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Sample records for beauveria bassiana regulates

  1. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Józefa Chrzanowska; Maria Kołaczkowska

    2014-01-01

    The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  2. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefa Chrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  3. Beauveria bassiana: quercetinase production and genetic diversity

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    Eula Maria de M. B Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase.

  4. Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownley, Bonnie H; Griffin, Mary R; Klingeman, William E; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Moulton, J Kevin; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-07-01

    Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto selective medium, endophytic 11-98 was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of tomato, cotton, and snap bean seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. As the rate of conidia applied to seed increased, the proportion of plant tissues from which B. bassiana 11-98 was recovered increased. For rapid detection of B. bassiana 11-98 in cotton tissues, we developed new ITS primers that produce a PCR product for B. bassiana 11-98, but not for cotton. In cotton samples containing DNA from B. bassiana11-98, the fungus was detected at DNA ratios of 1:1000; B. bassiana 11-98 was detected also in seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. Using SEM, hyphae of B. bassiana11-98 were observed penetrating epithelial cells of cotton and ramifying through palisade parenchyma and mesophyll leaf tissues. B. bassiana11-98 induced systemic resistance in cotton against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (bacterial blight). In parasitism assays, hyphae of B. bassiana 11-98 were observed coiling around hyphae of Pythium myriotylum. PMID:18442830

  5. The Pal pathway required for ambient pH adaptation regulates growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of Beauveria bassiana in a pH-dependent manner.

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    Zhu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-05-01

    The Pal/Rim pathway essential for fungal adaptation to ambient pH has been unexplored in Beauveria bassiana, a classic fungal entomopathogen. Here, we show the characterized Pal pathway comprising transcription factor PacC and upstream six Pal partners (PalA/B/C/F/H/I) in B. bassiana. Their coding genes were all transcribed most abundantly in standard wild-type culture under the alkaline condition of pH 9. Deletion of pacC or each pal gene resulted in a significant delay of culture acidification in a minimal broth (initial pH = 7.3). This delay concurred with altered accumulation levels of intra/extracellular organic acids and drastically depressed expression of some enzyme genes required for the syntheses of oxalic and lactic acids. Our deletion mutants except ΔpalI showed growth defects and maximal sensitivity to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, or sorbitol at pH 9, an alkaline condition leading to fragmented vacuoles in their hyphal cells exposed to osmotic stress. In these mutants, conidiation was significantly facilitated at pH 3 more than at pH 7 but suppressed slightly at pH 9. Mild virulence defects also occurred in the absence of pacC or any pal gene. These changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Taken together, PacC and Pal partners regulate the growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of B. bassiana in a pH-dependent manner, highlighting their vitality for the fungal pH response. PMID:26754817

  6. Regulative roles of glutathione reductase and four glutaredoxins in glutathione redox, antioxidant activity, and iron homeostasis of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long-Bin; Tang, Li; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Multiple glutaredoxins (Grx) and glutathione reductase (Glr) are vital for the thiol-disulfide redox system in budding yeast but generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we characterized the Beauveria bassiana redox system comprising dithiol Grx1, monothiol Grx2-4, Grx-like Grx5, and Glr orthologue. Each grx or glr deletion was compensated by increased transcripts of some other grx genes in normal cultures. Particularly, grx3 compensated the absence of grx1, grx2, grx5, or glr under oxidative stress while its absence was compensated only by undeletable grx4 under normal conditions but by most of other undeleted grx and glr genes in response to menadione. Consequently, the redox state was disturbed in Δglr more than in Δgrx3 but not in Δgrx1/2/5. Superoxide dismutases were more active in normal Δgrx1-3 cultures but less in Δgrx5 or Δglr response to menadione. Total catalase activity increased differentially in all the mutant cultures stressed with or without H2O2 while total peroxidase activity decreased more in the normal or H2O2-stressed culture of Δglr than of Δgrx3. Among the mutants, Δgrx3 showed slightly increased sensitivity to menadione or H2O2; Δglr exhibited greater sensitivity to thiol-oxidizing diamide than thiol-reducing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as well as increased sensitivity to the two oxidants. Intriguingly, all the mutants grew slower in a Fe(3+)-inclusive medium perhaps due to elevated transcripts of two Fe(3+) transporter genes. More or fewer phenotypes linked with biocontrol potential were altered in four deletion mutants excluding Δgrx5. All the changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Overall, Grx3 played more critical role than other Grx homologues in the Glr-dependent redox system of the fungal entomopathogen. PMID:26969041

  7. Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Keyhani, N O

    2016-01-01

    Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist. PMID:27131326

  8. Entomopathogenic fungus \\kur{Beauveria bassiana }- biological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    PAVLÍČEK, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This literature compilation focuses on current knowledge in the biological characteristics of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, with emphasis on the influence of abiotic factors on the development and its effectiveness in selected species of harmful insects. Knowledge of abiotic factors is important for a successful outcome to protect plants against harmful agents this entomopathogen. There are also set out the specifics, benefits and examples of using the aforementioned entomopa...

  9. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa; Débora Brand; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40%) with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; ...

  10. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  12. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  13. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  14. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  15. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  16. Preservation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsam Vuillemin (moniliales: moniliaceae pathogenicityagainst the coffee borer in different systems

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    T. Bahamón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find preservation techniques of Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity in the laboratory. Long term storage of B. bassiana cultures is very important to prepare industrial products. Preservation techniques for pathogenicity would replace the need to pass B. bassiana spores frequently in the target insect. Studies on B. bassiana pathogenicity are almost nonexistent. Viability of B. bassiana was evaluated in comparison with pathogenicity when subjected to different preservation temperatures with various protectors. The most succesful procedures were silica gel and mineral oil in refrigeration; glicerol and dimethilsulfoxide in liquid nitrogen; liophilization with skim milk at 10% and 20% and skim milk with inositol at 5%. The tests were carried our during 24 weeks at 6 weeks intervals. A monosporic B. bassiana culture (Bb. 9620 isolated by Cenicafé research center was used for the study. The mean value for the preservation of pathogenicity was influenced by the protectors used.

  17. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  18. Production of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in solid-state culture: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, M; Rodriguez-Gomez, D; Loera, O

    2015-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus widely commercialized in the world. Recent progress and achievements on conidia production have focused on a yield goal of 10(9) to 10(10) conidia per gram of dry substrate. Due to cost-competitive perspectives, these yields should be associated with better production rates or productivities. This study presents a review of relevant studies of B. bassiana conidia production on solid-state cultures and the parameters that should be taken into account to maintain constant quality in the product to be commercialized. Conditions for maximizing production and infectivity of B. bassiana conidia are also analysed. PMID:24494702

  19. The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seddling

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Daud, Itji; Widiayani, Nuniek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B.bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU???s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 a...

  20. Molecular characterization of a novel amalgavirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Hrabáková, Lenka; Petrzik, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2015), s. 1585-1588. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13136; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monopartite DsRNA Virus * Beauveria bassiana * amalgaviruses infecting fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2014

  1. EICOSANOIDS MEDIATE MANDUCA SEXTA CELLULAR RESPONSE TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA: A ROLE FOR THE LIPOXYGENASE PATHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies have documented the involvement of eicosanoids in insect cellular immune responses to bacteria. The use of Beauveria bassiana as a nodulation elicitor, with inhibition of phospholipase A2 by dexamethasone extends the principal to fungi. This study also provides the first evidence of i...

  2. Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocreales fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae can be negatively affected by fungicides thereby reducing their biocontrol potential. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on two commercial entomopathoge...

  3. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence o...

  4. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond t

  5. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  6. Isolation and Assessment of Stability of Six Formulations of Entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A

    2016-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is the most widely studied and exploited entomopathogen. The development of a suitable formulation for B. bassiana is a critical component in aiding the entomopathogen germinate and infect the host. In addition to being economical to produce, having high residual activity, it is also important that the formulation is easy to handle, stable during storage, and convenient to mix and apply and be consistently effective in controlling the target pest.In this chapter we describe preparation of experimental formulations of conidia of B. bassiana. The formulations are prepared with barley, rice, wheat bran, clay, kaolin, and peat. The protocol for assessing the stability of the formulations of B. bassiana is also described. PMID:27565494

  7. Discovery and demonstration of the teleomorph of Beauve-ria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. , an important entomogenous fun-gus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A Cordyceps specimen was collected in Anhui, China, a strain of Beauveria bassiana, an important entomopathogenic fungus for biological pest control, was isolated and their relationship was demonstrated by microcycle conidiation. The teleomorph is an undescribed species and is named Cordyceps bassiana.

  8. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 T...

  9. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH PATHOGENICITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Tamai; Sérgio Batista Alves; Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  10. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  11. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-01-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 107 conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylen...

  12. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira; José Bruno Malaquias; Luiz Leonardo Ferreira; Thiago de Souza Ribeiro; Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P

  13. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Hiroko; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Ideta, Hidenao; Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    2008-01-01

    Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within th...

  14. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  15. Field applications of Beauveria bassiana to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments with foliar applications of Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 (product Naturalis-L) were conducted to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major pest of cherries in Europe. Naturalis-L was applied at concentrations of 250 ml per 100 l in 7-day intervals during the flight period of R. cerasi. Flight activity monitored by yellow sticky traps was only slightly affected by treatments. Infection and mycosis of adult cherry fruit fl...

  16. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  17. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  18. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  19. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. /
    Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mita; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Jo I Wu; Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Dalva Tomoe Miyagui; Geni Varéa-Pereira; Danieli Cristina Sassá; Evelyn Kamogawa

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and the conidia grow...

  20. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  1. Metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ruili; Jin, Song; Chen, Yihui; Fan, Meizhen; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi; Hu, Fenglin

    2016-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is commonly used as a biological agent for pest control. Environmental and biological factors expose the fungus to oxidative stress; as a result, B. bassiana has adopted a number of anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this study, we investigated metabolites of B. bassiana that are formed in response to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed differences between the control and the H2O2-treated groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed 18 up-regulated metabolites and 25 down-regulated metabolites in the H2O2-treated fungus. Pathway analysis indicated that B. bassiana may be able to alleviate oxidative stress by enhancing lipid catabolism and glycometabolism, thus decreasing membrane polarity and preventing polar H2O2 or ROS from permeating into fungal cells and protecting cells against oxidative injury. Meanwhile, most of the unsaturated fatty acids that are derived from glycerophospholipids hydrolysis can convert into oxylipins through autoxidation, which can prevent the reactive oxygen of H2O2 from attacking important macromolecules of the fungus. Results showed also that H2O2 treatment can enhance mycotoxins production which implies that oxidative stress may be able to increase the virulence of the fungus. In comparison to the control group, citric acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were down-regulated, which suggested that metabolic flux was occurring to the TCA cycle and enhancing carbohydrate metabolism. The findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of fungus respond to environmental and biological stress factors as well as how the manipulation of such metabolisms may lead to selection of more effective fungal strains for pest control. PMID:27116916

  2. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 106 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis. PMID:25242941

  3. Protection of metal artifacts with the formation of metal–oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid a...

  4. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel genético-molecular, para determinar el nivel de diversidad genética de Beauveria bassiana e identificar posibles patrones de bandas que permitan dicriminar entre aislamientos. En este estudio, se analizaron 36 aislamientos de B. bassiana provenientes de diversas regiones geográficas del país. El análisis genético se realizó mediante el ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD y la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos (PCR-RFLP de los espaciadores internos transcritos (ITS de las secuencias ribosomales del ADN (ITS-rDNA. El análisis de RAPD indicó una alta diversidad genética entre los aislamientos, con un promedio de 43% de similitud. Por otro lado, el análisis de los ITS determinó una menor diversidad, con un 83% de similitud entre aislamientos. La región ITS 1 mostró un mayor número de sitios de restricción que la región ITS 2. Los RAPD fueron más eficientes para discriminar (o identificar entre cepas debido al bajo número de haplotipos detectados con los ITS. Para los dos marcadores utilizados en este estudio, la diversidad genética no estuvo asociada con el origen geográfico de los aislamientos.Entomopathogenic fungi are an attractive alternative for the biological control of insects. In Chile, the Quilamapu Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA has collected about 400 isolates of the genus Beauveria along the country. A partial

  5. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis. PMID:27071674

  6. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai Marco Antonio; Alves Sérgio Batista; Neves Pedro Janeiro

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  7. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED PESTICIDES ON THE GROWTH OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI HIRSUTELLA NODULOSA AND BEAUVERIA BASSIANA

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    Cezary Tkaczuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three pesticides used in corn protection: Targa Super 05 (chizalofop-P-ethyl, Roundup 360SL (glyphosate and Karate Zeon 050CS (lambda-cyhalothrin, on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella nodulosa Petch and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fungi isolates were cultured on Sabouraud’s medium with addition of pesticides at three different concentrations. H. nodulosa was more susceptible to pesticides than B. bassiana. The most inhibitory effect on tested entomopathogenic fungi showed chizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide. Lambda-cyhalothrin at the recommended field dose showed minor toxic effect on entomopathogenic fungi, which suggests the possibility of compatible use of this insecticide with biopesticides based on the tested species.

  8. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

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    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  9. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P <0.01. And significantly lower in traps without yeast and molasses. The frequency of C. sorditus was classified as accidental in traps with only B. bassiana (23.44% and in traps without the addition of B. bassiana and molasses (10.71%, and being accessory in traps consisting of molasses (28.43% and in traps with molasses+fungi (37.27%. Therefore the food bait molasses along with the fungi B. bassiana, may be used in an integrated control of C. sorditus in banana plantations.

  10. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of application as well as reducing their sensitivity to UV radiation, high temperatures and the inevitable contact with water. This study was conducted to develop formulations that facilitate the application of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores for the control of anopheline larvae, and also improve their persistence under field conditions. Methods Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the ability of aqueous (0.1% Tween 80, dry (organic and inorganic and oil (mineral and synthetic formulations to facilitate the spread of fungal spores over the water surface and improve the efficacy of formulated spores against anopheline larvae as well as improve spore survival after application. Field bioassays were then carried out to test the efficacy of the most promising formulation under field conditions in western Kenya. Results When formulated in a synthetic oil (ShellSol T, fungal spores of both Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were easy to mix and apply to the water surface. This formulation was more effective against anopheline larvae than 0.1% Tween 80, dry powders or mineral oil formulations. ShellSol T also improved the persistence of fungal spores after application to the water. Under field conditions in Kenya, the percentage pupation of An. gambiae was significantly reduced by 39 - 50% by the ShellSol T-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores as compared to the effects of the application of unformulated spores. Conclusions ShellSol T is an effective carrier for fungal spores when targeting anopheline larvae under both laboratory and field conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi formulated with

  11. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based ap

  12. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phag...

  13. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  14. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  15. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  16. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  17. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 109 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  18. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  19. Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.%Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyu LUO; Yecheng DENG; Yongmei LIAO; Ruiyu LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the relationship between biological characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and pathogenicity to Bombyx rnori L, with the aim to provide scientific basis for the control of white muscardine in Bombyx mori L. [Method] The strains isolated and purified from the 6 Beauveria bassiana biocontrol agents from all over the country and the 3 white muscardine silkworms collected from Guangxi provincial silkworm rearing areas were identified by the morphological observation and molecular biology technology. The pathogenicity of B. bassaina to silkworms was determined, and the biological characteristics such as growth diameter, sporulation and the extracellular protease activity of the different B. bassiana strains were compared. [Result] The isolated 9 strains were all B. bassaina (Bals.) Vuillemin, and all strains had high pathogenicity to silkworm, but with different pathogenicities. The growth diameter, sporulation and extracellular protease activity of different B. bassiana strains were also different, and showed correlation with the patheogenicity to silkworms. [Conclusion] B. bassiana spores production amount and exocellular protease activity had significant positive correlation with their pathogenicity to silkworm.

  20. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  2. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houping; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-08-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisoplae. Significant time-mortality response was found for each isolates. Isolate B. bassiana GHA killed A. planipennis adults at a faster rate compared with other isolates tested, with the lowest average time-to-death values. The LC50 values estimated under direct immersion method ranged from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.9 x 10(7), 3.5 x 10(4) to 5.3 x 10(5), and 4.1 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) conidia/ml for B. basissiana and from 3.2 x 10(6) to 1.1 x 10(7), 4.5 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(5), and 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.2 x 10(5) conidia/ml for M. anisopliae at 4, 5, and 6 d after treatment, respectively. By days 5 and 6, B. bassiana GHA outperformed all other isolates tested except ARSEF 7234, followed by ARSEF 7152, 6393, and 7180. Significant concentration-mortality response was also observed for two B. bassiana GHA formulations, BotaniGard ES and Mycotrol O, and M. anisopliae F52 when insects were treated through foliar exposure. The LC50 values ranged from 114.5 to 309.6, 18.4 to 797.3, and 345.3 to 362.0 conidia/cm2 for BotaniGard, Mycotrol, and M. anisopliae F52, respectively. Based on the results of these bioassays, the efficacy of both B. bassiana GHA formulations and M. anisopliae F52 were similar against adult A. planipennis. The potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for management of A. planipennis in North America is discussed. PMID:16937660

  3. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona; Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda; Raquel Alatorre-Rosas; Octavio Loera

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB).The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0) achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds). This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture cont...

  4. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates

  5. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-06-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 10(7) conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylene bag as a container. The polyethylene bag containing inoculated rice was hand-shaken every 12 hr during fermentation. Using optimal conditions, the maximum conidia production obtained was 4.05 g conidia/100 g dry rice after 14 days of cultivation, a rate 2.83 times higher than conidia yield of pre-optimization. PMID:23956642

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA as an insecticide on tomatoes for strain ATCC-74040 and on tomatoes, cucumbers and ornamentals for strain GHA. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  7. Biological Control of Aphid Using Fungal Culture and Culture Filtrates of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Jun; Jeong, Gayoung; Han, Ji Hee; Lee, Sangyeob

    2013-12-01

    Aphids are one of the most destructive pests in crop production such as pepper, cucumber, and eggplants. The importance of entomopathogenic fungi as alternative pest control agents is increasing. Conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are influenced by environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity, and cause slow and fluctuating mortality. These factors have prevented wider application and use of biocontrol agents. For investigation of means of mitigation of such problems, we conducted bioassays with 47 fungal culture filtrates in order to evaluate the potential of secondary metabolites produced by entomopathogenic fungi for use in aphid control. Among 47 culture filtrates cultured potato dextrose broth, filtrate of Beauveria bassiana Bb08 showed the highest mortality (78%) against green peach aphid three days after treatments. Filtrate of Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium showed higher toxicity as 100% to third instar nymphs of the aphid compared with seven other filtrates cultured in different broths amended with colloidal chitin or oil. The culture filtrates and fungal cultures from media amended with colloidal chitin or oil had lower control efficacies than filtrates without these additives in three different media. These results indicate that the fungal culture fluid or culture filtrate of B. bassiana Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium has potential for development as a mycopesticide for aphid control. PMID:24493943

  8. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  9. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vici

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting application of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA was produced in Komagataella pastoris in Buffered Methanol Medium (BMM induced with 1% methanol at 30 °C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in Komagataella pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  10. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Ana C.; da Cruz, Andrezza F.; Facchini, Fernanda D. A.; de Carvalho, Caio C.; Pereira, Marita G.; Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel; Ward, Richard J.; Pessela, Benevides C.; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Torres, Fernando A. G.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria L. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting applications of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol) transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA) was produced in Komagataella pastoris in buffered methanol medium (BMM) induced with 1% methanol at 30°C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in K. pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction. PMID:26500628

  11. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  12. Effect of biofertilizers and neem oil on the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana (Bals.) vuill. and metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) sorok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose Edson; Neves Pedro M. O. J.; Zequi João A. C.; Martins Luís H.; Peralta Cristiane H.; Moino Jr. Alcides

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas Multibi...

  13. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Myriam M. R.; Karina D. Amaral; Vanessa E. Seide; Souza, Bressane M. R.; Della Lucia, Terezinha M. C.; Maria Catarina M. Kasuya; Danival J. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana an...

  14. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×10(9) TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×10(10) TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200-600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×10(10) TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×10(10) SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 10(12) TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  15. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada-Moraga Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921. Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2% are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled.

  16. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius. PMID:17934618

  17. Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-Formulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Clare; Scoates, Freya; Nunn, Adam; Potin, Olivier; Dillon, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 10(10) conidia per kg with and without kaolin at 1.74 g per kg wheat was assessed. Addition of kaolin increased control from 46% to 88% at day 7 and from 81% to 99% at day 14 post-treatment. Following this the dose response of O. surinamensis and Tribolium confusum to both kaolin and the fungus was investigated. Synergistic effects were evident against O. surinamensis at ≥0.96 g of kaolin per kg of wheat when combined with the fungus at all concentrations tested. For T. confusum, adult mortality did not exceed 55%, however, the larvae were extremely susceptible with almost complete suppression of adult emergence at the lowest fungal rate tested even without the addition of kaolin. Finally, the dose response of Sitophilus granarius to the fungus at 15 and 25 °C, with and without kaolin at 1 g per kg of wheat, was examined. Improvements in efficacy were achieved by including kaolin at every fungal rate tested and by increasing the temperature. Kaolin by itself was not effective, only when combined with the fungus was an effect observed, indicating that kaolin was having a synergistic effect on the fungus. PMID:27571107

  18. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  19. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

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    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  20. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  1. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. PMID:24681358

  2. [Susceptibility of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gómez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. PMID:19943017

  3. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  4. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  5. Selection of Wetting Agent for Dried Conidia of two Beauveria bassiana Strains from Different Production Systems to Control Tarnished Plant Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) number was used to select surfactant, TDA (polyoxy-ethylene tridecyl ether) with a range of HLB numbers in formulation development of two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA produced from different systems. The results indicated that optimal HLB number of...

  6. Application of hydrophilic-lypophilic balance (HLB) number to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant for dried aerial conidia of Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) number system was used to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant, TDA(polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether) in formulations for two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA. The optimal HLB number for TDA was determined on the basis of wetting times for conidia...

  7. Field Applications of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) for the Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, Connecticut for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other homes for comparison with B....

  8. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  9. Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

  10. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia from 2 strains of Beauveria bassiana – one commercial (GHA) and the other isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto...

  11. Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Insights into a Signaling Hub Role for Cdc14 in Asexual Development and Multiple Stress Responses in Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cdc14 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that regulates nuclear behavior by dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in fungi. Previously, Cdc14 was shown to act as a positive regulator of cytokinesis, asexual development and multiple stress responses in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. This study seeks to gain deep insight into a pivotal role of Cdc14 in the signaling network of B. bassiana by analyzing the Cdc14-specific proteome and phosphoproteome generated by the 8-plex iTRAQ labeling and MS/MS analysis of peptides and phosphopeptides. Under normal conditions, 154 proteins and 86 phosphorylation sites in 67 phosphoproteins were upregulated in Δcdc14 versus wild-type, whereas 117 proteins and 85 phosphorylation sites in 58 phosphoproteins were significantly downregulated. Co-cultivation of Δcdc14 with NaCl (1 M), H2O2 (3 mM) and Congo red (0.15 mg/ml) resulted in the upregulation / downregulation of 23/63, 41/39 and 79/79 proteins and of 127/112, 52/47 and 105/226 phosphorylation sites in 85/92, 45/36 and 79/146 phosphoproteins, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that Cdc14 could participate in many biological and cellular processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, the MAP Kinase signaling pathway, and DNA conformation, by regulating protein expression and key kinase phosphorylation in response to different environmental cues. These indicate that in B. bassiana, Cdc14 is a vital regulator of not only protein expression but also many phosphorylation events involved in developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Fourteen conserved and novel motifs were identified in the fungal phosphorylation events. PMID:27055109

  12. Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Insights into a Signaling Hub Role for Cdc14 in Asexual Development and Multiple Stress Responses in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cdc14 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that regulates nuclear behavior by dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in fungi. Previously, Cdc14 was shown to act as a positive regulator of cytokinesis, asexual development and multiple stress responses in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. This study seeks to gain deep insight into a pivotal role of Cdc14 in the signaling network of B. bassiana by analyzing the Cdc14-specific proteome and phosphoproteome generated by the 8-plex iTRAQ labeling and MS/MS analysis of peptides and phosphopeptides. Under normal conditions, 154 proteins and 86 phosphorylation sites in 67 phosphoproteins were upregulated in Δcdc14 versus wild-type, whereas 117 proteins and 85 phosphorylation sites in 58 phosphoproteins were significantly downregulated. Co-cultivation of Δcdc14 with NaCl (1 M), H2O2 (3 mM) and Congo red (0.15 mg/ml) resulted in the upregulation / downregulation of 23/63, 41/39 and 79/79 proteins and of 127/112, 52/47 and 105/226 phosphorylation sites in 85/92, 45/36 and 79/146 phosphoproteins, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that Cdc14 could participate in many biological and cellular processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, the MAP Kinase signaling pathway, and DNA conformation, by regulating protein expression and key kinase phosphorylation in response to different environmental cues. These indicate that in B. bassiana, Cdc14 is a vital regulator of not only protein expression but also many phosphorylation events involved in developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Fourteen conserved and novel motifs were identified in the fungal phosphorylation events. PMID:27055109

  13. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. PMID:26206607

  14. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  15. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide. PMID:25947245

  16. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and Beauveria bassiana (CG 425 strain was evaluated at three concentrations (FR = average field recommendation; 0.5 ´ FR and 2 ´ FR. Effects of these products on conidia germination, vegetative growth and sporulation were compared. Only five insecticides, at the FR concentration, promoted conidia viability higher than 60%. Viability should be considered the most important factor to be evaluated since it is the first step of the infection process. The insecticide formulations of Alpha-Cypermethrin, Thiamethoxam and Cyfluthrin caused the lower inhibition level on conidia germination at the two lower concentrations, with no difference in relation to the control. With respect to vegetative growth analysis, Thiamethoxam at the two lower concentrations was not found to cause radial growth inhibition. Thiamethoxam caused the smallest inhibition level with regard to conidia production. The use of Alpha-Cypermethrin and Thiamethoxam formulations in coffee IPM programs for a B. bassiana inoculum conservation strategy are recommended, since these products were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, an important natural control agent of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.Em programas de Manejo integrado de pragas (MIP deve-se considerar o controle microbiano como um importante fator de redução da densidade populacional de pragas. A utilização de produtos seletivos quando associados a patógenos, pode aumentar a eficiência de

  17. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  18. Compatibilidade de isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae com carrapaticidas químicos utilizados no controle do carrapato dos bovinos Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae with chemicals acaricides used in the control of cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A. G. Barci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como escopo avaliar a compatibilidade dos isolados IBCB66 e IBCB21 de Beauveria bassiana com os carrapaticidas a base de Flumetrina + Coumafós, Deltametrina, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, Cipermetrina e Amitraz utilizados no controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em nosso país. O efeito dos produtos comerciais sobre os isolados foi verificado por meio da observação do crescimento vegetativo, produção de conídios e viabilidade das estirpes do fungo B. bassiana. Com referência ao isolado IBCB66, os produtos Deltametrina, Cipermetrina High Cis e Amitraz foram classificados como compatíveis, não interferindo no desenvolvimento do entomopatógeno. O produto Cipermetrina foi classificado como tóxico e os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós e Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, muito tóxicos. Em relação ao isolado IBCB21, os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis e Cipermetrina foram classificados como muito tóxicos e o produto Amitraz como tóxico. Entre os carrapaticidas avaliados, o produto Deltametrina foi o único que não produziu efeito tóxico sobre o entomopatógeno.The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin + Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66

  19. Could Sterile Males be Used to Vector a Microbiological Control Agent? The Case of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus and Beauveria Bassiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8±5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. (author)

  20. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  1. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam M. R. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus ochraceus, were tested against worker ants in the laboratory. The two species were highly virulent, achieving 50 percent worker mortality within 4-5 days. It is the first time A. ochraceus, a commonly found fungal species, is reported to infect Atta species at a high prevalence. Possible uses for the fungus within biological control are discussed.

  2. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae Seleção de isolados Beauveria Bassiana e Metarhizium Anisopliae para o controle de Blissus Antillus

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    Richard Ian Samuels

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinch bugs of the genus Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are serious pests of maize, wheat, sorghum and various grasses. This study is the first to screen isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against 4th instar and adult Blissus antillus aiming to develop a biological control program for this important pasture pest. Ten fungal isolates were initially screened and three isolates were chosen for further investigation. To determine virulence, insects were inoculated by immersion in concentrations of 5 ´ 10(8 conidia mL-1. Mortality was evaluated for 10 days. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 was the most virulent isolate to both nymphs and adults, causing 53 and 78% infection, respectively, and values for LT50 of 7.8 and 5.0 days, respectively. Germination studies were carried out to confirm viability and determine speed of germination as a pathogenicity factor. The production of conidia on the cadavers of insects infected with the three selected isolates was determined. The production of conidia on rice media was also evaluated. B. bassiana CG 24 produced the highest number of conidia on insects cadavers (14.9 ´ 10(7 conidia per insect and also on rice media (10.6 ´ 10(9 conidia per g.Percevejos do gênero Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygeidae são pragas importantes das plantações de milho, trigo e sorgo e de vários tipos de gramíneos forrageiros. Esse estudo é o primeiro a amostrar isolados de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae contra aos 4(0 instares e adultos de Blissus antillus com a finalidade de desenvolver um programa de controle biológico dessa importante praga de pastagens. Dez isolados foram inicialmente testados e três foram escolhidos para maiores investigações. Para determinar a virulência, os insetos foram inoculados por imersão em suspensões de conídios a uma concentração de 5 ´ 10(8 conídios mL-1. Mortalidade foi avaliada por 10 dias. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 foi o isolado mais virulento para as ninfas e os

  3. Controle associado de Alphitobius diaperinuse efeito de microrganismos eficazes no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana Associated control of Alphitobius diaperinus and effect of effective microorganisms in the development of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de Beauveria bassiana (Bb, terra diatomácea (TD e microrganismos eficazes (EM-4, associados ou não, no controle de Alphitobius diaperinus, e o efeito de EM-4 no desenvolvimento de B. bassiana. Os agentes de controle (Bb, TD e EM-4, em diferentes concentrações e combinações, foram aplicados em uma mistura de cama-de-frango e ração, em que os insetos foram acondicionados por dez dias. Avaliaram-se, in vitro: a germinação, as unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios de Bb em contato com suspensão aquosa de EM-4 (1% não filtrada e filtrada. Os maiores índices de mortalidade foram observados nos tratamentos TD + Bb + EM-4 e TD + Bb, nas maiores concentrações. Verificou-se efeito não-aditivo sinérgico para TD + Bb nas três concentrações. Nos testes com EM-4 filtrado, não houve diferença em relação à testemunha quanto à germinação e às UFC, entretanto, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios foram negativamente afetados. O uso conjunto de B. bassiana e terra diatomácea, para o manejo de populações de A. diaperinus, pode reduzir o uso de produtos químicos.The objective of this work was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana (Bb, diatomaceous earth (TD and effective microorganisms (EM-4, associated or not, to Alphitobius diaperinus control, and the EM-4 effect on B. bassiana development. The control agents (Bb, TD and EM-4, in different concentrations and combinations, were applied in a mixture of litter and chicken food, where insects had been left per ten days. Conidia germination, colony-forming units (CFU, vegetative growth and the productivity of Bb conidia were evaluated when in contact with a filtered and non filtered watery EM-4 suspension (1%. The highest indices of mortality were observed in the treatments TD + Bb + EM and TD + Bb in the highest concentrations. A synergic non additive effect was

  4. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  5. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB.The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0 achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds. This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture contents or the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB as a texturiser. In SSF using WB (66% humidity,the time to obtain a yield of 1x10(10 conidia/gds, referred to as t10, could be predicted using a model considering common inoculum levels and maximal yields. For instance, t10 was 285 h with an inoculum of 1x10(6 conidia/gds; however, t10 was reduced to 232 h and 148 for inocula of 7x10(6 and 5x10(7 conidia/gds, respectively. The estimation of t10 values allowed both comparison between the cultures and prediction of harvesting times in production processes. Values for hydrophobicity were within 90 and 92%, whereas viability averages were around 70% for all the cultures

  6. Evaluación de Beauveria bassiana para el combate de insectos plaga en maíz almacenado

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    Juan Diego Molina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana, para controlar los insectos plaga Prostephanus truncatus y Stophilus zeamais, en mazorcas de maíz almacenado. Se evaluó también la patogenicidad del hongo sobre Teritriosoma nigrescens, depredador natural de P. truncatus. Se mezclaron conidios secos del hongo con kaolinita y se aplicaron a trojas de maíz de 450 mazorcas acomodadas en capas de 50. Se montaron dos ensayos, en el primero se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo al momento de almacenar el maíz, y en el segundo se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo realizadas después de almacenar el maíz. La mortalidad de P. truncatus fue cuatro veces mayor en el ensayo donde se aplicó el hongo en forma preventiva. La mortalidad de S. zeamais fue el doble en el tratamiento donde se aplicó el hongo al momento de inocular con P. truncatus. Los niveles de mortalidad por B. bassiana fueron mayores en P. truncatus que en S. zeamais, pero S. zeamais, pero este último mostró un 20% más de infección que el primero

  7. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of multiple isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) for the assessment of a solid formulation under simulated field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaño, Jorge; Güerri Agulló, Berenice; Serna Sarriás, María José; Rubio Llorca, Germán; Asensio Berbegal, Leticia; Barranco, Pablo; López Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2013-01-01

    A solid state formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin has been developed for biological control of the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790). Two kinds of bioassays (dry conidia and dipping) using 10 isolates from several coleopterans in Mediterranean environments, identified 2 RPW derived isolates (193 and 203) as most pathogenic to RPW larvae and adults (zero survival within first 4–5 d for dry conidia, and 14 and 23 d for dipping bioassays). Isolate...

  8. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  9. Laboratory bioassay of Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and potted bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-03-01

    Use of the mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), marketed as BotaniGard(®) ES, was evaluated as a plant protection strategy against the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, which is considered one of the most economically important and cosmopolitan pests of many crops. Tetranychus urticae were treated with four concentrations of conidia (1 × 10(5), 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), or 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml), and virulence was assessed on mites held at four relative humidity levels (35, 55, 75, and 95 ± 2 % RH) at 25 ± 1 °C. At 1 × 10(8) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 9.7 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly lower than values for other RH levels. At 1 × 10(7) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 43.8 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly different from values at 55 and 35 % RH. The efficacy of B. bassiana product was also verified on mites infesting potted bean plants with a concentration of 1 × 10(8) spores/ml. In double spray treatment where applications were made 2 × on days 5 and 10 after mite infestation, the nymphal and adult population of T. urticae were reduced to zero on days 20 and 15, respectively. With a single spray on day 5, the nymphal population was also greatly reduced, but increased rapidly after day 20. Single and double sprays with B. bassiana reduced leaf damage as measured by image analysis by 33 and 94 % compared to no treatment, respectively. These results suggest that 1 × 10(8) spores/ml was the most effective dose and that two applications, at a 5-day interval, provided control of T. urticae in our laboratory assay. PMID:25500970

  10. Potential of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as biological control agents against the June beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Ates, A Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain PPRI 5339 [BroadBand, an emulsifiable spore concentrate (EC) formulation] and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain F52 [Met52, both EC and granular (GR) formulations] against the larvae of Polyphylla fullo (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Larvicidal bioassays were performed in foam boxes (100 by 75 by 50 cm; length by width by height), containing moist soil medium with some humus and potato tubers as food. Although the B. bassiana product (min. 4 × 10(9) conidia/ml) was applied at 100, 150, and 200 ml/100 l water; M. anisopliae strain F52 was applied at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g/m(3) of moist soil medium for GR (9 × 10(8) cfu/g) and 75, 100, and 125 ml/100 l water for EC (5.5 × 10(9) conidia/ml) formulation. Both fungi were pathogenic to larvae of the pest; however, young larvae (1st and 2nd instars) were more susceptible to infection than older ones (3rd instar). Mortality rates of young and older larvae varied with conidial concentration of both fungi and elapsed time after application. The B. bassiana product was more effective than both of the formulations of the M. anisopliae product, causing mortalities up to 79.8 and 71.6% in young and older larvae, respectively. The highest mortality rates of young and older larvae caused by the M. anisopliae product were 74.1 and 67.6% for the GR formulation, 70.2 and 61.8% for the EC formulation, respectively. These results may suggest that both fungi have potential to be used for management of P. fullo. PMID:25881632

  11. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Becerra V; Mario Paredes C.; Carmen Rojo M; Andrés France I

    2007-01-01

    Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel...

  12. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. PMID:26609787

  13. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information on...... the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid, with...

  14. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with Neoseiulus barkeri for Control of Frankliniella occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-yong; GAO Yu-lin; XU Xue-nong; Mark S Goettel; LEI Zhong-ren

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungusBeauveriabassiana (Balsamo) Vuilemin and predatory miteNeoseiulusbarkeri Hughes are effective biological control agents ofFranklinielaoccidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), one of the most important pests of ornamentals and vegetables world-wide. Combined application of both may enhance control efifciency. The functional response forN.barkeri on the ifrst instar larvae of western lfower thrips which were infected byB.bassiana for 12 and 24 h in the laboratory ((25±1)°C, (70±5)% RH, L:D=16 h:8 h) was determined. The virulence ofB.bassiana against the second instar and pupae of the thrips attacked byN.barkeri were also tested. The results showed that N.barkeri exhibited a Holing type II functional response on treated thrips. After having been treated with the fungus for 12 h and then offered to the predator, thrips were more vulnerable to be kiled byN.barkeri. The second instar larvae and pupae of the thrips which had been attacked by predatory mites were markedly more susceptible toB.bassiana infection than normal thrips; the cumulative corrected mortality ofB.bassiana of the second instar and pupae which were attacked byN.barkeri were 57 and 94%, respectively, compared to 35 and 80% in controls on the day 8. These ifndings highlight the potential use ofB.bassiana in combination withN.barkeri to controlF. occidentalis.

  15. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity to Diaphorina citri and compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs, and to check the compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products, and its persistence in citrus plants. Nymphs of D. citri were sprayed with B. bassiana in the concentrations 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 and 1x10(9 conidia mL-1 for lethal concentration determination. In order to evaluate the compatibility of the phytosanitary products with the fungus, neem extract and five insecticides of four different chemical groups were individually added to PDA culture medium, in which the fungus was cultivated. Vegetative growth, sporulation and viability

  16. Patogenicidade do fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana sobre o percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae / Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the grass bug Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Marcos Roberto Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae é uma praga de cereais cultivados e pastagens, e o controle microbiano é uma alternativa para manter estas populações abaixo do nível de dano econômico. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade do isolado CG 460 de Beauveria bassiana sobre este percevejo. Insetos adultos foram inoculados em laboratório com cinco concentrações de conídios (1,0x105; 1,0x106; 1,0x107; 1,0x108 e 1,0x109 conídios.mL-1 e alimentados com folhas de trigo. A mortalidade total e confirmada (conidiogênese sobre os insetos mortos foram avaliadas durante seis dias consecutivos. O isolado apresentou alta capacidade infectiva sobre o mirideo, com mortalidade total variando de 40 a 90%. A mortalidade confirmada apresentou uma correlação linear positiva com a concentração de conídios. A taxa de conidiogênese nas concentrações mais baixas do inoculo foi em torno de 26%, sendo que nas concentrações maiores os valores chegaram a 70%. O tempo letal 50 para a concentração 109 foi de 4,3 dias.AbstractThe grass bug, Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae, is a pest of cereal crops and pastures, and the microbial control is an alternative to maintain the pest population below economic injury level. The present work had the objective to assess the pathogenicity isolate CG460 of Beauveria bassiana against this grass bug. Adult insects had been inoculated in laboratory with five conidia concentrations (1.0x105, 1.0x106, 1.0x107, 1.0x108, 1.0x109 conidia.mL-1, and fed with wheat leaves. Total and confirmed mortality (sporulation on the dead insects had been assessed during six consecutive days. CG460 showed high virulency on the grass bug, with the total mortality ranged from 40 to 90%. Confirmed mortality presented positive and linear correlation with the conidia concentrations. The conidiogenesis rates in the lowest concentrations of inoculum were around 26%, being that in the highest

  17. Virulencia de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre picudo del nopal Metarnasius spinolae

    OpenAIRE

    Orduño Cruz, Nuvia

    2012-01-01

    El picudo del nopal (Metamasius spinolae), es uno de los principales factores limitantes de la producción comercial de nopal en Tlalnepantla Morelos. El control de plagas se basa en insecticidas y el uso de nuevas alternativas como los hongos entomopatógenos ha sido poco estudiada. Con el objeto de seleccionar aislamientos de las especies B. bassiana y M. anisopliae para el control del picudo del nopal se evaluaron seis aislamientos de B. bassiana y dos de M. anisopliae en...

  18. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  19. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  20. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  1. A protocol for determination of conidial viability of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae from commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daian Guilherme Pinto; Pauli, Giuliano; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for directly determining conidial viability have widespread use but also have limitations for quality control assessments of formulated mycoinsecticides, especially in emulsifiable oil. This study proposes a new method based on adaptations of already established protocols that use the direct viability method to make it more economical and accurate, thus enabling its use in the evaluation of formulated products. Appropriate parameters and conditions were defined using products based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the forms of pure conidia, fungus-colonized rice, ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion. The established protocol, named ESALQ, consists of the transfer of 150 μL of a suspension containing about 0.7 and 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL onto Rodac® plates with 5 mL of potato dextrose agar culture medium + 5 mg/L of Pentabiotic® and 10 μL/L of Derosal® (Carbendazim) and subsequent counting of germinated and non-germinated conidia. For the ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion formulations, prior to transferring the fungal suspension to the medium, rice should be decanted and the oil removed, respectively. This method was compared with another direct viability method and with the Colony-forming unit (CFU) and Fluorescence viability methods, comparing the accuracy obtained using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the analysis of each method. The results showed that in addition to the ease of application, the developed method has higher accuracy than the other methods (with a CV up to seven times lower than in the Standard method and up to 32 times lower than CFU). The CFU method underestimated the concentration of viable conidia in most of the tested fungal forms, and in the emulsifiable oil products, these values were 54% lower for B. bassiana and 84% lower for M. anisopliae. The adaptations and standardizations proposed in the ESALQ method showed effective improvements for routine quality assessment of

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin increases the susceptibility of Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata to Beauveria bassiana infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...

  3. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

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    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  4. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  5. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  6. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites. PMID:24253584

  7. Optimization of erythritol and glycerol accumulation in conidia of Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation, using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocco, Federico; Lecuona, Roberto E; Couto, Alicia S; Arcas, Jorge A

    2005-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely produced for use as mycoinsecticides. Therefore, improvement of the shelf life of fungal propagules under good and adverse conditions should be a pre-requisite of their production. In order to improve conidial physiology as well as mycoinsecticide efficiency, culture conditions may be varied. The Doehlert design was used to generate response surfaces with an estimation of the parameters of the quadratic model allowing the study of three different factors at a different number of levels. This experimental design was applied to optimize water activity (aw), pH, and fermentation time for Beauveria bassiana conidial production and accumulation of polyols in solid-state fermentation. Thus, it was possible to identify the region in the experimental range in which the optimum values of these parameters were simultaneously achieved. Maximal conidia production was achieved at pH 5-6 and aw=0.999. Under these conditions, polyol accumulation was 3 mg erythritol/g conidia and 29.6 mg glycerol/g conidia. However, maximal polyol accumulation was achieved at pH 4.5 and aw 0.950; erythritol production increased 33-fold and glycerol production 4.5-fold. Under these conditions conidia production was 1,000 times lower. The possibilities of increasing the quality of the biocontrol agent without neglecting yield are discussed. PMID:15731900

  8. Evaluación de un biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana

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    Zapata Zapata Arley David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación del biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana se hizo con base en las variables temperatura y concentración de conidias, utilizando un sustrato sólido constituido por trigo entero. Se tomaron como parámetros de operación, la altura del lecho, el flujo de aire y la posición dentro del biorreactor, siendo el tiempo de fermentación un parámetro predeterminado que permitió monitorear las variables y comparar la productividad en el desarrollo del hongo. Se pudo observar, con ayuda de un diseño de experimentos factorial y una prueba de Tukey, que bajo ciertas condiciones de operación como una relación H/D = 0.9 (H: altura del lecho, D: diametro del biorreactor y un flujo de aire de 12.3 L/min, se incrementó significativamente la productividad del hongo con respecto al método tradicional de producción (botellas bajo la escala ensayada, siendo la posición un factor poco significativo en el proceso. Palabras clave: Fermentación en estado sólido, control biológico.

  9. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  10. Estudio de las condiciones de mezclado en fermentador para la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of the mixing conditions in bioreactor for blastospores production of Beauveria bassiana.Resumen: Se caracterizaron tres fermentadores: New Brunswick M-19 de 14 litros, Applikon Biocontroller 1035 de 7 litros y New Brunswick Bioflo III de 7 litros, determinando el coeficiente volumétrico de transferencia de oxígeno (KLa, la retención de gas (RG y el tiempo de mezclado (tM. El fermentador New Brunswick Bioflo III tuvo los mejores valores con una relación de diámetro del impulsor/diámetro del tanque (DI/DT de 0.43, KLa = 9.5-208 h-1 y tM = 1.0-3.0 s, por lo que fue seleccionado para realizar la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana, utilizando melaza como fuente de carbono. Se estudiaron las condiciones de mezclado, utilizando diferentes combinaciones de impulsores tipo Rushton, Maxflo y Lightnin, bajo un diseño experimental factorial 32. El tiempo de propagación fue de 4 días, el volumen de trabajo 4 litros, 10% de inóculo (1x106 blastosporas/ml, temperatura 30°C, agitación de 400-500 rpm, aireación de 0.5-1.0 vvm, y pH de 5.4.El hongo se desarrolló mejor utilizando la combinación de impulsores Rushton-Maxflo a 400 rpm y 1.0 vvm (F = 10.324, p £ 0.0123 (DMS=0.585, obteniendo una concentración de 1.2x109 blastosporas/ml, 2.2 g/l de biomasa y 2.48 g/l de consumo de sustrato (Y x/s=0.89. Las condiciones de mezclado y los parámetros obtenidos pueden ser aplicados en otros fermentadores para optimizar la producción de blastosporas de B. bassiana en la elaboración experimental de bioinsecticidas.Palabras clave: fermentación líquida, aireación, agitación, hongo entomopatógeno.Abstract: In this work three fermenters were characterized: New Brunswick M-19 of 14 liters, Biocontroller Applikon 1035 of 7 liters and New Brunswick Bioflo III of 7 liters, determining the volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer (KLa, gas retention (GH and the mixing time (tM. The fermenter New Brunswick Bioflo III

  11. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  12. Conidia production by Beauveria bassiana (for the biocontrol of a diamondback moth) during solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S W; Lee, S H; Yoon, C S; Kim, S W

    2005-01-01

    Conidia of Beauveria bassiana CS-1, which have the potential for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a packed-bed bioreactor with rice straw and wheat bran. As the packing density and the bed height were increased, the production of conidia decreased. In a packed-bed bioreactor under no aeration and no addition of polypropylene (PP) foam (control), the total average of conidia was 4.9 x 10(8) g-1. The production of conidia was affected more by the addition of PP foam as an inert support than forced aeration and was approx. 23 times higher than that of the control. The total average of conidia produced by B. bassiana was 1.1-1.2 x 10(10) g-1 . PMID:15703878

  13. Preservation of beauveria bassiana (balsam) vuillemin (moniliales: moniliaceae) pathogenicityagainst the coffee borer in different systems

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bahamón; E. Aycardi; Orozco, J; Marín, P. (Pedro); Bustillo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar técnicas de preservación de patogenicidad en el laboratorio, que permitan almacenar por tiempos prolongados cultivos de B. bassiana de manera que se puedan utilizar en la preparación de un producto industrial sin tener que recurrir tan frecuentemente a pases sobre poblaciones de Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) para mantener su efectividad en el control de esta plaga. Existen numerosos trabajos sobre la preservación de la viabilid...

  14. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  15. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

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    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  16. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. / Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill.

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    Cristiane Mita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari and the conidia grown on insect were used to prepare the inoculum containing 108conídia/mL. These conidia were inoculated at 1% (v/v in culture liquid medium containing D-glucose (10g, yeast extract (5g, NaNO3 (1,58g, Na2HPO4.7H2O (1,05g, KCl (1g, MgSO4.7H2O (0,6g and KH2PO4 (0,36g per liter. The cultivation was carried at 28°C and 180rpm during 5 days. Culture fluid was obtained by filtration and centrifugation at 8.000g, and the chitinases were isolated and concentrated by ultrafiltration using 10 and 100kDa cut off membranes under nitrogen pressure. Chitinase activity was detected and quantified using N-acetylglucosamine released by hydrolysis of colloidal chitin at 40 to 60ºC, at 50, 100 and 200 mM ionic concentrations of buffers sodium acetate (pH 4.0 to 6.0; sodium phosphate (pH 6.0 to 8.0; and Glycine-NaOH (pH 8.0 to 10.0 during 60 minutes. Maximum chitinase activity was at 45ºC and pH 5.5, and was also high at pH 6.0 and pH 8.5 using 50mM buffer. The chitinase activity increased and was stable during an hour at optimum conditions of the reaction, shown the stable nature of this enzyme.Beauveria bassiana é um fungo entomopatogênico utilizado no controle biológico de insetos-praga que infestam produtos agrícolas. O mecanismo de infecção envolve a produção de enzimas extracelulares, como proteases e quitinases que degradam a cutícula dos insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros cinéticos de pH, temperatura, concentração iônica e tempo de

  17. Endophytic Ability of Different Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in Stem and Leaf Tissues of Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, S; Ramanujam, B; Poornesha, B

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the ability of six promising indigenous isolates of Beauveria bassiana (NBAII-Bb-5a, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 45) as an endophyte in maize stem and leaf tissues. Maize seedlings (var. Nithyashree) were inoculated with conidial suspensions and were examined for endophytic establishment in leaf and stems at different intervals during 15-90 days after treatment. All six isolates showed colonization in stem and leaf tissues with varying abilities of colonization and persistence. The mean percent colonization ranged from 7.41 to 20.37 % in older stem tissues and 3.70 to 21.29 % in young stem tissues and in leaf, it ranged from 6.46 to 27.78 % in older leaf tissues and 11.11 to 26.85 % in young leaf tissues. Among six isolates tested, Bb-23 isolate recorded the maximum mean colonization in older stem (20.37 %), older leaf (27.78 %) and in young stem (21.29 %). Bb-5a isolate showed maximum mean colonization in young leaf tissues (26.85 %). Persistence of inoculated fungal isolates decreased with increase in age of the plant. No physical symptoms of damage were observed in any of the B. bassiana treated plants. No colonization of B. bassiana was observed in the untreated control maize plants. The results obtained in plating and PCR techniques were similar with regard to the confirmation of endophytic establishment of B. bassiana. This study indicated the possibility of using B. bassiana as an endophyte in maize for management of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. PMID:27570303

  18. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  19. Field applications of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kirby C; Allan, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, CT, for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other premises for comparison with B. bassiana. A wood chip barrier was installed and maintained at six of the treated properties. In 1999, control of I. scapularis nymphs ranged from 74.5 to 83.0% on lawns without wood chips and from 88.9 to 90% on lawns with wood chip barriers. As a control check, no ticks (n = 23) collected at pretreatment or control sites died from B. bassiana, although 15 of 18 nymphs from treated lawns developed mycoses. Control of I. scapularis on the lawns in 2000 with the two B. bassiana products was lower, as follows: 38.0 and 58.7% without the barrier and 56.9 and 55.1% with the wood chip barrier. Posttreatment differences in nymphal numbers between treatments and control were significant (P = 0.005 and P = 0.039, 1999 and 2000, respectively). The bifenthrin provided 86 and 87% control each year, respectively. The application of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain F52 to 9 residential sites in Westport and Weston, CT, in 2002 provided significant (P = 0.034; P = 0.039) reductions in nymphal tick abundance with 55.6 and 84.6% fewer ticks on lawn and woodland plots, respectively. These results suggest the application of entomopathogenic fungi could provide another approach for the control of I. scapularis nymphs in residential or similar landscapes. PMID:21175060

  20. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming. PMID:17348136

  1. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  2. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho; Marcelo Elias Fraga; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Carlos Alberto da Rocha Rosa

    2010-01-01

    As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para...

  3. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  4. 球孢白僵菌液体制剂研究%The Study on A Liquid Preparation of Beauveria Bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱天辉; 杨世璋; 李远翔

    2001-01-01

    Effects of different media and fermentative conditions on the production of spores and cumulation of mycelial substence for Beauveria bassiana were studied by means of liquid fermentation. The results show that Beauveria bassiana does not produce blastospores on five media except for the medium (substitute code D) which contains 5% waste sugar, 1% corn abstract, and 0.1% K2HPO4, meanwhile, the D-medium, on which Beauveria bassiana grows well and produces bigger spores, is regarded as a ideal liquid carrier. The optimal fermentative conditions are as follows: temperature 25~30℃, pH6.0~7.0, Vibrating time 96hr, and not excess 1/6 flak volume as ventilation index.%通过液体发酵试验,研究了不同营养基质、不同发酵条件对球孢白僵菌液生分生孢子、芽孢子、干物质积累的影响,结果显示:在5种培养基中,除“糖蜜5%、玉米浸提液1%、K2HPO4 0.1%”(代号D)外,其它均不产生芽孢子,以D配方生物量最高,孢子较大,为本试验选出的液体制剂的理想载体,最佳发酵条件为温度25~30℃,pH6.0~7.0,通气量以瓶装培养液量为指标不超过1/6瓶装量,发酵时间以96小时为佳。白僵菌液体制剂的理想载体与最佳发酵条件的组合可使白僵菌液生分生孢子达2.5×1010左右,超过了目前四川固体发酵的生产水平。

  5. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  6. Natural Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Camila Rossoni

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Relata-se a ocorrência natural de um fungo entomopatogênico sobre a lagarta Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em uma área de soja convencional situada no município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. A lagarta foi coletada a campo e levada ao laboratório de microbiologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, onde permaneceu em câmera úmida por aproximadamente 7 dias. Posteriormente, o fungo foi isolado em meio de cultura (BDA para identificação da espécie do entomopatógeno. O fungo foi identificado como Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales e, isso representa o primeiro registro de parasitismo, dessa espécie, sobre a lagarta-da-soja no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

  7. Genetic improvement of the nematicidal fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum against Heterodera glycines by expression of the Beauveria bassiana Cdep1 protease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, De-Liang; Yu, Wen-Bin; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important nematophagous fungus with potential as a biopesticide against plant-parasitic nematodes. The Pr1A-like cuticle-degrading protease (Cdep1) gene originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was transformed into the nematophagous fungus L. attenuatum using a polyethylene-glycol mediated protoplast-based transformation system. Protease activity was increased 0.64- to 1.63-fold 2-10d after growth in the transformed L. attenuatum. Inhibition of egg-hatching and J2 motility of soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) by cell-free fungal culture filtrates were enhanced by 17-76% 2-14d and 43-152% 1-13d after incubation, respectively. PMID:27342597

  8. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

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    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  9. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (PHistological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  10. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  11. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  12. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  13. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  14. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  15. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorph genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic...

  16. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  17. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários

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    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.

  18. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

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    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  19. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

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    Nicolas ePedrini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities.. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP, a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and 4 CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1 out of 6 genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular

  20. SELECTION OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALSAMO VUILLEMIN ISOLATES FOR MANAGEMENT OF MYZUS PERSICAE (SULTZAR (HOM.: APHIDAE BASED ON VIRULENCE AND GROWTH RELATED CHARACTERISTICS

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    Mohammad S. Al-alawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana originated from Jordan were evaluated for their efficacy against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Efficacy evaluation involved testing all isolates at a concentration of 1×107 conidia/mL followed by concentration dependent and greenhouse bioassays for the top virulent isolates. Growth characteristics related to virulence were evaluated for high, intermediate and low virulent isolates. Results showed that three isolates namely: BAU004, BAU018 and BAU019 were highly virulent to the aphid in the laboratory causing more than 75% infection. In the greenhouse, the three isolates caused infection from 41.3 to 46.5%. For the growth characteristics, isolate BAU019 produced more spores than the other highly virulent ones including the commercial isolate GHA. Highly virulent isolates also showed faster hyphal growth than low virulent isolates. These findings indicate that isolates BAU004, Bau018 and BAU019 might be developed as commercial microbial insecticides for safe and effective control of green peach aphid.

  1. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Mercadier, Guy; Holst, Niels; Girod, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia (asexual spores) from two strains of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus. One strain was commercial (GHA) and the other had been isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto sticky boards. Treatments included conidia formulated with either carnauba or candelilla wax powder, candelilla wax powder alone, or control; in two treatment groups formulation was applied a second time after one week. Treatment did not affect colony health. Colonies treated twice with Bb05002 conidia and carnauba wax powder had significantly higher mite fall compared to colonies treated with blank candelilla wax powder. The proportion of fallen mites that were infected in both conidia treatments was higher than controls for 18 days after the second treatment. The number of fungal propagules on the bees themselves remained elevated for about 14 days after the second treatment. These results were compared to published results from previous experiments with regard to infection duration. PMID:18506583

  2. Patogenitas Beberapa Cendawan Entomopatogen (Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, dan Beauveria bassiana)terhadap Aphis glycines pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Widariyanto, Riri

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the effectiveness of entomopatogen’s fungus ( L. Lecanii, M. Anisopliae, and B. bassiana) to Aphis glycines in soybean on field. Research done at Farm of Faculty of Agriculture of University of Sumatera Utara, Medan from December 2015 until Februari 2016. The method used Randomized Block Design by seven treatment that is : P0/control (Instar 4 of Aphis glycines without treatment Entomopathogen), P1 (Instar 2 of Aphis glycines + Lecanicillium lecani...

  3. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario;

    2016-01-01

    ) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and......, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards....

  4. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  5. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

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    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  6. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

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    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  7. A New Dibenz[b,e]oxepine Derivative, 1-Hydroxy-10-methoxy-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-6,11-dione, from a Marine-Derived Fungus, Beauveria bassiana TPU942

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    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Hydroxy-10-methoxy-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-6,11-dione (1 was obtained from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus, Beauveria bassiana TPU942, isolated from a marine sponge collected at Iriomote Island in Okinawa, together with two known compounds, chrysazin (2 and globosuxanthone A (3. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data (HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments including 1H–1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC spectra. Dibenz[b,e]oxepines are rare in nature, and only six natural products have been reported. Therefore, compound 1 is the seventh natural product in this class. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and 3 inhibited the cell growth against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma. Compound 1 did not show an apparent activity in the same bioassays.

  8. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

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    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  9. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  10. Antagonism of Beauveria bassiana against Two Fusarium spp.Pathogenic to Cotton%球孢白僵菌对两种植物病原镰孢的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜利; 李增智

    2011-01-01

    体外测定了球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana对两种棉花病原镰孢——棉花枯萎病菌Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.vasinfecturn和棉花红腐病菌Fusarium verticillioides的拮抗作用。平板对峙培养时,两种镰孢的生长均受到明显抑制。不同含孢量的球孢白僵菌对两种镰孢的抑制效果不同,且抑制率与孢子浓度成显著的线性量效关系;在接种量为6×107孢子.mL-1时,对两种菌的抑制率均达到90%以上,对红腐病菌的抑制率稍高。白僵菌代谢液对两种植物病原菌也表现出抑菌作%In vitro antagonism of Beauveria bassiana,an entomopathogenic fungus,was tested against Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.vasinfecturn,pathogen of cotton wilt,and F.verticillioides,pathogen of cotton red rot.On dual culture,B.bassiana showed obvious inhibition on the growth of the two pathogens.Different doses of conidia had different inhibitory effects,with inhibition rate linearly correlated to inoculum,suggesting that the antagonism was associated with competition for nutrition and space.The inhibition on the two pathogens was both over 90% at inoculum of 6×107 spores·mL-1,slightly higher on F.verticillioide.The metabolite in SDY shake culture of B.bassiana also displayed inhibition,with inhibition rate linearly correlated to metabolite concentration,suggesting that the antagonism was also associated with antibiotic substances.Based on the comparison of inhibition rates,antibiosis was considered to contribute more than competition.In the analysis on the antibiotic metabolite,none of the lyophilized supernatant extracted by 4 different organic extractants showed obvious inhibition on the Fusarium spp.,while addition of crude extract of either polysaccharide or protein significantly inhibited mycelium growth of the two Fusarium spp.,suggesting that the main inhibitory substances are polysaccharide and protein with high molecular weight.

  11. Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander - Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Liliana Duarte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is an activity that produces significant benefits to agriculture and the environment; Through the pollination action of bees helps to increase productivity as well as biodiversity in the ecosystem. In recent years, has significantly increased prevalence of parasites in this species, particularly the Varroasis, a disease caused by the mite Varroa destructor. The causal agent produces losses between 30% and 50% of total production and in turn can cause damage to the quality of honey by the excessive use of chemicals for disease control and the slow and progressive deterioration health of producers. Noting this, we evaluated the incidence of fungus Beauveria bassiana in natural populations of Varroa destructor in acarofauna associated, and the remains of the hive by pathogenicity tests in laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of the biocontrol entomopathogenic then enter in apiaries infected with the disease. According to the results obtained in the adult infestation of V. destructor in Apis mellifera Africanized sampling Felisa made on the farm in the municipality of Los Patios, recorded rates of infestation in hives from 3.4% to 8.3% on the infection status of breeding was 4.5% to 13.7%. In laboratory tests it was possible to observe thatthe fungus B. bassiana attacked by an effective control mites without harming bees, propolis and honey allowing the insect to continue their normal activities, controlling the disease in a biological, not chemical.

  12. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampeiIdentificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei. Uma suspensão contendo 106 conídios ativados/mL foi inoculada em meio de cultura líquido a 28ºC, 150 rpm por 3 dias. O extrato de proteases (EP foi obtido da centrifugação a 8000 g por 20 minutos, fracionado e concentrado por ultrafiltração em membrana de porosidade controlada 100 kDa e 3 kDa, respectivamente. A cromatografia de gel filtração em Sephadex G-100 separou um pico proteico (Pico II que apresentou 56% de resíduos do aminoácido ácido aspártico quando analisado por HPLC em coluna de fase reversa ODS-C18; atividade específica 43 vezes superior ao EP sobre soro albumina bovina; atividade de protease tipo-subtilisina e uma única banda proteica revelada por nitrato de prata e Coomassie Brilhant Blue em zimograma sobre gelatina por eletroforese PAGE em condições nativas. A homogeneidade do Pico II foi confirmada pela revelação de uma única banda durante a determinação do pH isoelétrico igual a 4,5, porém a determinação da massa molecular separou 2 bandas de 23 e 26 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-2D. As proteases foram caracterizadas como serino proteases com resíduo cisteína importante para a atividade, pois foram inibidas por fluoreto fenil-metil-sufonil e ácido p-cloromercúriobenzóico. As proteases do Pico II apresentaram Km 4x10-4 sobre substrato tipo-subtilisina.

  13. Integrated use of Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar.tenebrionis for microbial biocontrol of colorado potato beetle%球孢白僵菌和苏云金杆菌拟步甲血清亚种联合使用防治马铃薯甲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯蒂芬· 瑞特; Mark A Ramos

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for using insect pathogens to control the Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata,and summarizes results from nearly 10 years of research by USDA-ARS-PPRU scientists aimed at developing methods and strategies for integrated use of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based management of potato beetles in the northeastern USA.The described studies have resulted in 1) design of a tractor-mounted hydraulic spray system that improved targeting and consequent efficacy of microbial control agents, 2) discovery of synergism between the bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bb),3) findings that substantial mortality of beetle larvae treated with B.bassiana during foliar spray programs did not occur until after they entered the soil to pupate, and 4) observations that spray applications made in the evening (at sunset) were significantly, but not substantially, more effective than applications made during the morning hours.These findings have led to development of a bio-based pest management system based on three spray applications made in the following order at 3-5-day intervals:Bt alone,Bt and Bb mixed,and Bb alone.This spray program,with the applications initiated at 50% egg hatch,is intended to control the actively feeding larval stages (providing protection from defoliation) and reduce survivorship to the adult stage (providing long-term control by reducing populations of overwintering adults). In the initial test of the integrated management system,beetle control and potato yields were statistically equivalent to those in plots in which the beetles were controlled with chemical insecticides.Demonstration of the effectiveness of this program will continue over the next 2-3 field seasons.

  14. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  15. Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biopesticide, formulated with a strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites, was tested in an experiment in southern France and the results were were compared to published results from previous experiments with the same biopesticide. Bee colonies were treated either with biopesticide, ...

  16. Development of a method for detection and quantification of B. brongniartii and B. bassiana in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, L; Malusà, E; Tkaczuk, C; Tartanus, M; Łabanowska, B H; Pinzari, F

    2016-01-01

    A culture independent method based on qPCR was developed for the detection and quantification of two fungal inoculants in soil. The aim was to adapt a genotyping approach based on SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) marker to a discriminating tracing of two different species of bioinoculants in soil, after their in-field release. Two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii, were traced and quantified in soil samples obtained from field trials. These two fungal species were used as biological agents in Poland to control Melolontha melolontha (European cockchafer), whose larvae live in soil menacing horticultural crops. Specificity of SSR markers was verified using controls consisting of: i) soil samples containing fungal spores of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in known dilutions; ii) the DNA of the fungal microorganisms; iii) soil samples singly inoculated with each fungus species. An initial evaluation of the protocol was performed with analyses of soil DNA and mycelial DNA. Further, the simultaneous detection and quantification of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in soil was achieved in field samples after application of the bio-inoculants. The protocol can be considered as a relatively low cost solution for the detection, identification and traceability of fungal bio-inoculants in soil. PMID:26975931

  17. 不同温度下白僵菌Bb04菌株对红火蚁工蚁的致病力%Pathogenicity of strain Bb04 of Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. to red imported fire ant workers under different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 吕利华; 何余容

    2014-01-01

    Red imported fire ant ( RIFA) , Solenopsis invicta Buren, is one of the most devastating pests in the world . Entomopathengenic fungi have been applied to control many crops insect pests successfully worldwide and may be a promising control for RIFA.The effect of temperature on pathogenicity of strain Bb 04 of Bearveria bassiana, a suitable candidate to the RIFA workers , was studied in the laboratory .[Method]The RIFA workers were infected with two concentrations of B.bassiana spore suspension (1 ×105 conidia· mL-1 and 1 ×108 conidia· mL-1 ) and kept under 17, 21, 25, 29 and 33 ℃ conditions.[Result]The results showed there were significant differences in virulence of Bb 04 to RIFA under different temperatures .When workers of RIFA were treated with 1 ×108 conidia· mL-1 , the total mortality of infected RIFA after 15 days reached as high as 100%under 21℃, 25℃and 29 ℃.Total mortality was 99.36%at 17 ℃and 98.74%at 33 ℃.However, after 15 days with an infection rate of 1 ×105 conidia/mL, total mortalities of treated workers at 17 ℃, 21 ℃, 25 ℃, 29 ℃and 33 ℃were only 16.83%, 29.42%,36.18%, 33.17%and 27.21%, respectively .At 17, 21 and 25 ℃, LT50 values of Bb04 against RIFA decreased from 5.41 at 17℃to 3.88 at 21 ℃and then 2.57 days at 25℃.LT50 increased again to 2.97 at 29℃and 5.11 at 33℃.[Conclusion and significance]25 ℃was the most effective temperature to promote infection of RIFA by Bb 04 and should be applied in both spring and autumn in the field .%【背景】白僵菌是一种应用最广泛的虫生真菌,已被用于工厂化大量生产,可防治多种农林害虫。【方法】试验设置17、21、25、29和33℃5个温度水平,采用喷雾法,将浓度为1×105和1×108个· mL-1的白僵菌孢子悬浮液分别感染红火蚁工蚁,以测试不同温度下白僵菌菌株对红火蚁工蚁的致病力。【结果】当浓度为1×108个· mL-1时,在21、25和29℃条件下,红火蚁工蚁在15 d

  18. 75 FR 10186 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; Amendment of Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... evaluated whether there is any potential for residues of the pesticide to result in or on meat, milk... requirement for a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA... exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in ] establishing a tolerance and...

  19. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Sonoyama; Kaoru Araki-Sasaki; Shigeyasu Kazama; Tsutomu Kawasaki; Hidenao Ideta; et al

    2008-01-01

    Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunol...

  20. Imbibitional damage in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When dried organisms are immersed in water, rapid imbibition may cause severe damage to plasma membranes; in unicellular organisms, such damage is usually lethal. This study investigated effects of pre-immersion moisture levels and immersion temperature on imbibitional damage in three insect pathoge...

  1. Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, aminoacids and plant growth regulators Tratamento de sementes de pimentão com microrganismos, micronutrientes, aminoácidos e reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Almeida Diniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized seeds, such as the horticultural species, have limited quantities of reserves that can be balanced by coating then with essential nutrients for their initial development. In addition, inoculation of the seeds with microorganisms may protect the plants against phytopathogens, thus enhancing their growth. The present work had the objective of evaluate the physiological quality and seedling development of sweet pepper seeds and seedlings coated with several kind of films. Seeds were first coated with polymers and then with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma polysporhum, Trichoderma stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, mycorrhizas, aminoacids, micronutrients and plant growth regulators. Evaluation was performed for percentage of germination and for seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, number of plants, dry mass of the aerial and root parts and height of the seedlings. Inoculation with Trichoderma viride increased the percentage and rate of the seedlings emergence Inoculation with Trichoderma viride, Metarhizium anisopliae and mycorrhizas promote better seedling development; seed microbiolization with microorganisms Trichoderma viride, T. polysporhum, T. stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. Mycorrhizas mixture negatively affected seeds and seedling quality. Seed covering with plant growht regulator, at a 5 mL kg-1 dose increased the roots dry matter.Em sementes pequenas, como as de espécies hortícolas, as limitadas quantidades de reservas podem ser equilibradas por meio do seu recobrimento com nutrientes essenciais para o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Além disso, a inoculação dessas sementes com microrganismos, além de proteger as plantas contra fitopatógenos, pode promover o seu crescimento. Assim, objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tipos de revestimentos na qualidade de sementes e mudas de pimentão (Capsicum annum. Para tanto, as

  2. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira; Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Lídio Sueki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM) programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and ...

  3. In vitro compatibility between three bacterial sugarbeet disease-control agents and the entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere is the primary arean for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) deployed against soil-dwelling pests, and is also the site of action of biological agents used against root pathogens. Interactions between EPF and soil microbes, much less biofungicidal agents, have been barely studied, however, ...

  4. Development of a CO2 releasing co-formulation 1 based on starch, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Beauveria bassiana attractive towards western corn rootworm larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    CO2 is known as an attractant for many soil-dwelling pests. To implement an attract-and-kill strategy for soil pest control, CO2 emitting formulations need to be developed. This work aimed at the development of a slow release bead system in order to bridge the gap between application and hatching of...

  5. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.V. Howard; R. N'Guessan; C.J.M. Koenraadt; A. Asidi; M. Farenhorst; M. Akogbeto; M.B. Thomas; B.G.J. Knols; W. Takken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show tha

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOASSAY SYSTEM FOR THE PREDATOR XYLOCORIS FLAVIPES (REUTER) AND ITS USE IN SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY/PATHOGENICITY STUDIES OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. STRAIN GHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial biocontrol agents are useful commercially only if they do not harm other natural biocontrol organisms, at recommended use rate in the environment where the microorganism is being used. To test the hypothesis that the predatory warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter), is not adve...

  7. Caracterización molecular de 15 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana asociados con Cosmopolites y Metamasius en plátano y banano en tres regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron picudos de Cosmopolites y Metamasius en municipios del Valle del Cauca, Caldas y Quindío. Se obtuvieron cultivos monospóricos con diluciones de 10-10 y 10-11. Los aislamientos fueron almacenados a -80°C con glicerol al 10% y el ADN a –20°C. Los marcadores moleculares RAM generaron 82 fragmentos de los cuales 67% fueron polimórficos con una heterocigocidad de 0.24, que indica diversidad media a alta. A un índice de similitud 0.84 se formaron 5 grupos: uno con 11 aislamientos y 4 con un solo aislamiento. En el gran grupo se detectó un duplicado y se encontró diversidad del hongo en los sitios muestreados. No se encontró relación entre aislamientos sobre Cosmopolites y Metamasius o zona geográfica en la formación de grupos genéticos.

  8. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite contro...

  9. Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveri...

  10. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Collins, Debbie A.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly wid...

  11. Immune and metabolic responses of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaghparast, Seyyedeh Kimia; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Hoda, Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Efficient control of Chilo suppressalis Walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. So, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. Bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94µg/ml as LC10-50 values. Numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well as phenoloxidase activity increased in the different time intervals following treatment by hexaflumuron. Combined effects of hexaflumuron and Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin also increased hemocyte numbers and phenoloxidase activity at different time intervals using all concentrations. Activities of general esterases assayed by α- and β-naphtyl acetate and glutathione S-transferase using CDNB and DCNB increased 1-12h post-treatment. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and aldolase increased in the larvae treated by hexaflumuron. However enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase was only obtained by treating 180 and 470µg/ml concentrations of hexaflumuron. Activities of ACP and ALP were found to be higher than control for all time intervals even 1-12h post-treatment. The amounts of HDL and LDL increased in the highest concentrations of hexaflumuron after 12-24h of post-treatment. Amount of triglyceride was higher than that of control after 1 and 3h but it was lower in other time intervals. Amounts of glycogen and protein were lower than those of control for all time intervals except for 6 and 12h of post-treatment in case of protein. Results of the current study revealed negative effects of hexaflumuron on intermediary metabolism of Chilo suppressalis but it increased the number of hemocytes and activity of phenoloxidase which are responsible for spore removal from hemolymph. It can be concluded that hexaflumuron is

  12. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  13. Transcriptional control of fungal cell cycle and cellular events by Fkh2, a forkhead transcription factor in an insect pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Juan-juan; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Qing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional control of the cell cycle by forkhead (Fkh) transcription factors is likely associated with fungal adaptation to host and environment. Here we show that Fkh2, an ortholog of yeast Fkh1/2, orchestrates cell cycle and many cellular events of Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of Fkh2 in B. bassiana resulted in dramatic down-regulation of the cyclin-B gene cluster and hence altered cell cycle (longer G2/M and S, but shorter G0/G1, phases) in unicel...

  14. Drug: D09176 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bassiana Vuillemin.; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D09176 Stiff silkworm PubChem: 96025856 ... ...91], Beauveria bassiana [TAX:176275] Same as: E00308 Bombycidae Silkworm infected Cordycepitaceae Beauveria

  15. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  16. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch) against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    OpenAIRE

    Sierpińska Alicja; Popowska-Nowak Elżbieta; Bednarek Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii o...

  17. Cyclodepsipeptides and Other O-Containing Heterocyclic Metabolites from Beauveria felina EN-135, a Marine-Derived Entomopathogenic Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Du

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of a culture extract of Beauveria felina EN-135, an entomopathogenic fungus isolated from a marine bryozoan, led to the isolation of a new cyclodepsipeptide, iso-isariin D (1; two new O-containing heterocyclic compounds that we have named felinones A and B (2 and 3; and four known cyclodepsipeptides (4–7. The structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and CD, respectively. All isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and brine-shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  18. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and 1H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites. (author)

  19. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita-Marques, Aline Maria de; Lira, Simone P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br; Seleghim, Mirna H.R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Sponchiado, Sandra R.P. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica; Tauk-Tornisielo, Samia M. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Ambientais; Barata, Margarida [Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro de Biologia Ambiental. Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coelho [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia; Nascimento, Gislene G.F. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Souza, Ana O. de [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Silva, Marcio; Pimenta, Eli F.; Thiemann, Otavio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Passarini, Michel R.Z.; Sette, Lara D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Bioligicas e Agricolas. Div. de Recursos Microbianos

    2008-07-01

    Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and {sup 1}H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites. (author)

  20. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria de Vita-Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and ¹H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites.

  1. Selection, Identification and Culture Characteristics of a Highly Virulent Strain of Beauveria towards Sympiezomias citri%柑橘灰象甲一株高毒力白僵菌菌株的筛选鉴定及培养特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定锋; 黎健龙; 王庆森; 李慧玲; 吴光远

    2014-01-01

    %, highest muscardine rates of 97.78%and shortest LT50 of 3.77 d after fungal inoculation at a concentration of 1.0×108 spores/mL (7 d, 26 ℃). The LC50 value was 4.55×104 spores/mL at 26 ℃. According to culture characteristics, morphology feature and rDNA ITS sequence analysis, the strain Bb2-1 was identified to be Beauveria bassiana. The effect of five medium types (PDA, PPDA, 1/4 SDAY, SDAY, and Czapek), five temperature gradient (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃), seven different pH value (pH 4.0—10.0) and seven different illumination periods (0L:24D, 24L:0D, 18L:6D, 12L:12D, 6L:18D, dark in the first 7 days and light in the last 7 days, and light in the first 7 days and dark in the last 7 days) on colony growth and sporulation of the strain Bb2-1 were evaluated through the determination of colony diameter and sporulation. The results showed that SDAY medium at pH 7.0 was the most optimal medium for the colony growth and sporulation of the strain Bb2-1 at 25 ℃, and photoperiod didn’t pose any obvious effects on colony growth, but prolonging illumination time was benefit to the sporulation. In this study, the selection of a highly virulent B. bassiana (Bb2-1) towards S. citri and the evaluation of culture characteristics of Bb2-1 would provide reference for large scale production of the fungi to control this beetle.

  2. Selection and characterization of Beauveria spp. isolates to control the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P; Souza, L P A

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed under laboratory conditions to identify isolates of the fungus Beauveria spp. that can control Polyphagotarsonemus latus in the greenhouse and field. Thirty Beauveria spp. isolates were tested by spraying 1 mL conidia (1 × 108 conidia/mL) on pepper leaf discs containing 15 mites. Evaluations were performed on the 3rd and 6th day post application by counting the number of dead mites. Vegetative growth and conidial production were measured from the selected isolates, and bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse on bean seedlings in plastic pots. The isolate Unioeste 53 was selected, and a conidial suspension (1 × 108 conidia/mL) was applied with a backpack sprayer. The evaluation consisted of pre- and post-treatment counts of the number of live mites on ten leaflets in both the plots treated with the fungus and control plots, and the same procedure was followed for the field experiment. In the laboratory, the Unioeste 53 isolate resulted in total and confirmed mortality rates of 70% and 57.7%, respectively. In the greenhouse, the population decreased by 76.71% by the 16th day after application. In the field, the population decreased by 66% by the 12th day after application, demonstrating the potential of this fungus for mite management. PMID:27332672

  3. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  4. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  5. Mass production of fungal entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocrealean fungi encompassing Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Isaria fumosorosea, I. farinosa, several Lecanicillium spp., Nomuraea rileyi, and Metarhizium spp. are being increasingly exploited worldwide for insect pest management because of the ease with which they can be produced in contras...

  6. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  7. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  8. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  9. Evaluation of Some Biocontrol Agents/Antagonistic Microbes Against Pastule Development of Leaf Rust of Wheat Caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici Roberge ex. Desmaz (Erikson and Henn D.M. Henderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sheroze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of five biocontrol agents/antagonistic microbes viz., Verticillium lecanii, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Beauveria bassiana, Cladosporium cladosporiodes and Metarrhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana proved the best in retarding the postulation/rust development in wheats. When the microbes tested alone against leaf rust development, B. bassiana proved excellent and in combination with Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces furnosoroseus. Although there was an increase in colony diameter after 2nd week but the pattern of growth was the same as after one week of incubation of bio-control agents application.

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA and upstream sequence of Bbhsp70 gene from Beauveria bassiana%球孢白僵菌热休克蛋白基因Bbhsp70的cDNA及上游序列克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢翎; 陈红梅; 蒲顺昌; 汤强; 李增智; 黄勃

    2009-01-01

    运用SMART RACE RT-PCR技术与DNA步移技术,首次从球孢白僵菌中克隆出完整的热休克蛋白基因Bbhsp70编码区序列及上游序列.该基因cDNA全长2405bp,5'端非翻译区171bp,3'端非翻译区263bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1971bp,编码656个氨基酸.成熟蛋白理论分子量为71.3kDa,理论等电点为4.92.上游序列长度3559bp,其中有305bp序列与cDNA序列重叠.分析表明,上游序列中没有明显的TAYA-盒和CAAT-盒,但含有CCAAT-binding factor、GC-box等重要的转录因子结合位点,以及热激应答元件(HSE)和GATA元件等启动子顺式调控元件.

  11. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Seok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, KTH-13 with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1, with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop.

  12. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  13. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  14. Inactivation of certain insect pathogens by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-sensitivity of two baculoviruses (granulosis virus, nuclear polyhedrosis virus) and two entomopathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana) was determined by radiation tests. In the far UV (254 nm) the stability, measured at an inactivation rate of 99%, was in declining order: nuclear polyhedra >= conidia of B. bassiana > granula > spores of B. thuringiensis >= vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. In the near UV (285-380 nm) the following order could be found: conidia of B. bassiana >= nuclear polyhedra > spores of B. thuringiensis >= granula > vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. Far UV had a much higher germicidal effect for all pathogens tested than near UV. (orig.)

  15. Susceptibility of entomopathgenic fungi to OMRI certified surfactants for biopesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three entomopathgenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium brunneum,and Isaria fumosorosea were evaluated for their compatibility with six surfactants. The surfactants are certified to comply with the U.S. National organic standards and are permitted to be used in organic production systems. The f...

  16. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  17. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  18. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  19. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, KTH-13) with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1), with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells). Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop. PMID:26819495

  20. New solid-state fermentation chamber for bulk production of aerial conidia of fungal biocontrol agents on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S D; Ying, S H; Chen, C; Feng, M G

    2006-06-01

    A novel solid-state fermentation apparatus, namely an upright multi-tray conidiation chamber, was developed to facilitate the production of aerial conidia of fungal biocontrol agents, such as Beauveria bassiana. The chamber with 25 bottom-meshed metal trays had a capacity of > or =50 kg rice with each tray holding > or =2 kg. In repeated trials, a mean yield of 2.4 (1.8-2.7) x 10(12) conidia kg(-1) rice was harvested from the 7-day cultures of B. bassiana in a fully loaded chamber. The new apparatus has a high potential for bulk production of fungal conidia. PMID:16786244

  1. Integrated pest management and entomopathogenic fungal biotechnology in the Latin Americas: II key research and development prerequisites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this review article (Valencia and Khachatourians, 1998) we presented the special opportunity that entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer for integrated pest management (IPM) in the Latin Americas. As expected, along with the opportunities, there are challenges for the use of EPF. First that there are only two fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for which some prerequisite knowledge of basic and applied mycology for industrial research and development (R and D) are in place. Because of precedent setting leadership in the development of certain EPF, e.g., B. bassiana in IPM, Latin America stands to contribute to and gain from future

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  3. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  4. Telomerase Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Dorothy E Shippen

    2011-01-01

    The intimate connection between telomerase regulation and human disease is now well established. The molecular basis for telomerase regulation is highly complex and entails multiple layers of control. While the major target of enzyme regulation is the catalytic subunit TERT, the RNA subunit of telomerase is also implicated in telomerase control. In addition, alterations in gene dosage and alternative isoforms of core telomerase components have been described. Finally, telomerase localization,...

  5. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  6. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  7. Method To Enhance Growth and Sporulation of Pelletized Biocontrol Fungi †

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, G R; Eschen, D. J.; Dandurand, L. M.; Wang, Z. G.

    1991-01-01

    The biocontrol fungi Trichoderma harzianum, used to control soilborne plant pathogens, and Beauveria bassiana, used to control insect pests, were formulated as mycelial biomass in alginate pellets with wheat bran added. After drying for 0, 4, or 16 h, pellets were placed in water or in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 for 4 to 24 h and then allowed to continue drying. PEG-treated pellets containing T. harzianum showed significantly greater proliferation of hyphae in soil th...

  8. Evolution in biocontrol strains: insight from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    OpenAIRE

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Estoup, Arnaud; Laugier, Guillaume; Loiseau, Anne; Turgeon, Julie; Toepfer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    After being used as a biocontrol agent against aphids for decades without harmful consequences, the Asian harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis has suddenly become an invasive pest on a worldwide scale. We investigate the impact of captive breeding on several traits of this ladybird such as genetic diversity, fecundity, survival and pathogen resistance. We conducted an experiment in the laboratory to compare the fecundity and the susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...

  9. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Sławiński; Danuta Sławińska; Irena Majchrowicz

    2014-01-01

    Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candoll...

  10. S-(−)-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hwa Baek; Jun-Won Ahn; Sung-Hee Nam; Cheol-Sik Yoon; Jae-Cheon Shin; Sang-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME), an insect j...

  11. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Entomopathogenic Fungi against Masked Chafer White Grubs, Cyclocephala spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, ShaoHui

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. megidis) and entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated for efficacy against masked chafer white grub, Cyclocephala spp., under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, as well as their efficacy against various grub stages in the field.  Under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, additive interactions were found between EPN and EPF in their combined application against Cy...

  12. NOISE REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Voican; Constantin Stanescu

    2012-01-01

    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable...

  13. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  14. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors on...... the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine...... stresses. We also describe the ING PTMs that have been identified by several unbiased MS-based PTM enrichment techniques and subsequent proteomic analysis. Among the ING PTMs identified to date, a subset has been characterized for their biological significance and have been shown to affect processes...

  15. Nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, 112 nuclear power plants, 22 facilities that support these plants, 54 reactors used in research, and approximately 23,000 organizations hold licenses from either the Nuclear Regulator Commission or various states to use radioactive material; other facilities are operated by various government agencies. Eventually most of these facilities will be decommissioned, which involves removing the radioactive material and terminating the license. NRC needs to ensure that licensees appropriately decontaminate their facilities because, under current regulations, NRC cannot specifically require additional cleanup once it terminates a license. This paper presents a GAO report on NRC's decommissioning procedures. In two of eight cases GAO reviewed, NRC fully or partially released sites for unrestricted use where radioactive contamination was higher than its guidelines allowed; in the other cases, NRC's information was inadequate or incomplete. Further, NRC lacks information on the types and amounts of radioactive waste buried on-site. At five sites reviewed by GAO, groundwater has been found to be contaminated by radioactive waste

  16. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  17. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. PMID:27131323

  18. Regulations and instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and instructions for operating the RA reactor consist of the following chapters: general regulations with the fundamental RA reactor characteristics, operating regulations and instructions for the personnel on duty, regulations for accidental conditions, training program for the staff of the Laboratory for reactor operation

  19. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  20. Sequential fungal fermentation-biotransformation process to produce a red pigment from sclerotiorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêia Gomes, Dhionne; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2016-11-01

    The fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum produces sclerotiorin, an orange compound closely related to the useful food coloring pigments produced by Monascus species. The high productivity, together with several biological activities reported for sclerotiorin highlights its potential application in food industry. In this work, sclerotiorin was obtained as the major metabolite produced in liquid fermentation by P. sclerotiorum standing for 30% of the fungal dry extract. Modulation of sclerotiorin color was accomplished by biotransformation using Beauveria bassiana generating a red derivative with 13.8% yield. Color modification was caused by fungal-mediated substitution of oxygen by nitrogen in the pyrone ring changing the molecule's chromophore. A derivative, 1-methyl sclerotiorin was synthesized from sclerotiorin using diazomethane and fed to B. bassiana. In this case, substituent at C-1 avoided heteroatom substitution. Sclerotiorin derivatives obtained in the present show the great potential of sclerotiorin derivatives as food colorants. PMID:27211658

  1. Regulating Rho GTPases and their regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Richard G; Ridley, Anne J

    2016-08-01

    Rho GTPases regulate cytoskeletal and cell adhesion dynamics and thereby coordinate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell migration, cell polarity and cell cycle progression. Most Rho GTPases cycle between a GTP-bound active conformation and a GDP-bound inactive conformation to regulate their ability to activate effector proteins and to elicit cellular responses. However, it has become apparent that Rho GTPases are regulated by post-translational modifications and the formation of specific protein complexes, in addition to GTP-GDP cycling. The canonical regulators of Rho GTPases - guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors - are regulated similarly, creating a complex network of interactions to determine the precise spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases. PMID:27301673

  2. Effects of entomopathogenic fungi on different developmental stages of Cotesia flavipes (Cam. a parasitoid of Diatraea flavipennella (Box (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Conceição Matias da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control using the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cam. is one of the main components in the integrated management of the sugarcane moth borer Diatraea spp. Besides this parasitoid, the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. are used to control sugarcane pests, and they can be found naturally parasitizing caterpillars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on different developmental stages of the C. flavipes parasitoid on Diatraea flavipennella (Box. The experiments were carried at laboratory with isolates PL 43 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana were applied to the parasitoid at the immature and adult phases. No negative effects were observed on the larval development of C. flavipes, and it could complete its development on caterpillars of D. flavipennella treated with fungi. The fungi did not cause pupal mortality. However, B. bassiana caused high mortality in the adult parasitoid (76%. The fungi had negative effects on parasitoids when applied during certain developmental stages of C. flavipes.

  3. Comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Kumar, Peeyush; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Patel, Neelam; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-11-15

    In the present study, five fungal strains viz., Aspergillus terreus AML02, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, Beauveria bassiana 4580, Aspergillus terreus PD-17, Aspergillus fumigatus PD-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. Highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (500mg/L) was recorded for A. fumigatus for the metals (Cd, 0.72; Cu, 0.72; Pb, 1.02; Zn, 0.94) followed by B. bassiana for the metals (Cd, 0.56; Cu, 0.14; Ni, 0.29; Zn, 0.85). Next, the strains were exposed to multiple metal mixture (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of various concentrations (6, 12, 18, 30mg/L). Compared to other strains, B. bassiana and A. fumigatus had higher cube root growth (k) constants indicating their better adaptability to multi metal stress. After 72h, multimetal accumulation potential of B. bassiana (26.94±0.07mg/L) and A. fumigatus (27.59±0.09mg/L) were higher than the other strains at initial multimetal concentration of 30mg/L. However, considering the post treatment concentrations of individual metals in multimetal mixture (at all the tested concentrations), A. fumigatus demonstrated exceptional performance and could bring down the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn below the threshold level for irrigation prescribed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). PMID:27497228

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16183-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lfnpq**h*ks*tyr*qnlnwyvnyq*ikscfkfyfssy*kski Frame C: pssplllikqliykfqssefiihqvdlllkmenshsqcifknakdfltannaliyqvvva ilsia...... 36 0.93 3 ( EY072266 ) CAZI10125.fwd CAZI Artemisia annua normalized lea... 34 0.96 3 ( BJ375953 ) Dictyostel...676_4502( AM746676 |pid:none) Sorangium cellulosum 'So ce 56'... 184 2e-70 AP006618_4606( AP006618 |pid:none) Nocardia...aldehyde dehydr... 144 3e-51 DQ767721_1( DQ767721 |pid:none) Beauveria bassiana p...489_898( CP001489 |pid:none) Brucella melitensis ATCC 23457 c... 130 1e-48 CP001026_2110( CP001026 |pid:none) Burkholderia ambifaria

  5. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively le...

  6. USO DE BIOINSECTICIDAS PARA EL CONTROL DE PLAGAS DE HORTALIZAS EN COMUNIDADES RURALES

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano García-Gutiérrez; María Berenice González-Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el uso de bioinsecticidas elaborados a base de hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae y Paecilomyces fumosoroseus); la producción se hizo de manera artesanal en comunidades rurales y se utilizaron para el control de plagas de hortalizas. Los productos fueron formulados con celite® y se usaron a dosis de 240g (1.2x1012 esporas/ha), para el control de plagas sobre plantaciones de lechuga Lactuca sativa L., rábano Rhapanus sativus, cebolla Allium cepa L., re...

  7. Desarrollo de un prototipo de formulación con hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) / Development of a prototype of making with entomopathogenic fungi for management of Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castrillón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Entre los factores que limita la producción en el cultivo de la palma de aceite se encuentra el insecto Demotispa neivai Bondar, el cual ocasiona daños hasta de un 100% en su superficie. Durante el desarrollo de un prototipo de formulación con hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de D. neivai fue necesario evaluar la patogenicidad de tres aislamientos de hongos entomopatógenos en adultos del insecto, utilizando como inóculo dos cepas de Beauveria bassiana (B018, B025), y una de Metarhizium a...

  8. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  9. Stimulation of Armillaria rhizomorph growth by oak root fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one different genera of fungi were isolated from the wood of roots of 5O·year·old oak (Quercus robur. The most frequently isolated fungi were: Mycelium radicis atrovirens alpha (MRAA, Clonostachys sp. and Penicillium daleae, Beauveria bassiana, Clonostachys sp., Cryplosporiopsis rodicicolo, Geotrichum candidum, Mortierella vinacea, MRAA, P. daleae, P. janczewskii P. spinulosum, Sporothrix schenckii and Tolypocladium niveum significantly enhanced Armillaria mellea rhizomorph initiation and growth from oak branch segments in vitro. The biggest stimulation effect was noticed when the dematiaceous hyphomycetes, e.g. MRAA, P. dimorphospora and S. schenckii were studied.

  10. Selection of Native Fungi Strains Pathogenic to Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae Selección de Aislamientos Nativos de Hongos Patogénicos a Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Merino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica F., is considered a serious pest of productive and recreational activities worldwide. A pathogenicity study was carried out with 29 strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and 30 of Beauveria bassiana against worker and male wasps. Wasps of the same age were fed with liquid sugar baits containing 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 suspensions of each strain. The highest mortality and sporulation were obtained with the strains Qu-B941 and Qu-B933 of Beauveria bassiana, reaching 79 and 95% mortality for workers and 66 and 73% for males, respectively. The strains were tested on workers of V. germanica with increasing amounts of bait from 0 to 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1. The results also showed that 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 increased up to 90 and 97% the mortality of workers with Qu-B941 and Qu-B933 strains, respectively.La avispa chaqueta amarilla, Vespula germanica F., es una especie cosmopolita, considerada en muchos países como un problema serio para el desarrollo de actividades productivas y recreativas. Entre las nuevas alternativas para el control de la plaga está el uso de hongos entomopatógenos. Se estudió la patogenicidad de 29 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae y 30 de Beauveria bassiana, sobre obreras y machos de la avispa. La evaluación se realizó sobre adultos de igual edad, administrando dosis de 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 de cada aislamiento, en cebos líquidos azucarados. La mortalidad y esporulación de los aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana Qu-B941 y Qu-B933 fueron significativamente mayores, alcanzando porcentajes de mortalidad de 79 y 95% para obreras y de 66 y 73% para machos, respectivamente. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados en cebos con suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 sobre obreras de V. germanica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que mayores concentraciones de inóculo incrementan significativamente los índices de mortalidad, alcanzando 90 y 97% para Qu-B941 y Qu-B933

  11. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez; Marcos Gerding; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8) conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las compara...

  12. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez S.; Marcos Gerding P.; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7) conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bass...

  13. Natural occurrence and distribution of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi in shahrood region, northeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Derakhshan, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the occurrence of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) in potato, wheat, sugar beet, alfalfa fields and orchards. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and EPF were isolated using Galleria method. Soil pH was rages from 6.8 to 8.1 and soil texture was sandy, loam, sandy- loam, clay and sandy-loam-clay. Soil borne EPF occurred at 78% of soil samples from which 40% Beauveria bassiana, 21% Metarhizium anisopliae and 17% had both species. Occurrence and ...

  14. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium. This is the fi...... first record of entomopathogenic fungi infecting larvae and pupae. Winter mortality due to fungal infection reached 17.9% in adults collected at one location. The larval stage was most susceptible to fungal infection, as confirmed through bioassay with I. farinosa....

  16. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andy G; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette B; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia × europaea crowns between 1 and 13 m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from Tilia × europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occurred as infections in ladybirds. Isaria spp. was most abundant on phylloplanes (mean colony forming units (CFU) per leaf ± SE, 0.33 ± 0.03) followed by Beauveria spp. (0.22 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf) and Lecanicillium spp. (0.19 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf). Densities of inoculum were higher in inner crowns and decreased with height, although Lecanicillium spp. peaked at 5-7 m. Upper phylloplane surfaces harboured higher densities of Isaria spp. and Beauveria spp. than lower surfaces, whereas Lecanicillium spp. was equally distributed. Most prevalent on ladybirds were Isaria spp. (20.6% Harmonia axyridis; 4.8% natives), Lecanicillium spp. (13.6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives), with fewer Beauveria spp. infections (2.6% H. axyridis). Molecular identification revealed Beauveria bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, Isaria farinosa and Lecanicillium muscarium among isolates of both tree and ladybird origin. Tilia × europaea phylloplanes support a diverse assemblage of entomopathogenic fungal species with a different prevalence in coccinellids compared to their relative abundance in this habitat. PMID:27353660

  17. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7 conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 y Qu-B928. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados nuevamente en suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1. Los aislamientos Qu-M558 y Qu-B912, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad sobre la base del cálculo del área bajo la curva del progreso de mortalidad de huevos, 80 y 60%, respectivamente.A pathogenicity study of 64 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and 70 Beauveria bassiana isolates against tomato moth Tuta absoluta eggs, was carried out under laboratory conditions. The first evaluation was accomplished by spraying suspensions of 10(7 conidias mL-1 of each isolate directly on eggs, through a Potter tower. Mortality and conidia production on the eggs were significantly higher with the isolates M. anisopliae Qu-M558 and B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 and Qu-B928. These isolates were newly evaluated using increasing conidia concentrations (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each of the five selected isolates. The isolates Qu-B912 and Qu-M558 produced the highest mortality percentages based on the area under mortality progress curve for each concentration, 80 and 60%, respectively.

  18. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  19. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  20. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised. The Commission has the authority to regulate advertising that delivers health-related information to consumers to ensure that it is not false or misleading. Top of page FDA Regulation and ...

  1. Activists versus Captured Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Daubanes, Julien; Rochet, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the consequences of activism in a regulated industry where the regulator has been captured by the industry. Unlike ordinary economic agents, activists are insensitive to monetary incentives. Moreover, they are less well informed than regulators and their actions generate dead-weight costs. Yet we find that activism may increase social welfare because it disciplines captured regulators and reduces the social cost of imperfect regulatory systems.

  2. Hepcidin: regulation of the master iron regulator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient, is required for many diverse biological processes. The absence of a defined pathway to excrete excess iron makes it essential for the body to regulate the amount of iron absorbed; a deficiency could lead to iron deficiency and an excess to iron overload and associated disorders such as anaemia and haemochromatosis respectively. This regulation is mediated by the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the only known iron export protein, ferroportin (FP...

  3. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  4. Views of the regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dealing with a challenging problem in occupational exposure the nuclear regulator in South Africa concluded that the involvement of stake holders was critical. Valuable lessons were learnt in the process. These related to co-operation amongst regulators, the involvement of regulators in addressing occupational exposure problems, the training of workers by the regulator and the need for technical training of the workers. In general, it was also learnt that regulators should establish mechanisms to measure and continuously improve the satisfaction of their stake holders. (author)

  5. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Regulations for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Safety Codes for Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components were issued by the NNSA in 1995. The Atomic Act and Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Transportation of Radioactive Materials have been finished and submitted to the State Council in 1995. At the same time the NNSA organized a revised collection of regulations on nuclear safety in both Chinese and English, titled 'The Collection of Regulations on Nuclear Safety of the People's Republic of China'. To enhance the implementation of newly issued nuclear safety regulations, the NNSA conducted seven times of propagating activities in relation to the regulations for nuclear pressure retaining components and research reactors design and operating in 1995

  6. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  7. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  8. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica Growth, esporulation and viability of entomopathogenic fungi under mediums with differents Nim oil (Azadirachta indica concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paro Marques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim, e sucessivamente concentrações iguais a ½ da concentração anterior, até C11: 0,0048% de óleo de nim. O óleo de nim reduziu o crescimento de colônias de B. bassiana e P. farinosus, que não diferiram significativamente do controle apenas na concentração C11, mas para M. anisopliae o mesmo efeito foi observado com 0,039% de óleo de nim (C8. A esporulação também foi significativamente reduzida pelo óleo de nim, exceto na concentração C11 para B. bassiana; contudo, não se verificou efeito do óleo na viabilidade de esporos dos fungos.The association of vegetable extracts with entomopathogenic fungi can increase the efficiency of biological control of pests, to reduce costs and environmental impacts. The present work aimed to evaluate, through minimal inibitory concentration, the effect of the neem oil (NIM-I-GO on the growth, esporulation and viability of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus. For this purpose the PDA medium was used containing different concentrations of neem oil (C1: 5% of neem oil, and successively concentrations ½ of the previous concentration, until the concentration C11:0,0048% of neen oil. The neen oil reduced the growth of B. bassiana and P. farinosus, which didn’t differ significantly of the control at the concentration C11. Similar effect was observed for M. anisopliae with 0,039% of neem oil (C8. The esporulation was also significantly reduced by the neem oil

  9. Ecological aspects of a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae population in São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR./ Aspectos ecológicos da população de Cosmopolites sordidus, (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rohde

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar was studied in banana crops (cultivar Nanicão at São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, using roof-tile-like baits, between June/2003 and May/2004. Adults infected by entomopathogenic fungi were recorded, and predators were also found on the baits. A comparative bioassay was carried out between the Beauveria bassiana isolate obtained from the experiment area and from other regions in Brazil against C. sordidus adults. The population peaks of C. sordidus adults occurred in June and July, a period with mild temperatures and low precipitation. The population of C. sordidus larvae, however, was concentrated in December. The insect predators found in the area were insects of the following orders: Coleoptera (Carabidae, Dermaptera (Forficulidae, Hemiptera (Reduviidae, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and spiders of the families Ctenidae, Clubionidae, and Lycosidae, with a population peak two months after the pest population peak. A low number of C. sordidus adults infected by B. bassiana was found, with an annual mean of 0.44%. In the laboratory, the B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic to the insects.Estudou-se a dinâmica populacional de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em cultivo de banana(cultivar Nanicão, em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, através de iscas do tipo telha, entre junho/2003 a maio/2004. Atribuiu-se conceito ao estado de conservação da isca, visando observar sua durabilidade e atratividade. Registraram-se adultos infectados por fungos entomopatogênicos, sendo também encontrados predadores nas iscas. Realizou-se um bioensaio com isolados de Beauveria bassiana da área experimental e de Centros de Pesquisa do Brasil, para avaliar a patogenicidade em C. sordidus. Verificou-se que os picos populacionais de adultos de C. sordidus ocorreram em junho e julho, período de temperaturas amenas e baixas precipitações, enquanto que as larvas foram mais abundantes em dezembro. Os insetos predadores

  10. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  11. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of nuclear safety regulations in 1996 is mainly focused on the preparation of related regulations, and safety guides for nuclear materials control, the reprocessing installations of spent fuels, the treatment and disposal for radioactive waste. The NNSA also assists the departments concerned of the State Council for modification on the 'Atomic Energy Act' (draft) and the' Regulations on the Safety Supervision and Control of Radioactive Materials Transportation' (draft)

  12. Attention in emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelow, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emotion and how to regulate it is a central aspect of modern psychology. Within the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), one issue is how attentional deployment affects emotion regulation and how this can be measured. In task 1, pictures of positive or negative valence were showed in two conditions, either attend or decrease emotional reaction, while participants’ eye movements were followed with an eye tracker. Ratings of arousal and valence were significantly af...

  13. Accounting Regulation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hora, Michal; Chyzevska, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the regulation and organization of accounting in Ukraine under the changes in the national economic system development and impact of IFRS implementation. The system of legal regulation of accounting in Ukraine is presented by five levels, each comprised of a number of corresponding subjects of regulation and documents. Typical Chart of Accounts is evidence of the continental accounting model in Ukraine. The accounting standards provide freedom of choice as ...

  14. Emotional regulation and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccagnini, J.L.; Ruiz-Aranda, D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has been shown that emotional regulation facilitates the establishment and maintenance of social relations (Dodge Garber, 1991; Saarni, 1999). The objective of the present study was to analyze the influence of emotional regulation (Gross y John, 2003) in positive friendship (Berscheid, 2003), specifically at the level of intimacy with friends. In addition, we examined the mediating role of positive emotions in the relationship between the emotional regulation and the leve...

  15. Benchmarking and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publication...

  16. Better Regulation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Jonathan B.

    2006-01-01

    "Better Regulation" is afoot in Europe. After several transatlantic conflicts over regulatory topics such as the precautionary principle, genetically modified foods, and climate change, Europe and America now appear to be converging on the analytic basis for regulation. In a process of hybridization, European institutions are borrowing "Better Regulation" reforms from both the US approach to regulatory review using benefit-cost analysis and from European member states' initiatives on administ...

  17. Emotion-regulation choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesiz

  18. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The applica...

  19. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social and...... environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  20. Regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caen, J P; Han, Z C; Bellucci, S; Alemany, M

    1999-09-01

    After 35 years of research, a physiological regulator of platelet production has been identified and the recombinant protein is available. With the discovery of thrombopoietin (TPO), its potential use in a wide variety of clinical megakaryocytic and platelet disorders has been expected and clinical trials have been undertaken. To date, the reported encouraging pre-clinical studies indicate that, as with erythropoietin or G-CSF, minimal toxicity can be expected. A potential limiting side-effect of TPO could be the induction of thrombosis. Nevertheless, it is too early to know whether this cytokine will be of major therapeutic importance for patients with life-threatening thrombocytopenia, such as patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation or subjected to a high dose of chemotherapy. Several experimental and clinical studies are still needed to determine the efficacy of TPO in the prevention or the amelioration of bleeding, which is the ultimate goal for the appropriate use of cytokines with haemostatic benefit. Basic and clinical studies on regulators of megakaryocytopoiesis have rapidly progressed. Now, there is no doubt that some of these regulators are effective in correcting haematopoietic disorders of various aetiologies. Studies on negative regulators not only are important to understand the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis in normal and pathological states but also have a potential clinical application. Some of these regulators have been shown to be effective in the treatment of essential thrombocythaemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. Platelet factor 4 (PF4) and some other chemokines are also capable of protecting progenitor cells from the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, detailed investigations are still required to determine the precise mechanism(s) of action of these regulators and to establish the optimal clinical protocols of negative regulators alone or in association with positive regulators for the treatment of various

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Responses to Four Different Types of Microorganisms in Bombyx Mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tingcai; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lulin; Wu, Yuqian; Jin, Shengkai; Liu, Chun; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogenic microorganisms have been used to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bombyx mori to infection. However, studies have so far each focused on one microorganism, and systematic genome-wide comparison of transcriptional responses to different pathogenic microorganisms has not been undertaken. Here, we surveyed transcriptional responses of B. mori to its natural bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens, Bacillus bombyseptieus, B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), and Beauveria bassiana, respectively, and to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, by microarray analysis. In total, the expression of 2,436, 1,804, 1,743, and 912 B. mori genes was modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Notably, the expression of 620, 400, 177, or 165 of these genes was only modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, or E. coli, respectively. In contrast to the expression of genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism, that of genes encoding juvenile hormone binding proteins was microorganism-specific. Three basal metabolic pathways were modulated by infection with any of the four microorganisms, and 3, 14, 5, and 2 metabolic pathways were specifically modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Interestingly, BmNPV infection modulated the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, whereas both the Imd and Toll signaling pathways were modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, B. bassiana, or E. coli These results elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of the host response to different microorganisms, and provide a foundation for further work on host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27382132

  2. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  3. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  4. Entomopathogens Isolated from Invasive Ants and Tests of Their Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Miori de Zarzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species cause severe ecological and health impact in urban areas. Many attempts have been tested to control such species, although they do not always succeed. Biological control is an alternative to chemical control and has gained great prominence in research, and fungi and nematodes are among the successful organisms controlling insects. This study aimed to clarify some questions regarding the biological control of ants. Invasive ant species in Brazil had their nests evaluated for the presence of entomopathogens. Isolated entomopathogens were later applied in colonies of Monomorium floricola under laboratory conditions to evaluate their effectiveness and the behavior of the ant colonies after treatment. The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp. and the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces sp. were isolated from the invasive ant nests. M. floricola colonies treated with Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. showed a higher mortality of workers than control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana caused higher mortality of M. floricola workers. However, no colony reduction or elimination was observed in any treatment. The defensive behaviors of ants, such as grooming behavior and colony budding, must be considered when using fungi and nematodes for biological control of ants.

  5. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  6. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  7. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  8. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  9. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  10. Optimal Regulation of Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Marco; Immordino, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We study regulation of the auditing profession in a model where audit quality is unobservable and enforcing regulation is costly. The optimal audit standard falls short of the first-best audit quality, and is increasing in the riskiness of firms and in the amount of funding they seek. The model can encompass collusion between clients and auditors, arising from the joint provision of auditing and consulting services: deflecting collusion requires less ambitious standards. Finally, banning the ...

  11. Restructuring nuclear regulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Mossman, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generati...

  12. Rethinking financial regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Hoenig

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, revolutionary changes in financial markets, combined with incidents such as Barings and Daiwa, have revived concerns about the adequacy of financial regulation. Historically, financial regulatory policy has been driven by the view that to maintain the health of the financial system you must maintain the health of individual institutions.> In light of ongoing changes in financial markets, however, extending the traditional approach to financial market regulation may not work. ...

  13. Supermarkets and Planning Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Rachel; Harmgart, Heike

    2008-01-01

    We are interested in evaluating the impact of restrictive planning regulation on entry into the UK grocery retail industry. We estimate a model similar to Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) where we allow for multiple store formats. We find that more restrictive planning regulation reduces the number of large format supermarkets in equilibrium. However, the impact is overstated if variation in demographic characteristics across markets is not also controlled for. Our estimates suggest that restrictiv...

  14. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  15. Summary of the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prescribes regulations for the international movement of all radioactive materials among member nations. The U.S. governmental agencies regulating the transportation of radioactive materals include the Department of Transportation (DOT), which is responsible for safety in packaging, shipping, carriage, stowage, storage, and handling of all radioactive materials; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which is responsible for (1) safety and safeguards in receipt, possession, use, transfer of by-product, source, and special nuclear materials and (2) safety in packaging of fissile and radioactive materials in quantities exceeding Type A limits, defined in the Code of Federal Regulations; the Energy Research and Development Administration, which is responsible for safety in all aspects of radioactive material transport by its license-exempt contractors; and the Postal Service, which is responsible for safety in shipment by mail. Current regulatory actions involving NRC that may influence the transportation of radioactive materials include the examination of the regulations, legal contests, and the adoption of new regulations. The NRC published a draft of an environmental impact statement on transportation in March 1976 and will conduct a rulemaking proceeding after the final version of the statement is published in the fall. Of the new regulations, the most recent innovations in the IAEA regulations and a quality assurance program of increased rigor are foremost. The two most prominent ideas of the reguations IAEA regulations are the assignment of radiotoxicity values to each radionuclide rather than to grups of radionuclides, providing for increased flexibility in package limits for most radionuclides, and the allowance of small releases from Type B packages under hypothetical accident conditions. The DOT and NRC are in the process of adopting these IAEA revisions

  16. Financial Regulation Going Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Allen; Elena Carletti

    2010-01-01

    The financial sector is heavily regulated in order to prevent financial crises. The recent crisis showed how ineffective this regulation and other types of government intervention were in achieving this aim. We argue that the crisis was primarily caused by housing price bubbles. These occurred because of too loose monetary policies and the easy availability of credit resulting from the build up of large foreign exchange reserves by Asian central banks. A number of regulatory reforms are sugge...

  17. On Globalisation of Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Wessels

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the opinion that financial regulation should be dealt with on a national, and not on a global scale is criticised. The objections against global regulation are discussed and dismissed. The greater good of a solid global system is inconsistent with maintaining the full force of national social or economic policies. Bob Wessels submits that the best way forward is to look for (a combination of the best methods of regulation on the basis of geography, the nature of regulation itself (hard law, best practices, guidelines, the function of certain rules in relation to the goals or the expectations they aim to address and the character of these rules. A parallel is drawn with the way in which cross-border insolvencies are regulated, including solutions from practitioners in the global insolvency of Lehman Brothers Group of Companies. Given the essential role courts play the presence of new rules of the international insolvency should be supported by more robust rules for the cross-border judicial coordination of cross-border cases, such as a convention. The body of financial regulation should be guided by international accepted principles and guidelines and international regulation and national implementation should reflect a balance between what is necessary in the light of the past events, while still leaving room for fair national demands and policies. The allocation of clear responsibility and authority to regulating bodies should warrant an efficient and effective answer for what, at the core, is a global problem, related to international financial markets.

  18. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Michael; Gillanders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively affects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is con- trolled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulati...

  19. The regulator's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker recalls the task of regulators in establishing criteria and standards and assessing and controlling their fulfillment, as well as the fact that there are many types of radiological regulators, depending on their targets, structures, level of independence, and others. She also stresses that regulators take the environment presently into account to protect people as far as ionising radiation is concerned, that is, environmental protection is provided by present regulations, although implicitly based on an anthropocentric focus. In this sense, there is a clear need to develop a framework for the protection of environment, on the basis of the evolution of the present system. There is a preference for a unique, coherent, timely, integrated and manageable radiological human and environment protection system, which has to be developed internationally. Such an enhanced environmental protection framework needs of clearly defined specific 'bricks' (principles/criteria/tools). Regulators will face important challenges in adapting to an integrated man/environment protection framework, and need to act nationally in the meantime to fulfill obligations, as well as actively encourage international initiatives. A proposal on a radiological environmental framework is laid down, and finally she states the overall regulators viewpoint on this process: 'The path towards pragmatism and credibility'. (author)

  20. Regulating energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sector-based regulation takes on significant importance in the context of market liberalization. The overall aim is to conciliate, in the considered sector, fair competition with the achievement of public service missions. However, the nature of the authority in charge of this regulation is not prone to harmonized clauses, even in Europe. For electricity for example, the 96/92/CE directive of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the inner electricity market, does not state this and Germany, which has not designed any sector-based regulator, applies the general procedure of litigation settlement by the equivalent of the competition Council. In France, the law Nr 2000-108 of 10 February 2000 defines the CRE (Electricity Regulation Commission) is article 28 as including six members, three of which are appointed by Government and the three others respectively by each of the presidents of the parliamentary assemblies. Many other countries have made the same choice. However, the scope of the missions given to these specialized authorities varies considerably according to the country. At European level, what are the different models of organisation of sector-based regulation in the energy field? How are the new regulators organised in relation with the competition authorities? Will the new models converge on the medium term or on the long term? Must we anticipate the creation of European regulation authorities to rule the problems concerning several national markets? What can we learn from the recent electricity crisis in California? To try and answer these questions, Mr Michel Matheu presented a European comparative study and before the debate started, Mr Pierre Couveinhes suggested a reflection on the practical implications of the analyses carried out. (authors)

  1. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  2. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  3. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...... (GCG) gene encoding GLP-1 and GLP-2 and expression of the gene SCD1 encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1); which is involved in the formation of triacylglycerol (TAG); was studied in piglets supplemented with W8 for two weeks. To study the acute effect of W8 on appetite regulation, glycemic...

  4. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  5. ANTICIPATING AND REGULATING BIOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Iorga Siman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating biosystems closely related to human beings are structures still difficult to understand.Numerous intimate processes taking place in these systems, even their actual constitution, are insufficiently decoded, and that they have populated the world long before man invented the first regulator, appears not to have contributed much to their knowledge. This work is intended to highlight what regulating biosystems are.There is no secret that somatic muscles perform control operations which no act of moving would be possible without. All actions are the result of dynamic controlled processes adjusted to strict control laws. By treating them very seriously may lead to knowledge of processes occurring in complex systems

  6. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  7. Regulation as Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Györy, Csaba

    This paper analyses the way regulatory agencies strategically use public ‘rhetoric’ and ‘management of appearance’ to strengthen their regulation. It reports a comparative study of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which is the US federal securities regulator and the Danish Tax and...... environment, these two agencies apply strategies that appear to be strikingly similar, and these similarities are worth investigating not despite, but exactly because of the differing political and social environment. We track recent shifts in organizational practice at these two agencies and argue that both...

  8. Nuclear regulation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed

  9. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  10. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  11. Regulation, Competition, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad Javed

    2002-01-01

    You know it is very hard after the Governor, State Bank, to make a presentation but I will try to do it in a very mundane way. You know the Regulatory Bodies specially in the Economic Sector in recent times. There has been a sort of resurgence, leaving aside the regulation of the financial sector, which has been doing very well. Our old memory of regulation is not so pleasant. Long ago, there used to be a transport Authority which used to dole out “Route Permits” as political favours, and the...

  12. Cyberplagiarism in University Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cavanillas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the legal framework for plagiarism, and its twofold nature of illicit appropriation (from the author of the plagiarized work and fraud (with regard to the target audience of the plagiarism. Based on these premises, academic cyberplagiarism is analysed as a form of plagiarism carried out using electronic tools in the university setting. The question of responsibility (who can regulate the legal consequences of plagiarism? before and after the Ley Orgánica de Universidades (organic law on universities, LOU is studied, as is the disciplinary handling of cyberplagiarism with the limited regulations currently in place at universities.

  13. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  14. Diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales in soil and phylloplanes of five Mediterranean cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Fernández-Bravo, María; Campos, Carlos; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales from the soil and phylloplanes in five Mediterranean cropping systems with different degrees of management [organic olive orchard conventional olive orchard, holm oak reforestation, holm oak dehesa (a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system), and sunflower plantation] was studied during four seasons. A total of 697 entomopathogenic fungal isolates were obtained from 272 soil samples, 1608 crop phylloplane samples and 1368 weed phylloplane samples. The following nine species were identified: Beauveria amorpha, B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, B. varroae, Metarhizium brunneum, M. guizhoense, M. robertsii, Paecilomyces marquandii and lilacinum using EF-1α gene sequences. All the fungal entomopathogenic species were found in both the soil and phylloplane samples, with the exception of M. robertsii, which was only isolated from the soil. The species richness, diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) and evenness (Pielou index) were calculated for each cropping system, yielding the following species ranking, which was correlated with the crop management intensity: holm oak reforestation>organic olive orchard>conventional olive orchard>holm oak dehesa>sunflower plantation. The number of fungal species isolated was similar in both phylloplane habitats and dissimilar between the soil and the crop phylloplane habitats. The ISSR analysis revealed high genotypic diversity among the B. bassiana isolates on the neighbourhood scale, and the isolates were clustered according to the habitat. These results suggest that the entomopathogenic Hypocreales in the phylloplane could result from the dispersal of fungal propagules from the soil, which might be their habitat of origin; a few isolates, including EABb 09/28-Fil of Beauveria bassiana, inhabit only the phylloplane. PMID:26146223

  15. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  16. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012). ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. International telecommunications market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 23 February 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred international telecommunic-ations market regulation for inquiry and report within six months. The report focused on the reform of international telecommunications markets, in particular on the payment arrangements between providers of international telecommunications services.

  18. Regulation after Bush

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn Robert; Passell Peter

    2008-01-01

    Barack Obama and John McCain have staked out very different positions on serious questions involving economic regulation everything from housing finance to alternative energy mandates but practical considerations will dissolve many of these differences, according to Robert Hahn and Peter Passell.

  19. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  20. Jordan Corporate Governance Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Institute of Directors

    2013-01-01

    As the importance of Corporate Governance increases, an awareness and understanding of the different relevant regulations becomes of paramount value. The importance and value of Corporate Governance is not the core of this publication. The publication is built around the premise that Corporate Governance is important and increasingly becoming of significant importance for growth, continued...

  1. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  2. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  3. Regulating the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Byron

    2007-01-01

    The Internet's breakthrough to primetime usage beginning in the mid-1990s evolved in an era of openness. Unfettered access seemed key to Internet development. An important foundation for the 1996 Telecommunications Act was the theory that the telecom industry would work best if it were free of government regulation, a guiding principle that has…

  4. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  5. Regulating emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The presentation is designed for individuals who are involved in therapeutic administration of radioactive material and the implementation of the radiation safety programme. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has regulatory authority over the medical use of by-product material and the radiation from by-product material. The presentation will address how the NRC regulates new medical uses (i.e. emerging technologies) used in radiation oncology that are too new to be covered in the current regulations. NRC's process that allows licensees to get approved for these emerging technologies until regulations are promulgated for the new modalities will be described. The presentation will also cover NRC's reporting requirements for medical events and other radiation safety-related incidents. Some examples of errors that have occurred for these new NRC-regulated activities will be provided. The root causes in these events will be identified to prevent similar additional incidents from occurring in other facilities performing the same type of therapy. (author)

  6. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  7. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  8. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  9. Ochratoxin A Management in Vineyards by Lobesia botrana Biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape berries attacked by Lobesia botrana larvae are more easily infected by Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli ochratoxigenic species. Two-year field trials were carried out in Apulia (Italy to evaluate a bioinsecticide control strategy against L. botrana and the indirect effect on reducing ochratoxin A (OTA contamination in vineyards. A commercial Bacillus thuringiensis formulate and an experimental Beauveria bassiana (ITEM-1559 formulate were tested in two vineyards cultivated with the same grape variety, Negroamaro, but with two different training systems (espalier and little-arbor techniques. In both years and training systems the treatments by B. bassiana ITEM-1559 significantly controlled L. botrana larvae attacks with effectiveness similar to B. thuringensis (more than 20%. A significant reduction of OTA concentrations (up to 80% compared to untreated controls was observed only in the first year in both training systems, when the metereological parameters prior to harvest were more favorable to the insect attack. Results of field trials showed that B. bassiana ITEM-1559 is a valid bioinsecticide against L. botrana and that grape moth biocontrol is a strategy to reduce OTA contamination in vineyard in seasons with heavy natural infestation.

  10. Control of the Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae with entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRF Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, considered a worldwide pest in the poultry industry, is difficult to control and it is a vector for pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control of the lesser mealworm, by strains of fungi Beauveria bassiana, Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. Larvae and adults of the A. diaperinus were inoculated with suspensions of conidia in the concentration of 10(7 conídia.mL-1. The B. bassiana isolate caused higher insect mortality as compared to Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. isolates, with the larvae being more susceptible than adults. The entomopathogenicity of B. bassiana was further evaluated with 200 larvae and 200 adults of A. diaperinus inoculated with suspensions 10(6, 10(7, and 10(8 conidia.mL-1, and observed for ten days. Larvae mortality started at the fourth day at the lowest concentration, and the adult mortality was only observed on the sixth day at the concentration of 10(8 conidia.mL-1.

  11. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutse, Komivi S; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  12. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  13. Selection of Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi and the Bioefficacy of Their Liquid Production against Leptocorisa oratorius Nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HERLINDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are fungi pathogenic to insects and are widely used as biocontrol agents for insect pests. The aim of this research was to study the virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium sp. isolates and to evaluate the efficacy of liquid production of those fungi against Leptocorisa oratorius (rice bug. Twelve isolates of B. bassiana and five isolates of Metarhizium sp. were used in this research. Selection result of B. bassiana isolates on third-instar rice bug nymphs showed that the isolate KBC caused the highest mortality rate (93%, while the lowest (46% was caused by the isolate BBY 725. The shortest time needed to produce 50% mortality (Lethal time, LT50 was 3.52 days (isolate KBC. The longest time (10.36 days was produced by isolate SLSS. The mortality of rice bug nymphs caused by Metarhizium isolates was only 50-62%. The shortest LT50 of Metarhizium (5.75 days was produced by isolate Mtm, while the longest (7.46 days was produced by isolate Mpx. Bioefficacy tests on six kinds of liquid formations of entomopathogenic fungi indicated that all were effective, mostly with LT50 d” two days. The mortality rates of rice bug nymphs caused by bioefficacy of fungus liquid production was generally above 85% up to 100%. The liquid media for entomopathogenic fungi performed better compared with solid media (SDA, as indicated by the greater mortality rate and shorter LT50.

  14. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  15. Inconsistent Regulators: Evidence From Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; David Lucca; Amit Seru; Francesco Trebbi

    2012-01-01

    US state chartered commercial banks are supervised alternately by state and federal regulators. Each regulator supervises a given bank for a fixed time period according to a predetermined rotation schedule. We use unique data to examine differences between federal and state regulators for these banks. Federal regulators are significantly less lenient, downgrading supervisory ratings about twice as frequently as state supervisors. Under federal regulators, banks report higher nonperforming loa...

  16. Regulating the private security industry

    CERN Document Server

    Percy, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The under-regulation of the private security industry has increasingly become a topic of media and academic interest. This Adelphi Paper enters the debate by explaining why the industry requires further regulation, and what is wrong with the current system. It begins by briefly defining the industry and explaining the need for more effective regulation, before analysing three types of regulation: domestic, international and informal (including self-regulation).

  17. Leadership and the Independent Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jamison, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Being a utility regulator has perils because the independence of the regulator necessarily removes power from politicians, operators, and others. Furthermore, regulators are sometimes scapegoats for unpopular policies and unavoidably become involved in shaping the policies that they are supposed to implement. As a result of such frictions, regulators are sometimes removed from office or marginalized in some way. How can regulators not only survive in such an environment, but also thrive? Jami...

  18. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a...... large extent are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation......Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...

  19. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  20. Volume Regulation in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared to...... amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...

  1. Auditing and Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pettinicchio, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Effective financial reporting has become of critical importance in our economic markets and the international accounting scandals of the last decades have accentuated the role of auditing in protecting stakeholders' interests and contributing to an efficient functioning of financial markets. Auditing regulation has been at the centre of recent international debates (e.g. EU Green paper; 2010) and different regulatory interventions have been put in place in different countries and in different...

  2. POTENT REGULATORS OF METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Yang, Kryscilla Jian Zhang; Lee, Seung-Ah; Yuen, Jason J.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its analogs) are highly potent regulators of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of these activities, retinoids have been most extensively studied in the contexts of embryonic development and of proliferative diseases, especially cancer and skin disease. Recently, there has been considerable new research interest focused on gaining understanding of the roles that retinoids and/or retinoid-related proteins may have in the development of met...

  3. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  4. Regulating hate speech online

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2010-01-01

    The exponential growth in the Internet as a means of communication has been emulated by an increase in far-right and extremist web sites and hate based activity in cyberspace. The anonymity and mobility afforded by the Internet has made harassment and expressions of hate effortless in a landscape that is abstract and beyond the realms of traditional law enforcement. This paper examines the complexities of regulating hate speech on the Internet through legal and technological frameworks. It ex...

  5. Iron regulation by hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulati...

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  7. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a tax/subsidy on hunters based on game population. The tax/subsidy is the difference between actual and optimal population multiplied by an individual, variable tax rate. The tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference between the marginal value of the game...... population to the hunter and the regulator and differences in user costs of the population. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum....

  8. Cyberplagiarism in University Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Cavanillas

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the legal framework for plagiarism, and its twofold nature of illicit appropriation (from the author of the plagiarized work) and fraud (with regard to the target audience of the plagiarism). Based on these premises, academic cyberplagiarism is analysed as a form of plagiarism carried out using electronic tools in the university setting. The question of responsibility (who can regulate the legal consequences of plagiarism?) before and after the Ley Orgánica de Universidad...

  9. Fibronectin Mechanobiology Regulates Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Karin; Seo, Bo Ri; Fischbach, Claudia; Gourdon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) is an essential extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein involved in both physiological and pathological processes. The structure–function relationship of Fn has been and is still being studied, as changes in its molecular structure are integral in regulating (or dysregulating) its biological activities via its cell, matrix component, and growth factor binding sites. Fn comprises three types of repeating modules; among them, FnIII modules are mechanically unstable domains that...

  10. Beyond State Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Madanat, Philip; Pies, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Holding the news media accountable has traditionally been a task of the state in Jordan. Media laws and regulations are numerous and do not leave too much space for self-regulatory practices on a national basis. The Jordan Press Association (JPA) is the core of so-called established media accountability institutions. It conducted a law-like code of ethics in 2003 and runs ombuds committees (currently three) dealing with mishaps of the media to prevent journalists from legal liability. Thou...

  11. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  12. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  13. Taiwan Regulation of Biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chien-Te; Hung, Tzu-Hsun; Yeh, Chan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in Taiwan. At first, we briefly describe Taiwan's population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of Taiwan including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, "Taiwan Biobank" is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, data, and biological specimen of biobanks often involve highly sensitive personal information, in the legal framework of Taiwan, there is a specific regulation, "Human Biobank Management Act" (HBMA), which plays an important role in regulating biobanks in Taiwan. HBMA, the Personal Information Act and other regulations constitute a comprehensive legal and regulatory privacy framework of biobanks. Through the introduction and analysis of the current legal framework applicable to biobanks, we found that there are several challenges that need to be solved appropriately that involve duplicate review systems, the obstacles in the international collaboration, and data sharing between biobanks in Taiwan. PMID:26711420

  14. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets. PMID:22345253

  15. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  16. Nuclear regulation in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key prerequisite to the development of a nuclear program to provide a country's electricity is that governments and the public are confident that a nuclear accident 'will not occur' over the whole life of the program. This can only be achieved by three elements being equally strong: an excellent design, a highly competent and safety conscious operator, and a strong competent regulator with appropriate legal powers. This paper will outline what is necessary to achieve the third of these prerequisites. It will outline the principles by which a Regulatory Agency ensures that licensees meet their responsibility for the safety of their nuclear plant, based on both internationally accepted ideas, the Nuclear Safety Convention, and Canadian practice. The paper will cover legislative principles -- what to include in legislation, what to include in regulations, and what to include in standards and guides. The problem of 'prescriptive requirements' versus 'general performance statements' in regulations will be addressed, and the implications of this problem on ensuring licensees retain responsibility for safety, and on licensees' desire for a high degree of certainty in what is expected of them, both to get a licence and to keep it, in today's economic climate. The paper will also address compliance and the differences between the lawyers' definition of compliance (meeting specific requirements defined by law) and the nuclear safety engineers' view of compliance, (meeting commitments made at the time a licence was given), and how these views can be reconciled. The paper will discuss how Canada's new Nuclear Safety and Control Act has addressed some of these issues, and how the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is implementing the new Act. The issue of transfer of regulatory programs and technology to the regulatory agencies of countries buying a nuclear plant from Canadian companies will be discussed, and examples given of how this has been accomplished to the benefit of

  17. Situated bio-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, both authors engaged in research into bioscience and biomedical regulation in Asian countries. One of us (BP) explored why the regulatory and discursive embedding of human embryonic stem cell in Israel was much more permissive than elsewhere. The other author (AW) sought to und...... case studies meant bringing what we call ‘ethnographic sensibility’ to our research. This paper discusses the implications of this approach, which often entails rendering visible the contradictions and ‘disorders’ in what seems coherent and orderly....

  18. Regulering og simulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    Dette notat er primært udarbejdet til brug i undervisningen i kurset Energisystemer og Regulering pa civilingeniørlinien lndeklima og Energiøkonomi på Aalborg Universitet, hvilket naturligvis sætter sit spor bade i omfang og udvælgelse af emner. Hensigten er at give en introduktion til det teoret...... teoretiske grundlag for reguleringsteknikken samtidig med en indføring i simulering af dynamiske systemer, således at læseren får en rimelig forståelse af dynamiske systemers virkemåde og karakteristika....

  19. Ionising radiations regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (UK) Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 come into force on 1.1.86 with supporting Approved Code of Practice. They are discussed under the headings: introduction; notifications to start work with ionising radiations; dose limitation (ALARP -as low as reasonably practicable); designation of controlled and supervised areas; Radiation Protection Advisers to be appointed by employers; Local Rules; Radiation Protection Supervisors to be appointed by employers from among employees; instruction and training; dosimetry and medical surveillance; control of radioactive substances; radiation monitoring; assessment of hazards; articles and equipment. (U.K.)

  20. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  1. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    multiplied by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good...... of the individual harvest. However, information about the individual harvest may be costly to obtain. Thus, we may have to look for alternatives to the existing system. This paper proposes a population tax/subsidy as an alternative which is the difference between the actual and optimal population...

  2. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  3. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  4. REGULATION OF VASCULOGENESIS AND ANGIOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.B.D. AbbottReproductive Toxicology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by a complex, interactive family of receptors and lig...

  5. Self-Regulation in School

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Successful self-regulation depends on the ability to regulate the self both motivationally and emotionally in order to protect the self and the learning process against competing personal needs as well as situational distractions. Successful self-regulation further requires students to adequately use metacognitive and cognitive learning strategies to organize the learning process efficiently. The studies presented in this dissertation focus on students' strategies for regulating themselves in...

  6. Mergers in Regulated Industries: Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis W. Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Mergers in any industry can raise complicated questions about the elimination of competition and the achievement of efficiencies. Mergers in regulated industries such as electricity raise even more complicated issues as the analyst needs to grapple with the constraining effects of regulation, multiple levels of regulation, the ability to evade regulation, and the desire for efficiency. This paper discusses the electricity industry in general and one particular electricity merger that the U.S....

  7. Strategic Behaviour under Regulation Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Nillesen, Paul; Michael G. Pollitt

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of generation and supply activities in the electricity sectors is often followed by regulatory reform of distribution networks. In order to improve the efficiency of distribution utilities, some regulators have adopted incentive regulation schemes that rely on performance benchmarking. Although regulation benchmarking can influence the ?regulation game?, the subject has received limited attention. This paper discusses how strategic behaviour can result in inefficient behav...

  8. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  9. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  10. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  11. Regulation as delegation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the conception of reverse delegation when the government acts a principal and an individual ndash an agent from the point of view of behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory. Methods statistical method sociological polling. Results In diverse areas ndash from retirement savings to consumer credit to prescription drug use to fuel economy and energy efficiency rules to tobacco consumption to food and beverage consumption ndash government makes decisions for us or endeavors to help us make better decisions thus serving as our agent. From the point of view of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory a great deal of modern regulation can be helpfully evaluated as a hypothetical delegation. Shifting from personal decisions to public goods problems the authors view the idea of reverse delegation with the government as principal and the individuals as agents. They show that the essence of delegation changes depending on the context. The article describes conditions under which various approaches will make sense. Scientific novelty the paper is devoted to the foreign experience of regulation through delegation by the example of a country with developed market economy the USA. It shows the prospects of such approach in solving both the public and the private tasks. Application of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory is viewed to distinguish between such types of hypothetical delegation as information default rules incentives precommitments mandates and prohibitions. The article considers the benefits and costs of delegation and circumstances in which one or another approach makes sense. Practical significance PrincipalAgent Theory is widely used in economics and political science and can serve as a convenient tool to consider the optimal scale and essence of the assistance rendered to us by the government as our agent. The paper is of interest for the Russian legal science as the institution of

  12. A pressure regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for regulating the pressure of a gas in a glove box comprises a resiliently biassed pressure sensitive diaphragm and a spool valve operable by deflection of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is arranged to be exposed on one side to atmospheric pressure and on the other side to the pressure of the gas in the glove box, and the spool valve is used to control simultaneously the rates at which gas is pumped in and out of the glove box. The valve spool has two axially spaced circumferential grooves A, B which provide communication between conduits C, D and E, F respectively, the flow control along each path being effected by means of apertures in a sleeve within which the spool slides. (author)

  13. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna;

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a...... fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  14. Views of the regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to remember what the concept and objective of optimization are and the role of dose constraints. In relation to exposures from any particular source within a practice, radiation protection shall be optimized so that the magnitude of individual doses, except for therapeutic medical exposures, the number of exposed people and the likelihood of incurring exposures will all be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account, within the restriction that the dose to individuals delivered by the source be subject to dose constraints. Dose constraints and dose limits to occupational exposures are necessary since the workers are not the direct beneficiaries of the exposures and the optimization procedures based on collective doses could result in inequities. The dose constraint has the secondary function of ensuring that the sum of the doses that an individual received from different practices to which the individual can be exposed does not exceed the dose limit. Before discussing co-operation, it is fundamental to provide a description of the role and responsibilities of the regulatory authority, employers and workers. The role and responsibilities of the regulatory authority in establishing regulations, granting authorizations, undertaking inspections, ensuring enforcement, and dealing with accidents and emergencies are set by the national legislation. To achieve this objective, the licensee is required to use, to the extent practicable, procedures and engineering controls that are based upon sound radiation protection and safety principles. The regulations establish that the licensees and employers of workers who are engaged in activities that involve or could involve occupational exposure shall be responsible for the protection of these workers against any occupational exposure that is not excluded from regulatory control

  15. TFEB regulates lysosomal proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wensi; Wang, Fan; Savini, Marzia; Ake, Ashley; di Ronza, Alberto; Sardiello, Marco; Segatori, Laura

    2013-05-15

    Loss-of-function diseases are often caused by destabilizing mutations that lead to protein misfolding and degradation. Modulating the innate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) capacity may lead to rescue of native folding of the mutated variants, thereby ameliorating the disease phenotype. In lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a number of highly prevalent alleles have missense mutations that do not impair the enzyme's catalytic activity but destabilize its native structure, resulting in the degradation of the misfolded protein. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity enables rescuing the native, biologically functional structure of these unstable mutated enzymes. However, proteostasis modulators specific for the lysosomal system are currently unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function, in modulating lysosomal proteostasis in LSDs. We show that TFEB activation results in enhanced folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of a severely destabilized glucocerebrosidase (GC) variant associated with the development of Gaucher disease (GD), the most common LSD. TFEB specifically induces the expression of GC and of key genes involved in folding and lysosomal trafficking, thereby enhancing both the pool of mutated enzyme and its processing through the secretory pathway. TFEB activation also rescues the activity of a β-hexosaminidase mutant associated with the development of another LSD, Tay-Sachs disease, thus suggesting general applicability of TFEB-mediated proteostasis modulation to rescue destabilizing mutations in LSDs. In summary, our findings identify TFEB as a specific regulator of lysosomal proteostasis and suggest that TFEB may be used as a therapeutic target to rescue enzyme homeostasis in LSDs. PMID:23393155

  16. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  17. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  18. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  19. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  20. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The topics of regulation and risk assessment of nanomaterials have never been more relevant and controversial in Europe than they are at this point in time. In this entry, we present and discuss a number of major pieces of legislation relevant for the regulation of nanomaterials, including REACH...... Foods Regulation. Chemical risk assessment provides a fundamental element in support of existing legislation. Risk assessment is normally said to consist of four elements, i.e., hazard identification, dose–response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Each of these four elements......, the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment...

  1. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  2. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  3. Self-Regulated Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, I T; Shapiro, P R; Pen, U L; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Shapiro, Paul R.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have presented the first large-scale radiative transfer simulations of reionization. Here we present new simulations which extend the source halo mass range downward to 10^8M_solar, to capture the full range of halo masses thought to be primarily responsible for reionization by their star formation following atomic hydrogen radiative cooling and gravitational collapse. Haloes below about 10^9M_solar, however, are subject to Jeans-mass filtering in the ionized regions, which suppresses their baryonic content and their ability to release ionizing radiation. By including these smaller-mass haloes but accounting for their suppression, too, we find that reionization is ``self-regulating,'' as follows. As the mean ionized fraction rises, so does the fraction of the volume within which suppression occurs. Hence, the degree of suppression is related to the mean ionized fraction. Since low-mass haloes with high emissivity achieve a given mean ionized fraction earlier than do those with low efficiency, Jea...

  4. Between regulation and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article stresses, first, on the differences between electricity and gas in terms of storability and place of production before introducing the gas sector and its reorganization and re-structuration in the framework of energy markets deregulation. Then, it presents the actions carried out by the commission of energy regulation (CRE) intended to improve the operation of the gas market: improvement of transparency, incitation to invest in transportation infrastructures, organisation of the downstream market and development of regional gas markets. Since July 1, 2007, the opening of gas market is juridically and technically complete. The role of CRE is also to inform the consumers and to warrant a non-discriminatory access to infrastructures in a context of sound competition. On this point, the new situation is satisfactory but improvements are needed to increase the offer. The future objectives of CRE is to maintain a climate favorable to investments, to implement stable and efficient conditions of access to infrastructures and, finally, to regularly work at the European scale for the building up of a domestic gas market synonymous of security of supplies, sustainable development and competitiveness. (J.S.)

  5. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Simpson Prescott

    2004-01-01

    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  6. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions

  7. Regulations on Open Government Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 24, 2007 the State Council promulgated Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Open Government Information (referred to as Regulations below), which will become effective on May 1, 2008. As the first administrative rule of the central government of China that aims to safeguard the public's right to know, the Regulations are of great significance in China's democratization and its establishment of the rule of law.

  8. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  9. Strategic automation of emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger-Gallo, Inge; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i...

  10. Uniform Practical Nonlinear Output Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Praly, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of asymptotic and practical semiglobal regulation by output feedback for nonlinear systems. A key feature of the proposed approach is that practical regulation is achieved uniformly with respect to the dimension of the internal model and to the gain of the stabilizer near the zero error manifold. This property renders the approach interesting for a number of real cases by bridging the gap between output regulation t...

  11. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Lakka Klement, Giannoula; Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor...

  12. The next restructuring: Environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From oil, to natural gas, and now electricity, the regulation of energy markets has been successively restructured to allow greater scope to market forces. The likely next domain for restructuring, environmental regulation, may seem far-fetched now, but it is no more so than the restructuring of electric utility regulation would have seemed to be twenty years ago. The grand experiment with emissions trading under the US acid rain program has set a propitious example by showing that markets in environmental goods can be constructed and that the explicit recognition of property rights in the use of the environment is compatible with effective and non-intrusive environmental regulation

  13. Utility regulation and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: 1. The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in England and Wales: A Review - David Currie, 2. A Critique of Rail Regulation - Dieter Helm, 3. Moving to a Competitive Market in Water - Colin Robinson, 4. The New Gas Trading Arrangements - George Yarrow, 5. A Review of Privatization and Regulation Experience in Britain - Irwin M. Stelzer, 6. Converging Communications: Implications for Regulation - Mark Armstrong, 7. Opening European Electricity and Gas Markets - Graham Shuttleworth, 8. Concurrency or Convergence? Competition and Regulation Under the Competition Act 1998 - Tom Sharpe QC, 9. Ten Years of European Merger Control - Paul Seabright. (Author)

  14. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  15. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  16. Views of the regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) offers its recommendations to regulatory and advisory bodies and provides advice to help management and professional staff with responsibility for radiation protection. The ICRP has no formal power to impose its proposals. However, legislation and regulations in most countries adhere closely to ICRP recommendations. The recommendations of the ICRP are based upon the fundamental principles and quantitative bases upon which appropriate radiation protection measures can be established. The radiation protection system recommended by the ICRP in its Publication 60 is based upon: (a) Justification principle: A practice or an activity that involves ionizing radiation exposure is justified if the anticipated benefit is greater than the risk incurred. (b) Optimization principle: All exposures from justified practices shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account. (c) Individual dose and risk limits: Individual doses resulting from all relevant practices shall be subject to dose limits and risk limits in cases where potential exposures are likely. To manage risks, three levels are usually distinguished: unacceptable risk, tolerable risk and acceptable risk. The aim of radiation protection is to reduce the radiation exposure level to below that designated as having unacceptable risk. When radiation protection is optimized, the residual risk level becomes acceptable. Any additional measure is ineffective both from economic and social points of view. Regulatory limits adopted from ICRP recommendations are set such that continued exposure at a dose just above the limit would be unacceptable on any reasonable ground. Continued exposure at a level just below the dose limit might be tolerated but would not be welcome. Acceptable doses are those that are below the limit. Individual doses are only acceptable if they are optimized

  17. Regulating Pornography: A Public Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward sex and pornography by means of a telephone survey of Dane County, Wisconsin, adults. Describes survey questions about sexual attitudes, perceived effects of pornography, and pornography regulation. Concludes that adults who feel more strongly that pornography has negative effects are more opposed to its regulation. (SG)

  18. The economics of bank regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sudipto; Arnoud W.A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to survey and synthesize the literature on the regulation of financial intermediaries, including the theoretical framework and also the applied literature on specific regulations such as deposit insurance, capital controls, line of business restrictions, etc.

  19. Environmental awareness, legislations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief review of environmental awareness, legislation and regulation policies adopted in Indian nuclear power programme. Brief account of environmental legislations in India, water act, air act, environmental protection act, regulations pertaining to accidents, constitutional procedures, regulatory frame work for the protection of the environment from ionizing radiation are also discussed. (author)

  20. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  1. Assessing self-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Stok, Marijn;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questio...

  2. Splicing regulators: targets and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Gene Wei-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Silencing of splicing regulators by RNA interference, combined with splicing-specific microarrays, has revealed a complex network of distinct alternative splicing events in Drosophila, while a high-throughput screen of more than 6,000 compounds has identified drugs that interfere specifically and directly with one class of splicing regulators in human cells.

  3. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  4. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  5. Strategic automation of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed. PMID:19210061

  6. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  7. The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish experience holds a relatively important position in the field of the decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Nuclear facilities are subject to a system of prior authorization by the competent authorities before they come into service and to subsequent regulation and control during their operating life. Nuclear and radioactive facilities that stop operating, for technical or financial reasons or because they are compelled to, remain subject to this regulatory control system as long as the competent authorities consider that their residual radioactivity represents a potential source of radiological hazard to the individuals affected or entails an unacceptable environmental risk. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is contemplated in Spain a further or an additional step of their life cycle in which, in principle, the whole regulatory framework in force during the previous stages - sitting, construction, commissioning, operation, etc. - remains applicable. The term decommissioning is used to delineate the final stage of the life of a definitely non-operational facility and also to introduce a new licensing regime and a new regulatory control scheme. In the regulatory context, the decommissioning of a facility is understood as a set of administrative and technical actions and processes whose purpose, once a facility has been withdrawn from service, is to release it from regulatory control and so to relieve the former licensee of its previous responsibilities relating to the facility's safety. With the increasing age of nuclear and radioactive facilities in service, and as the number of facilities reaching the end of their operating life rises, the administrative process required in order to decommissioning them safely has become a real challenge in all countries, especially in those like Spain with an old nuclear power programme. Let me first give you a quick overview of the Spanish regulatory decommissioning framework. Then I will try to

  8. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  9. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  10. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  11. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  12. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  13. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions...... to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi...

  14. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... public health needs enforces regulations to prevent the introduction or spread of communicable diseases within the country ...

  15. Comparison of some European regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriadis, K. [Germanisher Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue calculations are an essential part in certification of a wind turbine. Manufacturers have to fulfill recommendations of several different regulations throughout Europe with the result that the design has often to be altered to satisfy them. In general three national (D/GL, NL, DK), and two international (GL, IEC) regulations are in use, with the IEC standard getting more importance with wind energy deploying to more in regions with no yet clearly defined national standards (India, Spain). The Germanischer Lloyd made calculations for wind turbines they are certifying and in one case we compared the resulting damages for different regulations and classes on a 600 kW, three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine. (EG) 18 refs.

  16. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    state is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise......-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. 2: Effect of muscle glycogen on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 3: The impact of physical inactivity on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 4: Elucidating the importance of PGC-1? in PDH...... regulation in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate...

  17. EPA's Environmental Laws and Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web page provides access to search and read the environmental laws and regulations related to EPA's mission. Regulatory guidance documents and rulemaking...

  18. Hydrography - Boating Special Regulation Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer contains those streams/rivers within Pennsylvania that have specifc special regulations related to boating as defined by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat...

  19. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......, it will be shown that there frequently exists a trade-off between the creation of incentives for distributed generators and for distribution system operators to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based...

  20. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  1. Regulations concerning nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short presentation of the French nuclear regulations, a short overview of their application is given. Finally, are presented the points related to the fiscality specific of nuclear basis facilities

  2. Automated Negotiation for Traffic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaciarz, Matthis; Aknine, Samir; BHOURI, Neila

    2015-01-01

    Urban congestion is a major problem in our society for quality of life and for productivity. The increasing communication abilities of vehicles and recent advances in artificial intelligence allow new solutions to be considered for traffic regulation, based on real-time information and distributed cooperative decision-making models. The paper presents a mechanism allowing a distributed regulation of the right-of-way of the vehicles at an intersection. The decision-making relies on an automati...

  3. How should Bitcoin be regulated ?

    OpenAIRE

    SHCHERBAK, Sergii

    2014-01-01

    The lack of clarity about Bitcoin’s legal framework has meant that none of the regulators across the EU have yet achieved sufficient clarity in the legal treatment of Bitcoin and its stakeholders. This uncertainty poses a number of substantial risks to Bitcoin stakeholders and creates challenges for regulatory authorities. Therefore, there is a need for a clear strategy for Bitcoin’s regulation aiming to ensure the maximum possible balance between the interests of Bitcoin stakeholders longing...

  4. Money laundering and its regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto; López-de-Silanes, Florencio

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  5. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto E.; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  6. BIOTECHNOLOGY REGULATIONS AND THE WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Ian M.; Josling, Timothy E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the regulation of trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by the World Trade Organization (WTO). Despite rapid adoption of GMOs by a few exporters, many importers have developed relatively restrictive procedures for pre-market approval of GMOs, and are introducing mandatory labeling. While exporters have yet to seek a ruling from the WTO on these regulations, a trade dispute over GMOs is likely to occur before too long. Exporting countries will likely argue that imp...

  7. Emotion regulation and sport performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wagstaff, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study used a single-blind, within-participant, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to examine the relationship between emotional self-regulation and sport performance. Twenty competitive athletes completed four laboratory-based conditions; familiarization, control, emotion suppression, and nonsuppression. In each condition participants completed a 10-km cycling time trial requiring self-regulation. In the experimental conditions participants watched an upsetting video before perfor...

  8. Regulation and Corporate Board Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Staubo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is in the field of corporate governance. The corporate governance structure involves laws, rules, and regulations on the distribution of rights and responsibilities among the different stakeholders in the firm. Due to several financial crises in the late 1990s and early 2000s, there has been an increased interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In particular, the composition of the corporate board has achieved extensive attention. The first essay in the thesis inve...

  9. Civilsamfundets ABC: R for Regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering....

  10. Corporate governance and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kern

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...

  11. Quality of government regulated goods

    OpenAIRE

    Moszoro, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Regulators face the difficult task of determining the sets of price and quality of government-regulated goods. While the profit-maximizing monopoly always produces less in quantity than under free competition, the level of quality produced by the monopoly is not unequivocal: it depends on its cost and demand functions. The social effect of quality change is not unequivocal either, because it depends, apart from the cost function change, on the shift and tilt change of the demand curve. The pr...

  12. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from t...... represented in a manner that is sufficiently simple to communicate to a market operator in the form of a bid for the provision of regulating power....

  13. Dividend Policy in Regulated Firms

    OpenAIRE

    rondi, laura; Cambini, Carlo; bremberger, francisca; GUGLER, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of different regulatory and ownership regimes on the dividend policy of regulated firms. Using a panel of 106 publicly traded European electric utilities in the period 1986-2010, we link payout and smoothing decisions to the implementation of different regulatory mechanisms (cost plus vs. incentive regulation) and to firm ownership (state vs. private). After controlling for the potential endogeneity of the regulatory mechanism, our results show that utilities subject to i...

  14. International Competitiveness and Environmental Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Babool, Md. Ashfaqul Islam; Michael R. Reed

    2005-01-01

    This study follows the standard factor endowment approach to explain the effects of environmental regulations on net exports in different product-based industries. It constructs an econometric model which includes factor endowments and environmental regulations to examine how strict environmental policy impact export competitiveness. Cross-sectional and time series (panel) data for 6 countries and 17 years were used in this model. In this study, capital services increase net exports in labor-...

  15. Environmental regulation and technology transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Takao; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the situation in which a national government introduces environmental regulations. Within the framework of an international duopoly with environmental regulations, this paper shows that an environmental tax imposed by the government in the home country can induce a foreign firm with advanced abatement technology to license it to a domestic firm without this technology. Furthermore, when the domestic firm's production technology is less efficient than that of the foreign fi...

  16. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their compatibility with insecticides used in tomato crop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta. PMID:21271067

  17. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica) Growth, esporulation and viability of entomopathogenic fungi under mediums with differents Nim oil (Azadirachta indica) concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Paro Marques; Antonio Carlos Monteiro; Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2004-01-01

    A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO) sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim,...

  18. Habitat selection of a parasitoid mediated by volatiles informing on host and intraguild predator densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotes, Belén; Rännbäck, Linda Marie; Björkman, Maria; Norli, Hans Ragnar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Rämert, Birgitta; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To locate and evaluate host patches before oviposition, parasitoids of herbivorous insects utilize plant volatiles and host-derived cues, but also evaluate predator-derived infochemicals to reduce predation risks. When foraging in host habitats infested with entomopathogenic fungi that can infect...... both a parasitoid and its host, parasitoids may reduce the risk of intraguild predation (IGP) by avoiding such patches. In this study, we examined whether the presence of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana in soil habitats of a root herbivore, Delia radicum, affects...... the behavior of Trybliographa rapae, a parasitoid of D. radicum. Olfactometer bioassays revealed that T. rapae avoided fungal infested host habitats and that this was dependent on fungal species and density. In particular, the parasitoid avoided habitats with high densities of the more virulent fungus...

  19. New alternatives in the control of plagues and projections of the ICA in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategies are described indicated by the ICA for the control of plagues and of toxic residuals of agro-chemicals in the agricultural products, with emphasis in the implementation of mechanisms like the integrated control of plagues. It stands out the paper of the bio-insecticides as alternative to the agro-chemicals use and enter these stable products they are mentioned with the help of Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Nomuraea rileyi, Metarhizium anisoplidae and Verticilium lecanni. Some implications of the presence of toxic residuals are mentioned in Colombian export fruits and the measures that have been adopted to avoid them, as well as some mechanisms adopted in the international environment with the same end. The effective legislation is indicated as for prohibition and restriction of plaguicides use

  20. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha, nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis, insect pathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium spp. and Chinese medicinal fungi (Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, have been genome sequenced and extensively analyzed in China. The biology, evolution, and pharmaceutical application of these fungi and their interacting with host nematodes and insects revealed by genomes, comparing genomes coupled with transcriptomes are summarized and reviewed in this paper.

  1. No benefit in diversity? The effect of genetic variation on survival and disease resistance in a polygynous social insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    numbers of queens also benefit from increased genetic diversity.2. We used one of the very few ant species that can be reared across generations, the pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis Linnaeus, to create experimental colonies with two types of enhanced genetic diversity: (i) mixed workers from three...... within-worker variation).3. We found significant differences in worker survival among the three inbred lineages, with exposure to conidiospores of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causing significant mortality to the workers independently of their diversity type. Increased diversity did not improve...... results do not provide evidence for or against a link between increased genetic variation and increased disease resistance in pharaoh ants, but show that colonies differ considerably in general survival. Thus, increasing the genetic diversity of pharaoh ant colonies may not provide survival advantages in...

  2. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  3. 中国虫生真菌应用50年简史%Fifty years of application of entomogenous fungi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增智

    2007-01-01

    In China, there is a long history over 2300 years of entomogenous fungi used as medicines,but their use against insect pests did not start until mid 1950′s.In 1970,the central government held a workshop to encourage the use of Beauveria bassiana against pine caterpillars,making the year a milestone in Chinese history of microbial pest control.Since then, quite a few fungi have been tried for control of over 60 forest and crop pests.In the past decades,low tech production has been being improved towards commercial production with higher techniques.Until 2006,5 products of fungal insecticides have been registered.Meanwhile,large scale application techniques have been being improved with molecular ecological approach towards a rational application strategy.

  4. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  5. Laboratory bioassays of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Delia radicum (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Snelling, Jane E; Dreves, Amy J; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory soil bioassays were performed at economic field rates for in-furrow (3.85 x 10(6)spores/g dry soil) and broadcast (3.85 x 10(5)spores/g dry soil) applications with three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (F52, ATCC62176, and ARSEF5520) and one isolate of Beauveria bassiana (GHA). All isolates tested were infective to second instar Delia radicum (L.). The conditionally registered M. anisopliae isolate (F52) performed best killing an average of 85 and 72% of D. radicum larvae at the high and low concentration, respectively. The mean LC50 and LC95 of F52 against second instar D. radicum was 2.7 x 10(6) and 1.8 x 10(8)spores/g dry soil, respectively. The use of F52 in an integrated management program is discussed. PMID:16087004

  6. A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh N Pham

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune response to fight invading microbes; by definition, innate immunity lacks adaptive characteristics. However, we show here that priming Drosophila with a sublethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae protects against an otherwise-lethal second challenge of S. pneumoniae. This protective effect exhibits coarse specificity for S. pneumoniae and persists for the life of the fly. Although not all microbial challenges induced this specific primed response, we find that a similar specific protection can be elicited by Beauveria bassiana, a natural fly pathogen. To characterize this primed response, we focused on S. pneumoniae-induced protection. The mechanism underlying this protective effect requires phagocytes and the Toll pathway. However, activation of the Toll pathway is not sufficient for priming-induced protection. This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response.

  7. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Boopathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on cassava (Manihot esculenta during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population. The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersusin both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.

  8. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a hibernation refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R S S; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Romanowski, H P; Prando, H F; Antochevis, R C

    2006-05-01

    Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m(2) bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30 degrees 02 S and 51 degrees 23 W), RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in weekly or fortnightly intervals, and the number of bugs recorded in the laboratory. The arrival at the hibernation site (bamboo litter) began in the first fortnight of March, and was completed in the beginning of May. O. poecilus left this refuge from middle October to the end of December. Parasitism by tachinid flies and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. fungus were the most important mortality factors. PMID:16862299

  9. Development and improvement of biological insecticides for pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. were submitted to UV-light irradiation at doses inducing mutations. Three UV-light-resistant mutants were obtained from strain PL 256 and two from strain PL 196. The wild and mutant strains were tested for viability in 3 different manners: A) by incorporation a suspension into the soil of a field with newly emerged sugar cane; B) by applying the suspension only to the soil surface in a field with newly emerged sugar cane; C) by applying the suspension only to the surface in a field with 6-month old sugar cane. Soil samples were collected in different days after application, Conidia were counted and their viability was tested. Cytological studies were also carried out to determine the morphological traits of the strains. (M.A.C.)

  10. Application of Two-Stage Cultivation for Exploring the Nutritional Requirements for Sporulation of Three Biocontrol Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide was an important part in mycopesticides, which play an important role in pest management, while their mass production and commercialization faced problem. We found that the nutrition for mycelia growth and sporulation differences a lot. So, we developed “two-step method” to define the nutrition for sporulation in this paper. The results indicated that the novel method led to a great increase of spore yields for Beauveria bassiana (IBC1201, Lecanicillium lecanii (CA-1-G, and Pochonia chlamydosporia (HSY-12-14, respectively, of about 100, 2, and 16 times and, also reduced the cycle of mass production to 1/3 compared with common time for culturing.

  11. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  12. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  13. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ... tribes, and many other partners. Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  14. Basic Regulations for All Food Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    There are some basic regulations that are required for all food processing facilities to follow. These regulations are current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and/or Sanitation Standard Operation Procedures (SSOP's). This guidesheet provides links to further information and regulations.

  15. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any...

  16. A Model of Endogeneous Oil Spill Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Ogus

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a model of endogenous oil spill regulation where the severity of regulations is shown to be a function of the size of recent spills. The regulator chooses how much to regulate in order to maximize political capital when regulations are rigid downwards and the distribution of spills is not known with certainty. Very large spills are shown to cause large increases in the regulation level. In the event that an unlikely disastrous spill is realized, major regulatory reform may...

  17. Entomopathogenic fungal (Hyphomycetes collection: assessment of conidial viability Coleção de fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes: avaliação da viabilidade conidial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four strains of the entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus and P. lilacinus, maintained in the culture collection of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen and preserved by lyophilization and in liquid nitrogen, had their conidial viability assessed. Germination rates of 16- to 84-month-old cultures stored in liquid nitrogen decreased, on average, less than 13.3%. For 29- to 49-month-old cultures preserved by lyophilization, the viability loss ranged, on average, from 28.6 to 94.5%. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the tested methods, especially liquid nitrogen, in preserving the viability of entomopathogenic fungi.Vinte e quatro isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus e P. lilacinus, mantidos na coleção de culturas da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen e preservados em nitrogênio líquido e liofilização, tiverama viabilidade conidial avaliada. As taxas de germinação de conídios preservados em nitrogênio líquido diminuíram, em média, menos de 13,3% após 16 a 84 meses de armazenamento. A perda de viabilidade de isolados liofilizados, após 29 a 49 meses de armazenamento, variou de 28,6 a 94,5%. Os resultados demonstraram a eficiência dos métodos testados, especialmente nitrogênio líquido, na preservação da viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos.

  18. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  19. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  20. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets

  1. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation.

  2. Molecular regulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Baron, Roland

    2006-06-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors that are primarily responsible for the degradation of mineralized bone during bone development, homeostasis and repair. In various skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, tumor metastases and Paget's disease, bone resorption by osteoclasts exceeds bone formation by osteoblasts leading to decreased bone mass, skeletal fragility and bone fracture. The overall rate of osteoclastic bone resorption is regulated either at the level of differentiation of osteoclasts from their monocytic/macrophage precursor pool or through the regulation of key functional proteins whose specific activities in the mature osteoclast control its attachment, migration and resorption. Thus, reducing osteoclast numbers and/or decreasing the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts are two common therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hyper-resorptive skeletal diseases. In this review, several of the key functional players involved in the regulation of osteoclast activity will be discussed. PMID:16951988

  3. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal......The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type of...... competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...

  4. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  5. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  6. Epigenetic regulation in cardiac fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ming; Yu; Yong; Xu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis represents an adoptive response in the heart exposed to various stress cues. While resolution of the fibrogenic response heralds normalization of heart function, persistent fibrogenesis is usually associated with progressive loss of heart function and eventually heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances regarding the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis focusing on the role of histone and DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs.

  7. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...... situation, and proposes a number of activities in order to improve the buoyancy regulation system. This work was performed under EU ENERGIE contract no. ENK5-CT-2002-00603, and is a contribution to WP 2.3/2.4 and D40/D41....

  8. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  9. The Organization of Regulated Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    weak positive (respectively, strong positive) correlation. Second, if the firms can collude under VS and know all costs, then VS is equivalent to VI. However, if firms collude under asymmetric information, then collusion does not affect the choice between VS and VI, since the regulator takes advantage...

  10. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martynova

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  11. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  12. New Zealand's financial sector regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geof Mortlock

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the regulatory framework in the New Zealand financial sector. It describes the core components of the financial system, including the financial institutions and financial markets, and explains the infrastructure required to support the system. The article then discusses the main aspects of the regulatory framework of the financial system, particularly banking supervision and securities market regulation.

  13. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Pava, Matthew J.; Alexandros Makriyannis; Lovinger, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid t...

  14. Regulating energy levies under discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last two years several institutes advised on a regulating levy for energy. Several variants are compared and the critical remarks are analyzed. In particular a progressive levy, as suggested by the Dutch Scientific Council for the Government Policy (WRR, abbreviated in Dutch), opens new perspectives. 1 tab., 27 refs

  15. Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

  16. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter H. Quail

    2007-01-01

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent comprehensive studies in Arabidopsis that have identified the genome-wide set of phy-regulated genes that respond rapidly to red-light signals upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings, and have tested the functional relevance to normal seedling photomorphogenesis of an initial subset of these genes. The data: (a) reveal considerable complexity in the channeling of the light signals through the different phy-family members (phyA to phyE) to responsive genes; (b) identify a diversity of transcription-factor-encoding genes as major early, if not primary, targets of phy signaling, and, therefore, as potentially important regulators in the transcriptional-network hierarchy; and (c) identify auxin-related genes as the dominant class among rapidly-regulated, hormone-related genes. However, reverse-genetic functional profiling of a selected subset of these genes reveals that only a limited fraction are necessary for optimal phy-induced seedling deetiolation.

  17. Regulating Collaboration in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobber, Marjolein; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration in teacher education can be seen as a way to prepare student teachers for future social practices at school. When people collaborate with each other, they have to regulate their collaboration. In the Dutch teacher education programme that was investigated, student teachers were members of different types of groups, each of which had…

  18. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  19. Regulation of microtubule dynamic instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Vaart (Babet); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A. Straube (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProper regulation of MT (microtubule) dynamics is essential for various vital processes, including the segregation of chromosomes, directional cell migration and differentiation. MT assembly and disassembly is modulated by a complex network of intracellular factors that co-operate or ant

  20. Mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated. PMID:27515256

  1. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...

  2. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  3. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  4. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salas

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.

  5. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL DYSBACTERIOSIS OF BURNED RATS BY MICROECOSYSTEM REGULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using synbiotics and probiotics to prevent and cure intestinal dysbacteriosis after burn. Methods Burned rats were fed with synbiotics and probiotics reagents, and the amounts of major intestinal florae in caecal contents were detected. Results The major physiological anaerobes were mostly stable, and the conditioned pathogens had no abnormal. Conclusion The micro-ecosystem regulator can quickly supplement the decreased physiological anaerobes caused by burning,and avoid the occurrence of dysbacteriosis.

  6. IAEA regulations: originality within general regulations for dangerous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks from transport of dangerous materials are briefly recalled. Safety of transport is improved by regulation aiming at the limitation of accident consequences. For radioactive material transport the safety is based on the packaging. Limitations of dose rate, labelling, type of packagings risk evaluation, transport operation, intervention in case of accidents are reviewed. A data bank is constituted and a research program is coordinated by the IAEA

  7. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Salas; Benjamín Contreras

    1995-01-01

    This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affectin...

  8. Regulating the regulators: modulators of transcription factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Logan; Hansen, Matthew; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2010-01-01

    Gene transcription is largely regulated by DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). However, the TF activity itself is modulated via, among other things, post-translational modifications (PTMs) by specific modification enzymes in response to cellular stimuli. TF-PTMs thus serve as "molecular switchboards" that map upstream signaling events to the downstream transcriptional events. An important long-term goal is to obtain a genome-wide map of "regulatory triplets" consisting of a TF, target gene, and a modulator gene that specifically modulates the regulation of the target gene by the TF. A variety of genome-wide data sets can be exploited by computational methods to obtain a rough map of regulatory triplets, which can guide directed experiments. However, a prerequisite to developing such computational tools is a systematic catalog of known instances of regulatory triplets. We first describe PTM-Switchboard, a recent database that stores triplets of genes such that the ability of one gene (the TF) to regulate a target gene is dependent on one or more PTMs catalyzed by a third gene, the modifying enzyme. We also review current computational approaches to infer regulatory triplets from genome-wide data sets and conclude with a discussion of potential future research. PTM-Switchboard is accessible at http://cagr.pcbi.upenn.edu/PTMswitchboard / PMID:20827600

  9. Possibilities of Economic Regulations Modelling Using Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Jakutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents possibilities of using computers for economic regulations modelling. The introduction gives a computer history and shows possibilities to use computers in many different ways. Research on the combination of economic regulations is carried out. Human and computer functions using economic regulations are presented. Research shows modelling possibilities of economic regulations with computer, text editors, text editing options. The article also presents economic regulations modelling algorithms and programs.

  10. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  11. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  12. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  13. Susceptibility of Cabbage Maggot Larvae (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) to Hypocreales Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrand, V; Buffet, J P; Guertin, C

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenicity of six Metarhizium spp., four Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and four Tolypocladium cylindrosporum Gams (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) fungal pathogens exposed to third-instar Delia radicum L. was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. The presence of intra- and intergeneric variations concerning the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated. Results show that all Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum isolates caused a noteworthy mortality to the third instar and consequently reduced adult eclosion. The well-known standard, F52 strain (identified as Metarhizium brunneum), resulted in up to 79% reduction in D. radicum eclosion. The other Metarhizium isolates including UAMH 9197 (Metarhizium anisopliae) and UAMH 2801 (M. brunneum), as well as T. cylindrosporum DAOM 167325 and DAOM 183952, produced a mean eclosion reduction of >50%. While the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum is similar, the B. bassiana isolates are undoubtedly less pathogenic. Based on the results obtained with the selected isolates, no intrageneric differences relative to the pathogenicity of the isolates appeared to be present. Globally, this study deepened the knowledge about D. radicum susceptibility toward Hypocreales entomopathogenic fungi, chiefly T. cylindrosporum. The implications of this study regarding the development of a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:26470101

  14. Serpin-15 from Bombyx mori inhibits prophenoloxidase activation and expression of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongran; Wang, Lei; Yang, Liu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guoqing; Dai, Lishang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) play a key role in physiological responses by controlling protease activities. In this study, we studied the biochemical functions of serpin-15, an SPI, from Bombyx mori (Bmserpin-15). Recombinant Bmserpin-15 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and used to raise rabbit anti-Bmserpin-15 polyclonal antibodies. Bmserpin-15 mRNA and protein expression was detected in all tested tissues, particularly in the fat body and silk gland. After challenge with four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana, Micrococcus luteus and B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus), the expressions of Bmserpin-15 mRNA and protein were induced significantly, particularly by B. bassiana and M. luteus. Recombinant Bmserpin-15 inhibited prophenoloxidase activation, but did not affect phenoloxidase activity, in B. mori hemolymph. Injection of recombinant Bmserpin-15 into B. mori larvae reduced significantly the transcript levels of antimicrobial peptides in fat body. Our results suggested that Bmserpin-15 plays an important role in the innate immunity of B. mori. PMID:25720980

  15. Tools for delivering entomopathogenic fungi to malaria mosquitoes: effects of delivery surfaces on fungal efficacy and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi infection on malaria vectors increases daily mortality rates and thus represents a control measure that could be used in integrated programmes alongside insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. Before entomopathogenic fungi can be integrated into control programmes, an effective delivery system must be developed. Methods The efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 and Beauveria bassiana I93-825 (IMI 391510 (2 × 1010 conidia m-2 applied on mud panels (simulating walls of traditional Tanzanian houses, black cotton cloth and polyester netting was evaluated against adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated surfaces 2, 14 and 28 d after conidia were applied. Survival of mosquitoes was monitored daily. Results All fungal treatments caused a significantly increased mortality in the exposed mosquitoes, descending with time since fungal application. Mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae conidia on mud panels had a greater daily risk of dying compared to those exposed to conidia on either netting or cotton cloth (p B. bassiana conidia on mud panels or cotton cloth had similar daily risk of death (p = 0.14, and a higher risk than those exposed to treated polyester netting (p Conclusion Both fungal isolates reduced mosquito survival on immediate exposure and up to 28 d after application. Conidia were more effective when applied on mud panels and cotton cloth compared with polyester netting. Cotton cloth and mud, therefore, represent potential substrates for delivering fungi to mosquitoes in the field.

  16. Inventario y frecuencia de aparición de enemigos naturales de la chinche de encaje del aguacate Pseudacysta Persea en Matanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Rijo Camacho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El aguacate, Persea americana Mill., representa una fruta de gran aceptación por la población cubana, ocupa una superficie cultivable de 750 a 800 ha (FAO, 2004. La chinche de encaje Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann constituye una plaga de reciente introducción al país y se estima que ocasiona pérdidas económicas entre un 10 – 90 % de la cosecha, prescindiéndose de esta problemática se añade que más del 71 % de los productores de aguacate utilizan los insecticidas como principal método de control y se informa la detección de insectoresistencia (USDAE, 2000. Durante los años 1999 - 2004 se monitorearon aguacateros ubicados en la localidad del Alvaro Reynoso y en la Finca de Frutales “Los Alonsos” (LAPROSAV, Matanzas. Las investigaciones realizadas muestran infestaciones severas de la plaga durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, se obtiene por primera vez en Matanzas un inventario bioecológico de los enemigos naturales asociados a la plaga, siendo Chrysopa gloreae Alayo, Paracarnus cubanus Bruner y Beauveria bassiana (Bals.Vuill, los de mayor abundancia y frecuencia de aparición, estudios etológicos corroboran la eficacia depredadora de C. gloreae y la efectividad patogénica del aislamiento nativo de B. bassiana, siendo agentes promisorios de control natural.

  17. A response of entomopathogenic fungi to botanical fungicides and synthetic fungicides in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sapieha-Waszkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth colonies' morphology and sporulation of entomopathogenic fungi was estimated on Sabouraud medium containing botanical fungicides (Bioczos liquid and Biosept 33 SL, and synthetic ones (Teldor 500 SC and Sumilex 500 SC. Entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana (Balls. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith., were isolated from soil by means of Galleria mellonella larvae as baits. Isolates Bb I, Ma I, Pf I derivered from herbicide fallow from apple orchard and isolates Bb II, Ma II and Pf II from arable field adjacent to orchard. Fungicides were added to Sabouraud medium at the following concentrations: A-recommended dose, B-10-times lower than the recommended, C-100-times lower than the recommended. The growth of colonies their morphological changes and sporulations were estimated after 5 and 20 days. The same parametrs were observed when fungi were transfered from the medium containing fungicides on the medium with out fungicides. From botanical fungicides Bioczos liquid inhibited fungal growth more than Biosept 33 SL. Both of fungicides were most toxic to fungi at concentration A. Both of P. fumosoroseus isolates were the most sensitive to Bioczos liquid and M. anisopliae to Biosept 33 SL. All concentrations of synthetic fungicides (Sumilex 500 SC, Teldor 500 SC restricted growth of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates more from arable soil than from herbicide fallow but opposite reaction was found with respect to P. fumosoroseus.

  18. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  19. The effect of different entomopathogens on white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in an organic hay-producing grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laznik Žiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a field block trial examined the biological control of white grubs of June beetle (Amphimallon solstitialis, margined vine chafer (Anomala dubia and garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola on a permanent cut grassland in Gotenica (SE Slovenia. The efficacy of Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in the form of water suspension and infested grain was tested against a control treatment. The initial number of white grubs (April 12; 39 white grubs/m2 was reduced with all tested entomopathogens up until the third evaluation (May 26; 32 white grubs/m2. However, the studied treatments were not sufficient to reduce the white grub population in the soils below the economical threshold (20 individuals/m2. The average number of white grubs was affected mostly by the treatment where the active ingredient was B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. With one application in April, only the abundance of overwintered white grubs was reduced. To decrease the summer generation of white grubs, an application of biological agents is also required at a later time. The 8% higher dry matter yield at the first cut (June 10 compared to the second cut (September 6 provided evidence for the prior statement.

  20. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    and confirming transcriptional start sites can be difficult. Epigenetics, gene regulatory and DNA modification mechanisms not involving a change to the primary sequence, have been implied in the regulation of a number of miRNA loci. Both epigenetic and miRNA signatures are broadly altered in cancer......, and are thought to play essential roles in cancer etiology and progression. Here, we aimed to identify epigenetic miRNA deregulation in bladder and oral carcinoma, and to develop a robust approach to epigenetic miRNA prediction and detection. In addition, non-canonical epigenetic functions directed by a nuclear...... miRNA were investigated. In summary, we report that the miR-200 family and miR-205 are coordinately epigenetically regulated in a variety of cell lines, tumors and normal tissues. MiR-200c expression is correlated with bladder cancer disease progression, and miR-375 levels in oral rinse can...