruses comprise a large group of viruses that cause proliferations of the stratified squamous epithelium of skin and mucosa in a variety of animals. An earlier report identified a novel papillomavirus of the North American beaver, Castor canadensis (CcanPV1) that was associated with cutaneous exophytic lesions. In the current study, we determined the sequence of the complete 7435 basepair genome of CcanPV1. The genome contains an Upstream Regulatory Region located between the end of L1 and the start of E6, and seven canonical papillomavirus open reading frames encoding five early (E6, E7, E1, E2, and E4) and two late (L2 and L1) proteins. No E5 open reading frame was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the CcanPV1 genome places the virus between the genera Kappapapillomavirus and Mupapillomavirus. Analyses of the papillomavirus genomes detected in different species of the order Rodentia indicate these viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Manipulating beaver (Castor canadensis) feeding responses to invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

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    Kimball, Bruce A; Perry, Kelly R

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate methods for promoting consumption of tamarisk plants by beavers (Castor canadensis), we determined the feeding responses by captive beavers to diets that contained tannins and sodium chloride (hereafter referred to as tamarisk diet). In two-choice tests, beavers consumed equivalent quantities of tamarisk diet and control diet. Treatment with polyethylene glycol and fructose did not increase beaver preferences for the tamarisk diet. When offered the choice of control diet and casein hydrolysate-treated control diet, beavers strongly avoided the latter, showing feeding deterring activity of casein hydrolysate. However, when tamarisk diet was the alternative to the deterrent treatment, beavers consumed similar quantities of the two diets. Finally, beaver foraging preferences for actual plant cuttings were assessed. Casein hydrolysate application to cuttings of black poplar (Populus nigra) and Scouler's willow (Salix scouleriana) reduced browsing of these highly preferred species and promoted a marked increase in browsing of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). These results suggest that casein hydrolysate treatment of desirable riparian plant species such as Salix and Populus may promote beaver foraging of invasive tamarisk.

  6. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis.

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    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2% and Firmicutes (47.6%. The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8% and Firmicutes (58.9%. The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  7. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis).

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    Gruninger, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A; Forster, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  8. De Novo Genome and Transcriptome Assembly of the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis

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    Si Lok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis is the largest indigenous rodent in North America. We report a draft annotated assembly of the beaver genome, the first for a large rodent and the first mammalian genome assembled directly from uncorrected and moderate coverage (< 30 × long reads generated by single-molecule sequencing. The genome size is 2.7 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. We assembled the beaver genome using the new Canu assembler optimized for noisy reads. The resulting assembly was refined using Pilon supported by short reads (80 × and checked for accuracy by congruency against an independent short read assembly. We scaffolded the assembly using the exon–gene models derived from 9805 full-length open reading frames (FL-ORFs constructed from the beaver leukocyte and muscle transcriptomes. The final assembly comprised 22,515 contigs with an N50 of 278,680 bp and an N50-scaffold of 317,558 bp. Maximum contig and scaffold lengths were 3.3 and 4.2 Mb, respectively, with a combined scaffold length representing 92% of the estimated genome size. The completeness and accuracy of the scaffold assembly was demonstrated by the precise exon placement for 91.1% of the 9805 assembled FL-ORFs and 83.1% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs gene set used to assess the quality of genome assemblies. Well-represented were genes involved in dentition and enamel deposition, defining characteristics of rodents with which the beaver is well-endowed. The study provides insights for genome assembly and an important genomics resource for Castoridae and rodent evolutionary biology.

  9. A novel papillomavirus isolated from proliferative skin lesions of a wild American beaver (Castor canadensis).

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    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Baszler, Timothy V; Bradway, Daniel S; Bruning, Darren L; Davitt, Christine M; Evermann, James F; Burk, Robert D; Chen, Zigui; Mansfield, Kristin G; Haldorson, Gary J

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous papillomatosis was diagnosed in an adult American beaver (Castor canadensis). Gross lesions included numerous exophytic, roughly circular, lightly pigmented lesions on hairless areas of fore and hind feet and the nose. The most significant histopathologic findings were multifocal papilliform hyperplasia of the superficial stratified squamous epithelium, with multifocal koilocytes, and multiple cells with large, darkly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. A virus with properties consistent with papillomavirus (PV) was recovered by virus isolation of skin lesions, utilizing rabbit and feline kidney cell lines. The presence of the virus was confirmed by PV-specific polymerase chain reaction. The partial sequences of E1 and L1 genes did not closely match those of any PVs in GenBank, suggesting that this might be a new type of PV. Partial E1 and L1 nucleotide sequences of the beaver papillomavirus (hereafter, ARbeaver-PV1) were used to create a phylogenetic tree employing the complete E1 and L1 open reading frame nucleotide sequences of 68 PVs. The phylogenetic tree placed the ARbeaver-PV1 in a clade that included the Mupapillomavirus (HPV1 and HPV63) and Kappapapillomavirus (OcPV1 and SfPV1) genera. The present article confirms the papillomaviral etiology of cutaneous exophytic lesions in the beaver.

  10. Assessment of a new Bacteroidales marker targeting North American beaver (Castor canadensis) fecal pollution by real-time PCR.

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    Marti, Romain; Zhang, Yun; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2013-11-01

    In many settings wildlife can be a significant source of fecal pathogen input into surface water. The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is a zoonotic reservoir for several human pathogens including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. In order to specifically detect fecal pollution by beavers, we have developed and validated a beaver-specific Bacteroidales marker, designated Beapol01, based on the 16S rRNA gene. The marker is suitable for quantifying pollution using real-time PCR. The specificity and sensitivity of the marker was excellent, Beaver signal was detected in water of a mixed-activity watershed harbouring this rodent. Overall, Beapol01 will be useful for a better understanding of fecal source inputs in drainage basins inhabited by the beaver. © 2013.

  11. Design to monitor trend in abundance and presence of American beaver (Castor canadensis) at the national forest scale.

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    Beck, Jeffrey L; Dauwalter, Daniel C; Gerow, Kenneth G; Hayward, Gregory D

    2010-05-01

    Wildlife conservationists design monitoring programs to assess population dynamics, project future population states, and evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations. Because agency mandates and conservation laws call for monitoring data to elicit management responses, it is imperative to design programs that match the administrative scale for which management decisions are made. We describe a program to monitor population trends in American beaver (Castor canadensis) on the US Department of Agriculture, Black Hills National Forest (BHNF) in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming, USA. Beaver have been designated as a management indicator species on the BHNF because of their association with riparian and aquatic habitats and its status as a keystone species. We designed our program to monitor the density of beaver food caches (abundance) within sampling units with beaver and the proportion of sampling units with beavers present at the scale of a national forest. We designated watersheds as sampling units in a stratified random sampling design that we developed based on habitat modeling results. Habitat modeling indicated that the most suitable beaver habitat was near perennial water, near aspen (Populus tremuloides) and willow (Salix spp.), and in low gradient streams at lower elevations. Results from the initial monitoring period in October 2007 allowed us to assess costs and logistical considerations, validate our habitat model, and conduct power analyses to assess whether our sampling design could detect the level of declines in beaver stated in the monitoring objectives. Beaver food caches were located in 20 of 52 sampled watersheds. Monitoring 20 to 25 watersheds with beaver should provide sufficient power to detect 15-40% declines in the beaver food cache index as well as a twofold decline in the odds of beaver being present in watersheds. Indices of abundance, such as the beaver food cache index, provide a practical measure of

  12. Antigen detection, rabies virus isolation, and Q-PCR in the quantification of viral load in a natural infection of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis).

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    Morgan, Shannon M D; Pouliott, Craig E; Rudd, Robert J; Davis, April D

    2015-01-01

    All mammals are believed susceptible to rabies virus infection, yet transmission from nonreservoir hosts to humans is uncommon. However, interactions between nonreservoir hosts and humans occur frequently and risk of exposure increases where rabies is enzootic. We describe rabies and apparent pantropism of rabies virus in a beaver (Castor canadensis).

  13. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber.

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    Pelz-Serrano, Karla; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Neubaum, Melissa; Munclinger, Pavel; Pártl, Adam; VAN Riper Iii, Charles; Culver, Melanie

    2009-03-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation

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    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J.; Pollack, Michael M.; Schilling, Jason W.; Olden, Julian D.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors—information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17

  15. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation.

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    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J; Pollock, Michael M; Schilling, Jason W; Olden, Julian D; Lawler, Joshua J; Torgersen, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors-information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17% are

  16. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

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    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  17. Presence of Antibodies to Leptospira spp. in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) and Beavers ( Castor canadensis ) in Northwestern Mexico.

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    López-Pérez, Andrés M; Carreón-Arroyo, Gerardo; Atilano, Daniel; Vigueras-Galván, Ana L; Valdez, Carlos; Toyos, Daniel; Mendizabal, Daniel; López-Islas, Jonathan; Suzán, Gerardo

    2017-10-01

    Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test in 12 (46%) prairie dogs and in two (67%) beavers. The antibody titers for seropositive rodents varied from 1:100 to 1:200, but none of the animals showed clinical signs of disease. We found seven Leptospira spp. serogroups (Autumnalis, Australis, Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Grippotyphosa, and Sejroe) circulating in rodent species in SPRB. We did not find any differences between sex and age concerning Leptospira-positive rodents. Our findings suggest the presence of endemic cycles and potential risks of Leptospira infection in both species from SPRB. Although the impact of this infection on threatened species remains unclear, human activities and environmental stress might facilitate the emergence or reemergence of leptospirosis disease as has been reported elsewhere.

  18. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

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    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  19. 226Ra and other radionuclides in water, vegetation, and tissues of beavers (Castor canadensis) from a watershed containing U tailings neat Elliot Lake, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clulow, F.V.; Mirka, M.A.; Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, diet items, and water at site of capture, of adult beavers from the Serpent River drainage basin which contains U tailings at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from nearby control sites. Levels of 226 Ra in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to U tailing; liver levels did not vary by site. Environmental 226 Ra levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site and were less than 0.19 between vegetation and other tissues. In two beavers with tissue levels of 226 Ra higher than others sampled, neither 232 Th nor 230 Th were detected in bone, muscle or liver tissues. U-238 was measurable in bone, muscle and liver; 228 Th in bone, 210 Po bone, muscle and liver; and 210 Pb was measurable only in bone. Estimated yearly intakes of radionuclides by people eating beavers were calculated to be below current allowable levels set by the Canadian regulatory authorities. (author)

  20. Comparative Metagenomics of Cellulose- and Poplar Hydrolysate-Degrading Microcosms from Gut Microflora of the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis and North American Moose (Alces americanus after Long-Term Enrichment

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    Mabel T. Wong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes that might be particularly relevant for wood fiber processing, we performed a comparative metagenomic analysis of digestive systems from Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus following 3 years of enrichment on either microcrystalline cellulose or poplar hydrolysate. In total, 9,386 genes encoding CAZymes and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs were identified, with up to half predicted to originate from Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Proteobacteria phyla, and up to 17% from unknown phyla. Both PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished the annotated glycoside hydrolase (GH distributions identified herein, from those previously reported for grass-feeding mammals and herbivorous foragers. The CAZyme profile of moose rumen enrichments also differed from a recently reported moose rumen metagenome, most notably by the absence of GH13-appended dockerins. Consistent with substrate-driven convergence, CAZyme profiles from both poplar hydrolysate-fed cultures differed from cellulose-fed cultures, most notably by increased numbers of unique sequences belonging to families GH3, GH5, GH43, GH53, and CE1. Moreover, pairwise comparisons of moose rumen enrichments further revealed higher counts of GH127 and CE15 families in cultures fed with poplar hydrolysate. To expand our scope to lesser known carbohydrate-active proteins, we identified and compared multi-domain proteins comprising both a CBM and domain of unknown function (DUF as well as proteins with unknown function within the 416 predicted polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs. Interestingly, DUF362, identified in iron–sulfur proteins, was consistently appended to CBM9; on the other hand, proteins with unknown function from PULs shared little identity unless from identical PULs. Overall, this study sheds new light on the lignocellulose degrading capabilities of microbes originating from

  1. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

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    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  2. Signatures of self-assembly in size distributions of wood members in dam structures of Castor canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Blersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis construct dams on rivers throughout most of their historical range in North America, and their impact on water patterns in the landscape is considerable. Dam formation by beavers involves two processes: (1 intentional construction through the selection and placement of wood and sediment, which facilitates (2 the passive capture and accretion of suspended wood and sediment. The second process is a self-assembly mechanism that the beavers leverage by utilizing energy subsidies of watershed transport processes. The relative proportion of beaver activity to self-assembly processes in dam construction, however, is unknown. Here we show that lotic self-assembly processes account for a substantial portion of the work expended in beaver dam construction. We found through comprehensive measurement of the stick dimensions that the distributions for diameter, length, and volume are log-normal. By noting evidence of teeth markings, we determined that size distributions skewed significantly larger for wood handled by beavers compared to those that were not. Subsequent mass calculations suggest that beavers perform 50%–70% of the work of wood member placement for dam assembly, with riparian self-assembly processes contributing the remainder. Additionally, our results establish a benchmark for assessing the proportion of self-assembly work in similar riparian structures. Keywords: Beaver dam, Construction, Castor canadensis, Self-assembly, Distribution, Wood

  3. Fallot's tetralogy in a European beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Sandra; Gull, Jessica; Glaus, Tony; Blumer, Serafin; Wimmershoff, Julia; Kranjc, Asja; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-06-01

    A 20-mo-old, female, 9-kg European beaver (Castor fiber) presented with apathy, reduced appetite of 3-day duration and a grade 5/6 systolic heart murmur. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse broncho-interstitial pattern suspicious for bronchopneumonia. The echocardiographic findings of a hypertrophied right ventricle, ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta, and infundibular pulmonic stenosis were consistent with Fallot's tetralogy. Even though the bronchopneumonia rather than the congenital cardiac defect was considered of primary importance for the presenting clinical signs, the latter was relevant for the decision not to continue any medical treatment. Both disease processes were confirmed on necropsy. Fallot's tetralogy, European beaver, Castor fiber, heart murmur, ultrasound.

  4. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  5. Toward an Understanding of Beaver Management as Human and Beaver Densities Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Siemer, William F.; Jonker, Sandra A.; Decker, Daniel J.; Organ, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of beaver (Castor canadensis) density play an important role in wildlife managers’ decisions about beaver population management, because managers anticipate higher incidence of problem complaints when a beaver population increases. To manage the impacts of beavers in an urbanizing landscape, managers need better information on changes in stakeholder beliefs and attitudes as beaver and human densities reach high levels. We conducted additional analysis of data collected in 2002 throu...

  6. Red fox, Vulpes vulpes, kills a European beaver, Castor fiber, kit

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Nils B.; Nakken, Petter J.; Rosell, Frank; Espeland, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    We observed an adult Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) attack, kill and partially consume a 2-month-old female kit European Beaver (Castor fiber) near its lodge in Norway. The inner organs were consumed first. One adult beaver apparently attempted to frighten the fox away by tail-slapping.

  7. Comeback of the beaver Castor fiber: An overview of old and new conservation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.

    1998-01-01

    Due to over-hunting c. 1200 Eurasian beavers Castor fiber survived in eight relict populations in Europe and Asia at the beginning of the 20th century. Following hunting restrictions and translocation programmes in IS countries, the Eurasian beaver became re-established over much of its former

  8. Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Baveco, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored survival, reproduction and emigration of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands for five years and used a stochastic model to assess its viability. Between 1988 and 1991, 42 beavers were released in the Biesbosch National Park. The mortality was initially high

  9. Factors affecting scent-marking behaviour in Eurasion beaver (Castor fiber)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosell, F.; Nolet, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a main function of territory marking in Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is defense of the territory. The results showed that: (1) beaver colonies with close neighbors scent-mark more often than isolated ones; (2) the number of scent markings increased significantly with

  10. The Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is apparently not a host to blood parasites in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Hannah B; Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Girling, Simon; Rosell, Frank

    2012-11-23

    Parasites can alter the physiology and behaviour of host species and negatively impact on their fitness thus affecting population densities. This is the first investigation into the presence of blood parasites in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber); a species that has been the subject of many translocation and reintroduction programmes. Two hundred and seventy blood slides prepared from the blood of 27 beavers from southern Norway were microscopically analysed for the presence of blood parasites. This study reports an absence of blood parasites in the Norwegian Eurasian beavers sampled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitat and conservation status of the beaver in the Sierra San Luis Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla Pelz Serrano; Eduardo Ponce Guevara; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    The status of beaver (Castor canadensis) in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, is uncertain. We surveyed the Cajon Bonito River to assess the beaver’s status and habitat and found five colonies. Limiting factors appear to be pollution due to animal waste, deforestation of riparian trees, and human exploitation. Beavers did not appear to require habitat...

  12. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (pbeavers or between sexually immature (beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver.

  13. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  14. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Girling

    Full Text Available Haematology parameters (N = 24 and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35 were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01 in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05 greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old and sexually mature (≥3 years old beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce

  15. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction.

  16. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Channel Retention in a Lowland Temperate Forest Stream Settled by European Beaver (Castor fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beaver ponds remain a challenge for forest management in those countries where expansion of beaver (Castor fiber is observed. Despite undoubted economic losses generated in forests by beaver, their influence on hydrology of forest streams especially in terms of increasing channel retention (amount of water stored in the river channel, is considered a positive aspect of their activity. In our study, we compared water storage capacities of a lowland forest stream settled by beaver in order to unravel the possible temporal variability of beaver’s influence on channel retention. We compared distribution, total damming height, volumes and areas of beaver ponds in the valley of Krzemianka (Northeast Poland in the years 2006 (when a high construction activity of beaver was observed and in 2013 (when the activity of beaver decreased significantly. The study revealed a significant decrease of channel retention of beaver ponds from over 15,000 m3 in 2006 to 7000 m3 in 2013. The total damming height of the cascade of beaver ponds decreased from 6.6 to 5.6 m. Abandoned beaver ponds that transferred into wetlands, where lost channel retention was replaced by soil and groundwater retention, were more constant over time and less vulnerable to the external disturbance means of water storage than channel retention. We concluded that abandoned beaver ponds played an active role in increasing channel retention of the river analyzed for approximately 5 years. We also concluded that if the construction activity of beaver was used as a tool (ecosystem service in increasing channel retention of the river valley, the permanent presence of beaver in the riparian zone of forest streams should have been assured.

  18. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.).

  19. Use of linear and areal habitat models to establish and distribute beaver Castor fiber harvest quotas in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Parker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Norway the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber harvest is quota-regulated. Once the annual quota for each municipality has been determined it is distributed to landowner-organized beaver management units. Municipal wildlife managers can choose between two distributional models: the traditional “areal model” whereby each management unit receives its portion of the municipal quota based on the relative area of beaver habitat within the township that it contains, or the more recently developed “linear model” based on the relative length of beaver-utilized shoreline it contains. The linear model was developed in an attempt to increase the precision of the quota distribution process and is based on the fact that beaver occupy landscapes in a linear fashion along strips of shoreline rather than exploiting extensive areas. The assumption was that the linear model would provide a more precise and just method of distributing the municipal quota among landowners. Here we test the hypothesis that the length of beaverutilized shoreline is a better predictor of beaver colony density than the area of beaver habitat on 13 beaver management units of typical size (794 – 2200 hectares in Bø Township, Norway, during 2 years. As hypothesized, the number of beaver occupied sites on management units correlated significantly (p≤ 0.001 with the length of beaver-utilized shoreline, but not with the area of beaver habitat. Therefore municipalities should employ the linear model when a precise distribution of quotas is necessary. The density of Eurasian beaver colonies at the landscape scale (>100 km2 in south-central Scandinavia averages approximately 1 occupied site per 4 km2. This figure can be employed by municipal wildlife managers to estimate the colony density in their townships, and to calculate municipal quotas, when more precise census information is lacking.

  20. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  1. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  2. Plasma-Glucocorticoids and ACTH Levels During Different Periods of Activity in the European Beaver (Castor fiber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Joanna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Tadeusz; Bogacka, Iwona; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Smolińska, Nina; Kamińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are major components of the classic endocrine stress response. Free-living vertebrates are characterized by circannual changes in the baseline and/or stress-induced secretion of GCs and ACTH. In mammalian species, GC and ACTH levels vary seasonally but there is no consensus to the season in which animals have elevated GC and ACTH levels. The aim of our study was to determine, for the first time, the type and amount of glucocorticoids produced in free-living beaver (Castor fiber L.)--the largest rodent in Eurasia, and to find out whether stress-induced plasma GC and ACTH levels show seasonal variations. Blood samples were obtained from animals under general anesthesia in April (pregnancy in females), July (offspring rearing) and November (preparing for the winter). The adrenals of beavers produce both cortisol and corticosterone, and plasma cortisol levels were higher than corticosterone. In the current experiment, plasma cortisol concentrations in beavers were affected by the season. The highest stress-associated cortisol levels were noted in males in July during offspring rearing. Corticosterone and ACTH concentrations in beavers remained generally constant, regardless of the season and sex. In conclusion, seasonal changes were observed only in relation to stress-induced plasma cortisol levels in the beaver.

  3. Considerations regarding the occurence of the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 in the Danube Delta (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXE Vasile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On its original Romanian name - breb, the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber extinct at us for almost two centuries and reintroduced in some areas of the country, at present is better known under the name of his North American relative, beaver. In the last decades, this specie has been reintroduced within in its old habitats from where itwas extinct, especially under the effect of human pressure. Since 1998, reinsertion actions took place in Romania, in many areas, the closest one to Danube Delta area being the lower part of Ialomita river. By 2011 epigraphic or paleozoology evidences about the presence of this mammalian into the actual Delta have not been found, except the Lower Danube, up to Isaccea, but also near Dobrogea Plateau in Murighiol area. Its last Paleontology evidences come from early medieval period. Until now, the actual delta was considered a territory inappropriate for the Eurasian Beaver, due to high fluctuations of the water levels. But, in April 2011, the spontaneous appearance of the European beaver near Maliuc area was proved, a copy killed by poachers. In July 2011, a Beaver injured after the collision with a boat was found and scientifically investigated. The future observations will have to document if this mammal extends its habitat up here or remains an erratic appearance. In case of success of spontaneous colonization, its consequences and effects on the environment in general and on biodiversity inparticular are required to be monitored.

  4. Identification of Placental Aspartic Proteinase in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Aleksandra; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Majewska, Marta; Paukszto, Lukasz; Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Martyna; Szafranska, Bozena

    2018-04-18

    Aspartic proteinases (AP) form a multigenic group widely distributed in various organisms and includes pepsins (pep), cathepsins D and E, pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) as well as plant, fungal, and retroviral proteinases. This study describes the transcript identification and expression localization of the AP within the discoid placenta of the Castor fiber . We identified 1257 bp of the AP cDNA sequence, encoding 391 amino acids (aa) of the polypeptide precursor composed of 16 aa signal peptide, 46 aa pro-piece, and 329 aa of the mature protein. Within the AP precursor, one site of potential N -glycosylation (NPS 119–121 ) and two Asp residues (D) specific for the catalytic cleft of AP were identified (VLFDTGSSNLWV 91–102 and GIVDTGTSLLTV 277–288 ). The highest homology of the identified placental AP nucleotide and aa sequence was to mouse pepsinogen C (75.8% and 70.1%, respectively). Identified AP also shared high homology with other superfamily members: PAGs, cathepsins, and napsins. The AP identified in this study was named as pepsinogen/PAG-Like (pep/PAG-L). Diversified pep/PAG-L protein profiles with a dominant 58 kDa isoform were identified. Immune reactive signals of the pep/PAG-L were localized within the trophectodermal cells of the beaver placenta. This is the first report describing the placental AP (pep/PAG-L) in the C. fiber .

  5. [Patterns of morphological variability in reintroduced populations with two beaver subspecies Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus (Castoridae, Rodentia) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2012-01-01

    Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity.

  6. [Succession caused by beaver (Castor fiber L.) life activity: II. A refined Markov model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logofet; Evstigneev, O I; Aleinikov, A A; Morozova, A O

    2015-01-01

    The refined Markov model of cyclic zoogenic successions caused by beaver (Castor fiber L.) life activity represents a discrete chain of the following six states: flooded forest, swamped forest, pond, grassy swamp, shrubby swamp, and wet forest, which correspond to certain stages of succession. Those stages are defined, and a conceptual scheme of probable transitions between them for one time step is constructed from the knowledge of beaver behaviour in small river floodplains of "Bryanskii Les" Reserve. We calibrated the corresponding matrix of transition probabilities according to the optimization principle: minimizing differences between the model outcome and reality; the model generates a distribution of relative areas corresponding to the stages of succession, that has to be compared to those gained from case studies in the Reserve during 2002-2006. The time step is chosen to equal 2 years, and the first-step data in the sum of differences are given various weights, w (between 0 and 1). The value of w = 0.2 is selected due to its optimality and for some additional reasons. By the formulae of finite homogeneous Markov chain theory, we obtained the main results of the calibrated model, namely, a steady-state distribution of stage areas, indexes of cyclicity, and the mean durations (M(j)) of succession stages. The results of calibration give an objective quantitative nature to the expert knowledge of the course of succession and get a proper interpretation. The 2010 data, which are not involved in the calibration procedure, enabled assessing the quality of prediction by the homogeneous model in short-term (from the 2006 situation): the error of model area distribution relative to the distribution observed in 2010 falls into the range of 9-17%, the best prognosis being given by the least optimal matrices (rejected values of w). This indicates a formally heterogeneous nature of succession processes in time. Thus, the refined version of the homogeneous Markov chain

  7. Elk, beaver, and the persistence of willows in national parks: comment on Singer et al. (1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Singer et al. (1998) propose that the decline in populations of beaver (Castor canadensis) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has caused willow to be more vulnerable to browsing by clk (Alces alces). I do not believe that their scenario correctly characterizes the relationship between elk and willow in YNP

  8. Diving behavior in a free-living, semi-aquatic herbivore, the Eurasian beaverCastor fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Patricia Maria; Wilson, Rory Paul; Sanchez, Lea Cohen; Hacklӓnder, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Semi-aquatic mammals have secondarily returned to the aquatic environment, although they spend a major part of their life operating in air. Moving both on land, as well as in, and under water is challenging because such species are considered to be imperfectly adapted to both environments. We deployed accelerometers combined with a depth sensor to study the diving behavior of 12 free-living Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in southeast Norway between 2009 and 2011 to examine the extent to which beavers conformed with mass-dependent dive capacities, expecting them to be poorer than wholly aquatic species. Dives were generally shallow (<1 m) and of short duration (<30 s), suggesting that the majority of dives were aerobic. Dive parameters such as maximum diving depth, dive duration, and bottom phase duration were related to the effort during different dive phases and the maximum depth reached. During the descent, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA-a proxy for movement power) was highest near the surface, probably due to increased upthrust linked to fur- and lung-associated air. Inconsistently though, mean VeDBA underwater was highest during the ascent when this air would be expected to help drive the animals back to the surface. Higher movement costs during ascents may arise from transporting materials up, the air bubbling out of the fur, and/or the animals' exhaling during the bottom phase of the dive. In a manner similar to other homeotherms, beavers extended both dive and bottom phase durations with diving depth. Deeper dives tended to have a longer bottom phase, although its duration was shortened with increased VeDBA during the bottom phase. Water temperature did not affect diving behavior. Overall, the beavers' dive profile (depth, duration) was similar to other semi-aquatic freshwater divers. However, beavers dived for only 2.8% of their active time, presumably because they do not rely on diving for food acquisition.

  9. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

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    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  10. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  11. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

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    Róisín Campbell-Palmer

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12 and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11, for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively. For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9

  13. Beaver-mediated methane emission: The effects of population growth in Eurasia and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Colin J; Baulch, Helen M; Chun, Kwok P; Westbrook, Cherie J

    2015-02-01

    Globally, greenhouse gas budgets are dominated by natural sources, and aquatic ecosystems are a prominent source of methane (CH(4)) to the atmosphere. Beaver (Castor canadensis and Castor fiber) populations have experienced human-driven change, and CH(4) emissions associated with their habitat remain uncertain. This study reports the effect of near extinction and recovery of beavers globally on aquatic CH4 emissions and habitat. Resurgence of native beaver populations and their introduction in other regions accounts for emission of 0.18-0.80 Tg CH(4) year(-1) (year 2000). This flux is approximately 200 times larger than emissions from the same systems (ponds and flowing waters that became ponds) circa 1900. Beaver population recovery was estimated to have led to the creation of 9500-42 000 km(2) of ponded water, and increased riparian interface length of >200 000 km. Continued range expansion and population growth in South America and Europe could further increase CH(4) emissions.

  14. Determination of perfluorinated sulfonate and perfluorinated acids in tissues of free-living European beaver (castor fiber L.) by d-SPE/ micro-UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surma, Magdalena; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the main representatives of an rising class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, determination of selected PFCs concentration in liver, brain, tail, adipose and peritoneum tissues of free-living European beaver (Castor fiber L.) was addressed. Tissue samples, collected from beavers living in Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland), were analyzed by dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) with micro-UHPLC-MS/MS system. In a group of ten selected pefrluorinated compounds only two perfluorinated acids (PFOA and PFNA) and one perfluorinated sulfonate (PFOS) were quantified. PFOA was detected in all analysed tissue samples in both female and male beavers in a range from 0.55 to 0.98ngg(-1) ww whereas PFOS was identified in all analyzed female beaver tissues and only in liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum tissues of male beavers at the concentration level from 0.86 to 5.08ngg(-1) ww. PFNA was only identified in female beaver tissues (liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum) in a range from 1.50 to 6.61ngg(-1) ww. This study demonstrated the bioaccumulation of PFCs in tissue samples collected from beavers living in area known as green lungs of Poland. The results provided in this study indicate for the increasing risk of PFCs occurrence in the environment and the level of PFCs in tissue of free-living European beavers may serve as bioindicator of environmental pollution by these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene structure of the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-like (PAG-L) in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Aleksandra; Majewska, Marta; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Martyna; Szafranska, Bozena

    2017-09-01

    The pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-like family (PAG-L) is a large group of chorionic products, expressed in the pre-placental trophoblast and later in the post-implantational chorionic epithelium, and are involved in proper placenta development and embryo-maternal interaction in eutherians. This study describes identification of the PAG-L family in the genome of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.), named CfPAG-L. We identified 7657 bp of the CfPAG-L gDNA sequence (Acc. No. KX377932), encompassing nine exons (1-9) and eight introns (A-H). The length of the CfPAG-L exons (59-200 bp) was equivalently similar to the only known counterparts of bPAG1, bPAG2, and pPAG2. The length of the CfPAG-L introns ranged 288-1937 bp and was completely different from previously known PAG introns. The exonic CfPAG-L regions revealed 50.3-72.9% homology with equivalent segments of bPAG1 and pPAG2 structure. The intronic CfPAG-L regions alignments revealed a lack of homology. Within the entire CfPAG-L gene, 31 potential single nucleotide variants (SNV: 7 transversions and 24 transitions) were predicted. The identified exonic polymorphic loci did not affect the amino acid sequence of the CfPAG-L polypeptide precursor. This is the first report describing the CfPAG-L gene sequence, structural organization, and SNVs in the Eurasian beaver, one of the largest rodents.

  16. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and

  17. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  18. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis septicemia in a beaver from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Zabek, Erin; Raverty, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    An emaciated, free-ranging, sub-adult, male beaver (Castor canadensis) was found dead and was necropsied. Microscopically, the beaver had acute necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis with florid lobulated colonies of extracellular coccobacilli. Intravascular septic emboli were identified in lung, small intestine, and kidney, and discrete ulcers with scattered superficial extracellular accumulation of coccobacilli were noted on tail margins and plantar surfaces of the hind feet. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cultured on Columbia blood and MacConkey agar and identified by API 20E. Based on the pathology and acute mortality described in this case, as well as historical reports of Y. pseudotuberculosis related mortality in other beavers, this species could serve as a public health sentinel for localized occurrences of this bacterium.

  19. Beaver colony density trends on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, 1987 – 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Donner, Deahn M.; Beck, Albert J.; Rugg, David J.; Reinecke, Sue; Eklund, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is a managed species in the United States. In northern Wisconsin, as part of the state-wide beaver management program, the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest removes beavers from targeted trout streams on U.S. Forest Service lands. However, the success of this management program has not been evaluated. Targeted removals comprise only 3% of the annual beaver harvest, a level of effort that may not affect the beaver population. We used colony location data along Forest streams from 1987–2013 (Nicolet, northeast Wisconsin) and 1997–2013 (Chequamegon, northwest Wisconsin) to assess trends in beaver colony density on targeted trout streams compared to non-targeted streams. On the Chequamegon, colony density on non-targeted trout and non-trout streams did not change over time, while colony density on targeted trout streams declined and then stabilized. On the Nicolet, beaver colony density decreased on both non-targeted streams and targeted trout streams. However, colony density on targeted trout streams declined faster. The impact of targeted trapping was similar across the two sides of the Forest (60% reduction relative to non-targeted trout streams). Exploratory analyses of weather influences found that very dry conditions and severe winters were associated with transient reductions in beaver colony density on non-targeted streams on both sides of the Forest. Our findings may help land management agencies weigh more finely calibrated beaver control measures against continued large-scale removal programs.

  20. Beaver Colony Density Trends on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, 1987 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine A; Donner, Deahn M; Beck, Albert J; Rugg, David J; Reinecke, Sue; Eklund, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is a managed species in the United States. In northern Wisconsin, as part of the state-wide beaver management program, the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest removes beavers from targeted trout streams on U.S. Forest Service lands. However, the success of this management program has not been evaluated. Targeted removals comprise only 3% of the annual beaver harvest, a level of effort that may not affect the beaver population. We used colony location data along Forest streams from 1987-2013 (Nicolet, northeast Wisconsin) and 1997-2013 (Chequamegon, northwest Wisconsin) to assess trends in beaver colony density on targeted trout streams compared to non-targeted streams. On the Chequamegon, colony density on non-targeted trout and non-trout streams did not change over time, while colony density on targeted trout streams declined and then stabilized. On the Nicolet, beaver colony density decreased on both non-targeted streams and targeted trout streams. However, colony density on targeted trout streams declined faster. The impact of targeted trapping was similar across the two sides of the Forest (60% reduction relative to non-targeted trout streams). Exploratory analyses of weather influences found that very dry conditions and severe winters were associated with transient reductions in beaver colony density on non-targeted streams on both sides of the Forest. Our findings may help land management agencies weigh more finely calibrated beaver control measures against continued large-scale removal programs.

  1. Seasonal differences in the testicular transcriptome profile of free-living European beavers (Castor fiber L. determined by the RNA-Seq method.

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    Iwona Bogacka

    Full Text Available The European beaver (Castor fiber L. is an important free-living rodent that inhabits Eurasian temperate forests. Beavers are often referred to as ecosystem engineers because they create or change existing habitats, enhance biodiversity and prepare the environment for diverse plant and animal species. Beavers are protected in most European Union countries, but their genomic background remains unknown. In this study, gene expression patterns in beaver testes and the variations in genetic expression in breeding and non-breeding seasons were determined by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Paired-end sequencing in the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer produced a total of 373.06 million of high-quality reads. De novo assembly of contigs yielded 130,741 unigenes with an average length of 1,369.3 nt, N50 value of 1,734, and average GC content of 46.51%. A comprehensive analysis of the testicular transcriptome revealed more than 26,000 highly expressed unigenes which exhibited the highest homology with Rattus norvegicus and Ictidomys tridecemlineatus genomes. More than 8,000 highly expressed genes were found to be involved in fundamental biological processes, cellular components or molecular pathways. The study also revealed 42 genes whose regulation differed between breeding and non-breeding seasons. During the non-breeding period, the expression of 37 genes was up-regulated, and the expression of 5 genes was down-regulated relative to the breeding season. The identified genes encode molecules which are involved in signaling transduction, DNA repair, stress responses, inflammatory processes, metabolism and steroidogenesis. Our results pave the way for further research into season-dependent variations in beaver testes.

  2. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

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    Erica Ulloa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural forest (NF conditions and in ponds constructed by North American beavers (Castor canadensis (BP. We found these streams have a naturally stable benthic organic matter regime throughout the year with a peak in leaf input from Nothofagus pumilio in autumn. Beaver ponds significantly increased the retention of organic matter and caused significantly higher decomposition rates, probably associated with increased density and biomass of Hyalella spp. As expected, leaf decay rates for N. pumilio, a deciduous species, were higher (NF: -0.0028 day- ± 0.0001 SE; BP: -0.0118 day-1 ± 0.0009 SE than N. betuloides (a broad-leaf evergreen (NF: -0.0018 day-1 ± 0.0005 SE; BP: -0.0040 day-1 ± 0.0003 SE. Overall these results indicate that the naturally low decomposition rates (slower than 89% of a global survey of decay rates for these cold, oligotrophic streams are being modified by introduced beavers to resemble more temperate latitudes.A pesar de ser una zona relativamente remota y bien conservado, la ecorregión subantártica se enfrenta a presiones por amenazas globales por el cambio climático, el agujero de ozono y las especies introducidas. Los ecosistemas de agua dulce son uno de los componentes menos estudiados de este bioma, pero se sabe que enfrentan una serie de taxones invasivos como la trucha y los castores. El propósito de este estudio es entender la caracterización básica y dinámica de descomposición de la materia orgánica en arroyos subantárticos de

  3. Dam busy: beavers and their influence on the structure and function of river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Larsen, A.; Lane, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Beavers (Castor fiber, Castor canadensis) are the most influential mammalian ecosystem engineer, heavily modifying rivers and floodplains and influencing the hydrology, geomorphology, carbon and nutrient cycling, and ecology. They do this by constructing dams, digging canals and burrows, felling trees and introducing wood into streams, which in turn impounds water, raises shallow water tables, and alters the partitioning of the water balance, sediment transport and channel patters, biogeochemical cycling, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats. However, largely in the absence of predators, beaver numbers have been rapidly increasing throughout Europe since the 1980s, but also in parts of the US and South America, prompting a need to comprehensively review the current state of knowledge on how beavers influence the structure and function of river systems. Here, we synthesize the overall impacts on hydrology, geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We then examine the key feedbacks and overlaps between these changes induced by beavers, finding that modifications to the longitudinal connectivity drive many key process feedbacks. However, the magnitude of these feedbacks is also heavily dependent on the landscape and climatic context, with the ability to promote lateral connectivity determining the extent of beaver impacts as stream order increases. Crucially, beavers shape a river corridor, introducing distinct processes and feedbacks that would have existed prior to the historical collapse of beaver populations. There is thus a need to adapt current river management and restoration practices such that they can accommodate and enhance the ecosystem engineering services provided by beavers. We summarize key knowledge gaps that remain in our understanding of beaver impacts, which help map an interdisciplinary future research agenda.

  4. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  5. The demographic response of bank-dwelling beavers to flow regulation: A comparison on the Green and Yampa rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, S.W.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the effects of flow regulation on the demography of beavers (Castor canadensis) by comparing the density, home-range size, and body size of bank-dwelling beavers on two sixth-order alluvial river systems, the flow-regulated Green River and the free-flowing Yampa River, from 1997 to 2000. Flow regulation on the Green River has altered fluvial geomorphic processes, influencing the availability of willow and cottonwood, which, in turn, has influenced the demography of beavers. Beaver density was higher on the Green River (0.5–0.6 colonies per kilometre of river) than on the Yampa River (0.35 colonies per kilometre of river). Adult and subadult beavers on the Green River were in better condition, as indicated by larger body mass and tail size. There was no detectable difference in home-range size, though there were areas on the Yampa River that no beavers used. We attribute the improved habitat quality on the Green River to a greater availability of willow. We suggest that the sandy flats and sandbars that form during base flows and the ice cover that forms over winter on the Yampa River increase the energy expended by the beavers to obtain food and increase predation risk and thus lowers the availability of woody forage.

  6. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  7. Light and Electron Microscopy of the European Beaver (Castor fiber) Stomach Reveal Unique Morphological Features with Possible General Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented stomach lumen. These data suggest that chief cells in the CGG develop from undifferentiated cells that migrate through the gastric gland neck rather than from mucous neck cells. Classical chief cell formation (i.e., arising from mucous neck cells) occurred in the mucosa lining the stomach lumen, however. The muscularis around the CGG consisted primarily of skeletal muscle tissue. The cardiac region was rudimentary while the fundus/corpus and pyloric regions were equally developed. Another unusual feature of the beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus. PMID:24727802

  8. Beaver Activity, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream Scales in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Beaver (Castor canadensis) have been part of the fluvial and riparian landscape across much of North America since the Pleistocene, increasing channel habitat complexity and expanding riparian landscapes. The fur trade, however, decimated beaver populations by the 1840s, and other human activities have limited beaver in many areas, including parts of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Understanding fluctuations in beaver occupation through the Holocene will aid in understanding the natural range of variability in beaver activity as well as climatic and anthropogenic impacts to fluvial systems. We are developing a detailed chronology of beaver-assisted sedimentation and overall fluvial activity for Odell and Red Rock Creeks (basin areas 83 and 99 km2) in Centennial Valley (CV), Montana, to augment related studies on the long-term effects of beaver on smaller GYE fluvial systems (basin areas 0.1-50 km2). In developing the CV chronology, we use the presence of concentrations of beaver-chewed sticks as a proxy for beaver occupancy. Beaver-stick deposits are found in paleochannel and fluvial terrace exposures. The relative ages of exposures were determined by elevation data from airborne LiDAR and ground surveys. Numerical ages were obtained from 36 14C ages (~30 more are pending) of beaver-stick wood collected during investigation of the stratigraphy. Most beaver-stick deposits are associated with ~ 1 meter of fine-grained sediment, interpreted as overbank deposits, commonly overlying gravelly sand or pebble gravel channel deposits which is consistent with enhanced overbank sedimentation associated with active beaver dams in CV streams. The CV deposits differ from those on smaller GYE streams where beaver-stick deposits are associated with abandoned dams (berms), infilled ponds and laminated sediments. The lack of pond-related deposition associated with CV beaver-stick deposits is consistent with frequent dam breaching (≤ 5 years) in the modern channel of Odell

  9. Beaver management in Norway : a model for continental Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2003-01-01

    While Norway has been managing beaver (Castor fiber) for more than 150 years, most central European countries have little experience and none are presently harvesting beaver, despite rapidly growing populations and conflicts. Here we present the Norwegian beaver management model as an example. The main goals are to enhance biodiversity, produce a harvestable surplus, and reduce beaver-human conflicts. Beaver management should maximize recreational opportunities and allow landowners to profit ...

  10. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter “beaver”) populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition.

  11. Using occupancy models to accommodate uncertainty in the interpretation of aerial photograph data: status of beaver in Central Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Urban, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for many species and pose challenges in developed landscapes. They are increasingly viewed as a cost-efficient means of riparian habitat restoration and water storage. Still, information on their status is rare, particularly in western North America. We used aerial photography to evaluate changes in beaver occupancy between 1942–1968 and 2009 in upper portions of 2 large watersheds in Oregon, USA. We used multiple observers and occupancy modeling to account for bias related to photo quality, observers, and imperfect detection of beaver impoundments. Our analysis suggested a slightly higher rate of beaver occupancy in the upper Deschutes than the upper Klamath basin. We found weak evidence for beaver increases in the west and declines in eastern parts of the study area. Our study presents a method for dealing with observer variation in photo interpretation and provides the first assessment of the extent of beaver influence in 2 basins with major water-use challenges. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. [Succession caused by beaver (Castor fiber L.) life activity: I. What is learnt from the calibration of a simple Markov model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logofet, D O; Evstigneev, O I; Aleĭnikov, A A; Morozova, A O

    2014-01-01

    A homogeneous Markov chain of three aggregated states "pond--swamp--wood" is proposed as a model of cyclic zoogenic successions caused by beaver (Castor fiber L.) life activity in a forest biogeocoenosis. To calibrate the chain transition matrix, the data have appeared sufficient that were gained from field studies undertaken in "Bryanskii Les" Reserve in the years of 2002-2008. Major outcomes of the calibrated model ensue from the formulae of finite homogeneous Markov chain theory: the stationary probability distribution of states, thematrix (T) of mean first passage times, and the mean durations (M(j)) of succession stages. The former illustrates the distribution of relative areas under succession stages if the current trends and transition rates of succession are conserved in the long-term--it has appeared close to the observed distribution. Matrix T provides for quantitative characteristics of the cyclic process, specifying the ranges the experts proposed for the duration of stages in the conceptual scheme of succession. The calculated values of M(j) detect potential discrepancies between empirical data, the expert knowledge that summarizes the data, and the postulates accepted in the mathematical model. The calculated M2 value falls outside the expert range, which gives a reason to doubt the validity of expert estimation proposed, the aggregation mode chosen for chain states, or/and the accuracy-of data available, i.e., to draw certain "lessons" from partially successful calibration. Refusal to postulate the time homogeneity or the Markov property of the chain is also discussed among possible ways to improve the model.

  13. Diet preference of Eurasian Beaver (Castor Fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy and its influence on the tree species composition of river bank stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dvořák

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dietary behaviour and the tree species preference in the river bank stands in the diet of established population Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy; the objective is to assess the suitability of this environment for future development of the Eurasian Beaver and to asses the influence of the beaver’s dietary behaviour on the river bank stands. In the monitored area, the total of 5 tree species with the following preference were recorded: willow (Salix 42.2%, aspen (Populus 28%, dogwood (Comus 15.5%, birch (Betula 7.4% and alder (Alnus 6.9%. The most damaged diameter interval recorded within the all damaged tree species ranges from 2.6 to 6 cm, followed by the interval 6.1–12 cm. Over 61% of the trees felled by the beaver had a bigger diameter. The most sensitive reaction to beaver’s dietary behaviour was shown by aspen (reduction of numbers by 27.6% and by willow (reduction of numbers by 16.6% on the monitored area.

  14. Trends in Rocky Mountain amphibians and the role of beaver as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Gould, William R.; Patla, Debra A.; Muths, Erin L.; Daley, Rob; Legg, Kristin; Corn, P. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite prevalent awareness of global amphibian declines, there is still little information on trends for many widespread species. To inform land managers of trends on protected landscapes and identify potential conservation strategies, we collected occurrence data for five wetland-breeding amphibian species in four national parks in the U.S. Rocky Mountains during 2002–2011. We used explicit dynamics models to estimate variation in annual occupancy, extinction, and colonization of wetlands according to summer drought and several biophysical characteristics (e.g., wetland size, elevation), including the influence of North American beaver (Castor canadensis). We found more declines in occupancy than increases, especially in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks (NP), where three of four species declined since 2002. However, most species in Rocky Mountain NP were too rare to include in our analysis, which likely reflects significant historical declines. Although beaver were uncommon, their creation or modification of wetlands was associated with higher colonization rates for 4 of 5 amphibian species, producing a 34% increase in occupancy in beaver-influenced wetlands compared to wetlands without beaver influence. Also, colonization rates and occupancy of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) and Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) were ⩾2 times higher in beaver-influenced wetlands. These strong relationships suggest management for beaver that fosters amphibian recovery could counter declines in some areas. Our data reinforce reports of widespread declines of formerly and currently common species, even in areas assumed to be protected from most forms of human disturbance, and demonstrate the close ecological association between beaver and wetland-dependent species.

  15. A Model of Beaver Meadow Complex Evolution in the Silvies River Basin, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; Campbell, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the pervasive incision seen in the American West is due, in part, to the removal of beaver (Castor canadensis) in the first half of the 19th century. New restoration strategies for these systems focus on the reintroduction of beaver and construction of beaver dam analogs. Such dams locally raise streams beds and water tables, reconnect incised channels to their former floodplains, trap sediment, increase hydraulic diversity, and promote riparian vegetation. However, the geomorphic and hydrologic impacts of both the original beaver dams and their analogs are poorly understood. Observations in the Silvies River basin in Oregon, USA - an upland, semi-arid catchment with extremely high historic beaver populations and a presently recovering population, inform a conceptual model for valley floor evolution with beaver dams. The evolution of the beaver dam complex is characterized by eight stages of morphologic adjustment: water impoundment, sediment deposition, pond filling, multi-thread meadow creation, dam breaching, channel incision, channel widening, and floodplain development. Well-constructed beaver dams, given sufficient time and sediment flux, will evolve from a series of ponds to a multi-threaded channel flowing through a wet meadow complex. If a dam in the system fails, due to overtopping, undercutting, lack of maintenance, or abandonment, the upstream channel will concentrate into a single channel and incise, followed over time by widening once critical bank heights are exceeded. From stratigraphic, dendrochronologic, and geomorphic measurements, we are constraining average timescales associated with each stage's duration and transitional period. Measured sedimentation rates behind modern beaver dam analogs on five stream systems permit calculation of sediment flux over recent time periods, and aid in developing regional rates of sediment deposition over a range of drainage areas and gradients. Stratigraphic and

  16. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  17. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for

  18. First report of a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type 11 causing sepsis in a free-ranging beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Paola; Vogt, Debora; Origgi, Francesco C; Endimiani, Andrea; Peterson, Susanne; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type (ST) 11 is a hyper-epidemic nosocomial clone spreading worldwide among humans and also emerging in pets. In this report, we describe a clinical case of fatal sepsis due to this multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen in a Eurasian beaver. The isolate showed resistance to six different classes of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. This is the first report describing the detection of a MDR K. pneumoniae ST11 in a free-ranging animal. Our finding highlights the potential for environmental dissemination of hyper-epidemic clones of K. pneumoniae and possible spread in wildlife and cause epizootics. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  20. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  1. Depositional Model for a Beaver Pond Complex in a Piedmont Stream Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachide, S. P.; Diemer, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) often construct closely-spaced ponds on suitable sections of streams. Over time avulsive processes form an intricate network of shallow anabranching streams that connect a multitude of ponds, referred to here as a beaver pond complex (BPC). According to Polvi and Wohl (2012), BPCs evolve through four stages. Their model, resulting from the study of an alpine stream dominated by meltwater, focused on changes in valley planform, increased channel complexity, and the effects of floodplain sediment storage during the growth of a BPC. A revised depositional model for a multi-generation BPC is presented here, based on data collected at Mill Creek, in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The field data, comprising geolocated maps, cores and probes, were collected between March 2011 and October 2014 and were supplemented by 12 aerial images of the field area taken from January 1993 to October 2014. The revised BPC depositional model comprises several stages of development that include initial beaver occupation, followed by an interval of fast-paced pond creation and increasing channel complexity, a stage of slowing growth of the BPC, followed by cycles of dam breaching and repair, and an abandonment phase. An additional stage may include later reoccupation of an abandoned BPC to produce a multi-generation BPC. The areas affected by, and durations of, these stages are likely dictated by several variables including: geologic controls, local climate, hydrologic regime, beaver population size, and resource availability. Rare large precipitation events that led to the breaching of dams were likely the most impactful variable in the evolution of the Mill Creek BPC. Field observations indicate that beaching events affected the Mill Creek BPC more frequently than could be inferred from the 12 aerial images of the site. Therefore, aerial imagery should be used in conjunction with field-based investigations in order to more accurately

  2. The genetic legacy of multiple beaver reintroductions in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H S; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted.

  3. Orexin receptor expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes of free-living European beavers (Castor fiber L.) in different periods of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinska, Joanna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Bogacka, Iwona; Smolinska, Nina; Kaminska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides acting via two G protein-coupled receptors in mammals: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). In European beavers, which are seasonally breeding animals, the presence and functions of orexins and their receptors remain unknown. Our study aimed to determine the expression of OXR mRNAs and the localization of OXR proteins in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPA/HPG) axes in free-living beavers. The expression of OXR genes (OX1R, OX2R) and proteins was found in all analysed tissues during three periods of beavers' reproductive cycle (April, July, November). The expression of OXR mRNAs in the beaver HPA axis varied seasonally (P<0.05). The levels of OX1R mRNA also differed between the sexes (P<0.05). In the mediobasal hypothalamus, OX1R transcript content increased in pregnant females in April (P<0.05) and OX2R expression increased in males in July (P<0.05). In the pituitary and adrenals, OX1R mRNA levels were relatively constant in females and peaked in July in males (P<0.05), whereas the OX2R was most highly expressed in males in November and in females in April (P<0.05). In gonads, OX1R expression did not fluctuate between seasons or sexes, but transcript levels were elevated in the testes in November and in the ovaries in July (P<0.05). In turn, OX2R mRNA levels varied between the sexes (P<0.05) and were higher in females (July and November) than in males (P<0.05). The circannual variations in OXR mRNA levels in HPA and HPG axes suggest that the expression of these receptors is associated with sex-specific changes in beavers' reproductive activity and their environmental adaptations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of woods preferences of European beaver (Castor fiber L. 1758 in bank vegetation on non-forest land in the forest district Soutok (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urban

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2003 to 2005, this work studied the preference of tree species on non-forest land in the forest district Soutok (Southern Moravia, Czech Republic in order to evaluate the suitability of the area for the development and the its importance in relation to the decrease of damage in neighbouring production forests. The diet included the total of 14 tree species with diameter interval reaching from 1–10 cm to 191–200 cm. The most preferred species was Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior (40.5 % with the diameter 1–10 cm and willow (Salix spp. (31.7 % with the diameter 11–20 cm – both species with good ability to regenerate. Activities of European beaver negatively influenced the population of European white elm (Ulmus laevis, which belongs to the endangered species. Significant is the low ratio of poplars Populus spp. (7.9 % caused by the forest management. Maintaining the suitable tree composition and a sufficiently high percentage of individual tree species – in favour of willows and poplars – can result in the needed decrease of stress caused by the population of beaver on the adjacent forest stands and in the decrease of possible damage.

  5. Busy beavers gone wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Lafitte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We show some incompleteness results a la Chaitin using the busy beaver functions. Then, with the help of ordinal logics, we show how to obtain a theory in which the values of the busy beaver functions can be provably established and use this to reveal a structure on the provability of the values of these functions.

  6. A linear programming model of diet choice of free-living beavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; VanderVeer, PJ; Evers, EGJ; Ottenheim, MM

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming has been remarkably successful in predicting the diet choice of generalist herbivores. We used this technique to test the diet choice of free-living beavers (Castor fiber) in the Biesbosch (The Netherlands) under different Foraging goals, i.e. maximization of intake of energy,

  7. Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.; De Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in

  8. Beaver County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Beaver County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  9. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  10. Electrofishing method improves evaluation of amphibian larvae abundance: a case of "beaver rivers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgebuadze, Yury Y; Bashinskiy, Ivan V

    2017-07-01

    There are many locations in Russia where Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations have been restored. As a keystone species, beavers provide wide-ranging direct and indirect impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In particular, beaver-created ponds are sites for spawning and nursery places for tadpoles of the brown frogs (genus Rana). Because of such impacts, study techniques for assessing aquatic organism abundance are being developed. We compared two methods for estimating tadpole abundance: traditional catches by dipnet and electrofishing. Our results show that the dipnet catch data for the shallower ponds with larger water surface area were five times lower than that obtained by electrofishing. Therefore, we conclude that dipnet catches are not suitable for comparing the relative abundance of tadpoles in the two beaver ponds that were studied. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Jagodzińska, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area - the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers' behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver's foraging.

  12. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of castor oil from local wild castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characteristics of castor oil from seeds of the local wild castor plant (Ricinus communis) found in Ghana were determined to evaluate its suitability for exploitation for industrial purposes. The castor seeds were found to be rich in oil, containing 57 per cent castor oil of which 37 per cent was easily expressed ...

  15. The Beaver Creek story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  16. Effect of beaver dams on the hydrology of small mountain streams: Example from the Chevral in the Ourthe Orientale basin, Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, J.; Pontzeele, J.; Billi, P.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryThe European beaver ( Castor fiber) was recently reintroduced to Belgium, after an absence of more than 150 years; around 120 beaver dam systems have been established. In Europe, few studies consider the hydrological effects of those dams, and the spatial scale larger than that of one beaver pond system has not been addressed at all. This research focuses on the hydrological effects of a series of six beaver dams on the Chevral R., a second order tributary of the Ourthe Orientale R. in a forested area of the Ardennes. Thereby, also the Ourthe Orientale sub-basin itself was taken into account, being the area with probably the highest density of beaver dams in Belgium. The main research questions regarded: (1) the extent to which discharge peaks are reduced at the very location and well downstream of beaver dams and (2) the impact of the beaver dams on low flows. The first approach consisted of a temporal analysis of the Ourthe Orientale discharge and precipitation data for the periods 1978-2003 (before) and 2004-2009 (after the establishment of beaver dams in the sub-basin). The second study determined the in situ impact of the beaver dams: discharges were measured (September 2009-March 2010) upstream as well as downstream of the 0.52 ha beaver dam system on the Chevral river, and changes in water level within the system of six dams were monitored. Our findings indicate that there is a significant lowering of discharge peaks in the downstream river reaches due to the effect of the beaver dams. The temporal analysis of the Ourthe Orientale sub-basin shows an increase in the recurrence interval for major floods; for instance, the recurrence interval of a reference flood of 60 m 3 s -1 increased from 3.4 years to 5.6 years since the establishment of the beaver dams. At the scale of the Chevral beaver dams' site, we measured that the dams top off the peak flows, in addition delaying them by approximately 1 day. There are also increased low flows: Q355 (i.e. the

  17. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Thryothorus ludovicianus MAMMALS White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Fox Squirrel... Sciurus niger Cottontail Rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Beaver Castor canadensis Nutria

  18. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    chipmunk Tamiasciurus hudsonicus red squirrel Sciurus carolinensis grey squirrel Glauconus volans flying squirrel Castor canadensis beaver Peromyscus...necked pheasant Alectoris graeca chukar Perdx perdix gray partridge Columba livia rock dove Sturnus vulgaris starling Passer domesticus house sparrow

  19. The CASTOR initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thiez, Pierre [GEOGREEN (France)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken over the CASTOR project, which has 31 partners of 12 European countries. Also it is spoken on the strategy for the CO{sub 2} reduction in Europe; what on the capture and post-combustion has been done, and what as far as geologic CO{sub 2} storage has been accomplished. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla sobre el proyecto Castor, el cual cuenta con 31 socios de 12 paises europeos. Tambien se habla sobre la estrategia para la reduccion de CO{sub 2} en Europa; lo que se ha hecho en cuanto a captura post-combustion y lo que se ha hecho para el almacenamiento geologico de CO{sub 2}.

  20. ECRH on CASTOR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Žáček, František; Irzak, M. A.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 50, S 3 (2000), s. 51-56 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/19th./. Prague, 06.06.2000-09.06.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1215; GA ČR GA202/97/0778 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * CASTOR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2000

  1. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  2. The CASTOR shower library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim Filho, Luiz Martins; Carvalho, Wagner de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: CASTOR (Centaur And Strange Object Research) is an electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic (HAD) calorimeter, based on tungsten and quartz plates, operating in the CMS Detector (Compact Muon Solenoid) at LHC. The calorimeter detects Cerenkov radiation and is positioned around the beam pipe in the very forward region of CMS (at 14.38 m from the interaction point), covering the pseudo-rapidity range between -6.6 ≤ η≤-5.1 . It is longitudinally segmented into 14 sections, 2 for the EM and 12 for the HAD parts and is 16-fold azimuthally symmetric around the beam pipe. A Shower Library is needed for CASTOR Monte Carlo simulation, as the full simulation of showers takes a long time and the high multiplicity of particles in the forward region makes this simulation very time consuming. The Shower Library is used as a look-up table in the form of a ROOT file, so that when a simulated particle enters the detector with a certain energy and direction, characterized by the azimuthal angle φ and the pseudo-rapidity η, instead of making the full simulation of the shower in CASTOR, it is substituted by one already stored in the Shower Library. Showers corresponding to two types of particles are included in the Shower Library: electrons (or photons) and charged pions. The software implemented to make the Shower Library is described, as well as the validation of this library and timing studies. This package has been developed in the context of the official software of the CMS Collaboration, CMSSW. (author)

  3. Induced mutations in castor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, K.; Javad Hussain, H.S.; Vindhiyavarman, P.

    2001-01-01

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. To create variability mutations were induced in two cultivars 'TMV5' (maturing in 130-140 days) and 'CO1' (perennial type). Gamma rays and diethyl sulphate and ethidium bromide were used for seed treatment. Ten doses, from 100 to 1000 Gy were employed. For chemical mutagenesis five concentrations of mutagenes from 10 to 50 mM were tried. No economic mutants could be isolated after treatment with the chemical mutagens. The following economic mutants were identified in the dose 300 Gy of gamma rays. Annual types from perennial CO 1 castor CO 1 is a perennial variety (8-10 years) with bold seeds (100 seed weight 90 g) and high oil content (57%). Twenty-one lines were isolated with annual types (160-180 days) with high yield potential as well as bold seeds and high oil content. These mutants, identified in M 3 generation were bred true in subsequent generations up to M 8 generation. Critical evaluation of the mutants in yield evaluation trials is in progress

  4. [Assimilation of biological nitrogen by European beaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecherskiĭ, M V; Naumova, E I; Kostina, N V; Umarov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity, the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria, the structure and functional characteristics of the complex of microorganisms, and the content of nitrogen and carbon were determined in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of the European beaver. A high nitrogen-fixing activity in the large intestine correlated with an increase in nitrogen content in the chyme upon its transfer over the gastrointestinal tract. It is assumed that microbial nitrogen fixation plays a major role in nitrogen nutrition of the European beaver.

  5. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  6. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  7. Assault Airstrip Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ursus americanus floridanus Slash pine Pinus elliottii River otter Lutra canadensis Black titi Cliftonia monophylla Beaver Castor canadensis Pitcher...ecosystem, and they compete with native wildlife predators for food, can carry many diseases that can be transmitted to outdoor pet cats and native

  8. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    bluestar (Amsonia tabernaemontana), mints ( Mentha spp.), nodding ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes cernua), clustered Blacksnakeroot (Sanicula odorata...Indian pink (Spigelia marilandica), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis ), yellow passion flower (Passiflora lutea), and ruellia (Ruellia carolinensis...on Robins AFB), feral pig (Sus scrofa), raccoon (Procyon lotor), opos- sum, swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), beaver (Castor canadensis ), river

  9. Reference-free SNP discovery for the Eurasian beaver from restriction site-associated DNA paired-end data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Cezard, Timothee; Gharbi, Karim; Iqbal, Zamin; Johnson, Eric; Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Rosell, Frank; McEwing, Ross

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover SNP markers suitable for population genetic and parentage analysis with the aim of using them for monitoring the reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fibre) to Scotland. In the absence of a reference genome for beaver, we built contigs and discovered SNPs within them using paired-end RAD data, so as to have sufficient flanking region around the SNPs to conduct marker design. To do this, we used a simple pipeline which catalogued the Read 1 data in stacks and then used the assembler cortex_var to conduct de novo assembly and genotyping of multiple samples using the Read 2 data. The analysis of around 1.1 billion short reads of sequence data was reduced to a set of 2579 high-quality candidate SNP markers that were polymorphic in Norwegian and Bavarian beaver. Both laboratory validation of a subset of eight of the SNPs (1.3% error) and internal validation by confirming patterns of Mendelian inheritance in a family group (0.9% error) confirmed the success of this approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    river otter (Lutra canadensis), beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat (Ondatra zibethica), bobcat (Lynx rufus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon...and the expansion area in Oregon. Beaver, river otter , muskrat, and mink are associated with river environments and have the potential to occur in the...range. The blaze sent walls of flames 80 to 100 feet high racing toward senior citizen communities; where elderly residents grabbed their pets and

  11. Mandibular incisor apicoectomy in a Canadian Beaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Venter, Leon; Crossley, David; Buss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A 52-month-old Canadian beaver was presented for treatment of lip trauma resulting from overgrowth of the right mandibular incisor tooth following earlier loss of the right maxillary incisor tooth. Extraction of the affected tooth was considered, but rejected due to the length of the embedded portion of rodent mandibular incisor teeth. The lip injury was managed by crown reduction (odontoplasty) of the overgrowing incisor tooth pending a more permanent treatment plan. A 2-cm apicoectomy of the right mandibular incisor tooth was performed to arrest growth of the tooth when the beaver was 82-months-old. The remainder of the tooth continued to erupt and was completely expelled during a 9-month period with one additional odontoplasty being required. The beaver continued to feed normally with just the left maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth until its death at 118-months, with odontoplasty performed twice on the remaining incisor teeth during the 30-months following exfoliation.

  12. Practical aspects of registration the transformation of a river valley by beavers using terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Halina; Kordowski, Jarosław; Słowiński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    Activity of beavers (Castor fiber) often significantly affects the environment in which they life. The most commonly observed effect of their being in environment is construction of beaver dams and formation a pond upstream. However, in case of a sudden break of a dam and beaver pond drainage, the valley below the dam may also undergo remodelling. The nature and magnitude of these changes depends on the quantity of water and its energy as well as on the geological structure of the valley. The effects of such events can be riverbank erosion, and the deposition of the displaced of erosion products in the form of sandbars or fans. The material can also be accumulated in local depressions or delivered to water bodies. Such events may occur multiple times in the same area. To assess their impact on the environment it is important to quantify the displaced material. The study of such transformations was performed within a small valley of the river of Struga Czechowska (Tuchola Pinewood Forest, Poland). The valley is mainly cut in sands and gravels. Its steep banks are overgrown with bushes and trees. The assessment of changes in morphology were based on the event of the beaver pond drainage of 2015. The study uses the measurements from the terrestrial laser scanning (scanner Riegl VZ-4000). The measurements were performed before and after the event. Each of the two models obtained for comparison was made up of more than 20 measurement stations. Point clouds were joined by Multi-Station Adjustment without placing in the terrain any objects of reference. During measurements attention was paid to the changes in morphology of both riverbed and valley surrounding. The paper presents the example of the recorded changes as well as the measurement procedure. Moreover, the aspects of fieldwork and issues related to post-processing, such as merging, filtering of point clouds and detection of changes, are also presented. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of

  13. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  14. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  15. Territory and group sizes in Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber): echoes of settlement and reproduction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, R.D.; Rosell, F.; Nolet, B.A.; Dijkstra, V.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    According to current theories of territoriality, an animal is expected to defend the smallest area that can provide resources for maximisation of reproduction, known as the economically defendable area. In group territorial species however, the strategies behind resource defence are likely to be

  16. Intraspecific variation in Tsuga canadensis foliar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Ingwell; Joseph Brady; Matthew Fitzpatrick; Brian Maynard; Richard Casagrande; Evan Preisser

    2009-01-01

    Three groups of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carr.) trees were analyzed to compare their chemical composition and the potential for naturally occurring resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsguae...

  17. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  18. Synthesis of novel castor oil phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has served as a versatile hydroxy fatty acid (HFA); its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applications. Additionally, phosphonates and their corresponding phosphonic acids are a functional moiety that ha...

  19. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  20. Alteration of stream temperature by natural and artificial beaver dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicholas; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Pollock, Michael M; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M; Wathen, Gus; Wirtz, Jacob; Jordan, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    Beaver are an integral component of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes within North American stream systems, and their propensity to build dams alters stream and riparian structure and function to the benefit of many aquatic and terrestrial species. Recognizing this, beaver relocation efforts and/or application of structures designed to mimic the function of beaver dams are increasingly being utilized as effective and cost-efficient stream and riparian restoration approaches. Despite these verities, the notion that beaver dams negatively impact stream habitat remains common, specifically the assumption that beaver dams increase stream temperatures during summer to the detriment of sensitive biota such as salmonids. In this study, we tracked beaver dam distributions and monitored water temperature throughout 34 km of stream for an eight-year period between 2007 and 2014. During this time the number of natural beaver dams within the study area increased by an order of magnitude, and an additional 4 km of stream were subject to a restoration manipulation that included installing a high-density of Beaver Dam Analog (BDA) structures designed to mimic the function of natural beaver dams. Our observations reveal several mechanisms by which beaver dam development may influence stream temperature regimes; including longitudinal buffering of diel summer temperature extrema at the reach scale due to increased surface water storage, and creation of cool-water channel scale temperature refugia through enhanced groundwater-surface water connectivity. Our results suggest that creation of natural and/or artificial beaver dams could be used to mitigate the impact of human induced thermal degradation that may threaten sensitive species.

  1. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  2. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  3. Socio-ecological features other than sex affect habitat selection in the socially obligate monogamous Eurasian beaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Sam M J G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism, in which both the internal state as well as external factors affect the behavior and decisions of an individual. This is well known for polygamous mammals, which are typically sexually dimorphic, and often express great variability in behavior and habitat selection between individuals as well between the sexes. Among monogamous mammals, however, variability in habitat selection should be explained by group characteristics and the presence of offspring rather than by sex. We evaluated this hypothesis in a socially monogamous rodent, the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), in a saturated Norwegian population. For the first time in this species we applied GPS tracking devices (N = 22 adult beavers, in 15 territories, 2009-2013), and used resource selection functions (i) to document population-wide habitat selection and the importance of 'territory' therein, and (ii) to evaluate which socio-ecological factors explained potential individual differences in habitat selection. We found that variation in habitat selection was stronger between territories than between years or individuals nested by territory. We identified that family size and the presence of kits, but not sex, explained individual variation in habitat selection. Adults with kits and/or larger families tended to exhibit low risk-taking behavior (avoiding human-related variables such as roads, buildings, and agricultural land), and stayed close to their main lodge (parental care). Our results show that habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism even in a species which expresses very little behavioral and morphological dimorphism.

  4. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  5. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  6. Beaver Mediated Water Table Dynamics in Mountain Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, D. J.; Westbrook, C.; Bedard-Haughn, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water table dynamics play an important role in the ecological and biogeochemical processes that regulate carbon and water storage in peatlands. Beaver are common in these habitats and the dams they build have been shown to raise water tables in other environments. However, the impact of beaver dams in peatlands, where water tables rest close to the surface, has yet to be determined. We monitored a network of 50 shallow wells in a Canadian Rocky Mountain peatland for 6 years. During this period, a beaver colony was maintaining a number of beaver ponds for four years until a flood event removed the colony from the area and breached some of the dams. Two more years of data were collected after the flood event to assess whether the dams enhanced groundwater storage. Beaver dams raised water tables just as they do in other environments. Furthermore, water tables within 100 meters of beaver dams were more stable than those further away and water table stability overall was greater before the flood event. Our results suggest the presence/absence of beaver in peatlands has implications for groundwater water storage and overall system function.

  7. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolysed castor oil and oleic acid was investigated by the iodine monochloride and chloramine-T methods. The effect of the iodinating agent and the concentration of castor oil on the labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic fatty acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrated in the heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog aliphatic fatty acids. An infra-red study showed that the OH group of the ricinoleic acid apparently protects the 125 I added on the double bond, with minor changes in biochemical properties and better uptake by the heart muscle. (author)

  8. Carboxypeptidase of Castor Bean Endosperm during Germination

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 知子; 下田, 忠久; 船津, 軍喜; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shimoda, Tadahisa; Funatsu, Gunki

    1982-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase (CPase) in the endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) showed high activity at day 4 and 7 on germination. From the behavior of CPases on CM-cellulose column chromatography, the early stage CPases, which appeared before 4 day germination, were different from the later stage CPases which appeared after 6 day. Probably the former arised from ungerminated seeds and the latter was synthesized during the germination. The early stage endosperm of small grain castor bean cont...

  9. Modeling the capacity of riverscapes to support beaver dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jensen, Martha L.; Gilbert, Jordan T.; Hough-Snee, Nate; Shivik, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of beaver dams facilitates a suite of hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and ecological feedbacks that increase stream complexity and channel-floodplain connectivity that benefit aquatic and terrestrial biota. Depending on where beaver build dams within a drainage network, they impact lateral and longitudinal connectivity by introducing roughness elements that fundamentally change the timing, delivery, and storage of water, sediment, nutrients, and organic matter. While the local effects of beaver dams on streams are well understood, broader coverage network models that predict where beaver dams can be built and highlight their impacts on connectivity across diverse drainage networks are lacking. Here we present a capacity model to assess the limits of riverscapes to support dam-building activities by beaver across physiographically diverse landscapes. We estimated dam capacity with freely and nationally-available inputs to evaluate seven lines of evidence: (1) reliable water source, (2) riparian vegetation conducive to foraging and dam building, (3) vegetation within 100 m of edge of stream to support expansion of dam complexes and maintain large colonies, (4) likelihood that channel-spanning dams could be built during low flows, (5) the likelihood that a beaver dam is likely to withstand typical floods, (6) a suitable stream gradient that is neither too low to limit dam density nor too high to preclude the building or persistence of dams, and (7) a suitable river that is not too large to restrict dam building or persistence. Fuzzy inference systems were used to combine these controlling factors in a framework that explicitly also accounts for model uncertainty. The model was run for 40,561 km of streams in Utah, USA, and portions of surrounding states, predicting an overall network capacity of 356,294 dams at an average capacity of 8.8 dams/km. We validated model performance using 2852 observed dams across 1947 km of streams. The model showed

  10. Reconstruction of the MSRs in-situ at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.; Tam, C.W.; Deahna, S.T.; McFeaters, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley 1 pressurized water reactor since the plant started up 16 years ago, many of the problems encountered being widespread in the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light rebuilt the Beaver Valley 1 MSRs and in 1992 did the same at unit 2. The reconstruction projects have proved cost effective with short payback times and significant improvements in station performance. (Author)

  11. Response of clarias gariepinus to dietary castor seeds processed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castor seed variously treated by boiling, roasting, boiling and roasting, decorticated lyle treated, boiling and fermenting was tested for improved nutrient content and elimination of toxins. 10% processed castor seed cake (CSC) was included in diets and fed to 180 catfishes for 4-weeks to assay the dietary castor seed based ...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil may be...

  13. 75 FR 44917 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0232; FRL-8835-3] Castor Oil... castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation.... This regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of castor oil...

  14. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0231; FRL-8834-4] Castor Oil... castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate (CAS Reg. No. 220037-02-5) with a minimum number average molecular weight... regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of castor oil...

  15. General Reevaluation and Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes, Sheyenne River, North Dakota. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), squirrels ( Sciurus sp.), beaver (Castor canadensis), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), and white- tailed...Syringa vulgaris ). The fifth row would consist of tall trees including green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), bur oak (Ouercus macrocarpa) or cottonwood

  16. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register... Responsible Official for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project. DATES: The Final Environmental Impact...

  17. 75 FR 77826 - White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver Creek Mountain Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Beaver... Beaver Creek Resort's 2010 Master Development Plan (MIDP). These projects are designed to enhance and sustain Beaver Creek's ability to provide a world class venue for Alpine ski events--a key goal of the MDP...

  18. 77 FR 62147 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley Nonattainment Area... (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making two determinations regarding the Pittsburgh- Beaver... 12.7 Collocated Armstrong 42-005-0001 Kittaning......... 11.0 13.2 12.1 12.1 Incomplete \\2\\ Beaver 42...

  19. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and.... Watauga and Wilbur reservoirs are along the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on...

  20. 77 FR 34297 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley Nonattainment Area... Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as ``the... designations process. The Pittsburgh Area is comprised of the counties of Beaver, Butler, Washington, and...

  1. The Beaver: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This interdisciplinary unit is intended for use with third grade classes. It examines the history and economics of man's relationships to the beaver. It investigates the natural history of the beaver, its anatomy, range, food sources, and the skills it employs to modify its environment by building dams. The structure of beaver dams is examined.…

  2. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...-2013-0002; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1147] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All... Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or will be issuing a Revised Preliminary Flood Insurance...

  3. A Review of Techniques for Minimizing Beaver and White-Tailed Deer Damage in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Hill; Douglas N. Lasher; R. Blake. Roper

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing beaver and deer damage to hardwood forest resources are reviewed. Beaver controls considered were poisons, chemosterilants, predators, and trapping. Population reduction through trapping with 330 conibear traps for two weeks during two successive years effectively eliminates beaver from small watersheds and shows greater promise for control than...

  4. 78 FR 13384 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2); Confirmatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... and NPF-73; EA-12-254] In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Co. (Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2... operation of the Beaver Valley Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Beaver Valley, facility), in accordance with..., the licensee described its progress for transitioning Beaver Valley to NFPA 805. FENOC also notified...

  5. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  6. (11) EFFECT OF POWDERED CASTOR BEAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    A study was carried out at the Toxicology laboratory of the Department of Crop and Environmental protection,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, to determine the effects of powdered castor oil seed. (Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae) on kidney, liver, spleen of albino rats. The rats were in five groups, ...

  7. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  8. Phenylpropanoid esters of lesquerella and castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (LO) and castor oil (CO) were esterified at the secondary hydroxyl groups of their 14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic fatty acids and 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic fatty acids, respectively, with 4-acetoxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (acetoxyferulic acid). The unconventional esterifications were co...

  9. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  10. (11) EFFECT OF POWDERED CASTOR BEAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Ricinus communis, are poisonous to people, animals and insects. One of the main toxic proteins is "ricin", named by ... whereas RCA is a weak cytotoxin and a powerful hemagglutinin. Poisoning by exposure to castor oil seed .... Both red and the white pulps are distinguishable and numerous small vascular channels are ...

  11. epi-Cubebanes from Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasali, Adeleke A; Ekundayo, Olusegun; Paul, Claudia; König, Wilfried A

    2002-04-01

    GC-MS of the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation of the green parts of a specimen of Solidago canadensis collected near Katowice, Poland, revealed two new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Their EI mass spectra resembled the mass spectrum of beta-ylangene (1) but the retention indices of the new compounds differed markedly from this known compound. After isolation of the new compounds by preparative GC their investigation by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques resulted in the identification of 6-epi-alpha-cubebene (2) (minor constituent, 1.5%) and 6-epi-beta-cubebene (3) (major constituent, 20.5%).

  12. A subsurface model of the beaver meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; Flinchum, B. A.; Lancaster, J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Davis, L. G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wet meadows are a vital component of arid and semi-arid environments. These valley spanning, seasonally inundated wetlands provide critical habitat and refugia for wildlife, and may potentially mediate catchment-scale hydrology in otherwise "water challenged" landscapes. In the last 150 years, these meadows have begun incising rapidly, causing the wetlands to drain and much of the ecological benefit to be lost. The mechanisms driving this incision are poorly understood, with proposed means ranging from cattle grazing to climate change, to the removal of beaver. There is considerable interest in identifying cost-effective strategies to restore the hydrologic and ecological conditions of these meadows at a meaningful scale, but effective process based restoration first requires a thorough understanding of the constructional history of these ubiquitous features. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the North American beaver may have had a considerable role in shaping this landscape through the building of dams. This "beaver meadow complex hypothesis" posits that as beaver dams filled with fine-grained sediments, they became large wet meadows on which new dams, and new complexes, were formed, thereby aggrading valley bottoms. A pioneering study done in Yellowstone indicated that 32-50% of the alluvial sediment was deposited in ponded environments. The observed aggradation rates were highly heterogeneous, suggesting spatial variability in the depositional process - all consistent with the beaver meadow complex hypothesis (Polvi and Wohl, 2012). To expand on this initial work, we have probed deeper into these meadow complexes using a combination of geophysical techniques, coring methods and numerical modeling to create a 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface environments. This imaging has given us a unique view into the patterns and processes responsible for the landforms, and may shed further light on the role of beaver in shaping these landscapes.

  13. Dissecting Solidago canadensis-soil feedback in its real invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yang, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    The importance of plant-soil feedback (PSF) has long been recognized, but the current knowledge on PSF patterns and the related mechanisms mainly stems from laboratory experiments. We aimed at addressing PSF effects on community performance and their determinants using an invasive forb Solidago canadensis . To do so, we surveyed 81 pairs of invaded versus uninvaded plots, collected soil samples from these pairwise plots, and performed an experiment with microcosm plant communities. The magnitudes of conditioning soil abiotic properties and soil biotic properties by S. canadensis were similar, but the direction was opposite; altered abiotic and biotic properties influenced the production of subsequent S. canadensis communities and its abundance similarly. These processes shaped neutral S. canadensis -soil feedback effects at the community level. Additionally, the relative dominance of S. canadensis increased with its ability of competitive suppression in the absence and presence of S. canadensis -soil feedbacks, and S. canadensis -induced decreases in native plant species did not alter soil properties directly. These findings provide a basis for understanding PSF effects and the related mechanisms in the field conditions and also highlight the importance of considering PSFs holistically.

  14. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nivea de Lima; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Batistella, César Benedito; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    The transesterification of castor oil with ethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide as catalyst is an exceptional option for the Brazilian biodiesel production, because the castor nut is quite available in the country. Chemically, its oil contains about 90% of ricinoleic acid that gives to the oil some beneficial characteristics such as its alcohol solubility at 30 degrees C. The transesterification variables studied in this work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol oil molar ratio. Through a star configuration experimental design with central points, this study shows that it is possible to achieve the same conversion of esters carrying out the transesterification reaction with a smaller alcohol quantity, and a new methodology was developed to obtain high purity biodiesel.

  15. Agronomically valuable mutant lines of castor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhan, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    Dry seeds of four castor varieties (VNIIMK 165-improved, VNIIMK 18, Chervonnaya and Antika) were treated with six chemical mutagens, N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU), N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea (NEU), dimethyl sulphate (DMS), diethyl sulphate (DES), ethylenimine (EI) and 1,4-bis-diazoacetyl-butane (DAB) in various doses during 18 hours. About 40,000 plants were studied in M 2 and 80 types of mutations were found, including a number of valuable mutants: short-stemmed, semi-dwarf, dwarf, early maturing, with female and interspersed types of racemes, highly productive etc. Based on trials in M 3 -M 4 , on small plots with two or three replications, the superior mutant lines were identified. The best mutants are presented in the table. Early maturation is very important for growing castor in the USSR, as it is the predecessor of winter wheat in crop rotation. The mutants M2-323 and Ml-83 are of great value as they show early maturation and high yield. Their productivity is mainly conditioned by a high percentage of interspersed plants. The reduction of plant height is of great importance for the successful combine harvesting of castor. Mutant lines M2-119 and Ml-284 characterised by low plant height and high yield are very interesting in this respect. The obtained initial material will be used in further breeding work

  16. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  17. LHCb: CASTORFS - A Filesystem to Access CASTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    Mazurov, A

    2009-01-01

    CASTOR provides a powerful and rich interface for managing files and pools of files backed by tape-storage. The API is modelled very closely on that of a POSIX filesystem, where part of the actual I/O part is handled by the rfio library. While the API is very close to POSIX it is still separated, which unfortunately makes it impossible to use standard tools and scripts straight away. This is particularly inconvenient when applications are written in languages other than C/C++ such as is frequently the case in web-apps. Here up to now the only the recourse was to use command-line utilities and parse their output, which is clearly a kludge. We have implemented a complete POSIX filesystem to access CASTOR using FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) and have successfully tested and used this on SLC4 and SLC5 (both in 32 and 64 bit). We call it CastorFS. In this paper we will present its architecture and implementation, with emphasis on performance and caching aspects.

  18. Four major saponins from Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Plasun, M; Korhammer, S; Haslinger, E; Hiller, K; Kubelka, W

    1991-01-01

    Four new bisdesmosidic saponins each containing eight carbohydrate units were isolated from Solidago canadensis. GC, GC-MS, FABMS analysis and mainly the use of 2D NMR techniques allowed their identification as bayogeninglycosides (canadensissaponins 1-4) 3-O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[beta-D- apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-beta-D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl- (1----]-bayogenin; -(1----2)-[beta-D-apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-ara- binopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin; -[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)]-beta- D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin and - [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1----3)]-arabinopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin.

  19. New labdane diterpenes from Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Phan, Thi T; Rise, Frode; Halvorsen, Trine G; Malterud, Karl E

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract of roots of Solidago canadensis yielded eight labdane-type diterpenes. Five of those were new natural compounds (9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3a), 13-epi-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3b), 15,16-epoxy-labdane-7,13-diene-6,16-dione (5), 15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6a) and 13-epi-15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6b). The known labdane diterpenes deoxysolidagenone (1), solidagenone (2) and 15,16-epoxy-labdane-7,13-diene-6,15-dione (4) were also isolated. Chemical structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS analysis.

  20. Agreement Between Community College of Beaver County and Community College of Beaver County Society of the Faculty (PSEA/NEA). September 1, 1972 to August 31, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver County Community Coll., Monaca, PA.

    This document contains the agreement between the Community College of Beaver County and the Community College of Beaver County Society of the Faculty for the period from September 1, 1972 through August 31, 1974. Contained in the articles of the agreement are sections covering academic freedom, grievance procedures, rights of faculty, use of…

  1. Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Antti

    2015-10-30

    The Echinococcus granulosus complex (EG) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Northern cervid Echinococcus was previously suggested to be the ancestor of the entire EG. During the last century, it was regarded to have three (or four) different, but often overlapping, transmission cycles in the circumpolar North: the original wolf-wild cervid (reindeer or elk)-cycle; the semi-synanthropic cycle involving sled and hunting dogs and wild cervids; and the synanthropic cycle involving herding dogs and semi-domesticated reindeer. Human infections mainly derived from the latter two cycles. In Fennoscandia, the synanthropic cycle has been eliminated during the last 50 years due to changes in reindeer husbandry methods; machinery making herding dogs largely redundant. Typical to human CE in the North has been the relatively benign nature of the disease compared with CE caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto. The metacestodes in humans and in the natural cervid hosts predominantly appear in the lungs. The causative agents have been identified as EG mitochondrial genotypes G8 and G10, now together with G6 (camel), G7 (pig) and G9 genotypes constituting the Echinococcus canadensis species. Based on recent findings in reindeer in Yakutia, G6 might also be recognised among cervid genotypes. The geographical distribution of both G8 and G10 is circumpolar, with G10 currently apparently more prevalent both in the Palearctic and Nearctic. Because of the disappearance of the working dog, E. canadensis in Fennoscandia is again highly dependent on the wolf, as it was before domestication of the dog. Pet and sled dogs, if their number further increases, may to a minor part participate in the life cycle. Human CE in the North was mostly diagnosed by mass chest tuberculosis radiography campaigns, which have been discontinued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of castor oil in pregnancies at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, D; Figueroa, R; Guillaume, J; Cucco, V

    2000-01-01

    Despite wide use of castor oil to initiate labor, the obstetric literature contains few references to this botanical laxative. Derived from the castor plant Ricinus communis, castor oil may possess properties that are useful in post-term pregnancies. To evaluate the relationship between the use of castor oil and the onset of labor. Prospective evaluation. A community hospital in Brooklyn, NY. A total of 103 singleton pregnancies with intact membranes at 40 to 42 weeks referred for antepartum testing. Inclusion criteria included cervical examination, Bishop score of 4 or less, and no evidence of regular uterine contractions. Patients were alternately assigned to 1 of 2 study groups: a single oral dose of castor oil (60 mL) or no treatment. Castor oil was considered successful if labor began within 24 hours after dosing. Groups were compared for onset of labor in 24 hours, method of delivery, presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar score, and birth weight. Fifty-two women received castor oil and 48 were assigned no treatment. Following administration of castor oil, 30 of 52 women (57.7%) began active labor compared to 2 of 48 (4.2%) receiving no treatment. When castor oil was successful, 83.3% (25/30) of the women delivered vaginally. Women who receive castor oil have an increased likelihood of initiation of labor within 24 hours compared to women who receive no treatment. Castor oil use in pregnancy is underreported worldwide. This small series represents the first attempt to evaluate the medication.

  3. First confirmed record of Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulis Georgios

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms the presence of Elodea canadensis Michx. in Greece and outlines the history of contradictory relevant reports. This is also the first report of the species′ presence in the transboundary lake Great Prespa.

  4. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with 4 ...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    adhesives and thermal insulation.14–16 However, modifica- tion of PU for use as host in polymer electrolytes has not ... is no report related to the potential of castor oil-polyol- based PU as host in polymer electrolytes. ... The reactor was filled with castor oil and 15 wt% of gly- cerol was added to it. The percentage of the ...

  7. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and animal feeding.

  8. Novel alpha-hydroxy phosphonic acids via castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) have found a number of uses in today’s market, with uses ranging from materials to pharmaceuticals. Castor oil has served as a versatile HFA; its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applica...

  9. VARIATIONS IN SEED TRAITS OF CASTOR (Ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sizes of castor seed have been reported to vary from a few millimeters long to about 20 mm in the giant species (Weiss, 2000). The seed weight varies. For instance, seeds found in Nigeria and Kenya has been reported to weigh. 69.3 and 59.2 g, respectively (Li et al., 2008). The typical fatty acid composition of castor oil.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with 4 ...

  11. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylo- nitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol ...

  13. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  14. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001-CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Key words: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, bioenergy.

  15. Registration of Crop Varieties A Unique Purple Castor (Racinnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the castor produced in Russia,. USA, Israel, Brazil, China and India comes from hybrid varieties. In 1999 a unique purple castor population was noticed during a field trip at. Adullala near Melkassa. One killo gram of seed was abstained from the farmer, and mass selection for uniformity, top branching and short plant.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with.

  17. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    glycerol modification of castor oil results in more crosslinked and stiffer IPNs possessing better mechanical properties over that of unmodified castor oil polyurethane/. PHEMA IPNs. 3.5 Chemical resistance. The percentage weight loss of IPNs were determined in. H2SO4, CH3COOH, HCl, HNO3, NaCl and NaOH etc and.

  18. Survey of beaver-related restoration practices in rangeland streams of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  19. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  20. Diversity of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) in Ethiopia አህፅርኦት ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, Castor grows as annual in the low lands to small tree perennial in the high lands. India, china, Brazil and USA are the major castor producers globally. Castor bears seeds that containing highly valuable industrial oil. Castor oil is unique among vegetable oil because it is the only commercial source of a ...

  1. Castor halls. A problem for the century; Castor-Hallen. Ein Jahrhundertproblem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stay, Jochen

    2017-01-15

    The interim storage of high-level radioactive waste will last longer than asserted. The existing halls for the castor casks are not appropriate for this task with respect to safety. The casks themselves are not designed for long-term storage. Politics obviously do not consider the problems seriously.

  2. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver

  3. Castor Oil Transesterification Catalysed by Liquid Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, biodiesel production by reaction of non-edible castor oil with methanol under enzymatic catalysis is investigated. Two liquid enzymes were tested: Eversa Transform and Resinase HT. Reactions were performed at 35 °C and with a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1. The reaction...... and fully reused; in the latter, a mixture of 50 % reused and 50 % fresh enzymes was tested. In the case of total reuse after three cycles, both enzymes achieved only low conversions. The biodiesel content in the oil-phase using Eversa Transform was 94.21 % for the first cycle, 68.39 % in the second, and 33...

  4. Impacts of beaver dams on hydrologic and temperature regimes in a mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerova, M.; Neilson, B. T.; Schmadel, N. M.; Wheaton, J. M.; Snow, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Beaver dams affect hydrologic processes, channel complexity, and stream temperature in part by inundating riparian areas, influencing groundwater-surface water interactions, and changing fluvial processes within stream systems. We explored the impacts of beaver dams on hydrologic and temperature regimes at different spatial and temporal scales within a mountain stream in northern Utah over a 3-year period spanning pre- and post-beaver colonization. Using continuous stream discharge, stream temperature, synoptic tracer experiments, and groundwater elevation measurements, we documented pre-beaver conditions in the first year of the study. In the second year, we captured the initial effects of three beaver dams, while the third year included the effects of ten dams. After beaver colonization, reach-scale (~ 750 m in length) discharge observations showed a shift from slightly losing to gaining. However, at the smaller sub-reach scale (ranging from 56 to 185 m in length), the discharge gains and losses increased in variability due to more complex flow pathways with beaver dams forcing overland flow, increasing surface and subsurface storage, and increasing groundwater elevations. At the reach scale, temperatures were found to increase by 0.38 °C (3.8 %), which in part is explained by a 230 % increase in mean reach residence time. At the smallest, beaver dam scale (including upstream ponded area, beaver dam structure, and immediate downstream section), there were notable increases in the thermal heterogeneity where warmer and cooler niches were created. Through the quantification of hydrologic and thermal changes at different spatial and temporal scales, we document increased variability during post-beaver colonization and highlight the need to understand the impacts of beaver dams on stream ecosystems and their potential role in stream restoration.

  5. Castor oil for induction of labour: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Isabella; Dante, Giulia; Pignatti, Lucrezia; Salvioli, Chiara; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of castor oil to induce labour. A retrospective observational case control study was conducted over five years. Castor oil was proposed to women referred to the Birth Centre (Castor Oil group (COG)). They were compared to women who chose to be followed by the traditional doctor-led unit (control group (CG)). Castor oil was administered in a 60 ml single dose in 200 ml of warm water. Inclusion criteria were gestational age between 40 and 41 weeks plus premature rupture of membranes between 12 and 18 hours or amniotic fluid index ≤4 or Bishop Score of ≤4 or absence of spontaneous labour over 41 + 4 weeks. Pharmacological induction of labour was required for 18 women in the COG (45%) and 36 in the CG (90%) (p castor oil showed a higher incidence of vaginal delivery, whereas the incidence of caesarean section was lower in the COG, but no statistical significance was reached. The use of castor oil is related to a higher probability of labour initiation within 24 hours. Castor oil can be considered a safe non-pharmacological method for labour induction.

  6. 78 FR 41805 - In the Matter of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Beaver Valley Power Station; Independent Spent Fuel Storage... of FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Beaver Valley Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage... set forth in the Beaver Valley Power Station's physical security plan. FENOC shall demonstrate its...

  7. Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalino, AD; Salen, VA; Reyes, LQ

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyurethanes based on castor oil and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) were synthesized with varying weight ratio of the castor oil and HMDI. The formation of urethane linkages was verified through the use of a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrophilicity of the films was evaluated through the use of a contact angle meter and it was found that the contact angle of all the films were below 90 degrees which confirms their hydrophilicity. The thermal stability of the PU films were studies through the use of a thermal gravimetric analyzer and found that all of the polyurethane films exhibited two weight loss events at elevated temperatures wherein the first weight loss event was observed to occur at 285°C to 384°C while the second weight loss event was observed at around 521°C to 551°C. The hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile elongation of the PU films were determined by using a universal testing machine (UTM) where it was found out that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the film is directly proportional with HMDI loading while the tensile elongation is inversely proportional to it. Lastly, it was known through the swelling studies of the PU films that it does not swell, this is due to the presence of unreacted triglycerides in the material, which prevents water from permeating to the films.

  8. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  9. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Landscape Management Project is to manage forest vegetation in a manner that increases resiliency of this... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to...

  10. CARBON TRACE GASES IN LAKE AND BEAVER POND ICE NEAR THOMPSON, MANITOBA, CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 were measured in beaver pond and lake ice in April 1996 near Thompson, Manitoba to derive information on possible impacts of ice melting on corresponding atmospheric trace gas concentrations. CH4 concentrations in beaver pond and lake ice ranged...

  11. Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John E. Hunter; Robin Hamlin; Keith M. Slauson; M. J. Mazurek

    2010-01-01

    The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Using...

  12. 76 FR 51469 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Beaver County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 55 (Sub-No. 708X)] CSX Transportation, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Beaver County, PA CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has filed a... milepost PLK 2.39, in Koppel, Beaver County, Pa. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code...

  13. Landsat time series analysis documents beaver migration into permafrost landscapes of arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Tape, K. D.; Nitze, I.; Arp, C. D.; Grosse, G.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape-scale impacts of climate change in the Arctic include increases in growing season length, shrubby vegetation, winter river discharge, snowfall, summer and winter water temperatures, and decreases in river and lake ice thickness. Combined, these changes may have created conditions that are suitable for beaver colonization of low Arctic tundra regions. We developed a semi-automated workflow that analyzes Landsat imagery time series to determine the extent to which beavers may have colonized permafrost landscapes in arctic Alaska since 1999. We tested this approach on the Lower Noatak, Wulik, and Kivalina river watersheds in northwest Alaska and identified 83 locations representing potential beaver activity. Seventy locations indicated wetting trends and 13 indicated drying trends. Verification of each site using high-resolution satellite imagery showed that 80 % of the wetting locations represented beaver activity (damming and pond formation), 11 % were unrelated to beavers, and 9 % could not readily be distinguished as being beaver related or not. For the drying locations, 31 % represented beaver activity (pond drying due to dam abandonment), 62 % were unrelated to beavers, and 7 % were undetermined. Comparison of the beaver activity database with historic aerial photography from ca. 1950 and ca. 1980 indicates that beavers have recently colonized or recolonized riparian corridors in northwest Alaska. Remote sensing time series observations associated with the migration of beavers in permafrost landscapes in arctic Alaska include thermokarst lake expansion and drainage, thaw slump initiation, ice wedge degradation, thermokarst shore fen development, and possibly development of lake and river taliks. Additionally, beaver colonization in the Arctic may alter channel courses, thermal regimes, hyporheic flow, riparian vegetation, and winter ice regimes that could impact ecosystem structure and function in this region. In particular, the combination of beaver

  14. Beaver Evidence - Historical Range of Beaver in the State of California, with an emphasis on areas within the range of coho salmon and steelhead trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines historical, archaeological, and geological evidence to re-evaluate the existing management paradigm that beaver are non-native to most of...

  15. Copper toxicity in leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, Przemysław; Maleva, Maria; Prasad, M N V; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2009-05-01

    Elodea canadensis (Canadian waterweed) has an ability to accumulate and bioconcentrate heavy metals. In this work, selected cellular responses for Cu treatment were studied in leaves of E. canadensis. Short term experiments, i.e. 1 week exposure to 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 microM of Cu indicated that concentrations up to 10 microM Cu causes a pronounced accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, a drastic degradation of soluble proteins with molecular weight above 18 kDa and a rapid accumulation of polypeptides with molecular weight below 14 kDa. The connection of these observations with copper detoxification mechanisms in aquatic macrophytes are discussed.

  16. Solidago canadensis und Solidago gigantea in Frankfurt am Main

    OpenAIRE

    Ottich, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Die beiden nordamerikanischen Goldruten-Arten Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea sind in Mitteleuropa weit verbreitet. Häufig wird nicht zwischen den beiden Arten unterschieden, die Angaben zur Ökologie scheinen für beide Arten weitgehend identisch. Durch eine Rasterkartierung des Stadtgebietes von Frankfurt am Main wird gezeigt, dass die Arten jedoch unterschiedliche Ansprüche haben. Während Solidago canadensis sehr häufig ist und alle typisch städtischen Bereiche besiedelt, wird Solidago g...

  17. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial Brominated epoxy resin. The curing of epoxy resin by ACO was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and based on the DSC study their glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were fabricated. The cured samples (i.e. unreinforced were also subjected to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were also evaluated.

  18. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The color, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively.

  19. The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  1. Radionuclide uptake by beaver and ruffed grouse in the Serpent River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clulow, F.V.

    1988-12-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, and diet items of adult beaver and ruffed grouse from the Serpent River drainage basin (which contains the city of Elliot Lake) and control sites in Ontario, and in beaver and muskrat fetuses from females taken in the same basin. Levels of radium 226 in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to uranium tailings; liver levels did not vary by site. Grouse taken near Elliot Lake has higher bone levels of radium 226 than distant controls; levels in other tissues did not vary by site. Environmental radium 226 levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver and grouse gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Fetal beaver tissues had higher radium 226 levels than maternal tissues; fetal liver tissue carried higher levels than other body tissues in general; fetal levels varied with maternal levels but also inversely with fetal size (and thus age). Although muskrat fetal liver had more radium 226 than other tissues, levels were lower than maternal bone levels. In two grouse and two beaver, selected for their higher tissue levels of radium 226, neither thorium 232 nor thorium 230 were detected in bone, muscle, or liver samples, however other radionuclides were measured: uranium 238 in beaver and grouse bone, muscle and liver; thorium 228 in beaver bone and grouse muscle; polonium 210 was found in bone, muscle, and liver of both beaver and grouse sampled (except in one grouse muscle sample); lead 210 was measurable only in beaver bone and in one grouse liver sample. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site; between vegetation and other beaver tissues values were never more than 0.19. In grouse, the concentration ratios from trembling aspen leaves to bone was 1.04; from other diet items and to other tissues the values were less than unity. Estimated

  2. WHIPJET progress on piping restraint elimination at Beaver Valley - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Szy Slow Ski, J.J.; Goldstein, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture mechanics technology has advanced to the point that an engineering approach using the concept of leak-before-break in lieu of postulating double-ended pipe rupture is now possible. An approach based upon this fracture mechanics technology, termed WHIPJET, is currently being applied to Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 for Duquesne Light Company. The WHIPJET philosophy is simple, conservative, and provides defense-in-depth arguments for high energy piping throughout the balance-of-plant. Progress being made in applying WHIPJET to several lines is presented

  3. Antiviral activity of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist extracts grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Conyza Canadensis L. Cronquist were investigated for their antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) AD-169 and Cox-B3 viruses by modification of the widely used shell-vial assay. The results showed that butanol and methanol ...

  4. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Skowronski, Evan W; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Leshin, Jonathan A; Weeks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Given the infamous toxicity of ricin and the industrial usefulness of castor oil, there is a surprising lack of information about the genetic diversity of the species that produces both, the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L...

  5. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  6. Castor oil for induction of labour: not harmful, not helpful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Machteld Elisabeth; Lee, Sue Jean; Rijken, Marcus Johannes; Paw, Moo Koo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Tan, Saw Oo; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2009-10-01

    Castor oil is one of the most popular drugs for induction of labour in a non-medical setting; however, published data on safety and effectiveness of this compound to induce labour remain sparse. To assess the safety and effectiveness of castor oil for induction of labour in pregnancies with an ultrasound estimated gestational at birth of more than 40 weeks. Data were extracted from hospital-based records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics on the Thai-Burmese border and who were more than 40 weeks pregnant. The effectiveness of castor oil to induce labour was expressed as time to birth and analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Measures associated with safety were fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, tachysystole of the uterus, uterine rupture, abnormal maternal blood pressure during labour, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation, stillbirth, post-partum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and maternal death. Proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. Of 612 women with a gestation of more than 40 weeks, 205 received castor oil for induction and 407 did not. The time to birth was not significantly different between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.20; n = 509)). Castor oil use was not associated with any harmful effects on the mother or fetus. Castor oil for induction of labour had no effect on time to birth nor were there any harmful effects observed in this large series. Our findings leave no justification for recommending castor oil for this purpose.

  7. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate cast...

  8. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  9. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c...

  10. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Alirio; Benjumea, Pedro; Pashova, Veselina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO 2 emissions practically remain constants

  11. Assessing the Diversity of Rodent-Borne Viruses: exploring of high-throughput sequencing and classical amplification/sequencing approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drewes, S.; Straková, Petra; Drexler, J. F.; Jacob, J.; Ulrich, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2017), s. 61-108 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : hepatitis-e virus * squirrels Sciurus-vulgaris * dependent DNA -polymerase * korean hemorrhagic-fever * beaver Castor-canadensis * mouse Micromys-minutus * rats Rattus-norvegicus * rous-sarcoma-virus * West-Nile-virus * population-cycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2016

  12. Collection of Short Papers on the Beaver Creek Watershed Study in West Tennessee, 1989-94

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Jr., W. H; Baker, Eva G

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a long-term research project to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver...

  13. Ground-Water-Quality Data for Selected Wells in the Beaver Creek Watershed, West Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Shannon D

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, began an investigation of the quality of ground water in the Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee...

  14. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1977 annual environmental report: radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The environmental monitoring conducted during 1977 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, river sediments, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1977

  15. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO 3 + SrO + Sr (OH) 2 ) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  17. Effect of lead toxicity on aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Muhittin; Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Colak, Ugur

    2009-08-01

    Effects of Pb accumulation on the contents of chlorophylls (a and b), carotenoid, ascorbic acid (AsA), non-protein SH groups and protein were investigated in aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Pb accumulation in E. canadensis tissues increased with increasing metal concentrations. The increases at 1, 10 and 100 mg/L Pb are about 12.0, 44.6 and 71.1 times greater than control, respectively. Contents of chlorophylls, carotenoid and protein were adversely affected by Pb accumulation. Induction of non-protein SH groups and AsA showed that Pb accumulation caused oxidative stress. It is also possible that increased non-protein SH groups by Pb accumulation may be due to their role in Pb detoxification.

  18. Batch study of uranium biosorption by Elodea canadensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-ji Yi; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Haidian District, Beijing; Jun Yao; Chinese University of Geosciences, Beijing; Mi-jia Zhu; Hui-lun Chen; Fei Wang; Zhi-min Yuan; Xing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto Elodea canadensis was studied via a batch equilibrium method. Kinetic investigation indicated that the U(VI) adsorption by E. canadensis reached an equilibrium in 120 min and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The solution pH was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of U(VI) and the optimum pH for U(VI) removal is 6.0. The U(VI) biosorption can be well described by Langmuir model. IR spectrum analysis revealed that -NH 2 , -OH, C=O and C-O could bind strongly with U(VI). XPS spectrum analysis implied that ion exchange and coordination mechanism could be involved in the U(VI) biosorption process. (author)

  19. A new labdane diterpene from the flowers of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradette-Hébert, Marie-Eve; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Pichette, André

    2008-01-01

    A new labdane diterpene, 9alpha,16xi-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7,13-labdadien-15,16-olide (solicanolide, 1) and six known compounds identified as quercetin (2), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, neochlorogenic acid), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, chlorogenic acid), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6) and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7) were isolated from the flowers of Solidago canadensis. To our knowledge, compound 7 was isolated for the first time in S. canadensis. This work describes the isolation of compounds 1-7 and the structure elucidation of a new compound identified as compound 1. Solicanolide (1) showed cytotoxic activity against A549 (IC(50): 13+/-2 microM), DLD-1 (IC(50): 26+/-2 microM) and WS1 (IC(50): 17+/-1 microM) cell lines.

  20. Genetic Variation of Echinococcus canadensis (G7) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prado, Ulises; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Avila, Guillermina; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Mondragon de la Peña, Carmen; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Flisser, Ana; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of Echinococcus G7 strain in larval and adult stages using a fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gen. Viscera of pigs, bovines, and sheep and fecal samples of dogs were inspected for cystic and canine echinococcosis, respectively; only pigs had hydatid cysts. Bayesian inferences grouped the sequences in an E. canadensis G7 cluster, suggesting that, in Mexico, this strain might be mainly present. Additionally, the population genetic and network analysis showed that E. canadensis in Mexico is very diverse and has probably been introduced several times from different sources. Finally, a scarce genetic differentiation between G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) populations was identified. PMID:25266350

  1. Isolation and antifungal screening of endophytic fungi from Erigeron canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen fungal strains isolated from the Erigeron canadensis, one of traditional Chinese medicines used to treat the pathogenic infection and dysentery, were evaluated for their antifungal activities against one human pathogen Candida albicans, and two phytopathogens, Colletotrichum fructicola and Rhizoctonia cerealis. The bioassay results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of these fungal endophytes had stronger antimicrobial activities. Among these endophytic strains, the ethyl acetate extracts of strains NPR003 and NPR005 showed the strongest inhibitory effects and has potential application in the discovery of new antifungal agents. This was the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. canadensis and evaluation of their antifungal activities.

  2. Meta-analysis of environmental effects of beaver in relation to artificial dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Levanoni, Oded; Audet, Joachim; Carlson, Peter; Eklöf, Karin; Hartman, Göran; McKie, Brendan; Ledesma, José; Segersten, Joel; Truchy, Amélie; Futter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Globally, artificial river impoundment, nutrient enrichment and biodiversity loss impair freshwater ecosystem integrity. Concurrently, beavers, ecosystem engineers recognized for their ability to construct dams and create ponds, are colonizing sites across the Holarctic after widespread extirpation in the 19th century, including areas outside their historical range. This has the potential to profoundly alter hydrology, hydrochemistry and aquatic ecology in both newly colonized and recolonized areas. To further our knowledge of the effects of beaver dams on aquatic environments, we extracted 1366 effect sizes from 89 studies on the impoundment of streams and lakes. Effects were assessed for 16 factors related to hydrogeomorphology, biogeochemistry, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. Beaver dams affected concentrations of organic carbon in water, mercury in water and biota, sediment conditions and hydrological properties. There were no overall adverse effects caused by beaver dams or ponds on salmonid fish. Age was an important determinant of effect magnitude. While young ponds were a source of phosphorus, there was a tendency for phosphorus retention in older systems. Young ponds were a source methylmercury in water, but old ponds were not. To provide additional context, we also evaluated similarities and differences between environmental effects of beaver-constructed and artificial dams (767 effect sizes from 75 studies). Both are comparable in terms of effects on, for example, biodiversity, but have contrasting effects on nutrient retention and mercury. These results are important for assessing the role of beavers in enhancing and/or degrading ecological integrity in changing Holarctic freshwater systems.

  3. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  4. Cellular proton dynamics in Elodea canadensis leaves induced by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Javed, M; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Our earlier investigations showed that Elodea canadensis shoots, grown in the presence of cadmium (Cd), caused basification of the surrounding medium. The present study was aimed to examine the proton dynamics of the apoplastic, cytosolic and vacuolar regions of E. canadensis leaves upon Cd exposure and to establish possible linkage between cellular pH changes and the medium basification. The changes in cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt was also investigated as the [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt homeostasis are closely linked. The cellular H(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and ion-specific fluorescent dyes. Cadmium concentration of leaf-cell walls was measured after plant cultivation at different fixed levels of starting pH. The protoplasts from E. canadensis leaves were isolated by use of a newly developed enzymatic method. Upon Cd addition, both cytosolic and vacuolar pH of leaf protoplasts increased with a concomitant rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Time course studies revealed that changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt followed similar dynamics. Cadmium (0.5 μM) exposure decreased the apoplastic pH by 0.85 units. The maximum cell wall bound Cd-contents were obtained in plants grown at low starting pH. It is concluded that Cd treatment causes apoplastic acidosis in E. canadensis leaves associated with enhanced Cd binding to the cell walls and, consequently, reduced Cd influx into the cytosol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  6. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina.

  7. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  8. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time. PMID:21698083

  9. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  11. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  12. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil by response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the possibility of using response surface methodology based on a four factor five level central composite design to optimize biodiesel production from castor oil. The reaction variables were oil: ethanol ratio, lipozyme concentration, time and temperature. The properties of the biodiesel produced were ...

  13. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of glycerol modified castor oil polyurethane (GC–PU) and poly[2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate] (PHEMA) were synthesized using benzoyl peroxide as initiator and. N,N-methylene bis acrylamide as crosslinker. GC–PU/PHEMA interpenetrating polymer networks were obtained ...

  14. Seed Borne fungi Castor Oil ( Ricinus cummunis ): Effect of Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of fungi associated with castor oil seeds collected from four different locations in Nigeria showed Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium spp. to be the most abundant. Metabolites from these fungi significantly (p=0.05) depressed seed germination and seedling establishment.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Castor oil; MDI; interpenetrating; mechanical; crystal size; strain. 1. Introduction. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) constitute a group of polymer composite materials possessing unique properties which are related to their method of synthe- sis (Sperling 1981). IPNs typically consist of a flexible elastomer and one or ...

  16. Inheritance of Plant Height in two Ethiopian Castor Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The green revolution in Asia was led by the semi dwarf varieties of wheat and rice during the 1960s. Nowadays ... Castor (Racinnus communis L.) is an industrial non edible oil seed that originated in East. Africa probably Ethiopia ... At the fourth generation single plants from each inbred line were reciprocally crossed to ...

  17. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  18. response of clarias gariepinus to dietary castor seeds processed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    cake is obtained as a residue of oil extraction from castor seeds. The cake has high protein content of 39%, crude fibre 18%, 7.5% ash, 3% soluble carbohydrate and. 40% ether extract (Devendra, 1988). In spite of the high nutrient content of the cake, its use in feeding animals is limited due to the presence of some toxicants ...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flame characteristics of castor oil based foam and that of polyether foam impregnated with inorganic flame retardants (FR) were investigated. The polyether foams were impregnated with measured concentration of Antimony trioxide and Sodium bromide, Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, Diammonium hydrogen ...

  20. Early Stage Design of a Bio refinery from Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Daniela; Quaglia, Alberto; Pessoa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    and network scenarios. The tool integrates d ata collection, modelling and superstructure optimization to determine the optimal network for a biorefinery. The application of the synthesis - analysis method and its corresponding computer aided tool is highlighte d for a case study where castor oil...

  1. Growth response of Ricinus communis L (castor oil) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, in spent lubricating oil (SLO) was investigated using 1-6% w/w SLO and a control. The result showed that highest percent germination of approximately 92, was obtained in control and the least in 5% w/w. The early germination obtained in this study was significant ...

  2. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of glycerol modified castor oil polyurethane (GC–PU) and poly[2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate] (PHEMA) were synthesized using benzoyl peroxide as initiator and N,N-methylene bis acrylamide as crosslinker. GC–PU/PHEMA interpenetrating polymer networks were obtained by ...

  3. Composition of acylglycerols in castor oil and their biosynthetic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses, such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastics, paints, coatings, and cosmetics, because of its high content of ricinoleate (hydroxy fatty acid). We have identified many molecular species of acylglycerols using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry o...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The flame characteristics of castor oil based foam and that of polyether foam impregnated with inorganic flame retardants (FR) were investigated. The polyether foams were impregnated with measured concentration of Antimony trioxide and Sodium bromide, Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate ...

  5. Develop a New Lesquerella fendleri Crop for Castor Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil of Lesquerella fendleri contains a valuable hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor seeds. Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, ...

  6. EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS. EXTRACTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROOT-KNOT. NEMATODES (Meloidogyne spp.) ON TOMATO. (Solanum lycopersicum L.) J. Adomako1 and C. K. Kwoseh2. 1. Plant Health Division, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Fumesua, Kumasi. 2. Department ...

  7. Diversity of castor ( Ricinus communis L.) in Ethiopia | Alemaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to assess the diversity of castor germplasm in Ethiopia. A total of 102 accessions, one elite genotype and two standard varieties were characterized at Melkassa and Arsi Negelle, in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using 12 traits for one during 2013 main season. Analysis of variance ...

  8. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  9. Beaver Ponds: Resurgent Nitrogen Sinks for Rural Watersheds in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Julia G; Addy, Kelly; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; McKinney, Richard A; Kellogg, Dorothy Q

    2015-09-01

    Beaver-created ponds and dams, on the rise in the northeastern United States, reshape headwater stream networks from extensive, free-flowing reaches to complexes of ponds, wetlands, and connecting streams. We examined seasonal and annual rates of nitrate transformations in three beaver ponds in Rhode Island under enriched nitrate-nitrogen (N) conditions through the use of N mass balance techniques on soil core mesocosm incubations. We recovered approximately 93% of the nitrate N from our mesocosm incubations. Of the added nitrate N, 22 to 39% was transformed during the course of the incubation. Denitrification had the highest rates of transformation (97-236 mg N m d), followed by assimilation into the organic soil N pool (41-93 mg N m d) and ammonium generation (11-14 mg N m d). Our denitrification rates exceeded those in several studies of freshwater ponds and wetlands; however, rates in those ecosystems may have been limited by low concentrations of nitrate. Assuming a density of 0.7 beaver ponds km of catchment area, we estimated that in nitrate-enriched watersheds, beaver pond denitrification can remove approximately 50 to 450 kg nitrate N km catchment area. In rural watersheds of southern New England with high N loading (i.e., 1000 kg km), denitrification from beaver ponds may remove 5 to 45% of watershed nitrate N loading. Beaver ponds represent a relatively new and substantial sink for watershed N if current beaver populations persist. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Influence of Beaver-Induced Complexity on Storage of Organic Carbon and Sediment in Colorado Mountain Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel, D.; Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Beaver meadows (complexes of multiple different aged beaver dams and ponds) influence the storage of water, sediment, and nutrients. Although beaver meadows compose only a small fraction of catchment area, they provide a potentially large role in retaining these fluxes in mountain watersheds. Multiple dams and ponds in beaver meadows increase overbank flows leading to an anastomosing stream channel planform, and deposition of fine sediment along with particulate organic carbon. An earlier study estimated a range of cumulative carbon stored in 27 beaver meadows east of the continental divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Storage ranged from 735,800 to 2.8 x 106 Mg carbon, with the high value estimating storage if all the meadows had active beaver (historic conditions pre-European settlement) and the lower value estimating current conditions where many of the meadows are abandoned. We combined geomorphic surveys, soil depth probing by rebar, and soil cores analyzed for carbon content to investigate the influence of beaver activity, meadow size, and meadow placement within the drainage on catchment-scale fluxes of fine sediment and organic carbon. We found carbon storage in floodplain soils to be highly variable across both active and abandoned meadows; however, active beaver meadows store more carbon on average than abandoned meadows. In addition, active meadows with high levels of beaver activity (multiple colonies) stored greater volumes of fine sediment behind dams and in ponds. These results have implications for the restoration potential of abandoned beaver meadows in mountain environments to store greater volumes of sediment and more organic carbon if beaver are successfully reintroduced.

  11. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  12. Identification of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil by mass spectrometry and the proposed biosynthetic pathway of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate (OH18:1), a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of biodegradable plastics, nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, cosmetics and paints. Castor oil is the only commericial source of ricinoleate which occurs as triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols in castor oil...

  13. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J.; Pyne, John H.; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics. PMID:27618894

  14. Impacts of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter cycling in small temperate streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Lambert, T.; Larsen, A.; Lane, S.

    2017-12-01

    Beavers are engineers that modify the structure of river reaches and their hydrological functioning. By building dams, they modify the travel time of running waters and can lead to the flooding of surrounding soils and terrestrial vegetation, with potentially significant impact on biogeochemical cycles. Contradictory effects of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and composition have however been reported, and the underlying reasons are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the landscape morphology as an important driver determining how a beaver population can affect stream DOM cycling. Four streams localized in Switzerland and Germany were visited during different seasons (spring, summer, winter) and monitored at upstream and downstream locations of beaver ponds across a hydrological cycle. The sites differed in terms of river channel morphology, presence or absence of floodplain, and vegetation cover. DOM composition was investigated through absorbance and fluorescence measurements coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along with stream water quality (nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature). The results show that the effects of beaver dams were variable, and emphasizes the importance of the geomorphological context.

  15. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  16. Characterization and biological activity of Solidago canadensis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kocmálová, M; Fraňová, S; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide-protein complex has been isolated from flowers of Solidago canadensis L. by hot alkaline extraction procedure. Compositional analyses of S canadensis complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (43 wt%), protein (27 wt%), phenolics (12 wt%), uronic acids (10 wt%) and inorganic material (8 wt%). The carbohydrate part was rich in neutral sugars (81 wt%) while uronids were determined in lower amount (19 wt%). Monosaccharide analysis of carbohydrate part revealed the presence of five main sugar components, i.e. rhamnose (~23 wt%), arabinose (~20 wt%), uronic acids (~19 wt%), galactose (~17 wt%) and glucose (~14 wt%), and indicated thus the presence of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan in S. canadensis complex. HPLC analysis of complex showed one single peak of molecule mass at 11.2 kDa. Antitussive activity tests, performed in three doses of Solidago complex, showed the reduction of the number of cough efforts in the dose-dependent manner. Higher doses (50 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) were shown to be by 15 and 20% more effective than that of lower one (25mg/kg b.w.). However, the antitussive effect of the highest dose (75 mg/kg b.w.) was by 10% lower in comparison with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. Besides, the highest dose of the complex (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance and their effect remained longer as that of salbutamol, a representative of classic antiasthmatic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  18. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  19. [Allelopathic interactions between invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Zhe; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Yin, Xin; Yang, En-Yi; Wei, Wei; Tian, Zhi-Hui; Da, Liang-Jun

    2011-05-01

    Taking the seeds of invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis from their mono- and co-dominant communities as allelopathic acceptors, this paper analyzed the differences in the seed germination rate and sprout length after treated with five level (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensis and P. australis extracts, aimed to understand the allelopathic interactions between the two species. The 1000-grain weight and seed germination rate under distilled water treatment of the two species in co-dominated community were greater than those in mono-dominant community. Low level (12.5 and 25 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts slightly promoted the seed germination rates of S. canadensis in both mono- and co-dominant communities, but high level (50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts had strong inhibition effect, especially for the S. canadensis in co-dominated community. No significant patterns were observed about the effects of P. australis extract on S. canadensis seed germination. The sprout length of S. canadensis seeds in both mono- and co-dominant communities decreased with increasing level of S. canadensis extract, but decreased in a fluctuation way with increasing level of P. australis extract. After treated with the extracts of P. australis or S. canadensis, the seed germination rate of P. australis in mono-dominant community was significantly greater than that in co-dominant community (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between these two extracts.

  20. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  2. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Virbickas

    Full Text Available European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  3. Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

  4. Castor and jatropha oils: production strategies – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lago Regina C.A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian bioenergy matrix is based on four platforms: ethanol, energy forests, residues and co-products and biodiesel. The food-energy dichotomy in the use of edible oils is one factor which has stimulated the search for non-edible oleaginous energy crops, such as many native palms. By the year 2000 Brazil had an annual deficit of 80 thousand tons of castor oil, making necessary to import oil from China and India. After a strong debate the National Program on Biodiesel Production (NPBP was launched by December 2004. After an initial excessive enthusiasm, small producers being focused in the program, a more mature and realistic planning is undertaken. Production in semi arid lands is being stimulated, mainly castor (Ricinus communis and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas. Apart from belonging to the same botanical family (Euphorbiaceae, both plants are well resistant to poor soils. Castor plant is well adapted to practically the whole country, except for some extreme areas (too low water availability or too much rain. Castor keeps being an alternative for the semi arid region but much more technology is requested to make it largely exploited. Following the petroleum crisis of 1980’s an ambitious research program on Jatropha curcas was initiated, later on discontinued and presently retaken by Embrapa and some Universities. Progress is slower than in the case of Ricinus communis. The first agronomical observations confirmed low productivity, problems with pests and diseases, high harvesting costs etc. Some strategic factors should be considered for the production of castor and Jatropha oils: 1. Production of raw materials; 2. Production of oils; 3. Detoxification and value aggregation to the extraction cakes and residues. Regarding raw material production, it is necessary a strong, long term research program on genetic breeding (short cycle varieties, with high productivity and allowing a sole harvesting, soil fertility, pest control, domestication

  5. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Scoriza,Rafael Nogueira; Bianchi,Miriam de Oliveira; Correia,Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Leal,Marco Antonio de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria]) to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of...

  6. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  7. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Using ecosystem engineers as tools in habitat restoration and rewilding: beaver and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alan; Gaywood, Martin J; Jones, Kevin C; Ramsay, Paul; Willby, Nigel J

    2017-12-15

    Potential for habitat restoration is increasingly used as an argument for reintroducing ecosystem engineers. Beaver have well known effects on hydromorphology through dam construction, but their scope to restore wetland biodiversity in areas degraded by agriculture is largely inferred. Our study presents the first formal monitoring of a planned beaver-assisted restoration, focussing on changes in vegetation over 12years within an agriculturally-degraded fen following beaver release, based on repeated sampling of fixed plots. Effects are compared to ungrazed exclosures which allowed the wider influence of waterlogging to be separated from disturbance through tree felling and herbivory. After 12years of beaver presence mean plant species richness had increased on average by 46% per plot, whilst the cumulative number of species recorded increased on average by 148%. Heterogeneity, measured by dissimilarity of plot composition, increased on average by 71%. Plants associated with high moisture and light conditions increased significantly in coverage, whereas species indicative of high nitrogen decreased. Areas exposed to both grazing and waterlogging generally showed the most pronounced change in composition, with effects of grazing seemingly additive, but secondary, to those of waterlogging. Our study illustrates that a well-known ecosystem engineer, the beaver, can with time transform agricultural land into a comparatively species-rich and heterogeneous wetland environment, thus meeting common restoration objectives. This offers a passive but innovative solution to the problems of wetland habitat loss that complements the value of beavers for water or sediment storage and flow attenuation. The role of larger herbivores has been significantly overlooked in our understanding of freshwater ecosystem function; the use of such species may yet emerge as the missing ingredient in successful restoration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Resurgent beaver ponds in the northeastern United States: implications for greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Julia G; Addy, Kelly; Welsh, Molly K; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Beaver ponds, a wetland type of increasing density in the northeastern United States, vary spatially and temporally, creating high uncertainty in their impact to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We used floating static gas chambers to assess diffusive fluxes of methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) from the air-water interface of three beaver ponds (0.05-8 ha) in Rhode Island from fall 2012 to summer 2013. Gas flux was based on linear changes of gas concentrations in chambers over 1 h. Our results show that these beaver ponds generated considerable CH and CO emissions. Methane flux (18-556 mg m d) showed no significant seasonal differences, but the shallowest pond generated significantly higher CH flux than the other ponds. Carbon dioxide flux (0.5-22.0 g m d) was not significantly different between sites, but it was significantly higher in the fall, possibly due to the degradation of fresh leaves. Nitrous oxide flux was low (0-2.4 mg m d). Overall, CH and CO comprised most of the global warming potential, 61 and 38%, respectively. The shallowness of the beaver ponds may have limited the time needed for CH oxidation to CO before CH escaped to the atmosphere. Beaver dams also increase the aerial extent of hydric soils, which may transform riparian areas from upland GHG sinks to wetland GHG sources thereby changing the net global warming potential. Further studies tracking the pattern and conditions of beaver pond creation and abandonment will be essential to understanding their role as GHG sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Beaver-mediated lateral hydrologic connectivity, fluvial carbon and nutrient flux, and aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Pam; Covino, Tim; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    River networks that drain mountain landscapes alternate between narrow and wide valley segments. Within the wide segments, beaver activity can facilitate the development and maintenance of complex, multithread planform. Because the narrow segments have limited ability to retain water, carbon, and nutrients, the wide, multithread segments are likely important locations of retention. We evaluated hydrologic dynamics, nutrient flux, and aquatic ecosystem metabolism along two adjacent segments of a river network in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado: (1) a wide, multithread segment with beaver activity; and, (2) an adjacent (directly upstream) narrow, single-thread segment without beaver activity. We used a mass balance approach to determine the water, carbon, and nutrient source-sink behavior of each river segment across a range of flows. While the single-thread segment was consistently a source of water, carbon, and nitrogen, the beaver impacted multithread segment exhibited variable source-sink dynamics as a function of flow. Specifically, the multithread segment was a sink for water, carbon, and nutrients during high flows, and subsequently became a source as flows decreased. Shifts in river-floodplain hydrologic connectivity across flows related to higher and more variable aquatic ecosystem metabolism rates along the multithread relative to the single-thread segment. Our data suggest that beaver activity in wide valleys can create a physically complex hydrologic environment that can enhance hydrologic and biogeochemical buffering, and promote high rates of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Given the widespread removal of beaver, determining the cumulative effects of these changes is a critical next step in restoring function in altered river networks.

  11. Test of the quasi-optical grill for lower hybrid current drive on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.; Pavlo, P.; Preinhaelter, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Zacek, F.; Jakubka, K.; Kletecka, P.; Kryska, L.

    1994-03-01

    Feasibility studies of a new diffraction structure for launching lower hybrid waves into a tokamak plasma - of the microwave quasi-optical grill - are reported. The main parameters of the grill designed for the CASTOR tokamak are summarized, and results of preliminary radiation pattern measurements of a non-optimized model antenna are presented. The influence of a relatively great curvature of the plasma surface in the CASTOR tokamak is discussed and the ray tracing of the launched lower-hybrid wave in the actual CASTOR plasma is shown. Finally, the results of probe measurements of the CASTOR plasma core are given. (J.U.) 17 figs., 9 refs

  12. In-situ reconstruction of the MSRs at the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deahna, S.T.; Yarden, A.L.; Tam, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley Unit 1 since the initial plant start-up in 1976. Their performance had been ineffective and reheater tube reliability was becoming a limiting factor in MSR operation. Many of the problems encountered were common to the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light performed a major overhaul of the Beaver Valley Unit 1 MSRs in an attempt to restore them to an acceptable level of performance. This paper summarizes the operating history, engineering redesign, field reconstruction, and subsequent performance of these MSRs

  13. Beaver dams and channel sediment dynamics on Odell Creek, Centennial Valley, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebekah; Meyer, Grant A.

    2014-01-01

    Beaver dams in streams are generally considered to increase bed elevation through in-channel sediment storage, thus, reintroductions of beaver are increasingly employed as a restoration tool to repair incised stream channels. Here we consider hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the study stream in relation to in-channel sediment storage promoted by beaver dams. We also document the persistence of sediment in the channel following breaching of dams. Nine reaches, containing 46 cross-sections, were investigated on Odell Creek at Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Centennial Valley, Montana. Odell Creek has a snowmelt-dominated hydrograph and peak flows between 2 and 10 m3 s- 1. Odell Creek flows down a fluvial fan with a decreasing gradient (0.018-0.004), but is confined between terraces along most of its length, and displays a mostly single-thread, variably sinuous channel. The study reaches represent the overall downstream decrease in gradient and sediment size, and include three stages of beaver damming: (1) active; (2) built and breached in the last decade; and (3) undammed. In-channel sediment characteristics and storage were investigated using pebble counts, fine-sediment depth measurements, sediment mapping and surveys of dam breaches. Upstream of dams, deposition of fine (≤ 2 mm) sediment is promoted by reduced water surface slope, shear stress and velocity, with volumes ranging from 48 to 182 m3. High flows, however, can readily transport suspended sediment over active dams. Variations in bed-sediment texture and channel morphology associated with active dams create substantial discontinuities in downstream trends and add to overall channel heterogeneity. Observations of abandoned dam sites and dam breaches revealed that most sediment stored above beaver dams is quickly evacuated following a breach. Nonetheless, dam remnants trap some sediment, promote meandering and facilitate floodplain development. Persistence of beaver dam sediment

  14. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  15. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  16. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  17. RESTORATIVE ASPECT OF CASTOR PLANT ON MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The castor plant (Ricinus communis L. is a robust perennial shrub of Euphorbiaceae family and different parts of the plant are widely used by various communities and forest dwellers in many regions of the world for treating a variety of ailments. About 80% of world population is still dependent on traditional herbal medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as anti-oxidant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, anti diabetic, insecticidal and larvicidal and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the available literature related to the restorative activity of the castor plant as a herbal medicine on mammalian physiology and to accumulate those scientifically valid data in a nut shell in the form of a mini review.

  18. Production of quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; De Paula Carvalho, W; Çerçi, Salim; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Dogangün, O; Dumanoglu, Isa; d'Enterria, David; Erchov, Y; Eskut, Eda; Figueiredo, D; Girgis, Semiray; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Onengüt, G; Onengut, G Jr; Ozdemir, Kadri; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Polatoz, A; Ripert, Marion; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Tiflov, B TaliV; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Uzun, Dilber

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission rate performance of $102$ irradiated quartz samples was measured to select the best quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR calorimeter. All the produced quartz plates were originally used in a previous CERN experiment, DELPHI. Three different doses of $^{60}$Co source were used with the collaboration of PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.) to study the transmission rate performance of the quartz samples after irradiation for different incident light, ranging from $250$ to $700$ nm in $5$ nm increasing steps. All samples show different decrease in the rate with wavelength for different doses. Three different steps were followed before irradiation to find out the best way of cleaning the original DELPHI Cu/Cr tracks on the samples. Results of these measurements presented here correspond to the quartz plates that will be used in one hadronic sector of CASTOR calorimeter until end of 2008. For the full calorimeter new quartz plates will be installed. We also present the light transmi...

  19. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  20. pre-germination treatments in castor seeds, cultivar IAC 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Gomes Damascena, Joyce; Marcia, Andreia; Santos de Souza, David; Pereira dos Santos, Marlucia; Rodrigues Pereira, Adriana; Goncalves Pereira, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different pre-germination treatments in castor beans, IAC 226. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 4 (four temperatures and four immersion times), with four replications. Pre-germination treatments were: immersion in water at room temperature (25 Celsius degrade) and immersion in hot water at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 Celsius degrade for 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes. Water content of the seeds was determined before treatments. Before and after each treatment, seeds were subjected to germination test; 20-30 Celsius degrade alternating temperature, determining the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings, dormant and dead seeds. Independent of time, immersion in 70 Celsius degrade, water was the most efficient treatment for accelerating germination of castor bean cultivar IAC 226.

  1. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  2. Variations in seed traits of castor ( Ricinus communis ) accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical analysis showed that castor seed and oil had saponification value of 182.9 mg/g, moisture content of 4.4%, acid value of 3.085 mg/g, viscosity of 110.41 cP, pH of 6.11, iodine value of 8.46 mg/g, specific gravity of 0.962 and refractive index of 1.477˚C. The proximate analysis showed that moisture ...

  3. The experiences from interim spent fuel storage operation with CASTOR 440/84 CASKS in NPP Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are presented: principles of the CASTOR 440/84 design; design development works; commissioning of interim spent fuel storage facility; international transports of spent fuel utilising CASTOR 440/84 casks

  4. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  5. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; pcastor oil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  6. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  7. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  8. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic...

  10. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  11. Aeromagnetic map of the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Yavapai and Coconino counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wet Beaver Roadless Area includes 9,890 acres (15.4 mi2) of the Coconino National Forest and is in T. 15 N., Rs. 6, 7, and 8 E., Yavapai and Coconino Counties, central Arizona. Camp Verde, the nearest major population center, is about 13 mi southwest of the road less area.

  12. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  13. A Feasibility Study for Consolidating and/or Coordinating Technical Procedures in Beaver County Pennsylvania Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James W.

    In 1977 the Public Library Commission, in conjunction with the State Library of Pennsylvania, received a Library Services and Construction Act, Title III Grant to conduct a feasibility study of technical service operations in various types of libraries within Beaver County. Its objectives were to: (1) analyze existing library materials purchasing…

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beaver Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 642 water samples from the Beaver Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were done by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  15. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  16. Reproductive characteristics of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Zielinski; M. J. Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology and life history of the federally endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra). The distribution of this primitive burrowing rodent is disjunct from the balance of the species’ range and occurs in a unique maritime environment of coastal grasslands and forests. Fundamental to protecting this taxon...

  17. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Mary J. Mazurek; Frederick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies. Efforts to recover this sub-species will be aided by advances in molecular genetics, specifically the ability to estimate population size using noninvasive genetic sampling. Here we report on the development of nine polymorphic loci for the Point Arena mountain...

  18. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  19. Studies on the Effect of Wet Castor Leaf Feeding and Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rearing of castor feeding silkworm by giving tender wet leaf daily twice at young age (1st and 2nd instars)) and matured wet castor plant leaf daily thrice for late age (3rd, 4th and 5th instars) silkworm significantly reduced the larval duration and diseases incidences and improved all the larval, cocoon and silk traits as ...

  20. Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of albino rat. ... Four feed formulations were used; powdered castor oil seed and commercial rat feed mixed in ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and ordinary commercial rat feed, which serves as the control.These formulations were given to four ...

  1. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  2. Identification of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacylglycerols in castor oil less polar than triricinolein were identified by electrospray ionization – mass spectrometry using the lithium adducts of the acylglycerols from the HPLC fractions of castor oil. Thirty four new molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in casto...

  3. the use of castor oil as a flame retardant in polyurethane foam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abdusalam

    ABSTRACT. Thirteen polyurethane foam samples were prepared with varying quantity of castor oil as a reactant with polyisocyanate and their flammability test was carried out using various flame test procedures. Physical properties of the foam samples were found to increase with the increasing in the quantity of castor oil.

  4. Effect of plant and row spacing on the yield and oil contents of castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an industrial non edible oilseed adapted to drier areas. An experiment was conducted in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia to determine optimum plant population of castor variety Hiruy. Four plant (50, 60, 70 and 80 cm) and four row spacing (60,80,100 and 120 cm) were arranged in factorial ...

  5. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  6. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  7. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  8. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-05

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  9. Pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of homoeopathic drug: Erigeron canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rao Pogaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erigeron canadensis L. is an erect annual herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Aerial parts are used in Homoeopathy for bruises, cough, dysuria, gonorrhea, haemorrhages, haemorrhoids, spermatorrhea, and wounds. Objective: The pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies have been carried out to facilitate the use of correct species and lay down standards of raw drug materials. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of the leaf and stem of authentic samples of E. canadensis L. have been carried out. Physicochemical parameters of the raw drug include extractive values, ash value, and formulation; besides weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet (UV studies are given. Results: Epidermal cells often possess crystals of calcium oxalate. Stomata are anomocytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic types. Trichomes are uniseriate and conical in structure. The mid vein in transection is flat on adaxial and is ribbed toward abaxial, with a secretory cavity beneath the central vascular bundle. Stem in transection is round. The vascular tissue is made of several vascular bundles in a ring. Crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the epidermis, cortex, and pith of stem. In mature stem, secondary xylem is well developed with a reduced phloem. The determined physicochemical data, namely, extractive values, ash values, and preparation of for raw drug and weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content besides UV and HPTLC profile for finished product are provided. Conclusions: The presented morphoanatomical features along with powder microscopic and organoleptic characters and physicochemical data are diagnostic to establish the standards for ensuring quality and purity of the drug.

  10. Effect of copper on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal, T.K.; Adorjan, Peter; Corbett, A.L

    2002-12-01

    Elodea canadensis may be a good biomonitor for copper, but not a good bioaccumulator. - Elodea canadensis has been proposed as a potential biomonitor due to its wide distribution and apparent ability to accumulate pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of copper sulfate on growth in E. canadensis to determine its effectiveness as a biomonitor of copper pollution in aquatic systems and whether growth is a suitable index of sub-lethal stress. Copper sulfate significantly slowed or stopped growth at all concentrations (low: 1 ppm, medium: 5 ppm, high: 10 ppm of copper sulfate) used. Final plant drymass was significantly lower in medium and high copper treatments compared with controls. E. canadensis appears to be very sensitive to copper levels, and may be useful as a biomonitor of copper levels in aquatic systems. However, its utility as a bioaccumulator may be limited, because we observed senescence of most leaves in all copper-treated plants following 4 weeks of treatment.

  11. Effect of copper on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Elodea canadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal, T.K.; Adorjan, Peter; Corbett, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Elodea canadensis may be a good biomonitor for copper, but not a good bioaccumulator. - Elodea canadensis has been proposed as a potential biomonitor due to its wide distribution and apparent ability to accumulate pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of copper sulfate on growth in E. canadensis to determine its effectiveness as a biomonitor of copper pollution in aquatic systems and whether growth is a suitable index of sub-lethal stress. Copper sulfate significantly slowed or stopped growth at all concentrations (low: 1 ppm, medium: 5 ppm, high: 10 ppm of copper sulfate) used. Final plant drymass was significantly lower in medium and high copper treatments compared with controls. E. canadensis appears to be very sensitive to copper levels, and may be useful as a biomonitor of copper levels in aquatic systems. However, its utility as a bioaccumulator may be limited, because we observed senescence of most leaves in all copper-treated plants following 4 weeks of treatment

  12. A new phenolic glycoside from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JinSong; Zhang, XinQin; Lei, GuangQing; Li, Bo; Chen, JiaKuan; Zhou, TongShui

    2007-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-butyrrophenone (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  13. First Report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new host record for Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum. These small trematode parasites were found in a debilitated, immature, male sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) during Autumn migration from the Canadian prairies. Necropsy examination identified fibrinonecrotizing and ulcerative jejuni...

  14. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria] to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of castor cake. Soil organisms were collected with Berlese-Tullgren funnels. There were temporal differences between the treatments, and the epigeous fauna was mainly represented by members of the Acari and Entomobryomorpha. Elapsed time is the major factor in determining the composition of the epigeous fauna community associated with composting, indicating that castor cake has no suppressive effect.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core-shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  17. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  18. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Shelepova; Yulia Vinogradova; Boris Zaitchik; Alexander Ruzhitsky; Olga Grygorieva; Ján Brindza

    2018-01-01

    Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%), limonene ...

  19. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  20. Classification of the alterations of beaver dams to headwater streams in northeastern Connecticut, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchsted, Denise; Daniels, Melinda D.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many types of barriers to water flow, beaver dams are among the smallest, typically lasting less than a decade and rarely exceeding 1.5 m in height. They are also among the most frequent and common obstructions in rivers, with a density often exceeding ten dams per km, a frequency of construction within a given network on a time scale of years, and a historic extent covering most of North America. Past quantification of the geomorphologic impact of beaver dams has primarily been limited to local impacts within individual impoundments and is of limited geographic scope. To assess the impact of beaver dams at larger scales, this study examines channel shape and sediment distribution in thirty river reaches in northeastern Connecticut, U.S.A. The study reaches fall within the broader categories of impounded and free-flowing segments, leaving a third segment class of beaver meadows requiring additional study. Each of the study reaches were classified at the reach scale as free-flowing, valley-wide beaver pond, in-channel beaver pond, and downstream of beaver dam. The bankfull channel width to depth ratios and channel widths normalized by watershed area vary significantly across the study reach classes. Additionally, reaches modified by beaver dams have finer sediment distributions. This paper provides the first quantitative geomorphic descriptions of the in-channel beaver pond and reaches downstream of beaver dams. Given the different channel shapes and sediment distributions, we infer that geomorphic processes are longitudinally decoupled by these frequent barriers that control local base level. These barriers generate heterogeneity within a river network by greatly increasing the range of channel morphology and by generating patches controlled by different processes. Therefore, in spite of the small size of individual beaver dams, the cumulative effect of multiple dams has the potential to modify processes at larger spatial scales. To improve assessment of the

  1. Castor oil biodiesel and its blends as alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Paula; Nizri, Shahar; Wiesman, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Intensive production and commercialization of biodiesel from edible-grade sources have raised some critical environmental concerns. In order to mitigate these environmental consequences, alternative oilseeds are being investigated as biodiesel feedstocks. Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the most promising non-edible oil crops, due to its high annual seed production and yield, and since it can be grown on marginal land and in semi-arid climate. Still, few studies are available regarding its fuel-related properties in its pure form or as a blend with petrodiesel, many of which are due to its extremely high content of ricinoleic acid. In this study, the specifications in ASTM D6751 and D7467 which are related to the fatty acid composition of pure castor methyl esters (B100) and its blend with petrodiesel in a 10% vol ratio (B10) were investigated. Kinematic viscosity and distillation temperature of B100 (15.17 mm 2 s -1 and 398.7 o C respectively) were the only two properties which did not meet the appropriate standard limits. In contrast, B10 met all the specifications. Still, ASTM D7467 requires that the pure biodiesel meets the requirements of ASTM D6751. This can limit the use of a wide range of feedstocks, including castor, as alternative fuel, especially due to the fact that in practice vehicles normally use low level blends of biodiesel and petrodiesel. These issues are discussed in depth in the present study. -- Highlights: → CaME can be used as a biodiesel alternative feedstock when blended in petrodiesel. → Due to the high levels of ricinoleic acid maximum blending level is limited to 10%. → Today, CaME blends are not a viable alternative feedstock. → ASTM D7467 requires that pure biodiesel must meet all the appropriate limits.

  2. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  3. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.; Hoefling, R.; Muehle, K.

    1987-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, the largest known epishelf and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Lake Radok is an isothermal and non-stratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  4. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, the largest known epishelf lake and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Radok Lake is an isothermal and nonstratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) Castor GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The CASTOR GSF packaging was designed and fabricated to be a certified Type B(U) packaging and comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for transport of up to five sealed canisters of vitrified radioactive materials. This onsite Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analysis and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the casks, with the canister payload, meet the intent of the Type B packaging regulations set forth in 10 CFR 71 and therefore meet the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping

  6. Control of plasma position in the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valovic, M.

    1988-11-01

    A simple servo-system designed for plasma position control in the CASTOR tokamak is described. Both radial and vertical plasma displacements were minimized using two servo-loops consisting of detection coils, a conventional electric controller and an amplifier operated as an unipolar voltage-controlled current source. To ensure the optimum conditions in the start-up phase of the discharge, currents in the servo-systems were externally preprogrammed. The prescribed plasma position was maintained with the accuracy of 3 mm. The feedback control improves plasma parameters, e.g. it removes the positional disruption at the end of the tokamak discharge. (J.U.). 4 figs., 3 refs

  7. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  8. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  9. Radiographic analysis in castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Laene Moreira de; Alves, Renato Augusto; Oliveira, Luciana Magda De.

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean cropping has great social and economic value, but its production has been affected by factors such as low quality seeds used for sowing. The quick and precise evaluation of seed quality by x-ray test is known as an effective method to evaluate seed lots, but little is known about the interpretation between of the type of radiographic image and the seed quality correlation. The potential of x-ray analysis as a marker of seed physiological quality and as an initial process for the i...

  10. Managed flood effects on beaver pond habitat in a desert riverine ecosystem, bill williams river, Arizona USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Pritekel, C.M.; O'Neill, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of beaver in warm-desert streams are poorly documented, but potentially significant. For example, stream water and sediment budgets may be affected by increased evaporative losses and sediment retention in beaver ponds. We measured physical attributes of beaver pond and adjacent lotic habitats on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, the Bill Williams River, after ???11 flood-free months in Spring 2007 and Spring 2008. Neither a predicted warming of surface water as it passed through a pond nor a reduction in dissolved oxygen in ponds was consistently observed, but bed sediment sorted to finest in ponds as expected. We observed a river segment-scale downstream rise in daily minimum stream temperature that may have been influenced by the series of ??100 beaver ponds present. Channel cross-sections surveyed before and after an experimental flood (peak flow 65 m3/s) showed net aggradation on nine of 13 cross-sections through ponds and three of seven through lotic reaches. Our results indicate that beaver affect riverine processes in warm deserts much as they do in other biomes. However, effects may be magnified in deserts through the potential for beaver to alter the stream thermal regime and water budget. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  11. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.

  12. The role of beaver in shaping steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat complexity and thermal refugia in a central Oregon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolati, F.; Wheaton, J. M.; Neilson, B. T.; Bouwes, N.; Pollock, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek, tributary to the John Day River in central Oregon, is thought to be limiting the local population of ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Restoration efforts for this watershed are aimed to improve their habitat through reconnecting the channel with portions of its former floodplain (now terraces) to increase stream habitat complexity and the extent of riparian vegetation. This is being done via the installation of over a hundred beaver dam support (BDS) structures that are designed to either mimic beaver dams or support existing beaver dams. The overall objective of this study is to determine if the BDS structures have had an effect on stream channel habitat complexity and thermal refugia in selected sections of Bridge Creek. Analysis of stream temperature data in restoration treatment and control areas will show the effects of beaver dams on stream temperature. Analysis of aerial imagery and high resolution topographic data will exhibit how the number and types of geomorphic units have changed after the construction of beaver dams. Combined, the results of this research are aimed to increase our understanding of how beaver dams impact fish habitat and stream temperature.

  13. Example of industrial valorisation of derivative products of Castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Known since antiquity, Castor Oil has been first used in medicine. Now, even if it remains present in small quantities as an excipient in many pharmaceutical specialties, it finds a lot of applicationsin cosmetics, industrial applications and chemical industry. Castor Oil specificity comes from its high content of ricinoleic acid (up to 85% that combines a double bond and an hydroxyl function in the heart of a 18 carbons linear chain. This particular structure is the key of an unique chemistry developed by ARKEMA that gives by thermal cracking a wide range of compounds with either 7 or 11 carbon atoms. A whole range of innovative chemistries and end use products are generated from these base reaction products. They are used in every-day life, to improve our comfort and safety but also in very specific applications with very high technical requirements. Synthesized from undecylenic acid, 11-amino-undecanoic acid, 100% based on renewable resources, is the precursor to biobased polymers combining high performance and sustainability: Rilsan®, Rilsan Fine Powder®, Pebax Rnew®.

  14. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  15. Higroscopic properties of castor seeds (Ricinus Comunis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gely

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorption isotherms of castor seeds were evaluated at 30, 40, 50 and 60ºC using the static gravimetric method. Sigmoid trends were observed for isotherms obtained showing a clear effect of temperature. Experimental values were adjusted using the modified isotherms of Henderson, Halsey, Oswin and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB. Models were compared using four statistics parameters. The results showed that Modified Henderson model adjusted adequately the experimental values in the range of temperature evaluated. The experimental values of the safe storage moisture content for castor seeds varied between 6.1 to 8.4 % (d.b. between 20 and 40ºC, showing lower values than those reported for other traditional oilseeds as sunflower or rapeseed. The sorption heats evaluated from the combination of Clapeyron equation and Modified Henderson equation varied between 3400 and 2373 kJ/kg for moisture contents between 1 and 28 % (d.b.. Through Othmer relationship the value of the ratio Lb/Lf varied between 1.01 and 1.34 (for 14.5 and 1% d.b. moisture content respectively. The values obtained showed an exponential relationship with moisture content, of the form Lb/Lf=1+0.44exp(-0.17M with a determination coefficient R² of 0.97.

  16. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  17. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  18. Feeding habits of reintroduced Eurasian beaver: spatial and seasonal variation in the use of food resources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Hamšíková, L.; Vorel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 3 (2010), s. 183-193 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Castor fiber * diet composition * faecal analysis * PCA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2010

  19. Family models: comparing and contrasting the Olson Circumplex Model with the Beavers Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, W R; Voeller, M N

    1983-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in and need for family models. One such model is the Olson Circumplex Model, previously reported in this journal (18). This model is compared and contrasted with the Beavers Systems Model, which was also developed from empirical data and has had extensive use in family assessment. Though both are cross-sectional, process-oriented, and capable of providing structure for family research, we believe there are certain short-comings in the Olson model that make it less clinically useful than the Beavers Systems Model. These include definitional problems and a total reliance on curvilinear dimensions with a grid approach to family typology that does not acknowledge a separation/individuation continuum. Our model avoids these deficiencies and includes a continuum of functional competence that reflects the development and differentiation of many living systems, including the family.

  20. Theories of family adaptability: toward a synthesis of Olson's Circumplex and the Beavers systems models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C

    1988-03-01

    Two typologies of family process, Olson's Circumplex Model and the Beavers Systems Model, are discussed, focusing particularly upon their definitions of family adaptability. It is argued that the two typologies are not simply "separate but equal" (11), but, rather, that there is an ambiguity in the Circumplex Model that disguises a fundamental theoretical overlap between the two. Olson's definition of adaptability is founded upon the concepts of morphogenesis and change; Beavers builds upon the concepts of negentropy and competence. It may be shown, however, that both understandings are necessitated by the theoretical writings of Olson and his colleagues. The nature of this ambiguity in the Circumplex Model is critically explored, and a higher-order model that attempts to synthesize these two theories is proposed.

  1. The Echinococcus canadensis (G7) genome: a key knowledge of parasitic platyhelminth human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lucas L; Assis, Juliana; Araújo, Flávio M Gomes; Salim, Anna C M; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Camicia, Federico; Fox, Adolfo; Rosenzvit, Mara; Oliveira, Guilherme; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-02-27

    The parasite Echinococcus canadensis (G7) (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Cestoda) is one of the causative agents of echinococcosis. Echinococcosis is a worldwide chronic zoonosis affecting humans as well as domestic and wild mammals, which has been reported as a prioritized neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. No genomic data, comparative genomic analyses or efficient therapeutic and diagnostic tools are available for this severe disease. The information presented in this study will help to understand the peculiar biological characters and to design species-specific control tools. We sequenced, assembled and annotated the 115-Mb genome of E. canadensis (G7). Comparative genomic analyses using whole genome data of three Echinococcus species not only confirmed the status of E. canadensis (G7) as a separate species but also demonstrated a high nucleotide sequences divergence in relation to E. granulosus (G1). The E. canadensis (G7) genome contains 11,449 genes with a core set of 881 orthologs shared among five cestode species. Comparative genomics revealed that there are more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) than between E. canadensis (G7) and E. multilocularis. This result was unexpected since E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) were considered to belong to the species complex E. granulosus sensu lato. We described SNPs in known drug targets and metabolism genes in the E. canadensis (G7) genome. Regarding gene regulation, we analysed three particular features: CpG island distribution along the three Echinococcus genomes, DNA methylation system and small RNA pathway. The results suggest the occurrence of yet unknown gene regulation mechanisms in Echinococcus. This is the first work that addresses Echinococcus comparative genomics. The resources presented here will promote the study of mechanisms of parasite development as well as new tools for drug discovery. The availability of a high

  2. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil from oil of castor beans cultivated in tropical and sub tropical zones of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, R.; Sultana, R.; Ambrat, A.; Kandhro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available castor oil was analysed for specific gravity at 25/25 degree C (0.959), acid value (0.5), iodine value (85), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4769), viscosity at 25 degree C (6.8), and hydroxyl value (162). Fatty acid composition, including palmitic acid (I. 7%), stearic acid (1.39%), oleic acid (5.73%), linoleic acid (6.25%), and ricinoleic acid (84.2%) was estimated by means of GLC. Unbodied dehydrated castor oil (DCO- 15) 93% was prepared by using sodium bisulphate and sodium bisulphite and other reaction conditions. Unbodied DCO was analysed for iodine value (139), acid value (3.6), refractive index at 25 degree C (1.4820), specific gravity at 25/25 degree C and 30/30 degree C (0.9333 and 0.925) viscosity at 25 degree C and 30 degree C (200 cps and 1.85 poise), respectively. Fatty acid composition was also determined to ascertain the extent of dehydration due to the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 36.9%) and non conjugated linoleic acid (NCLA, 46.8%). Ricinoleic acid was estimated as 3.83%. Unbodied DCO-15 was in good conformance with the standard specification of ASTM and other values cited in the literature. (author)

  3. Enzymatic incorporation of caffeoyl into castor oil to prepare the novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Sha

    2017-05-10

    In this work, a novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids was successfully prepared by the enzymatic transesterification using castor oil (CO) as caffeoyl acceptor. During the structured lipids preparation, two competitive reactions, the hydrolysis of CO to form hydrophilic caffeoyl glycerols (CG)+dicaffeoyl glycerols (DCG) and the transesterification of CO with ethyl caffeate (EC) to form lipophilic caffeoyl mono- and di-acylglycerols (CMAG and CDAG), were found. Reaction progress was monitored using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV. The effects of by-product ethanol removal and reaction variables on the transesterification and reaction selectivity were evaluated. Results showed that, the activation energies for the transesterification and for the selective formations of CMAG+CDAG and CG+DCG were 57.60kJ/mol, 58.86kJ/mol, and 60.53kJ/mol, respectively. Under the optimal reaction conditions (enzyme load 23%, 90°C, 1:3 molar ratio of EC to CO, and 46.5h), EC conversion and the yield of CMAG+CDAG were 93.68±2.52% and 78.11±1.35%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  5. Monitoring of morpholine and its decomposition products at Beaver Valley Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, J.M.; Passell, T.O.; Linnebom, V.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Beaver Valley is the only PWR in the United States with vertical steam generators that has used morpholine in AVT chemistry control for its entire operating history. Beaver Valley is a Westinghouse PWR with three steam generators. Thus, a study of Beaver Valley steam cycle chemistry would provide valuable information about the behavior of morpholine in PWRs. The initial study, which consisted of three tasks, enabled the following preliminary conclusions to be made: operation with and without morpholine did not result in a significant change in organic acids except in a single sample, the condensed vapor from the reheater drain receiver tank, which receives the condensate from the tube side of its associated MSR; cation conductivity levels were not directly related to morpholine levels; morpholine usage did not result in significant quantities of detrimental compounds in the steam cycle. Diethanolamine may be present during morpholine usage, but this was not confirmed makeup water was a significant source of organic acids during the initial study; and mass balance studies should be considered in future studies. These studies should include decomposition compounds of morpholine and corrosion products

  6. Using Seismic Refraction and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to Characterize the Valley Fill in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Harry, D. L.; Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    This study is one of the first to use near surface geophysical techniques to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy in a high alpine, low gradient valley with a past glacial history and to obtain a preliminary grasp on the impact of Holocene beaver activity. Approximately 1 km of seismic refraction data and 5 km of GPR data were collected in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. An asymmetric wedge of sediment ranging in depth from 0-20 m transverse to the valley profile was identified using seismic refraction. Complementary analysis of the GPR data suggests that the valley fill can be subdivided into till deposited during the Pleistocene glaciations and alluvium deposited during the Holocene. Two main facies were identified in the GPR profiles through pattern recognition. Facie Fd, which consists of chaotic discontinuous reflectors with an abundance of diffractions, is interpreted to be glacial till. Facie Fc, which is a combination of packages of complex slightly continuous reflectors interfingered with continuous horizontal to subhorizontal reflectors, is interpreted to be post-glacial alluvium and includes overbank, pond and in-channel deposits. Fc consistently overlies Fd throughout the study area and is no more than 7 m thick in the middle of the valley. The thickness of Holocene sedimentation (fill identified in the seismic refraction survey (0-20 m). A subfacie of Fc, Fch, which has reflectors with long periods was identified within Fc and is interpreted to be ponded sediments. The spatial distribution of facie Fch, along with: slight topographical features resembling buried beaver dams, a high abundance of fine sediment including silts and clays, historical records of beavers, and the name "Beaver Meadows" all suggest that Holocene beaver activity played a large role in sediment accumulation at this site, despite the lack of surficial relict beaver dams containing wood.

  7. Fluvial wood function downstream of beaver versus man-made dams in headwater streams in Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G. C.; DeVito, L. F.; Munz, K. T.; Lisius, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial wood is an essential component of stream ecosystems by providing habitat, increasing accumulation of organic matter, and increasing the processing of nutrients and other materials. However, years of channel alterations in Massachusetts have resulted in low wood loads despite the afforestation that has occurred since the early 1900s. Streams have also been impacted by a large density of dams, built during industrialization, and reduction of the beaver population. Beavers were reintroduced to Massachusetts in the 1940s and they have since migrated throughout the state. Beaver dams impound water, which traps sediment and results in the development of complex channel patterns and more ecologically productive and diverse habitats than those found adjacent to man-made dams. To develop better management practices for dam removal it is essential that we understand the geomorphic and ecologic function of wood in these channels and the interconnections with floodplain dynamics and stream water chemistry. We investigate the connections among fluvial wood, channel morphology, floodplain soil moisture dynamics, and stream water chemistry in six watersheds in Massachusetts that have been impacted by either beaver or man-made dams. We hypothesize that wood load will be significantly higher below beaver dams, subsequently altering channel morphology, water chemistry, and floodplain soil moisture. Reaches are surveyed up- and downstream of each type of dam to better understand the impact dams have on the fluvial system. Surveys include a longitudinal profile, paired with dissolved oxygen and ammonium measurements, cross-section and fluvial wood surveys, hydraulic measurements, and floodplain soil moisture mapping. We found that dissolved oxygen mirrored the channel morphology, but did not vary significantly between reaches. Wood loads were significantly larger downstream of beaver dams, which resulted in significant changes to the ammonium levels. Floodplain soil moisture

  8. Comparative clinical trial of castor oil and diclofenac sodium in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, B; Kishore, K; Singh, U; Seth, S D

    2009-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of castor oil with diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were given a castor oil capsule 0.9 mL (n = 50) thrice daily for 4 weeks or a capsule of diclofenac sodium (n = 50), 50 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks. The subjects completed an overall evaluation of symptom relief at 2 weeks and 4 weeks of completed treatment. The subjects were evaluated by clinical, routine laboratory and radiographic investigations for improvement of disease conditions and also for adverse drug reaction. On completion of 4 weeks treatment it was observed that both drugs were significantly effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (p castor oil there were no adverse effects reported. The present study indicates that castor oil can be used as an effective therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  10. Performance of the CASTOR calorimeter at CMS during Run II of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Van De Klundert, Merijn H F

    2016-01-01

    The detector has pseudorapidity borders at -5.2 and -6.6. An overview is presented on the various aspects of CASTOR's performance and their relations during LHC Run 2. The equalisation of CASTOR's channels is performed using beam-halo muons. Thereafter, CASTOR's pedestal spectrum is studied. It is shown that noise estimates which are extracted using a fit, give on average a 10\\% lower threshold than statistical estimates. Gain correction factors, which are needed for the intercalibration, are obtained using a statistical, in-situ applicable method. The results of this method are shown to be reasonably consistent with laboratory measurements. Penultimately the absolute calibration is discussed, with emphasis on the relation between the scale uncertainty and CASTOR's alignment. It is shown that the alignment's contribution to the systematic uncerta...

  11. Microdistribution of 241Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, L; Vlasova, I; Mogilnaya, O; Bolsunovsky, A; Kalmykov, S

    2010-01-01

    A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide (241)Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of (241)Am added to the experimental system was 1850+/-31 Bq/L. The total amount of (241)Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333+/-385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of (241)Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of (241)Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. (241)Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.

  12. Microdistribution of 241Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondareva, L.; Vlasova, I.; Mogilnaya, O.; Bolsunovsky, A.; Kalmykov, S.

    2010-01-01

    A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide 241 Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of 241 Am added to the experimental system was 1850 ± 31 Bq/L. The total amount of 241 Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333 ± 385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of 241 Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of 241 Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. 241 Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.

  13. Effect of copper on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Tarun K; Adorjan, Peter; Corbett, Andrea L

    2002-01-01

    Elodea canadensis has been proposed as a potential biomonitor due to its wide distribution and apparent ability to accumulate pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of copper sulfate on growth in E. canadensis to determine its effectiveness as a biomonitor of copper pollution in aquatic systems and whether growth is a suitable index of sub-lethal stress. Copper sulfate significantly slowed or stopped growth at all concentrations (low: 1 ppm, medium: 5 ppm, high: 10 ppm of copper sulfate) used. Final plant drymass was significantly lower in medium and high copper treatments compared with controls. E. canadensis appears to be very sensitive to copper levels, and may be useful as a biomonitor of copper levels in aquatic systems. However, its utility as a bioaccumulator may be limited, because we observed senescence of most leaves in all copper-treated plants following 4 weeks of treatment.

  14. Adsorption, Bioaccumulation and Kinetics Parameters of the Phytoremediation of Cobalt from Wastewater Using Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoarca, Giannin; Vancea, Cosmin; Popa, Simona; Boran, Sorina

    2018-05-01

    Present paper investigates the phytoremediation of cobalt from wastewaters using Elodea canadensis. Bioaccumulation tests were conducted at various concentrations of cobalt ranging from 1 to 15 mg/L. Final concentrations of cobalt in wastewaters, after phytoremediation, were less than 1 mg/L. E. canadensis' hyperaccumulator character with regard to cobalt is emphasised by the amount of cobalt retained: 0.39% ± 0.02% of dry mass at an initial concentration in wastewater of 15 mg/L. After 14 days of exposure to contaminant, the biomass as well as the relative growth rate has increased with the amount of cobalt in wastewaters, the plant manifesting an excellent tolerance to cobalt exposure. Adsorption of cobalt ions by E. canadensis can be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model equation.

  15. Bio-based polyurethane prepared from Kraft lignin and modified castor oil

    OpenAIRE

    L. B. Tavares; C. V. Boas; G. R. Schleder; A. M. Nacas; D. S. Rosa; D. J. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Current challenges highlight the need for polymer research using renewable natural sources as a substitute for petroleum-based polymers. The use of polyols obtained from renewable sources combined with the reuse of industrial residues such as lignin is an important agent in this process. Different compositions of polyurethane-type materials were prepared by combining technical Kraft lignin (TKL) with castor oil (CO) or modified castor oil (MCO1 and MCO2) to increase their reactivity towards d...

  16. Enzymatic basis for fungicide removal by Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosnon-Olette, Rachel; Schröder, Peter; Bartha, Bernadett; Aziz, Aziz; Couderchet, Michel; Eullaffroy, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Plants can absorb a diversity of natural and man-made toxic compounds for which they have developed diverse detoxification mechanisms. Plants are able to metabolize and detoxify a wide array of xenobiotics by oxidation, sugar conjugation, glutathione conjugation, and more complex reactions. In this study, detoxification mechanisms of dimethomorph, a fungicide currently found in aquatic media were investigated in Elodea canadensis. Cytochrome P450 (P450) activity was measured by an oxygen biosensor system, glucosyltransferases (GTs) by HPLC, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Incubation of Elodea with dimethomorph induced an increase of the P450 activity. GST activity was not stimulated by dimethomorph suggesting that GST does not participate in dimethomorph detoxification. In plants exposed to dimethomorph, comparable responses were observed for GST and APOX activities showing that the GST was more likely to play a role in response to oxidative stress. Preincubation with dimethomorph induced a high activity of O- and N-GT, it is therefore likely that both enzymes participate in the phase II (conjugation) of dimethomorph detoxification process. For the first time in aquatic plants, P450 activity was shown to be induced by a fungicide suggesting a role in the metabolization of dimethomorph. Moreover, our finding is the first evidence of dimethomorph and isoproturon activation of cytochrome P450 multienzyme family in an aquatic plant, i.e., Elodea (isoproturon was taken here as a reference molecule). The detoxification of dimetomorph seems to proceed via hydroxylation, and subsequent glucosylation, and might yield soluble as well as cell wall bound residues.

  17. Experimental and empirical study of diesel and castor biodiesel blending effect, on kinematic viscosity, density and calorific value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fuel properties like density, viscosity and calorific value of trans-esterified methyl ester using castor biodiesel and their blends with No. 2 diesel. Empirical correlations are proposed to predict the kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value for a mixture of castor oil and No. 2 diesel. Kay mixing rule shows a good prediction for the fuel properties under study. Several polynomials are fitted using least square method, and the fitted equations show a good agreement with the experimental data from our study. The developed equations could be used as universal formulas to predict the kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value for castor oil and No. 2 diesel blend. The equations can be used to optimize the mixing ratio of the castor oil/No. 2 diesel for different applications. Blending of castor oil with No. 2 diesel- in the range of 20% castor oil, will not violate the required specification of diesel engines.

  18. Some properties of castor oil affecting its performance as a capacitor impregnant and their significance to future impregnant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    For a considerable time castor oil and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been the principal impregnants used in energy-storage capacitors. Castor oil has proven to be better than PCB for pulsed applications. PCB's have come under attack as an environmental hazard, while castor oil is a vegetable product and its supply and quality are subject to fluctuation. These two facts make the development of new impregnants desirable. The properties of PCB as a capacitor impregnant are well known. This paper first compares a number of properties of castor oil and PCB's. A comparison is made between the lives of castor oil capacitors and comparable PCB energy-storage capacitors. Some of the physical and chemical properties of castor oil which make it a good pulse capacitor impregnant are examined. These properties can be used as a guide for future research on new pulse capacitor impregnants

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  20. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, G.; Bathellier, A.

    1969-01-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [fr

  1. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  2. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior.

  3. Castor oil polyurethane containing silica nanoparticles as filling material of bone defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacer, Renato Silva; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biologic behavior of the castor polymer containing silica nanoparticles as a bone substitute in diafisary defect. Twenty seven male Rattus norvegicus albinus Wistar lineage were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. Three experimental groups had been formed with nine animals each: (1) castor oil polymer containing only calcium carbonate; (2) castor oil polymer with calcium carbonate and doped with 5% of silica nanoparticles; (3) castor polymer with calcium carbonate doped with 10% of silica nanoparticles; 3 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia 15, 30 and 60 days after experimental procedure, and their femurs were removed to histological evaluation. there was bone growth in all the studied groups, with a greater tendency of growth in the group 1. After 30 days all the groups presented similar results. After 60 days a greater amount of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts in group 3 was observed, with integrated activity of 3 kinds of cells involved in the bone activation-reabsorption-formation. The castor polymer associated to the silica nanoparticles is biocompatible and allows osteoconduction. The presence of osteoprogenitors cells suggests silica osteoinduction capacity.

  4. Secure and documented screwing down of Castor containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Asir; Junkers, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The castor container is sealed using a multiple lid system comprising a primary lid and a secondary lid. The two lids are positioned one above the other and screwed securely to the body of the container. In addition, the tightness of the lids is guaranteed by a special metal seal. A further steel plate is screwed securely over the lids providing additional protection for the lids from moisture and various influences. The central element connecting the lids to the container comprises fixed threaded connections which must be accurately tightened with a torque of 900 Nm, 1500 Nm or more. The basic function of a threaded connection, in terms of a positive fit and detachable joint, is to join together two or more parts in such a way that they always behave as a single part whatever operational forces are present. This can only be achieved by means of an accurate and sufficient pre-tensioning force. This pretensioning force is transferred to the threaded connection with the help of a particular torque and presses the components together. This loading brought about by the pretensioning force is referred to as the prestress. In order to create a correct and high quality connection, this prestress must be arrived at in an optimum manner. The prestress must therefore be high enough to withstand the full loading for which the connection is designed. In addition the connection should not come loose unintentionally if it is exposed to externally acting forces. Since under no circumstances should threaded connections on a castor container fail, a suitable screwing process must guarantee that this does not happen. The securing of threaded joints can only be ensured by introducing and maintaining a constant and accurate prestress. VDI Guideline 2230, Part 1, mentions various threaded connection or tightening processes, including torque-controlled tightening, angle-controlled tightening and yield-controlled tightening. (orig.)

  5. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants.

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  8. Physiological acclimation to drought stress in Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolf, Markus; Pagitz, Konrad; Mayr, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Solidago canadensis is an invasive species from North America that is spreading across Europe, Australia and temperate Asia. We hypothesized that the species' wide ecological amplitude is also based on its potential in hydraulic acclimation, and analyzed hydraulic and anatomical properties along a transect with decreasing soil humidity. Stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced embolism, stomatal closure during dehydration and xylem-anatomical parameters were quantified at three sites. At the humid site, specific hydraulic conductivity of stems (1.0 ± 0.2 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) was about twofold higher, and leaf-specific conductivity about 1.5 times higher (3.1 ± 0.5 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) than at the dry site. Water potential (Ψ) at 50% loss of conductivity was -3.7 ± 0.1 MPa at the dry site and -3.1 ± 0.2 MPa at the humid site (September). Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism decreased along the transect and over the vegetation period. At drier sites, stomata started closing at lower Ψ while complete stomatal closure was reached at less negative Ψ (12% of maximum stomatal conductance: -2.5 ± 0.0 and -3.0 ± 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid site). The safety margin between stomatal closure and 50% loss of conductivity was 1.2 and 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid sites. The observed variability indicated an efficient acclimation in hydraulic conductivity and safety: plants at dry sites exhibited lower specific hydraulic conductivity, higher embolism resistance and broader safety margins, signifying a trade-off between the hydraulic safety and efficiency. The observed intraspecific plasticity in hydraulic and anatomical traits may help to explain the invasive potential of this species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Avian reservoirs and zoonotic potential of the emerging human pathogen Helicobacter canadensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldenström, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ottvall, R.

    2003-01-01

    testing; four strains were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results clearly identified the bird isolates as Helicobacter canadensis, recently described as an emerging human pathogen. This is the first report of an animal reservoir for this organism and of its presence in Europe...

  10. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Yu, Guodong; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (Solidago canadensis L.) in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments. Three Pb levels (control, 300, and 600 mg/kg soil) were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows. Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiform, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus geosporum, and Glomus etunicatum). The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants. The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mycorrhizae. The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (root length colonized, RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers, N (including total N and 15N) and P uptake. The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments. The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome). The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake might give S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted soils.

  11. Allelopathic effects of the extracts from an invasive species Solidago canadensis L. on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Bai, Y; Wang, Y; Kong, H

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated allelopathic effects of Solidago canadensis L. on Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that S. canadensis L. extracts could significantly inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa. The inhibition ratios of samples with 0·3 and 0·5 g l(-1) extracts were over 90% after 7 days, and the transmission electron microscopy images showed the damage of M. aeruginosa cells during the incubation. In physiological and biochemical measurements, the membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content rapidly increased with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the content of antioxidant molecules (ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH)) increased. Although the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)) increased at low extracts concentrations, the effects were inhibitory when the extracts concentration increased. In conclusion, this study provided a new idea to utilize the detrimental weed S. canadensis L. to control harmful cyanobacteria. The alterations in physiology and biochemistry of M. aeruginosa cell were not in isolation, but with the stimulation of intracellular ROS that could play a fundamental role in inhibitory effects of S. canadensis L. extracts. It was inferred that terrestrial plants could have the same algistatic mechanisms as hydrophytes. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  13. Growth and stocking of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak

    2000-01-01

    Summarization of the limited growth information in mixed-species stands in New England indicates that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) may be one of the fastest growing species in diameter, second only to white pine. However, on some sites hemlock diameter growth is about equal to that of associated hardwoods. Hemlock grows slowly in height and...

  14. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  15. Growth patterns of Tsuga canadensis in managed uneven-aged northern conifer stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2000-01-01

    This study reports patterns of regeneration and growth for 100 eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) up to 20 inches (50 cm) dbh in two mixed-species selection stands on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in east-central Maine. The study stands are part of a U.S.D.A. Forest Service experiment in which eastern hemlock has remained stable over a...

  16. Karyological investigations on Erigeron canadensis L. and E. annuus (L. Pers. from natural stands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of chromosomes in metaphases root meristems of Erigeron canadensis L. (2n= 18 and E. annuus (L. Pers. (2n=27 was determined. The chromosomes of both species showed a morphological differentiation - they were heterobrachial or isobrachial; E. annuus had an additional unpaired isobrachial chromosome.

  17. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Duquesne Light Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Shippingport Borough, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, on the south bank of the Ohio River. Subject to the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  18. Comparative analyses of plastid sequences between native and introduced populations of aquatic weeds Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Huotari

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous species (NIS are species living outside their historic or native range. Invasive NIS often cause severe environmental impacts, and may have large economical and social consequences. Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae is a New World genus with at least five submerged aquatic angiosperm species living in fresh water environments. Our aim was to survey the geographical distribution of cpDNA haplotypes within the native and introduced ranges of invasive aquatic weeds Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii and to reconstruct the spreading histories of these invasive species. In order to reveal informative chloroplast (cp genome regions for phylogeographic analyses, we compared the plastid sequences of native and introduced individuals of E. canadensis. In total, we found 235 variable sites (186 SNPs, 47 indels and two inversions between the two plastid sequences consisting of 112,193 bp and developed primers flanking the most variable genomic areas. These 29 primer pairs were used to compare the level and pattern of intraspecific variation within E. canadensis to interspecific variation between E. canadensis and E. nuttallii. Nine potentially informative primer pairs were used to analyze the phylogeographic structure of both Elodea species, based on 70 E. canadensis and 25 E. nuttallii individuals covering native and introduced distributions. On the whole, the level of variation between the two Elodea species was 53% higher than that within E. canadensis. In our phylogeographic analysis, only a single haplotype was found in the introduced range in both species. These haplotypes H1 (E. canadensis and A (E. nuttallii were also widespread in the native range, covering the majority of native populations analyzed. Therefore, we were not able to identify either the geographic origin of the introduced populations or test the hypothesis of single versus multiple introductions. The divergence between E. canadensis haplotypes was surprisingly high, and future

  19. Comparative analyses of plastid sequences between native and introduced populations of aquatic weeds Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tea; Korpelainen, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Non-indigenous species (NIS) are species living outside their historic or native range. Invasive NIS often cause severe environmental impacts, and may have large economical and social consequences. Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae) is a New World genus with at least five submerged aquatic angiosperm species living in fresh water environments. Our aim was to survey the geographical distribution of cpDNA haplotypes within the native and introduced ranges of invasive aquatic weeds Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii and to reconstruct the spreading histories of these invasive species. In order to reveal informative chloroplast (cp) genome regions for phylogeographic analyses, we compared the plastid sequences of native and introduced individuals of E. canadensis. In total, we found 235 variable sites (186 SNPs, 47 indels and two inversions) between the two plastid sequences consisting of 112,193 bp and developed primers flanking the most variable genomic areas. These 29 primer pairs were used to compare the level and pattern of intraspecific variation within E. canadensis to interspecific variation between E. canadensis and E. nuttallii. Nine potentially informative primer pairs were used to analyze the phylogeographic structure of both Elodea species, based on 70 E. canadensis and 25 E. nuttallii individuals covering native and introduced distributions. On the whole, the level of variation between the two Elodea species was 53% higher than that within E. canadensis. In our phylogeographic analysis, only a single haplotype was found in the introduced range in both species. These haplotypes H1 (E. canadensis) and A (E. nuttallii) were also widespread in the native range, covering the majority of native populations analyzed. Therefore, we were not able to identify either the geographic origin of the introduced populations or test the hypothesis of single versus multiple introductions. The divergence between E. canadensis haplotypes was surprisingly high, and future research may

  20. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  1. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  3. Collection of short papers on Beaver Creek watershed studies in West Tennessee, 1989-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W. Harry.; Baker, Eva G.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey began a scientific investigation to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. The project is being conducted jointly with other Federal, State, county agencies, the farming community, and academic institutions, in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Hydrologic Unit Area program. The Beaver Creek project has evolved into a long-term watershed assessment and monitoring program. In 1991, a grant was received to develop and evaluate sampling strategies for higher order streams. During the summer of 1992, a reconnaissance of water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in Shelby, Tipton, Fayette, and Haywood Counties was conducted and included 89 domestic wells in the Beaver Creek watershed. Results from this effort lead to the development of a 1-year program to evaluate cause- and-effect relations that can explain the observed water-quality conditions for the shallow aquifers in the watershed. In 1992 the USGS, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and the Shelby County Soil Conservation District, began an evaluation of in-stream processes and in-stream resource-management systems. In 1993, a biomonitoring program was established in the watershed. This collection of eight articles and abstracts was originally published in the American Water Resources Association National Symposium on Water Quality Proceedings for the national conference held in Chicago in 1994 and describes what has been learned in the study to date.

  4. Castor (Ricinus communis L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. Growth Indices in Terms of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    naser jafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth analysis has been widely used in breeding programs to identify the important plant developmental phases and components related to higher yield under a particular set of environmental conditions. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an important commercial crop. Castor oil based by products is used in manufacturing of several commercially important commodities like surfactants, coatings, greases, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, polyesters, polymers, etc. Interference (Interactive effects among species on inter-species populations is one of the main issues on the eco-physiology of plant populations where weeds impose negative effects by approaching the plant to compete in light, water and nutrient elements availability and results in reduced growth and yield (Shinggu et al., 2011. Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reactions to the crop and weed density. Various reasons have been attributed for the low productivity among the most important is weed competition (Radosevich, 1987. The aim of the present experiment was evaluating the interference effects of redroot pigweed on growth indices of castor bean in northwest of Iran. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in Urmia, Iran (Agricultural Research of West Azarbayjan, Saatlo Station (37°44´18״ N Latitude and 45° 10´ 53״ E Longitude, at 1338 m above sea level in 2012. The soil of the experimental field was sandy - loam, with pH of 7.2. Competitive pattern of experiment was in two-factor based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications arranged in four castor plant densities (3, 4, 5 and 6 plants.m-2 and four redroot pigweed densities (0, 5, 10 and 15 plants.m-2. Redroot pigweed and castor seeds were simultaneously directly planted on the 22th May in 2012. Redroot pigweed plants were weeded at the times related to the treatments level. Irrigation and intercultural operations were performed whenever necessary. Plots were 3m×5m

  5. Fracture toughness master curve characterization of Linde 1092 weld metal for Beaver valley 1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Yang, Won Jon; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the test results obtained from the Korean contribution to the integrity assessment of low toughness Beaver Valley reactor vessel by characterizing the fracture toughness of Linde 1092 (No. 305414) weld metal. 10 PCVN specimens and 10 1T-CT specimens were tested in accordance with the ASTM E 1921-97 standard, 'Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, T o , for ferritic steels in the transition range'. This results can also be useful for assessment of Linde 80 low toughness welds of Kori-1

  6. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  7. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION ON THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS II : EMPIRICAL METHODS TO REMOVE CASTOR OIL AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REDATING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; van der Plicht, Johannes; Doudna, Gregory; Nielsen, Frederik; Hojrup, Peter; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Pedersen, Carl Th; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    While kept at the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem, many Dead Sea Scroll fragments were exposed to castor oil by the original team of editors in the course of cleaning the parchments. Castor oil must be regarded as a serious contaminant in relation to radiocarbon dating. If modern castor oil is

  9. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerols containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. The identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil is reported here. The structure of this novel fat...

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF RICINOLEIC OF CASTOR OIL INTO LINOLEIC (OMEGA-6 AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID BY DEHYDRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marham Sitorus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ricinoleic of Castor Oil was dehydrated by various dehydrator agent (P2O5, K2CO3, H3PO4, NaHSO4, Al2O3, molecular sieve and activated bentonite at 450 °C - HCl on the same condition (150 °C, mol ratio 1:1 and 2 hours . The compositions of Refined Ricinus Castor Oil as starting material were : 0.92% palmitic , 5.56% linoleic , 4.07% octadecanoic , 1.22% stearic and 85.06% ricinoleic. The spesific wave number of IR was bandwith 3411 cm-1 caused of hydroxyl (-OH group of ricinoleic at C-12 as main component. The product was Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO mixed of linoleic (omega 6 [C18 : 2 (9,12] and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA [C18: 2 (9,11]. The best dehydrator was P2O5 based on three parameters were : Free Fatty Acid (FFA nearly the same (1.855% of Castor oil and 2.139% of DCO, the most increased of Iodium value (49.860 mg/g of Castor oil in to 63.090 mg/g of DCO, and the most decresed of hydroxyl number (28.27 mg of Castor oil in to 17.75 mg/g of DCO. To optimized the dehydration was done by various number of P2O5 (3g, 5g and 7g, tempereture (room, 100 °C and 150 °C and time (2h, 2.5h, 3h, and 3.5h. The optimal conditon of dehydration was not found yet. Some of sugestted or idea for dehydration were: dehydration must be done by base or netral, non oxydator dehydrator, mol ratio 1:1, temperature (100-150 °C and 2-3.5 h. Based on GC-MS the best DCO (7g P2O5, 150 °C and 3.5 h were showed that the decrease of ricinoleic 14.13% (85.08% of Castor Oil in to 70.93% of DCO, increased linoleic 2.09% (5.56 of Castor oil in to 7.65% of DCO and conducted of 9.09% CLA. Some new peaks between linoleic and ricinoleic are maybe isomer's of linoleic and CLA. The wave number of cunjugated alkene (C=C (1666.3 cm-1 of IR spectra of DCO together with GC-MS chromatogram's to indicated that linoleic and CLA were conducted.   Keywords: castor oil, risinoleic, dehydration, omega 6 dan CLA

  11. Bowel Preparation of Outpatients for Intravenous Urography: Efficacy of Castor Oil Versus Bisacodyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Chen Yang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two laxatives, castor oil and bisacodyl, in the routine bowel preparation of outpatients for intravenous urography (IVU. We used castor oil in patients undergoing IVU for 1 month, and then used bisacodyl in patients undergoing IVU for another month. Two uroradiologists, unaware of the method of bowel preparation, reviewed the standard radiographs and graded the residue in the large bowel and the clearness of the opacified urinary collecting system. In total, 71 consecutive outpatients received castor oil, and 84 received bisacodyl. For the castor oil group, grades from the two uroradiologists did not differ in terms of fecal residue on plain abdominal images (p = 0.54, and visualization of the urinary system on the left (p = 0.36 and right sides (p = 0.63. Findings were similar for bisacodyl recipients (p = 0.11, 0.59, and 0.32, respectively. When the laxative effect of the two agents was compared, we found no difference in the grading of fecal residue on plain abdominal images (p = 0.14, or in visualization of the urinary system on the left (p = 0.31 and right sides (p = 0.98. In conclusion, we observed no difference in laxative efficacy between castor oil and bisacodyl; thus, bisacodyl may be a useful alternative for bowel preparation before IVU.

  12. Environmental effects of nanosilver: impact on castor seed germination, seedling growth, and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasur, Jyothsna; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2013-12-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in daily products is of great concern today, especially when their positive and negative impact on environment is not known. Hence, in current research, we have studied the impact of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) application on seed germination, root, and shoot length of castor bean, Ricinus communis L. plant. Silver nanoparticles had no significant effects on seedling growth even at higher concentration of 4,000 mg L(-1), while the silver in bulk form as AgNO3 applied on the castor bean seeds inhibited the seed germination. Silver uptake in seedlings of the castor seeds on treatment with both the forms of silver was confirmed through atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. The silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate application to castor seeds also caused an enhanced enzymatic activity of ROS enzymes and phenolic content in castor seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of individual phenols indicated enhanced content of parahydroxy benzoic acid. These kinds of studies are of great interest in order to unveil the movement and accumulation of nanoparticles in plant tissues for assessing future applications in the field or laboratory.

  13. Castor oil as a natural alternative to labor induction: A retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Moxley, Grace E; Banks, Kendall; Bishop, Ashlan; Rathbun, Lesley

    2018-04-01

    To describe birthing outcomes among women who consumed castor oil cocktail as part of a freestanding birth center labor induction protocol. De-identified data from birth logs and electronic medical records were entered into SPSS Statistics 22.0 for analysis for all women who received the castor oil cocktail (n=323) to induce labor between January 2008 and May 2015 at a birth center in the United States. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for trends in safety and birthing outcomes. Of the women who utilized the castor oil cocktail to stimulate labor, 293 (90.7%) birthed vaginally at the birth center or hospital. The incidence of maternal adverse effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, extreme diarrhea) was less than 7%, and adverse effects of any kind were reported in less than 15% of births. An independent sample t-test revealed that parous women were more likely to birth vaginally at the birth center after using the castor oil cocktail than their nulliparous counterparts (pcastor oil cocktail to induce labor were able to give birth vaginally with little to no maternal or fetal complications. Findings indicate further research is needed to compare the safety and effectiveness of natural labor induction methodologies, including castor oil, to commonly used labor induction techniques in a prospective study or clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  15. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  16. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The short supply of edible vegetable oils is the limiting factor in the progression of biodiesel technology; thus, in this study, we applied response surface methodology in order to optimize the reaction factors for biodiesel synthesis from inedible castor oil. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of multiple parameters and their reciprocal interactions using a five-level three-factor design. In a total of 20 individual experiments, we optimized the reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and quantity of catalyst. Our model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum quantity of castor biodiesel (92 wt.%): a 40-min reaction at 35.5 degrees C, with an oil-to-methanol molar ratio of 1:8.24, and a catalyst concentration of 1.45% of KOH by weight of castor oil. Subsequent empirical analyses of the biodiesel generated under the predicted conditions showed that the model equation accurately predicted castor biodiesel yields within the tested ranges. The biodiesel produced from castor oil satisfied the relevant quality standards without regard to viscosity and cold filter plugging point.

  17. The castor oil production in Brazil and the biodiesel program (Probiodiesel); A producao de mamona no Brasil e o Probiodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Pires, Monica de Moura [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: biocomb@uesc.br; Rocha, Pauletti Karllien [Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacao do Estado da Bahia (SECTI), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauletti@secti.ba.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present a prospective study of the national production of biodiesel and castor oil and to determine the level of the public investment necessary to attain the proposed production. For replacement of 2% of the diesel internal consumption, 786 millions of liters of biodiesel will be necessary, based on the consumption of 2003. From this amount 293 millions of liters (40%) will be derived from the castor oil. Considering the castor oil agricultural productivity of 1.8 t/ha and the 45% industrial income in oil, it will be necessary the planting of 360.000 ha and investment amount of R$ 370 million. An idleness of 71% of the castor oil crushing industry has been detected, but this sector works with profit as function of castor oil price. An deficit of 55% between the castor oil planting area and the necessary one for biodiesel production was identified, considering that all the castor oil will be exclusively used for this purpose. With the proposed goals and without the necessary allocation of public resources for castor oil production, probably it will not be possible to expect that 1/5 of the biodiesel national production can come from the domestic agricultural planting.

  18. Evaluation of reaction mechanisms and the kinetic parameters for the transesterification of castor oil by liquid enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol using the enzyme Eversa® Transform as catalyst were investigated. Reactions were carried out for 8 hours at 35 °C with: an alcohol-to-oil molar ratio equal to 6:1, a 5 wt% of liquid enzyme solution and addition of 5 wt% of water by weight of castor oil. From...

  19. The performance of the CASTOR calorimeter during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    van de Klundert, Merijn H F

    2016-01-01

    CASTOR is an electromagnetic and hadronic tungsten-quartz sampling Cerenkov calorimeter located at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The detector has pseudorapidity borders at -5.2 and -6.6. An overview is presented on the various aspects of CASTOR’s performance and their relations during LHC Run 2. The equalisation of CASTOR’s channels is performed using beam-halo muons. Thereafter, CASTOR’s pedestal spectrum is studied. It is shown that noise estimates which are extracted using a fit, give on average a 10% lower threshold than statistical estimates. Gain correction factors, which are needed for the intercalibration, are obtained using a statistical, in-situ applicable method. The results of this method are shown to be reasonably consistent with laboratory measurements. Penultimately the absolute calibration is discussed, with emphasis on the relation between the scale uncertainty and CASTOR’s alignment. It is shown that the alignment’s contribution to the systemati...

  20. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  1. Transesterification of Castor Oil Catalyzed by Liquid Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    economy. Based on this, and considering its low influence with food production, castor oil was investigated as a potential feedstock. Compared to other vegetable oils, it has a higher polarity resulting in better system homogeneity during reaction. The enzyme tested as catalyst was Eversa Transform. Four...... main reaction parameters were investigated for the optimization of the reaction route: the temperature was varied from 35 to 45 °C, the water content between 0-10 wt%, the enzyme content in the range of 2-10 wt%, and the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio from 4.5 to 7.5. The Response Surface Methodology...... was used to determine the optimal reaction conditions to get a high biodiesel yield and a low free fatty acids concentration. The results obtained showed that at 35 °C, 5 wt% of enzymes, 5 wt% of water, and a 6.0 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, the yield in biodiesel was about 94% with a content of free fatty...

  2. Interactions between Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis and Domestic Sheep Ovis aries and the Biological, Social, Economic, and Legal Implications of these Interactions on USDA Forest Service Lands in the Evanston/Mt. View Ranger District

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Ashly Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence exists indicating domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can infect Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), a United States Forest Service (USFS) Region 4 sensitive species, with pneumonia (Callan 1991; Foreyt 1989, 1992, 1994; Foreyt and Lagerquist 1996; George et al 2008; Wehausen et al. 2011). Since the transmission of the pneumonic bacteria between the domestic and wild sheep is a result of bighorn sheep coming into contact with the bacteria carried in the mucous m...

  3. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Morphology of an Early Oligocene beaver Propalaeocastor irtyshensis and the status of the genus Propalaeocastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüzhou Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early to Late Oligocene Propalaeocastor is the earliest known beaver genus from Eurasia. Although many species of this genus have been described, these species are defined based on very fragmentary specimens. Propalaeocastor irtyshensis from the Early Oligocene Irtysh River Formation in northwestern Xinjiang, China is one of the earliest-known members of Propalaeocastor. This species is defined on a single maxillary fragment. We revise the diagnosis of P. irtyshensis and the genus Propalaeocastor, based on newly discovered specimens from the Irtysh River Formation. The dental morphology of P. irtyshensis is very similar to other early castorids. The caudal palatine foramen of P. irtyshensis is situated in the maxillary-palatine suture. This is a feature generally accept as diagnostic character for the castorids. On the other hand, P. irtyshensis has two upper premolars, a rudimentarily developed sciuromorph-like zygomatic plate, and a relatively large protrogomorph-like infraorbital foramen. Some previous researchers suggested that Propalaeocastor is a junior synonym of Steneofiber, while other took it as a valid genus. Our morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that Propalaeocastor differs from Steneofiber and is a valid genus. We also suggest that Agnotocastor aubekerovi, A. coloradensis, A. galushai, A. readingi, Oligotheriomys primus, and “Steneofiber aff. dehmi” should be referred to Propalaeocastor. Propalaeocastor is the earliest and most basal beaver. The origin place of Propalaeocastor and castorids is uncertain. The Early Oligocene radiation of castorids probably is propelled by the global climate change during the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

  5. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of high-calcium marble in the Beaver Creek area, St. Lawrence County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Ervin

    1978-01-01

    Three belts of marble of the Grenville Series were mapped in the Beaver Creek drainage basin, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. One of these, on the west side of Beaver Creek, consists of coarsely crystalline pure calcitic marble that occurs in a zone at least 10 by 0.8 km in extent. Samples of marble show CaCO3 content to be greater than 93 percent, and some samples contain greater than 96 percent, and only small amounts of MgO and Fe203 are present. Marble in two other belts to the east of Beaver Creek are variable in composition, but locally have high content of calcium carbonate material. The marble deposit west of Beaver Creek has a chemical composition favorable for specialized chemical, industrial, and metallurgical uses. Another favorable aspect of the deposit is its proximity to inexpensive water transportation on the St. Lawrence Seaway only 27.5 km away by road, at Ogdensburg, N.Y.

  7. Draft Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs

  8. The Relationship between Market and Accounting Determined Risk Measures: Reviewing and Updating the Beaver, Kettler, Scholes (1970) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvela, Michael; Kozyra, James; Potter, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The association between market-determined risk measures and accounting-determined risk measures was originally explored in the 1970s by Beaver, Kettler, and Scholes (BKS). The results of the BKS (1970) study suggest that accounting information is usefulness in assessing firm specific risk. Since BKS, there have been few studies conducted to…

  9. Conformance to Regulatory Guide 1.97, Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffel, J.W.; Udy, A.C.

    1985-11-01

    This EG and G Idaho, Inc., report reviews the submittals for Regulatory Guide 1.97 for Unit No. 2 of the Beaver Valley Power Station and identifies areas of nonconformance to the regulatory guide. Exceptions to Regulatory Guide 1.97 are evaluated and those areas where sufficient basis for acceptability is not provided are identified

  10. Leave It to Beaver. Merchants Millpond State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Floyd K.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Merchants Millpond State Park in North Carolina to teach students in grades 4-6 about the habitat and lifestyle of the beaver. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Parks System, the Merchants Millpond State…

  11. Dynamics of the nearby multiple stellar systems. The Castor system (ADS 6175)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Zh.P.; Orlov, V.V.; Chernyshev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the astrometrical and astrophysical data for the components of the multiple stellar system Castor (ADS 6175) was used to determined the probability of physical connection among components and the dynamical state of this system. The uncertainties of the observational data are taken into account. It is shown that in this visual triple star system the components have a certain gravitational and dynamical connection. The relative orbit of close components AB is elliptical. The probability that the motion of the distant star C in relation to the centre of mass AB is elliptical and the Castor system is stable is 40.7%. The probability that the orbit of C is hyperbolic is 59.1%. The probability that the Castor system may be unstable non-hierarchical is 0.2%

  12. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for castor oil biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent castor oil FAME and FAEE castor oil. ► Tie-lines and solubility curves (binodal) by cloud-point method for FAME and FAEE systems. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports new liquid–liquid solubility values (binodal curves) as well as (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for, ternary and quaternary systems containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from castor oil, water, glycerol, methanol and anhydrous ethanol at T = (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Solubility curves (binodal) were also obtained by the cloud-point method for binary systems containing FAME, FAEE, water, or glycerol. All results obtained can be considered of good quality. The experimental values were correlated using the UNIQUAC model, whose results presented good performance and satisfactory fitting of equilibrium values

  13. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  14. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  15. Antibacterial effects of castor oil on foodborne pathogens: comparative evaluation of the components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samaneh hatami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, antimicrobial compounds derived from plants, have been used for medicinal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of castor seed oil extracted from Mashhad and Isfahan varieties on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria inocula. The sensitivity of the indicator bacteria was evaluated using disc diffusion technique and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were tested by broth micro-dilution assays. Oil from castor seeds was extract by Soxhlet method and the extracted oils were analyzed by a gas chromatograph connected to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS. According to the results of various dilutions of the extracts, MIC for castor oils ranged 12.5-25%, except for the Isfahan variety that was estimated at 6.25-12.5% for E. coli. The two varieties of castor oils showed the MBC activity on the indicator organisms at the original (100% concentration. Based on GC/MS data, ricinoleic acid (1.307%, genetistic acid (0.597% and palmitic acid (1.947% were detected in oil extracted from Isfahan variety; meanwhile these compounds did not found in Mashhad variety. According to the results, the two castor varieties had antibacterial impact on E. coli. In addition, the overall antimicrobial activity of Isfahan variety was higher than Mashhad type. It seems that the presence of phenolic compounds as well as camphoric and unsaturated fatty acids is the major reason for the higher antibacterial effect of Isfahan variety on E. coli. Considering the inhibitory impact of castor oil, it can be used as a natural preservative in food industry.

  16. Castor oil for induction of labor in post-date pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ronit; Hochner, Hagit; Savitsky, Bella; Porat, Shay; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith

    2018-02-01

    Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil. The primary outcome was proportion of women entering the active phase of labor 24, 36, 48h after ingestion. Secondary outcomes included meconium stained amniotic fluid, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, cesarean section rate, instrumental deliveries, birth weight, 5min Apgar score, chorioamnionitis, hypertensive complications, retained placenta, and post-partum hemorrhage. Intervention and control groups included 38 and 43 women, respectively. No differences in baseline characteristics, except for age were noted. The observed interaction between castor oil and parity was significant (p interaction =0.02). Multiparous women in the intervention group exhibited a significant beneficial effect on entering active labor within 24, 36 and 48h after castor oil consumption compared with the placebo (Hazard Ratio=2.93, p=0.048; Hazard Ratio=3.29, p=0.026; Hazard Ratio=2.78, p=0.042 respectively). This effect was not noted among primiparous women. No differences in rate of obstetric complications or adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. Castor oil is effective for labor induction, in post-date multiparous women in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Design of the CMS-CASTOR subdetector readout system by reusing existing designs

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, W

    2009-01-01

    CASTOR is a cylindrical calorimeter with a length of 1.5m and a diameter of 60cm located at 14.3 meters from the CMS interaction point and covering the range in pseudorapidity corresponding to 5.1 < | eta | < 6.6. The CASTOR project was approved in the middle of 2007. Given the limited resources and time, developing a readout system from scratch was excluded. Here the final implementations of the readout chain, the considerations for the different choices as well as the performance of the installed equipment are discussed.

  18. Design of the CMS-CASTOR sub detector readout system by reusing existing designs

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, Willem

    2009-01-01

    CASTOR is a cylindrical calorimeter with a length of 1.5m and a diameter of 60cm located at 14.3 meters from the CMS interaction point and covering the range in pseudo-rapidity corresponding to 5.1 ~\\textless~ \\textbar~ eta~ \\textbar ~ \\textless ~ 6.6. The CASTOR project was approved in the middle of 2007. Given the limited resources and time, developing a readout system from scratch was excluded. Here the final implementations of the readout chain, the considerations for the different choices as well as the performance of the installed equipment are discussed.

  19. Some Experiences with the Use of Castor Oil as a Dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Karl Fischer method. The first analysis was made after the oil vat had been in use for several weeks. The vat was covered with a polyethylene sheet but...parts by the oil, drying of the oil, and the determination of water in the two-phase sys- tem of castor oil in contact with mineral oil. Detailed...DRY CASTOR OIL The effect of moisture on the dielectric strength of organic liquids is well known2 .The dielectric strength of mineral oil, for example

  20. Reconstruction of the Cranial Vault Contour Using Tissue Expander and Castor Oil Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Sylvio Luiz Costa; Afonso, Alexandre Maurity de Paula; Santos, Roberto Gomes Dos; Mattos, Ricardo Pereira; Duarte, E Bruno Gomes

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays the reconstruction of craniofacial defects can be performed with different kinds of materials, which include the bone and the so-called biomaterials, which have the advantage of not needing a surgical site donor. Among these materials, great attention is given to polymers. In this large group, current attention is focused on the castor oil polymer, since this polymer is biocompatible, low cost, and has adequate strength for reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial complex. This study aims to report the use of a prosthetic castor oil polymer for reconstruction of extensive defect, caused by a trauma, in the temporoparietal region.

  1. Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis: 13C and (2)H labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Wüst, Matthias; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Mosandl, Armin

    2002-05-01

    The biogenetic origin of the isoprenoid building blocks of the sesquiterpene germacrene D was studied in Solidago canadensis. Feeding experiments were carried out with 1-[5,5-D(2)]deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (D(2)-DOXP), [5-13C]mevalonolactone (13C-MVL) and [1-13C]-D-glucose. The hydrodistillate of a cut shoot fed with D(2)-DOXP was investigated by enantio-MDGC-MS and the volatile fraction of a shoot supplied with 13C-MVL was examined by GC-C-IRMS. The incorporation of [1-13C]-D-glucose was analyzed by quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy after isolation of germacrene D from the essential oil. Our labeling studies revealed that the biosynthesis of the C-15 skeleton of sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis proceeds predominantly via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway.

  2. Patch colonization by Trirhabda canadensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): effects of plant species composition and wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, P A; Tonkyn, D W; Goldburg, R J

    1989-10-01

    The goldenrod leaf beetle, Trirhabda canadensis, is known to respond to odors of host and non-host species in the laboratory. Here we report movements of T. canadensis in the field in response to volatile odors from monocultures and polycultures of host plants. Overall, beetles preferentially colonized plots with a higher density of host plants and lower diversity of allelochemicals, but under some wind conditions there were marked exceptions. At high windspeeds, they colonized whichever plot(s) was upwind. At low windspeeds, beetles colonized preferred plots even when they were not upwind. The data suggest that odor dispersion varies in a complex way with windspeed: at low windspeeds beetles received information from a wide are of vegetation and made choices while at high windspeeds information was available only from upwind plot(s).

  3. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  4. Cyto-histological processes during the differentiation of the tapetal cells in the anthers of Anthemis tinctoria L., Erigeron annuus (L. Pers. and E. canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapetal cells in the anthers of Anthemis tinctoria, Erigeron annus and E. canadensis were uninucleate in the premeiotic stage of the PMC's. Ta-petum differentiation with inhibited cytokinesis took place during the period of meiotic divisions. In E. canadensis both mitoses were normal, wheareas in A. tinctoria and E. canadensis after both first and second mitotic divisions as a result of numerous disturbances polyploid nuclei were formed.

  5. Evidence for Enhanced Mutualism Hypothesis: Solidago canadensis Plants from Regular Soils Perform Better

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhen-Kai; He, Wei-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The important roles of plant-soil microbe interactions have been documented in exotic plant invasion, but we know very little about how soil mutualists enhance this process (i.e. enhanced mutualism hypothesis). To test this hypothesis we conducted two greenhouse experiments with Solidago canadensis (hereafter Solidago), an invasive forb from North America, and Stipa bungeana (hereafter Stipa), a native Chinese grass. In a germination experiment, we found soil microbes from the rhizospheres of...

  6. Chemical constituents from Solidago canadensis with hypolipidemic effects in HFD-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Hao, Yan-Li; Mai, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Two new compounds, 8-dehydroxymethylvisanol (1) and 9-O-[3-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (4), together with two known lignans, visanol (2) and 9-aldehydevibsanol (3), were isolated from the 80% EtOH extract of Solidago canadensis. The structures of the two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectral analysis. All the lignans exhibited moderate hypolipidemic activity in high-fat diet-fed hamsters.

  7. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshan Du

    Full Text Available To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments subjected to both control (natural light and shady treatment (10% of natural light. Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn, stronger stomatal conductance (gs, and lower root to shoot ratio. Three-way analysis of variance revealed geographical origin to significantly affect the basal diameter of S. canadensis, while genotype significantly affected plant height, intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration rate (Tr, and proline content. Significant interactive effects between shade and geographic origin were prevalent for most traits. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the plasticity of all traits was below 0.4, indicating that most of all variations can be found among individuals within populations. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that fitness was significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, Ci, total flavonoid content, as well as the plasticity of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, gs, Ci, total flavonoid content, and malondialdehyde content under the control condition. However, subjected to shade, fitness was only significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, and the plasticity of basal diameter. Rather than local adaption, these results suggest that individual plasticity played a more prominent role in the shade response of the invasive S. canadensis.

  8. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Leshan; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Li, Junmin; Li, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments) subjected to both control (natural light) and shady treatment (10% of natural light). Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn), stronger stomatal conductance (gs), and lower root to shoot ratio. Three-way analysis of variance revealed geographical origin to significantly affect the basal diameter of S. canadensis, while genotype significantly affected plant height, intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), and proline content. Significant interactive effects between shade and geographic origin were prevalent for most traits. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the plasticity of all traits was below 0.4, indicating that most of all variations can be found among individuals within populations. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that fitness was significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, Ci, total flavonoid content, as well as the plasticity of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, gs, Ci, total flavonoid content, and malondialdehyde content under the control condition. However, subjected to shade, fitness was only significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, and the plasticity of basal diameter. Rather than local adaption, these results suggest that individual plasticity played a more prominent role in the shade response of the invasive S. canadensis.

  9. Specific status of Echinococcus canadensis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Konyaev, Sergey; Ito, Akira; Sato, Marcello Otake; Zaikov, Vladimir A; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Nakao, Minoru

    2017-12-01

    The specific status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial lineages G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain) with sylvatic or semi-domestic cycles. There is an argument whether the mitochondrial lineages should be recognised as separate species which correspond to the biological or epidemiological aggregation. In the present study, the specific status of E. canadensis was investigated using mitochondrial DNA and single copy nuclear DNA markers. Nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and partial nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) were determined for 48 isolates of E. canadensis collected from different hosts in a wide range of regions. The mitochondrial phylogeny of cox1 showed that all the isolates were clearly divided into three clades corresponding to G6/G7, G8 and G10. Five and three alleles were confirmed at pepck and pold loci, respectively. These alleles were generally divided into two groups corresponding to G6/G7 or G8 and G10. However, allele sharing was confirmed among individuals belonging to different lineages. The allele sharing occurred primarily in regions where different mitochondrial DNA lineages were found in sympatry. The resultant nuclear mitochondrial discordance suggests the genetic exchangeability among E. canadensis isolates belonging to different lineages. An apparently mosaic parasite fauna that reflects faunal mixing due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance, including introductions and invasion, precludes us from designating each of G6/G7, G8 and G10 into a different species. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. All rights reserved.

  10. GENETICS OF MIMICRY IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES, PAPILIO GLAUCUS AND P. CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Hagen, Robert H; Lederhouse, Robert C

    1996-02-01

    The tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus, exhibits a female-limited polymorphism for Batesian mimicry; the Canadian tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, lacks the mimetic (dark) form entirely. The species hybridize to a limited extent where their ranges overlap. Field collections and censuses indicate that mimetic females occur throughout the range of P. glaucus but at lowest frequencies in populations at the latitudinal edges of its geographic range such as the southernmost part of Florida and along the entire northern edge of its distribution from Massachusetts to Minnesota. Frequencies of mimetic females have remained relatively stable over time. Inheritance of the mimetic form is controlled primarily by two interacting sex-linked loci. The typical matrilineal pattern of inheritance in P. glaucus can be explained by polymorphism at a Y-linked locus, b. Analysis of P. glaucus × P. canadensis crosses has also revealed an X-linked locus, s, which controls the expression of the mimetic phenotype. The P. canadensis allele, s can , suppresses the mimetic phenotype in hybrid and backcross females. Results from more than 12 yr of rearing tiger swallowtails, including interspecies hybrids, indicate that the absence of mimetic P. canadensis females is due to both a high frequency of the "suppressing" allele s can and low frequency of the black-pigment-determining b + allele. The frequency of s can (or other suppressing alleles of s) in P. glaucus populations outside the hybrid zone is low. Some males heterozygous at the s locus and some suppressed mimetic females occur within the hybrid zone. A simple genetic model predicts the frequency of daughters that differ in phenotype from their mothers. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A.; Call, Douglas R.; Davis, Margaret A.; Foreyt, William J.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled na?ve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteu...

  12. Technical Specifications, Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-412): Appendix A to License No. NPF-64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Information is presented for Beaver Valley-2 Reactor for the areas of safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operating and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative control. (FI)

  13. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  14. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shelepova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%, limonene (0.5 - 22.5%, bornyl acetat (3.4 - 29.8% and germacrene D (1.8 - 39.2%. Samples from inflorescences contained the maximal percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons, while the leaves' samples showed the maximal cumulative percentage of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Data obtained from our studies confirm the availability of alien invasive species Solidago canadensis for medicine and many other purposes. The variability of the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils in different geographical locations will allow futher selection of form containing the maximum amount of active substances.

  15. Response of Conyza bonariensis, Conyza canadensis and Conyza sumatrensis to glufosinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Enrique Cruz-Hipolito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis, C. canadensis and C. sumatrensis are problematic weeds in citrus orchards and olive trees in southern Spain. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of glufosinate in these species, and also to establish a suitable growing stage for application in C. bonariensis. For this purpose, dose-response and spray retention assays were carried out in susceptible biotypes of C. bonariensis, C. canadensis and C. sumatrensis at the rosette stage (BBCH 14-15. Additionally, the ED50 and spray retention at two later growth stages were determined in C. bonariensis. Results at rosette stage (BBCH 14-15 showed an ED50 of 0.216 in the case of C. bonariensis; 0.058 for C. canadensis and 0.090 L ha-1 for C. sumatrensis. The spray retention values did not show any significant differences between the three species at rosette stage. In C. bonariensis, at the second stage of its growth (10-15 cm in height, the ED50 obtained was 0.517 and 1.297 L ha-1 for the third stage (with formed capitula. Also, the spray retention in the second and third stage was of 0.44 and 0.38 mL of glufosinate g-1 of dry weight, respectively. These species treated in an early developmental stage are more susceptible to glufosinate herbicide.

  16. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  17. Assessing Timing and Causes of Neonatal Lamb Losses in a Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis ) Herd via Use of Vaginal Implant Transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jamin L; Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Miller, Michael W; P Dreher, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, US, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado. We were subsequently able to collar a lamb from each of 13 VITs, and two additional lambs opportunistically from ewes without transmitters. As lambs died, we recovered and submitted carcasses for necropsy and laboratory assessment. All lambs captured and one additional lamb (carcass found opportunistically) were dead by about 130 d of age: 11 died of apparent pneumonia (all within 8-10 wk of age), one died from trauma after being kicked or trampled, one was killed by a mountain lion ( Puma concolor ), and three died of starvation likely caused by abandonment after capture. Pneumonic lambs had involvement of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi . The use of VITs and lamb collars enabled us to efficiently identify pneumonia as the predominant cause of depressed lamb recruitment in this herd; however, we urge care in neonatal lamb handling to minimize abandonment.

  18. An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis James G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor seeds are a major source for ricinoleate, an important industrial raw material. Genomics studies of castor plant will provide critical information for understanding seed metabolism, for effectively engineering ricinoleate production in transgenic oilseeds, or for genetically improving castor plants by eliminating toxic and allergic proteins in seeds. Results Full-length cDNAs are useful resources in annotating genes and in providing functional analysis of genes and their products. We constructed a full-length cDNA library from developing castor endosperm, and obtained 4,720 ESTs from 5'-ends of the cDNA clones representing 1,908 unique sequences. The most abundant transcripts are genes encoding storage proteins, ricin, agglutinin and oleosins. Several other sequences are also very numerous, including two acidic triacylglycerol lipases, and the oleate hydroxylase (FAH12 gene that is responsible for ricinoleate biosynthesis. The role(s of the lipases in developing castor seeds are not clear, and co-expressing of a lipase and the FAH12 did not result in significant changes in hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Only one oleate desaturase (FAD2 gene was identified in our cDNA sequences. Sequence and functional analyses of the castor FAD2 were carried out since it had not been characterized previously. Overexpression of castor FAD2 in a FAH12-expressing Arabidopsis line resulted in decreased accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic seeds. Conclusion Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation of FAD2 and FAH12 genes maybe one of the mechanisms that contribute to a high level of ricinoleate accumulation in castor endosperm. The full-length cDNA library will be used to search for additional genes that affect ricinoleate accumulation in seed oils. Our EST sequences will also be useful to annotate the castor genome, which whole sequence is being generated by shotgun sequencing at

  19. Fire effects on the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea) at Point Reyes National Seashore, 10 years after the Vision Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Osbourn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The 1995 Vision Fire burned 5000 ha and destroyed 40% of the habitat of the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea). Surveys immediately post-fire and in 2000 showed that only 0.4 to 1.7% of Mountain Beavers within the burn area survived. In 2000, dense, ground-hugging Blue-blossom Ceanothus (Ceanothus thrysiflorus) appeared to make coastal scrub thickets much less suitable for Mountain Beavers even though the number of burrows at our 11 study sites had returned to 88% of pre-fire numbers. In 2005 (10 y post-fire), the habitat appeared to be better for Mountain Beavers; Blue-blossom Ceanothus had diminished and vegetation more typical of northern coastal scrub, such as Coyote Brush (Baccharis pilularis) overstory with a lower layer of herbaceous vegetation, had greatly increased; but the number of Mountain Beaver burrows had declined to 52% of pre-fire numbers and there was little change in the number of sites occupied between our 2000 and 2005 surveys. With the expected successional changes in thicket structure, Mountain Beaver populations are likely to recover further, but there will probably be considerable variation in how each population stabilizes.

  20. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the use of Ogiri from castor oil seed as bait in trapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pitfall traps were used to study insect fauna in a fallow plot at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Temporary site, Awka. The study was carried out for a period of seven weeks in the months of June and July 2013. The pitfall traps were baited using ogiri made from castor oil seed. The pitfall traps were used to investigate the activities ...

  2. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  3. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  4. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  5. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Derivatization of castor oil based estolide esters: Preparation of epoxides and cyclic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estolides that are based on castor oil and oleic acid are versatile starting points for the production of industrial fluids with new properties. A variety of unsaturated estolides were derivatized by epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The epoxidized estolides were further modified using supercritic...

  7. Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerejo, Sofia de Amorim; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima Neto, João Ferreira de; Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landim e

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate three methods to isolate rats MSCs and to analyze the potential of a castor oil polyurethane base membrane as a scaffold for MSCs. Four male Wistar rats, aged 20-30 days were used. Bone marrow aspirates from femur and tibia were harvested using DMEM high glucose and heparin. The cell culture was performed in three different ways: direct culture and two types of density gradients. After 15 days, was made the 1st passage and analyzed cell viability with markers Hoerscht 33342 and propidium iodide. The MSCs were characterized by surface markers with the aid of flow cytometry. After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. The cells could not be isolated using procedure 3. When the 3 castor oil polyurethane membrane types were compared it was possible to observe that the growth of MSCs was around 80% in membrane type 3, 20% in type 2, and 10% in type 1. Both Ficoll-Hypaque densities allow isolation of rat MSCs, and especially castor oil-based membrane type 3 may be used as a scaffold for MSCs.

  8. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica on Microbial and Castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five (5) Albino rats of both sexes weighing between (85-125g) were used for each experiment and diarrhoea was induced using Castor oil. The extract showed remarkable anti-diarrhoea activity which was dose dependent at 100, 200 and 400mg evidenced by decrease in volume of intestinal content significantly different at ...

  9. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  10. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  11. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler

    Full Text Available Malic enzymes (ME catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  12. Recycling of waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) with castor oil using microwave heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Slabá, J.; Walterová, Zuzana; Rais, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 11 (2013), s. 2232-2243 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/135 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene terephthalate) * castor oil * chemical recycling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.633, year: 2013

  13. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13 C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation

  14. Film-forming properties of castor oil polyol ester blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosities and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness properties of binary blends of castor oil with polyol esters were determined experimentally. Predicted blend viscosity was calculated from the viscosity of the pure blend components. Measured viscosity values were closer to the values pre...

  15. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  16. Prolonged local anesthetic action through slow release from poly (lactic acid co castor oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a new formulation of bupivacaine loaded in an injectable fatty acid based biodegradable polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) in prolonging motor and sensory block when injected locally. The polyesters were synthesized from DL: -lactic acid and castor oil with feed ratio of 4:6 and 3:7 w/w. Bupivacaine was dispersed in poly(fatty ester) liquid and tested for drug release in vitro. The polymer p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 10% bupivacaine was injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice and the duration of sensory and motor nerve blockade was measured. The DL: -lactic acid co castor oil p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 released 65% of the incorporated bupivacaine during 1 week in vitro. Single injection of 10% bupivacaine loaded into this polymer caused motor block that lasted 24 h and sensory block that lasted 48 h. Previously we developed a ricinoleic acid based polymer with incorporated bupivacaine which prolonged anesthesia to 30 h. The new polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 provides slow release of effective doses of the incorporated local anesthetic agent and prolongs anesthesia to 48 h.

  17. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning - in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A - 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B - 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C - 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) - saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student's t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminated B. subtilis and reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  18. Coherent structures in the plasma edge turbulence of the RFX and CASTOR experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martines, E.; Antoni, V.; Cavazzana, R.; Regnoli, G.; Serianni, G.; Hron, Martin; Stöckel, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. D13-D24 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : CASTOR, coherent structures, plasma edge turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  19. Effects The N-Hexane Extract Of Castor ( Ricinus Communis ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: The seeds of Castor plant were obtained, dried, pulverized, and exhaustively soxhlex extracted in N-hexane at 750C for 72 hours. This was dissolved in appropriate volumes of corn oil to make a concentration of 20mg/ml. The extract was administered to twenty –five (25) adult wistar rats at a dose of ...

  20. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard Wheeler, Mariel Claudia; Arias, Cintia Lucía; Righini, Silvana; Badia, Mariana Beatriz; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Drincovich, María Fabiana; Saigo, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Malic enzymes (ME) catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  1. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  2. Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Galhiane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to evaluate the effect of a castor oil-based detergent on strawberry crops treated with different classes of pesticides, namely deltamethrin, folpet, tebuconazole, abamectin and mancozeb, in a controlled environment. Experimental crops of greenhouse strawberries were cultivated in five different ways with control groups using pesticides and castor oil-based detergent. The results showed that the group 2, which was treated with castor oil-based detergent, presented the lowest amount of pesticide residues and the highest quality of fruit produced.

  3. microRNA profiling in the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus canadensis using a high-throughput approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Maldonado, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-02-06

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism. The particular developmental and metabolic characteristics of cestode parasites highlight the importance of studying miRNA gene regulation in these organisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus canadensis G7, one of the causative agents of the neglected zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis. Small RNA libraries from protoscoleces and cyst walls of E. canadensis G7 and protoscoleces of E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 were sequenced using Illumina technology. For miRNA prediction, miRDeep2 core algorithm was used. The output list of candidate precursors was manually curated to generate a high confidence set of miRNAs. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs between stages or species was estimated with DESeq. Expression levels of selected miRNAs were validated using poly-A RT-qPCR. In this study we used a high-throughput approach and found transcriptional evidence of 37 miRNAs thus expanding the miRNA repertoire of E. canadensis G7. Differential expression analysis showed highly regulated miRNAs between life cycle stages, suggesting a role in maintaining the features of each developmental stage or in the regulation of developmental timing. In this work we characterize conserved and novel Echinococcus miRNAs which represent 30 unique miRNA families. Here we confirmed the remarkable loss of conserved miRNA families in E. canadensis, reflecting their low morphological complexity and high adaptation to parasitism. We performed the first in-depth study profiling of small RNAs in the zoonotic parasite E. canadensis G7. We found that miRNAs are the preponderant small RNA silencing molecules, suggesting that these small RNAs could be an essential mechanism of gene regulation in this species. We also

  4. Ambient conditions and fate and transport simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, 2006--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir located in the upper White River Basin in northwestern Arkansas, and was completed in 1963 for the purposes of flood control, hydroelectric power, and water supply. Beaver Lake is affected by point and nonpoint sources of minerals, nutrients, and sediments. The City of Fayetteville discharges about half of its sewage effluent into the White River immediately upstream from the backwater of the reservoir. The City of West Fork discharges its sewage effluent into the West Fork of the White River, and the City of Huntsville discharges its sewage effluent into a tributary of War Eagle Creek. A study was conducted to describe the ambient conditions and fate and transport of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in Beaver Lake. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate are components of wastewater discharged into Beaver Lake and a major concern of the drinking water utilities that use Beaver Lake as their source. A two-dimensional model of hydrodynamics and water quality was calibrated to include simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate for the period January 2006 through December 2010. Estimated daily dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate loads were increased in the White River and War Eagle Creek tributaries, individually and the two tributaries together, by 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 times the baseline conditions to examine fate and transport of these constituents through time at seven locations (segments) in the reservoir, from upstream to downstream in Beaver Lake. Fifteen dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate fate and transport scenarios were compared to the baseline simulation at each of the seven downstream locations in the reservoir, both 2 meters (m) below the surface and 2 m above the bottom. Concentrations were greater in the reservoir at model segments closer to where the tributaries entered the reservoir. Concentrations resulting from the increase in loading became more diluted

  5. Decontamination of Beaver Valley steam generators using the CAN-DEREM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.; Helms, M.

    1991-08-01

    Three steam generator channelheads at the Beaver Valley Unit 1 Power Station were decontaminated in September and October of 1989 using the CAN-DEREM process. With system volumes of about 12 000 L for each steam generator, this was the first major application of the CAN-DEREM process, following closely after the successful 1989 April CAN-DEREM decontamination of a 1000 L Indian Point-2 recirculating heat exchanger. The Successful applications were the culmination of several years of laboratory study directed at assessing and subsequently altering the CAN-DECON formulation. The studies were initiated after the CAN-DECON process was implicated in causing intergranular attack in sensitized 304 stainless steel after the Peach Bottom-2 recirculating water cooling unit (RWCU) decontamination in early 1984. The degree of attack was similar to that observed on piping from several early Boiling Water Reactors, and this was the only instance of reactor artifacts revealing intergranular attack after a CAN-DECON decontamination. Nevertheless, utilities were reluctant to use CAN-DECON after the Peach Bottom-2 decontamination. In response the utility concerns, the CAN-DECON formulation was modified to produce the even-less-corrosive CAN-DEREM formulation. In this report, the results of the laboratory corrosion study are briefly summarized along with the results of pre-decontamination assessments using Beaver Valley specimens, and the results of the actual steam generator decontaminations. The results show quite clearly the decontamination effectiveness and the low corrosiveness of the CAN-DEREM process. As a result of the successful laboratory program and demonstrations, the CAN-DEREM process is currently being qualified for use in full heat transport systems of Pressurized Water Reactors in a major program being carried out by Westinghouse in the United States

  6. Castor beans hulls as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Urbano, Stela Antas; de Azevedo, Marcílio; Félix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; de Siqueira, Michelle Christina Bernardo; Alves, Felipe José Lins; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton 85 hay (0, 33, 66, or 100 %) with by castor bean hulls on the intake and nutrient digestibility and performance of 28 noncastrated lambs, averaging 7 months in age, 19.5 ± 2.0 kg average live weight, fed on diets based on forage cactus. The animals were housed in individual pens for 100 days. The digestibility trial occurred 40 days after the start of the performance using LIPE® as an external indicator for estimating fecal dry matter production. The replacement of hay with Castor beans hulls linearly decreased the intakes of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and crude protein and reduced the digestibility coefficients of the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter content, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient content. The hot carcass and true carcass yields were not influenced by the treatments and the feed conversion increased linearly. The empty body weight, live weight at slaughter, hot and cold carcass weights, total gain, and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay with castor bean hulls reduced the intake of dry matter, crude protein and energy, consequently reducing the performance of the animals. However, as the regression coefficients were of low magnitude, data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared using the Dunnett test with diet without castor bean hulls set as the control treatment. The Tifton 85 hay can be replaced up to 66 % by castor bean hulls in finishing diets for lambs.

  7. Effect of castor oil emulsion eyedrops on tear film composition and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïssa, Cécile; Guillon, Michel; Simmons, Peter; Vehige, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    An emulsion eyedrop containing castor oil has been shown to modify the tear film lipid layer and increase tear film stability. The primary objectives of this investigation were to measure the prevalence of castor oil in the tear fluid over time and quantify the effects on the lipid layer. A secondary objective was to quantify the initial effects on ocular symptomatology. The investigation was an open label pilot study on 5 normal and 10 dry eye subjects. A single eyedrop (Castor oil emulsion, Allergan) was instilled in each eye; the tear film appearance and composition were monitored for 4h via in vivo visualisation using the Tearscope and post in vivo tear samples analysis by HPLC. Combined results for both normal and dry eye subjects showed that castor oil was detected up to 4h after a single eyedrop instillation and associated with an increase in the level of tear film lipid. The relative amount of various lipid families was also changed. An increase in tear lipid layer thickness was significant up to one hour post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. The changes in tear film characteristics were associated with significantly lower symptoms up to four hours post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. This pilot investigation showed that castor oil eyedrops achieved a residence time of at least four hours post-instillation, producing a more stable tear film and an associated significant decrease in ocular symptoms over the entire follow-up period for the symptomatic subjects. 2009 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in roots of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis as a tool for testing genotoxicity of bottom sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana; Medvedeva, Marina; Trofimova, Elena; Alexandrova, Yuliyana; Dementyev, Dmitry; Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Submersed freshwater macrophytes are considered as relevant indicators for use in bulk bottom sediment contact tests. The purpose of this study was to estimate the validity of endpoints of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis for laboratory genotoxicity testing of natural bottom sediments. The inherent level of chromosome abnormalities (on artificial sediments) in roots of E. canadensis under laboratory conditions was lower than the percentage of abnormal cells in bulk sediments from the Yenisei River. The percentage of abnormal cells in roots of E. canadensis was more sensitive to the presence of genotoxic agents in laboratory contact tests than in the natural population of the plant. The spectra of chromosomal abnormalities that occur in roots of E. canadensis under natural conditions in the Yenisei River and in laboratory contact tests on the bulk bottom sediments from the Yenisei River were similar. Hence, chromosome abnormalities in roots of E. canadensis can be used as a relevant and sensitive genotoxicity endpoint in bottom sediment-contact tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Beavers-Timberlawn model of family competence and the circumplex model of family adaptability and cohesion: separate, but equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R G; Kolevzon, M S; Vosler, N R

    1985-09-01

    An empirical examination of the association between instruments measuring the Beavers-Timberlawn Model of family competence and the Circumplex Model of adaptability and cohesion is presented. Even when triangulated measures were utilized to control for the divergent methods of data collection traditionally employed to operationalize these models of family health, family competence as measured by the Beavers-Timberlawn Family Evaluation Scales was either minimally (mothers) or not associated at all (fathers and children) with balanced and thereby optimal dimensions of adaptability and cohesion as measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales. Methodological and substantive explanations for the surprising lack of association between measures of these two prominent family assessment models are explored and short- and long-range implications for the growth and practice of family therapy are discussed.

  10. Transesterification of triacetin and castor oil with methanol catalyzed by supported polyaniline-sulfate. A role of polymer morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drelinkiewicz, A.; Kalemba-Jaje, Z.; Lalik, E.; Zieba, A.; Mucha, D.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 455, 30 March (2013), s. 92-106 ISSN 0926-860X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : transesterification * triacetin * castor oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2013

  11. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  12. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  13. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report, Supplement No. 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time the Safety Evaluation Report was published

  15. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report, Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, and 3 were published

  16. Hydrologic Change during the Colonial Era of the United States: Beavers and the Energy Cost of Impoundments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. B.; Bain, D. J.; Arrigo, J. S.; Duncan, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Parolari, A.; Salant, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Aloysius, N. R.; Bray, E. N.; Ruffing, C. M.; Witherell, B. B.

    2009-12-01

    Europeans colonized North America in the early 17th century with intentions ranging between long-term inhabitation and quick extraction of resources for economic gain in Europe. Whatever the intentions, the colonists relied on the landscape for resources resulting in dramatic change to the forest and fur-bearing mammal population. We demonstrate that initial exploitation of North American forest and furs caused a substantial decrease in mean water residence time (τ) between 1600 and 1800 A.D. That loss, which regionally changed from 51 to 41 days, contrasts with conventional wisdom that humans tend to diminish variability in water resources by increasing storage capacity and thus increasing τ. The loss of τ resulted from over-hunted beaver for the hat market in Europe. Analysis suggests that colonial era demographics and economics did not allow human resource allocation to impoundment construction on a level matching the historic beaver effort. However, the τ appears to have regionally increased during the 19th century, suggesting that humans eventually began replacing the water storage lost with the beaver. The analysis highlights the energy cost of impounding water, which is likely to continue to be an important factor given the increasing need for stable water resources and finite energy resources.

  17. Long-acting poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: effect of hydrophobic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2011-12-01

    To reduce formulation viscosity of bupivacaine/poly(DL lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 without increasing bupivacaine release rates. Poly(DL lactic acid) 3:7 was synthesized and bupivacaine formulation prepared by mixing with additives ricinoleic acid or castor oil. In vitro release measurements identified optimum formulation. Anesthetized ICR mice were injected around left sciatic nerve using nerve stimulator with 0.1 mL of formulation. Animals received 10% bupivacaine-polymer formulation with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-10% bupi-10% CO) or 15% bupivacaine-polymer with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-15% bupi-10% CO). Sensory and motor block were measured. Viscosity of 10% and 15% bupivacaine-p(DLLA:CO)3:7 formulations was reduced using hydrophobic additives; however, castor oil reduced bupivacaine release rates and eliminated burst effect. Less than 10% of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 6 h, and less than 25% released in 24 h in vitro. In vivo formulation injection resulted in a 24 h motor block and a sensory block lasting at least 72 h. Incorporation of hydrophobic low-viscosity additive reduced viscosity in addition to burst release effects. Bupivacaine-polymer formulation with castor oil additive demonstrated prolonged sensory analgesia in vivo, with reduced duration of motor block.

  18. Efficiency of Castor Oil as a Storage Medium for Avulsed Teeth in Maintaining the Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khodabakhsi, Afrooz; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Mehrabani, Davood

    2018-03-01

    Researchers always seek a new storage medium for avulsed teeth. Castor oil is a vegetable oil with several advantages such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, low toxicity, and glutathione preservation capability, low cost, and high availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of castor oil as a new storage medium in preserving the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells compared to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Forty freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 3 experimental and 2 control groups. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed for 45 min in one of the following media; castor oil, HBSS, and milk. The positive and negative control groups were exposed to 0 min and 2 h of dry time respectively with no immersion in any storage medium. The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase and the number of viable PDL cells were counted. Data were analyzed using Kruskal- Wallis test. The percentage of viable cells treated with castor oil, HBSS and milk counted immediately after removal from these media were 46.93, 51.02 and 55.10 % respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the value for castor oil was significantly lower than HBSS and milk ( p > 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, it appears that castor oil cannot be served as an ideal medium for storage of avulsed tooth. More investigations under in vivo conditions are required to justify the results of this study.

  19. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  20. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  1. Microdistribution of {sup 241}Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondareva, L., E-mail: lydiabondareva@gmail.co [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Vlasova, I. [Chemistry Department Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mogilnaya, O.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S. [Chemistry Department Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide {sup 241}Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of {sup 241}Am added to the experimental system was 1850 +- 31 Bq/L. The total amount of {sup 241}Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333 +- 385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of {sup 241}Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of {sup 241}Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. {sup 241}Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.

  2. Mit castor satellite: Design, implementation, and testing of the communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; McCormack, Matthew Michael; Munoz, Michael; Parra, Spencer; Miller, David W.

    2012-12-01

    Cathode Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Reposition (CASTOR) is an orbital manoeuvre and transfer micro-satellite bus developed at MIT Space System Laboratory. The technical objective of the mission is achieving 1 km/s of delta-V over a 1 year mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This will be accomplished using a novel electric propulsion system, the Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT), which enables high efficiency orbital changes of the ESPA-ring class satellite. CASTOR is capable of improving rapid access to space capabilities by providing an orbital transfer platform with a very high performance to mass ratio, thus greatly reducing launch costs and allowing for highly efficient orbital manoeuvre. Furthermore, CASTOR is highly scalable and modular, allowing it to be adapted to a wide range of scales and applications. CASTOR is developed as part of the University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) funded by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In order to accomplish CASTOR mission objective, a highly optimized, scalable, light weight, and low cost communication system needed to be developed. These constraints imply the development of trade studies to select the final communication system architecture able to maximize the amount of data transmitted, while guaranteeing reliability, redundancy and limited mass, power consumption, and cost. A special attention is also required to guarantee a reliable communication system in cases of tumbling, or in case of strong Doppler shift which is inevitable due to the high delta-V capabilities of the vehicle. In order to accomplish all the mission requirements, different features have been introduced in the design of the communication system for this mission. Specifically, customized patch antennas have been realized, and a customized communication protocol has been designed and implemented. The communication subsystem has been validated through an intense testing campaign which included software tests in the laboratory, hardware

  3. Extracellular polymer substance synthesized by a halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter canadensis 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenkova, Nadja; Boyadzhieva, Ivanka; Atanasova, Nikolina; Poli, Annarita; Finore, Ilaria; Di Donato, Paola; Nicolaus, Barbara; Panchev, Ivan; Kuncheva, Margarita; Kambourova, Margarita

    2018-04-03

    Halophilic microorganisms are producers of a lot of new compounds whose properties suggest promising perspectives for their biotechnological exploration. Moderate halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter canadensis 28 was isolated from Pomorie salterns as an extracellular polymer substance (EP) producer. The best carbon source for extracellular polymer production was found to be lactose, a sugar received as a by-product from the dairy industry. After optimization of the culture medium and physicochemical conditions for cultivation, polymer biosynthesis increased more than 2-fold. The highest level of extracellular polymer synthesis by C. canadensis 28 was observed in an unusually high NaCl concentration (15% w/v). Chemical analysis of the purified polymer revealed the presence of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) fraction (14.3% w/w) and protein fraction (72% w/w). HPLC analysis of the protein fraction showed the main presence of polyglutamic acid (PGA) (75.7% w/w). EPS fraction analysis revealed the following sugar composition (% w/w): glucosamine 36.7, glucose 32.3, rhamnose 25.4, xylose 1.7, and not identified sugar 3.9. The hydrogel formed by PGA and EPS fractions showed high swelling behavior, very good emulsifying and stabilizing properties, and good foaming ability. This is the first report for halophilic bacterium able to synthesize a polymer containing PGA fraction. The synthesized biopolymer shows an extremely high hydrophilicity, due to the simultaneous presence of PGA and EPS. The analysis of its functional properties and the presence of glucosamine in the highest proportion in EPS fraction clearly determine the potential of EP synthesized by C. canadensis 28 for application in the cosmetics industry.

  4. Solidago canadensis invasion affects soil N-fixing bacterial communities in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei; Wu, Bingde

    2018-03-12

    Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems. Rhizospheric soil samples of S. canadensis were obtained from nine urban ecosystems [Three replicate quadrats (including uninvaded sites and invaded sites) for each type of urban ecosystem]. S. canadensis invasion did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, the taxonomic diversity of plant communities, or the diversity and richness of SNB. However, some SNB taxa (i.e., f_Micromonosporaceae, f_Oscillatoriaceae, and f_Bacillaceae) changed significantly with S. canadensis invasion. Thus, S. canadensis invasion may alter the community structure, rather than the diversity and richness of SNB, to facilitate its invasion process. Of the nine urban ecosystems, the diversity and richness of SNB was highest in farmland wasteland. Accordingly, the community invasibility of farmland wasteland may be higher than that of the other types of urban ecosystem. In brief, landscape heterogeneity, rather than S. canadensis invasion, was the strongest controlling factor for the diversity and richness of SNB. One possible reason may be the differences in soil electrical conductivity and the taxonomic diversity of plant communities in the nine urban ecosystems, which can cause notable shifts in the diversity and richness of SNB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kunnskapsgrunnlag for handlingsplan mot vasspest (Elodea canadensis) og smal vasspest (Elodea nuttallii) i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Mjelde, M.; Berge, D.; Edvardsen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Den foreliggende rapporten utgjør kunnskapsgrunnlaget for Handlingsplan mot vasspest (Elodea canadensis) og smal vasspest (Elodea nuttallii). Rapporten gir en oppdatert oversikt over de to artenes biologi og økologi, utbredelse og sprednings­veier, samt kjente effekter på vannøkosystemet. Kunnskapsbehov diskuteres, bl.a. knyttet til artenes økologiske krav og effekter på biologisk mangfold. Rapporten omtaler tiltak for å hindre videre spredning og tiltak for å redusere eller bekjempe bestande...

  6. Vasspest (Elodea canadensis) og smal vasspest (Elodea nuttallii) Jæren 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mjelde, M.

    2006-01-01

    Årsliste 2006 For å skaffe en oversikt over status for vasspest (Elodea canadensis) i Skas-Heigre-kanalen og nærliggende lokaliteter ble vannvegetasjonen i området kartlagt i 2006. Vasspest har fortsatt stor forekomst i Skas-Heigre-kanalen ved Soma, der den ble registrert første gang i 2005. Den ble ikke registrert lenger ned i kanalen, heller ikke i Grudavatn. Heller ikke i nærliggende lokaliteter ble vasspest registrert. Lokaliteten for smal vasspest (Elodea nuttallii), Fuglestadåna, ble...

  7. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the invasive plant Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S-Y; Sun, S-G; Guo, Y-H; Chen, J-M; Wang, Q-F

    2012-02-17

    Solidago canadensis, a clonal herb originally from North America (common name: Canada goldenrod), is an invasive species in many countries. We developed microsatellite primers for this species. Eleven polymorphic loci were generated and primers were designed. Polymorphism of these 11 loci was assessed in 35 plants from two populations (Wuhan and Shanghai) in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 14. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0732 to 0.7391 and from 0.1177 to 0.8687, respectively. These microsatellite markers will be useful tools for studies of population genetics in the native and invasive range of this species.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  10. Biomolecular characterization and protein sequences of the Campanian hadrosaur B. canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Organ, Chris L; Avci, Recep; Suo, Zhiyong; Freimark, Lisa M; Lebleu, Valerie S; Duncan, Michael B; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Neveu, John M; Lane, William S; Cottrell, John S; Horner, John R; Cantley, Lewis C; Kalluri, Raghu; Asara, John M

    2009-05-01

    Molecular preservation in non-avian dinosaurs is controversial. We present multiple lines of evidence that endogenous proteinaceous material is preserved in bone fragments and soft tissues from an 80-million-year-old Campanian hadrosaur, Brachylophosaurus canadensis [Museum of the Rockies (MOR) 2598]. Microstructural and immunological data are consistent with preservation of multiple bone matrix and vessel proteins, and phylogenetic analyses of Brachylophosaurus collagen sequenced by mass spectrometry robustly support the bird-dinosaur clade, consistent with an endogenous source for these collagen peptides. These data complement earlier results from Tyrannosaurus rex (MOR 1125) and confirm that molecular preservation in Cretaceous dinosaurs is not a unique event.

  11. First study about the development of adult Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Debiaggi, María Florencia; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Bergagna, Héctor Fabián Jesús; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2016-09-15

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E. canadensis G6 in dogs experimentally infected with protoscoleces derived from goats, to describe the resultant adult morphology, to evaluate the growth of their rostellar hooks from larval to adult stages and to determine the prepatent period of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 derived from goats. The development of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was examined by studying the growth (variation of the total worm length) and segmentation in experimentally infected dogs at 14, 25, 35 and 56days post infection. A morphological characterization of 35-day-old worms as well as of larval and adult rostellar hooks was also carried out by conventional optical microscopic observations and/or by scanning electron microscopy. The prepatent period of the strobilar stage was assessed by microscopic examination of faeces from 2 infected dogs. Our results were compared with published data from the camel and other strains. The roles of the host, genotype and species in morphological and developmental features as well as the taxonomic position of E. canadensis G6 were discussed. The prepatent period of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was determined as at least, 41days. The obtained results contribute to increase the knowledge about the biology

  12. The coal deposits of the Alkali Butte, the Big Sand Draw, and the Beaver Creek fields, Fremont County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond M.; White, Vincent L.

    1952-01-01

    Large coal reserves are present in three areas located between 12 and 20 miles southeast of Riverton, Fremont County, central Wyoming. Coal in two of these areas, the Alkali Butte coal field and the Big Sand Draw coal field, is exposed on the surface and has been developed to some extent by underground mining. The Beaver Creek coal field is known only from drill cuttings and cores from wells drilled for oil and gas in the Beaver Creek oil and gas field.These three coal areas can be reached most readily from Riverton, Wyo. State Route 320 crosses Wind River about 1 mile south of Riverton. A few hundred yards south of the river a graveled road branches off the highway and extends south across the Popo Agie River toward Sand Draw oil and gas field. About 8 miles south of the highway along the Sand Draw road, a dirt road bears east and along this road it is about 12 miles to the Bell coal mine in the Alkali Butte coal field. Three miles southeast of the Alkali Butte turn-off, 3 miles of oiled road extends southwest into the Beaver Creek oil and gas field. About 6 miles southeast of the Beaver Creek turn-off, in the valley of Little Sand Draw Creek, a dirt road extends east 1. mile and then southeast 1 mile to the Downey mine in the Big Sand Draw coal field. Location of these coal fields is shown on figure 1 with their relationship to the Wind River basin and other coal fields, place localities, and wells mentioned in this report. The coal in the Alkali Butte coal field is exposed partly on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Tps. 1 and 2 S., R. 6 E., and partly on public land. Coal in the Beaver Creek and Big Sand Draw coal fields is mainly on public land. The region has a semiarid climate with rainfall averaging less than 10 in. per year. When rain does fall the sandy-bottomed stream channels fill rapidly and are frequently impassable for a few hours. Beaver Creek, Big Sand Draw, Little Sand Draw, and Kirby Draw and their smaller tributaries drain the area and flow

  13. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  14. Radiation protection during the loading of Castor MTR 2 at VKTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowe, S.; Sahre, P.; Boessert, W.

    2001-01-01

    During the dry loading of spent fuel elements from the storage pool AB 2 into the CASTOR MTR 2 using the mobile loading station radiation protection surveillance has been carried out by the reactor crew as well as by the dosimetry and incorporation surveillance group. First of all there was an training of the loading without any activity. The resulting experiences influenced the radiation protection programme. Furthermore incorporation monitoring of all involved persons before, during and after the loading were carried out. The results confirm which was expected from the dry loading technology. Of course there was an permanent radiation monitoring during the loading. From the permanently measured air activity concentration no emission or incorporation were expected. Dose rate measurements at the transfer unit CAeSAR III and the CASTOR MTR 2 leads to the detection of non expected radiation gaps. This results in corresponding measures in order to optimise radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  15. Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea, Pedro Nel; Agudelo, Jhon Ramiro; Benavides, Alirio Yovany

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

  16. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) / poli (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.C.G.; Oliveira, C.I.R. de; Sanches, M.C.; Coelho, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Blends of PHB and LDPE were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake internal mixer. Castor oil pressed cake was used as filler for the blends. In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between the filler and the polymers, a mercerization process with 5% NaOH solution was employed. This process was evaluated by several techniques such as: X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by traditional tensile stress-strain tests (ASTM D- 638). The obtained results showed that the mercerization process leads to better adhesion properties. The Young Modulus of the blends presented a tendency to increase with the addition of the castor oil cake.(author)

  17. Biodiesel production from castor oil using heterogeneous Ni doped ZnO nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, G; Aberna Ebenezer Selvakumari, I; Aiswarya, R

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, castor oil with high free fatty acid was used for biodiesel production using heterogeneous Ni doped ZnO nanocatalyst. Ni doped ZnO nanocomposite calcinated at 800 °C has shown better catalytic activity. Process parameters on heterogeneous catalysis of castor oil into biodiesel were optimized using conventional and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). RSM was found more accurate in estimating the optimum conditions with higher biodiesel yield (95.20%). The optimum conditions for transesterification was found to be oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, catalyst loading 11% (w/w), reaction temperature of 55 °C for 60 min of reaction time by response surface method. The reusability studies showed that the nanocatalyst can be reused efficiently for 3 cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  19. Life cycle assessment of castor-based biorefinery: a well to wheel LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2017-01-01

    also considered as byproducts. Developed scenarios were also compared with a fossil reference system delivering the same amount of energy through the combustion of neat diesel. Materials and methods: Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to investigate the environmental consequences of castor biodiesel...... of their ability in converting biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and bioenergies. This study was aimed at developing different novel castor-based biorefinery scenarios for generating biodiesel and other co-products, i.e., ethanol and biogas. In these scenarios, glycerin, heat, and electricity were...... production and consumption with a biorefinery approach. All the input and output flows from the cultivation stage to the combustion in diesel engines as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) were taken into account. Impact 2002+ method was used to quantify the environmental consequences. Results...

  20. The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, depend on beavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T.; Wilson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants can threaten diversity and ecosystem function. We examined the relationship between the invasive Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) and species richness in beaver wetlands in Oregon, USA. Four basins (drainages) were chosen and three sites each of beaver impoundments, unimpounded areas and areas upstream of debris jams were randomly chosen in each basin for further study (n = 36). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the relationship between Phalaris and species richness differed significantly (p = 0.01) by site type. Dam sites (beaver impoundments) exhibited a strong inverse relationship between Phalaris and species richness (bD = a??0.15), with one species lost for each 7% increase in Phalaris cover. In contrast, there was essentially no relationship between Phalaris cover and species richness in jam sites (debris jam impoundments formed by flooding; bJ = +0.01) and unimpounded sites (bU = a??0.03). The cycle of beaver impoundment and abandonment both disrupts the native community and provides an ideal environment for Phalaris, which once established tends to exclude development of herbaceous communities and limits species richness. Because beaver wetlands are a dominant wetland type in the Coast Range, Phalaris invasion presents a real threat to landscape heterogeneity and ecosystem function in the region.