WorldWideScience

Sample records for beauty structure functions

  1. The ratio of the beauty structure functions Rb=(FLb)/(F2b) at low x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the structure functions Fkb(x,Q2) (k=2,L) and the reduced cross section σrb(x,Q2) for small values of Bjorken's x variable with respect to the hard (Lipatov) pomeron for the gluon distribution and provide a compact formula for the ratio Rb that is useful to extract the beauty structure function from the beauty reduced cross section, in particular at DESY HERA. Also we show that the effects of the nonlinear corrections to the gluon distribution tame the behavior of the beauty structure function and the beauty reduced cross section at low x

  2. The ratio of the beauty structure functions R{sup b}=(F{sub L}{sup b})/(F{sub 2}{sup b}) at low x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G.R., E-mail: grboroun@gmail.com

    2014-07-15

    We study the structure functions F{sub k}{sup b}(x,Q{sup 2}) (k=2,L) and the reduced cross section σ{sub r}{sup b}(x,Q{sup 2}) for small values of Bjorken's x variable with respect to the hard (Lipatov) pomeron for the gluon distribution and provide a compact formula for the ratio R{sup b} that is useful to extract the beauty structure function from the beauty reduced cross section, in particular at DESY HERA. Also we show that the effects of the nonlinear corrections to the gluon distribution tame the behavior of the beauty structure function and the beauty reduced cross section at low x.

  3. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories. PMID:23242799

  4. Structure: form, beauty, space

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, James

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The objective of my thesis is to explore the various elements that make structure architecture. Through investigation into thinness, material, span, space and soundscape, I wish to create an architecture which can appeal to the senses and have value form many years to come. I propose to interrogate these qualities with the demanding programme of aircraft cargo and maintenance on the site of Shannon Airport, which is situated on the shannon estuary and to...

  5. Measurement of the charm and beauty structure functions using the H1 vertex detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5{<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002{<=}x{<=}0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the charm and beauty structure functions using the H1 vertex detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Preda, T.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Zus, R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Aldaya Martin, M.; Alimujiang, K.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Boer, Y. de; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Janssen, M.E.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nozicka, M.; Olsson, J.E.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Asmone, A.; Stella, B. [Dipt. di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (Italy); INFN Roma 3, Rome (Italy); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Universites Paris VI et VII, Paris (France); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)] [and others

    2010-01-15

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e{sup -}p and e{sup +} p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5{<=}Q {sup 2}{<=}2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002{<=}x{<=}0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the Charm and Beauty Structure Functions using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, FD; Alexa, C; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Asmone, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D -J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H -U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e-p and e+p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions.

  8. Construction of compactly supported orthonormal wavelets with beautiful structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lizhong; WANG Yongge

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of constructing symmetric (antisymmetric) scaling and wavelet filters is introduced, and we get a new type of wavelet system that has very beautiful structure. Using this kind of wavelet system, we can achieve filters with the properties: rational, symmetric or antisymmetric, the lengths of the filters are shorter and the corresponding functions have higher smoothness, so they have good prospect in applications.

  9. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold.

  10. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold. PMID:27401040

  11. Charm and beauty structure of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Brugnera, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper will review the data collected by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations concerning the production of heavy quarks (charm and beauty) at the electron-proton collider HERA. Heavy quark production is an important testing ground for quantum chromodynamics (QCD), because QCD calculations are expected to be reliable if a hard scale is present in the process. In heavy quarks production a hard scale is provided by the quark mass. Moreover heavy quarks production can give direct access to the gluon density in the proton due to the fact that it proceeds, in QCD, almost exclusively via photon-gluon fusion, where a photon from the incoming electron interacts with a gluon in the proton giving an heavy quark-anti-quark pair. Results will be shown both for deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), where the virtuality of the exchanged boson Q**2 is large, and photo-production, where the Q**2 is equal to zero. Various experimental techniques are used in order to select charm and beauty events, ranging from the measurement of D* c...

  12. Mitochondrial Cristae: Where Beauty Meets Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Sara; Enriquez, Jose A; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial cristae are dynamic bioenergetic compartments whose shape changes under different physiological conditions. Recent discoveries have unveiled the relation between cristae shape and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function, suggesting that membrane morphology modulates the organization and function of the OXPHOS system, with a direct impact on cellular metabolism. As a corollary, cristae-shaping proteins have emerged as potential modulators of mitochondrial bioenergetics, a concept confirmed by genetic experiments in mouse models of respiratory chain deficiency. Here, we review our knowledge of mitochondrial ultrastructural organization and how it impacts mitochondrial metabolism.

  13. Mitochondrial Cristae: Where Beauty Meets Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Sara; Enriquez, Jose A; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial cristae are dynamic bioenergetic compartments whose shape changes under different physiological conditions. Recent discoveries have unveiled the relation between cristae shape and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function, suggesting that membrane morphology modulates the organization and function of the OXPHOS system, with a direct impact on cellular metabolism. As a corollary, cristae-shaping proteins have emerged as potential modulators of mitochondrial bioenergetics, a concept confirmed by genetic experiments in mouse models of respiratory chain deficiency. Here, we review our knowledge of mitochondrial ultrastructural organization and how it impacts mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:26857402

  14. Functional Beauty: The Design of Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Answine, Amber Elena

    2013-01-01

    This project explores the use of poured-in-place concrete as a bearing wall structure, in lieu of a column and slab system, in order to permit the formation of multi-story, grand spaces indicative of a luxury hotel. These carved out spaces create a pathway through the building, allowing for the choreographed movement of a traveler from the initial point of arrival to reaching his or her destination at the pinnacle suite. MARCH

  15. Design of smooth orthogonal wavelets with beautiful structure from 2-band to 4-band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A complete algorithm to design 4-band orthogonal wavelets with beautiful structure from 2-band orthogonal wavelets is presented. For more smoothness, the conception of transfer vanishing moment is introduced by transplanting the requirements of vanishing moment from the 4-band wavelets to the 2-band ones. Consequently, the design of 4-band orthogonal wavelets with P vanishing moments and beautiful structure from 2-band ones with P transfer vanishing moments is completed.

  16. Jakobson’s zero and the pleasure and pitfalls of structural beauty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Juul

    2015-01-01

    examines how this idea is rooted in the structuralist tradition of analysing difference and significant distinctions and how it is motivated by the pleasure of structural beauty. Focusing on one of Jakobson’s examples of zero signs, the analysis of gender in the Russian declension system, the paper...

  17. Intrinsic Functional-Connectivity Networks for Diagnosis: Just Beautiful Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional connectivity has become a topic of enormous interest in the Neuroscience community in the last decade. Because resting-state data (1) harbor important information that often is diagnostically relevant and (2) are easy to acquire, there has been a rapid increase in the development of a variety of network analytic techniques for diagnostic applications, stimulating methodological research in general. While we are among those who welcome the increased interest in the resting state and multivariate analytic tools, we would like to draw attention to some entrenched practices that undermine the scientific quality of diagnostic functional-connectivity research, but whose correction is relatively easy to accomplish. With the current commentary we also hope to benefit the field at large and contribute to a healthy debate about research goals and best practices. PMID:22433005

  18. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. PMID:26668171

  19. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking.

  20. Beautiful equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  1. Electron crystallography--the waking beauty of structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Christopher R; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2012-08-01

    Since its debut in the mid 1970s, electron crystallography has been a valuable alternative in the structure determination of biological macromolecules. Its reliance on single-layered or double-layered two-dimensionally ordered arrays and the ability to obtain structural information from small and disordered crystals make this approach particularly useful for the study of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer environment. Despite its unique advantages, technological hurdles have kept electron crystallography from reaching its full potential. Addressing the issues, recent initiatives developed high-throughput pipelines for crystallization and screening. Adding progress in automating data collection, image analysis and phase extension methods, electron crystallography is poised to raise its profile and may lead the way in exploring the structural biology of macromolecular complexes.

  2. Beautiful kit

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Miodownik

    2004-01-01

    Mark Miodownik reports on laboratory machines such as scanning electron microscopes with energy dispersive X-ray analysis which is latest thing. The author finds high status of scientific instruments in science laboratory which are the aesthetics of instrument design. The astrolabs, microscopes, telescopes and armillary spheres are beautiful objects according to the author. The equipment design provides demonstration of functionality over form and declares superfluousness of aesthetics to sci...

  3. Baby beautiful: adult attributions of infant competence as a function of infant attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C W; Langlois, J H

    1984-04-01

    To determine at what age children first elicit differential expectations from adults as a function of their appearance, a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American adults rated photographs of a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American infants at 3 time periods in the first year of life. These adults first rated the infants on physical attractiveness and then rated the infants on 12 bipolar adjectives. The adjectives were reduced to 4 dimensions of infant behavior by factor analysis. A strong beauty-is-good stereotype was associated with 3 of the dimensions. On the measures of smart - likable baby, good baby, and causes parents problems, there was a beauty-is-good bias that prevailed across ethnic groups. In contrast, no such bias was found on the measure of active baby. The activity index was expected to reflect positive characteristics, but it appears to have implied overactivity and irritability. Strong and consistent expectations for behavior of attractive and unattractive individuals thus appear to be elicited soon after birth in Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. PMID:6723448

  4. Baby beautiful: adult attributions of infant competence as a function of infant attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C W; Langlois, J H

    1984-04-01

    To determine at what age children first elicit differential expectations from adults as a function of their appearance, a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American adults rated photographs of a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American infants at 3 time periods in the first year of life. These adults first rated the infants on physical attractiveness and then rated the infants on 12 bipolar adjectives. The adjectives were reduced to 4 dimensions of infant behavior by factor analysis. A strong beauty-is-good stereotype was associated with 3 of the dimensions. On the measures of smart - likable baby, good baby, and causes parents problems, there was a beauty-is-good bias that prevailed across ethnic groups. In contrast, no such bias was found on the measure of active baby. The activity index was expected to reflect positive characteristics, but it appears to have implied overactivity and irritability. Strong and consistent expectations for behavior of attractive and unattractive individuals thus appear to be elicited soon after birth in Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations.

  5. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-03-30

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases.

  6. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  7. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  8. Perturbative QCD fragmentation functions for production of p-wave mesons with charm and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, T C

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: We calculate the leading order QCD fragmentation functions for the production of P-wave charmed beauty mesons. Long-distance effects are factored into two nonperturbative parameters: the derivative of the radial wavefunction at the origin and a second parameter related to the probability for a (\\bar b c) heavy quark pair that is produced in a color-octet S-wave state to form a color-singlet P-wave bound state. The four 2P states and those 3P states which lie below the BD flavor threshold eventually all decay into the 1S ground state B_c through hadronic cascades or by emitting photons. The total fragmentation probabilities for production of the 1S ground state B_c from the cascades of the 2P and 3P states are about 1.7 \\times 10^{-4} and 2.3 \\times 10^{-4} respectively. Thus the direct production of the P-wave states via fragmentation may account for a significant fraction of the inclusive production rate of the B_c at large transverse momentum in high energy colliders. Our analytic results for the ...

  9. Neural correlates of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hideaki; Zeki, Semir

    2004-04-01

    We have used the technique of functional MRI to address the question of whether there are brain areas that are specifically engaged when subjects view paintings that they consider to be beautiful, regardless of the category of painting (that is whether it is a portrait, a landscape, a still life, or an abstract composition). Prior to scanning, each subject viewed a large number of paintings and classified them into beautiful, neutral, or ugly. They then viewed the same paintings in the scanner. The results show that the perception of different categories of paintings are associated with distinct and specialized visual areas of the brain, that the orbito-frontal cortex is differentially engaged during the perception of beautiful and ugly stimuli, regardless of the category of painting, and that the perception of stimuli as beautiful or ugly mobilizes the motor cortex differentially.

  10. ON BEAUTY AND THE BEAUTIFUL IN AESTHETIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We titled our work “On Beauty and the Beautiful in Aesthetic Education” and we analyzed the category beautiful in function of better understanding the issues of aesthetic education.The basic point was the fact that the determination of the term beautiful is being different in both, time aspect and space aspect. Also, the authors involved in this matter have got different understanding on beautiful issue, on its essence, on its role in human development and on the development of the aesthetics and the aesthetic education.Therefore, within our work, there is an attempt to differ the approaches towards the category beautiful, to comment it, to compare it and finally to give our approach.

  11. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical. PMID:16040358

  12. Beautiful Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Amy King; Andrew Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Are beautiful politicians more likely to be elected? To test this, we use evidence from Australia, a country in which voting is compulsory, and in which voters are given ‘How to Vote’ cards depicting photos of the major party candidates as they arrive to vote. Using raters chosen to be representative of the electorate, we assess the beauty of political candidates from major political parties, and then estimate the effect of beauty on voteshare for candidates in the 2004 federal election. Beau...

  13. The medicalization of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Poli Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study object; beauty patterns guiding interventions; and understanding popular demand for aesthetic corrections. Discourse is sustained by biomedical rationality, structured around a disease theory and a dual construction between normal and pathological, with emphasis on biology. In the articles, the beauty patterns guiding therapeutic practices are anchored in biological norms defined through several anthropometric measures, which refer to abstract concepts of beauty, harmony, proportionality and symmetry. In this discourse, there are no references to patterns or to social norms of beauty; motivation for aesthetic intervention appears to be rooted in low self-esteem related to the aging process or to some bodily nonconformity. As per the meaning of 'medicalization' adopted herein, biomedical rationality appropriates variations or anomalies of physical appearance, thus allowing the theme to be dealt with in terms of health and disease, normal and pathological.

  14. BEAUTIFUL, SENSE OF BEAUTY AND ELEMENTS OF BEAUTY IN TURKISH “MÂNİ”

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Kahraman Çolakoğlu

    2014-01-01

    This study underlines the “mâni” which represents anonymous folk literature reflecting Turkish cultural life. Turkish nation’s sense of beautiful and beauty, the elements of beauty which belong to beauty/beloved have been studied with reference to Turkish “mâni” in order to protect Turkish cultural treasures and ensure them to be inherited from generation to generation by functionalizing them. In the study, content analysis has been used in the process of data interpretation. 4068 “mâni”s...

  15. Open Charm and Beauty Production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Olaf [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    A review is provided of open charm and beauty production at HERA and its description by perturbative QCD (pQCD). Four years after the end of the data taking there is still a steady flow of new charm and beauty results from HERA. Among the results reported here are the first combined H1 and ZEUS measurements on the contribution from charm production to deep inelastic scattering (DIS), represented by the structure function F{sub 2}{sup cc{sup {sup M{sup a{sup c{sup r{sup o{sup n{sup }}}}}}}}}, as well as new precise results on the corresponding structure function for beauty production, F{sub 2}{sup bb{sup {sup M{sup a{sup c{sup r{sup o{sup n{sup }}}}}}}}}. Furthermore the situation of charm and beauty production in the photoproduction kinematic regime is reviewed. Since it is a related field also the first hadroproduction results from LHC are presented. A brief outlook is given on open heavy flavour prospects at possible future ep colliders, with a focus on the LHeC.

  16. Measurement of beauty production in DIS and extraction at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W.B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Gach, G.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Cracow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T. [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Aggarwal, R.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [University Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Borodin, M.; Gogota, O.; Kadenko, I.; Korol, I.; Kuprash, O.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Salii, A.; Tomalak, O.; Viazlo, V.; Volynets, O.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhmak, N.; Zolko, M. [National Academy of Sciences, and Kiev National University, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I.I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E. [and others

    2010-10-15

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}>2 GeV{sup 2}, and inelasticity, 0.05beauty contribution to the structure function F{sub 2} was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  17. BEAUTIFUL, SENSE OF BEAUTY AND ELEMENTS OF BEAUTY IN TURKISH “MÂNİ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Kahraman Çolakoğlu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study underlines the “mâni” which represents anonymous folk literature reflecting Turkish cultural life. Turkish nation’s sense of beautiful and beauty, the elements of beauty which belong to beauty/beloved have been studied with reference to Turkish “mâni” in order to protect Turkish cultural treasures and ensure them to be inherited from generation to generation by functionalizing them. In the study, content analysis has been used in the process of data interpretation. 4068 “mâni”s which are in the source tagged with “Demir, Necati (2013, Türk Mânileri, Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi” have been examined and they have been analyzed and assessed in line with the predetermined purpose. With this study, it is consolidated that the Turks have always had advanced sense of beauty; they have always been a nation who has a taste for beauty and taste and sense of aesthetic since the old historical periods. It is observed that the poetic themes of hair, eyebrow, eyelash, eye, beauty spot, cheek-dimple, face, cheek-dewlap, waist, heel, skin, age, speech, smile, smell, jewellery/ornament, deportment, coquetry/manner/affection are used as elements of beauty in Turkish “mâni”.

  18. Beautiful Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    春天到了,百花盛开,我们常说“美丽的鲜花”,就是:beautiful flowers。是不是觉得这两个单词有点儿难记呢?没关系,来玩玩我们的进宫吧,它能帮助你牢牢记住这两个单词的拼法。

  19. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  20. Beautiful Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Holger; Rinne, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the causal impact of participation in an active labor market program - the 'Beautiful Serbia' program providing training and temporary work in the construction sector in Serbia and Montenegro - on measures of subjective well-being approximating individual welfare. According to our estimates, the positive impact of this particular program appears much stronger judged by subjective well-being than judged by the immediate labor market effect.

  1. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  2. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that mainstream programmers can reap the benefits of purely functional programming like easily exploitable parallelism while using familiar structured programming syntax and without knowing concepts like monads. A second advantage is that professional purely functional programmers can often avoid hard to read functional code by using structured programming syntax that is often easier to parse mentally.

  3. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  4. THE BEAUTY AND THE SUBLIME

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Maria Brandão Guatimosim

    2008-01-01

    The text approaches the beauty and the sublime under the perspective of its intersections and of its function as barrier (the beauty), and as path to the reaching of desire (the sublime). From the kantian contribution to the notion of the Sublime along with the anxiety affect witch characterizes it, the concept of sublimation can be taken as a form of well saying, witch participates of a tragic-baroque esthetic, according with an impure desire ethic. Thereafter the text approaches the consequ...

  5. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  6. Chromatin Structure and Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wolffe, Alan P

    1999-01-01

    The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active

  7. Beauty pays but does investment in beauty?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soohyung

    2015-01-01

    Being beautiful gives a person an advantage in many settings. Attractive people earn more and have an easier time getting hired. People spend large amounts of money on goods and services to enhance their beauty. Is this enhancement worth pursuing? Research suggests that the expected improvement in beauty from these goods and services is limited. Therefore, despite the large returns from having an attractive appearance, the cost-effectiveness of investment in beauty enhancement is ambiguous. F...

  8. The small and the beautiful: how the star formation law affects galactic disc structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H.; Schmidt, W.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of different analytical parametrizations and fit functions for the local star formation rate in adaptive mesh refinement simulations of an isolated disc galaxy with the NYX code. Suchparametrizations express the star formation efficiency as function of the local turbulent Mach number and virial parameter. By employing the method of adaptively refined large eddy simulations, we are able to evaluate these physical parameters from the numerically unresolved turbulent energy associated with the grid scale. We consider both single and multi free-fall variants of star formation laws proposed by Padoan & Nordlund, Hennebelle & Chabrier, and Krumholz & McKee, summarized and tested recently with numerical simulations by Federrath & Klessen. We find that the global star formation rate and the relation between the local star formation rate and the gas column density is reproduced in agreement with observational constraints by all multi free-fall models of star formation. Some models with obsolete calibration or a single free-fall time-scale, however, result in an overly clumpy disc that does not resemble the structure of observed spirals.

  9. Beauty and critical art: is beauty at odds with critical–political engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Alina Asavei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, beauty is understood as an ability of some objects (artworks included to occasion in viewers a distinctive type of unmediated/pure pleasure—aesthetic pleasure. According to this common understanding of beauty, political–critical art does not seem to raise in viewers the feeling of aesthetic pleasure. Many contemporary critical artists and politically engaged artists deliberately produce an art as unappealing to the senses as possible (their attitude could be called, following Arthur Danto, kalliphobia—“beauty phobia”. Critical art is a type of art which usually does not strike us with beauty at first sight because this “political art” usually deals with issues of social injustice and political struggles, rendering contemplation and aesthetic pure pleasure unachievable. Yet, even if beauty, in critical art's case, seems to be a difficult, demanding, and not an immediately recognisable one (mostly because of its unappealing, unsettling look, this does not mean that it lacks or is at odds with critical engagement (as some critical artists and theorists have argued. The argument of this paper is that not every beautiful thing looks good at first sight. By the same token, not everything that looks beautiful is in fact beautiful. Drawing on Immanuel Kant's neglected pulchritude adhaerens (dependent beauty, I argue that political–critical art is characterised by a dependent type of beauty (beauty a thing has as a thing of a certain kind and with a certain function as opposed to free beauty (as something we like it freely on its own account, independent of what it is and what it does. Political–critical art can claim a dependent beauty (an impure, “difficult” and not straightforward pleasurable type of beauty without being compelled to submit itself, at the same time, to the free beauty.

  10. Beautiful asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHCb experiment at CERN will allow researchers to study the difference between matter and antimatter with unprecedented accuracy, explains Roger Forty. Our current understanding of matter and forces at the subatomic scale, as embodied in the Standard Model of particle physics, is widely considered incomplete. Its most famous missing ingredient is the Higgs Boson, thought to endow all particles with mass, but there are strong indications that other pieces of the theoretical jigsaw puzzle are missing too. One of these concerns 'dark matter', the mysterious substance thought to make up more than a fifth of the universe. Postulated to account for gravitational effects that cannot be explained by the amount of visible matter alone, dark matter could be made up of exotic new particles that are not described by the Standard Model. Fortunately, there is a good chance that such particles - and the Higgs - will be created in the high-energy collisions between protons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). There are two approaches to discovering such new physics. The first is to try and observe the new particles directly by detecting their decay products, which will be the goal of the two giant 'general-purpose' LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS. The alternative approach is to make precision measurements of parameters that are predicted within the Standard Model and to look for deviations that could be due to as-yet-undetected particles. This is the goal of the LHCb (LHC beauty) experiment, which is dedicated to the precision study of particles that contain the bottom or beauty quark. (U.K.)

  11. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir;

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...

  12. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves.

  13. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. PMID:26971117

  14. Charm and Beauty Production from Secondary Vertexing at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Paul [University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the Charm and Beauty Structure Functions using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e{sup -} p and e{sup +}p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5 < Q{sup 2} < 2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002 < x < 0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. Measurement of Charm and Beauty Jets in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA Measurements of the charm and beauty jet cross sections have been made in deep inelastic scattering at HERA for the kinematic region of photon virtuality Q{sup 2} > 6 GeV{sup 2} and elasticity variable 0.07 < y < 0.625 for jets in the laboratory frame with transverse energy E{sub T}{sup jet} > 6 GeV and pseudorapidity -1.0 < {eta}{sup jet} < 1.5. Measurements are also made requiring a jet in the Breit frame with E{sub T}{sup jet} > 6 GeV. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. The number of charm and beauty jets are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are compared with QCD predictions and with previous measurements obtained using muon tagging. Charm and beauty production in deep inelastic scattering from inclusive secondary vertexing at ZEUS Charm and beauty production in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector using the full HERA II data set. The charm and beauty contents

  15. Concerning Olga, the Beautiful Little Street Dancer (Adjectives as Higher-Order Polymorphic Functions)

    CERN Document Server

    Saba, Walid S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a typed compositional seman-tics for nominal compounds of the form [Adj Noun] that models adjectives as higher-order polymorphic functions, and where types are assumed to represent concepts in an ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in or-dinary language. In addition to [Adj Noun] compounds our proposal seems also to suggest a plausible explana-tion for well known adjective ordering restrictions.

  16. Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-05-01

    Although the concept of stress has earned a bad reputation, it is important to recognize that the adaptive purpose of a physiological stress response is to promote survival during fight or flight. While long-term stress is generally harmful, short-term stress can be protective as it prepares the organism to deal with challenges. This review discusses the immune effects of biological stress responses that can be induced by psychological, physiological, or physical (including exercise) stressors. We have proposed that short-term stress is one of the nature's fundamental but under-appreciated survival mechanisms that could be clinically harnessed to enhance immunoprotection. Short-term (i.e., lasting for minutes to hours) stress experienced during immune activation enhances innate/primary and adaptive/secondary immune responses. Mechanisms of immuno-enhancement include changes in dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking, maturation, and function as well as local and systemic production of cytokines. In contrast, long-term stress suppresses or dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by altering the Type 1-Type 2 cytokine balance, inducing low-grade chronic inflammation, and suppressing numbers, trafficking, and function of immunoprotective cells. Chronic stress may also increase susceptibility to some types of cancer by suppressing Type 1 cytokines and protective T cells and increasing regulatory/suppressor T cell function. Here, we classify immune responses as being protective, pathological, or regulatory, and discuss "good" versus "bad" effects of stress on health. Thus, short-term stress can enhance the acquisition and/or expression of immunoprotective (wound healing, vaccination, anti-infectious agent, anti-tumor) or immuno-pathological (pro-inflammatory, autoimmune) responses. In contrast, chronic stress can suppress protective immune responses and/or exacerbate pathological immune responses. Studies such as the ones discussed

  17. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzadi, Ramoona

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv Univ., Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W.B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Gach, G.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Cracow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T. [Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Aggarwal, R.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab Univ., Dept. of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [Univ. Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna (Italy); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna (Italy); Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M. [Univ. del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Aushev, V.; Dolinska, G.; Gogota, O.; Korol, I.; Viazlo, O. [National Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv, Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Aushev, Y.; Bartosik, N.; Bolilyi, O.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Onishchuk, Y.; Salii, A.; Tomalak, O.; Volynets, O.; Zenaiev, O.; Zolko, M. [National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv, Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B. [and others

    2011-02-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  20. The small and the beautiful: How the star formation law affects galactic disk structure

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of different analytical parameterizations and fit functions for the local star formation rate in AMR simulations of an isolated disk galaxy with the Nyx code. Such parameterizations express the star formation efficiency as function of the local turbulent Mach number and viral parameter. By employing the method of adaptively refined large eddy simulations, we are able to evaluate these physical parameters from the numerically unresolved turbulent energy associated with the grid scale. We consider both single and multi free-fall variants of star formation laws proposed by Padoan & Nordlund, Hennebelle & Chabrier, and Krumholz & McKee. We find that the global star formation rate and the relation between the local star formation rate and the gas column density is reproduced in agreement with observational constraints by all multi free-fall models of star formation. Some models with obsolete calibration or a single free-fall time scale, however, result in an overly clumpy d...

  1. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-15

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q{sup 2}, Bjorken x, jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q{sup 2}. The running beauty-quark mass, m{sub b} at the scale m{sub b}, was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m{sub b}(m{sub b})=4.07±0.14(fit){sup +0.01}{sub -0.07} (mod.){sup +0.05}{sub -0.00}(param.){sup +0.08}{sub -0.05}(theo) GeV.

  2. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E.G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P.J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C.D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R.K.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L.A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J.F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Idris, F.Mohamad; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R.J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q^2 < 1000 GeV^2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb^{-1}. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q^2, Bjorken x, jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q^2. The running beauty-quark mass, m_b at the scale m_b, was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be 4.07 \\pm 0.14 (fit} ^{+0.01}_{-0.07} (mod.) ^{+0.05}_{-0.00} (param.) ^{+0.08}_{-0.05} (theo) GeV.

  3. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 522 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q2, Bjorken x, jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q2. The running beauty-quark mass, mb at the scale mb, was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be mb(mb)=4.07±0.14(fit)+0.01-0.07 (mod.)+0.05-0.00(param.)+0.08-0.05(theo) GeV.

  4. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2014-10-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2, Bjorken x, jet trans- verse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2. The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b ( m b ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit){-/0.07 + 0.01}(mod.){-/0.00 + 0.05}(param.){-/0.05 + 0.08}(theo.) GeV.

  5. The Real Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓媛

    2015-01-01

    it is well-known that all men search for beauty.Although the definition of beauty changes as time goes by,people still spare no efforts to pursue beauty in their lives.Meanwhile,most people try every means to make their body images better.With more people increasingly being eager for beauty in various ways,it is high time that we should think deeply about the concept of real beauty.In this paper,an attempt has been made to shed light on the real beauty.It is not completely physical appearance or slim figure,but a healthy body and peaceful mind as well as admirable courage.Above all,whether people can realize the nature of real beauty is certainly worthwhile for us to ponder.

  6. The Real Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓媛

    2015-01-01

    it is well-known that all men search for beauty. Although the definition of beauty changes as time goes by,people still spare no efforts to pursue beauty in their lives. Meanwhile,most people try every means to make their body images better.With more people increasingly being eager for beauty in various ways,it is high time that we should think deeply about the concept of real beauty.Inthis paper,an attempt has been made to shed light on the real beauty.It is not completely physical appearance or slim figure,but a healthy body and peaceful mind as well as admirable courage.Above all,whether people can realize the nature of real beauty is certainly worthwhile for us to ponder.

  7. 分析建筑设计的实用与美观融合%Analysis of functional and beautiful architectural design integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄意鑫

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is the science and technology, history and culture and crystallization, as China's economic development, people's rising living standards, spiritual needs are growing. Availability of housing construction can not meet people's needs, has become an essential part of the beautiful, functional and beautiful fusion of how to become a focus of current exploration. This paper describes the construction of practical and artistic "construction, and then discuss how to integrate the two to create both functional and aesthetically pleasing architectural design.%建筑是历史文化与科学技术的结晶,随着我国经济的发展,人们的生活水平不断提高,精神文明的需求也在不断增长。房屋的实用性已经不能满足人们对建筑的需求,美观也成为必不可少的一部分,如何将实用与美观融合成为了现今探索的重点。本文首先讲述了建筑的实用性以及建筑艺术性,然后讨论如何将两者进行融合,创造出既实用又美观的建筑设计。

  8. Multi-functional composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-27

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  9. Multi-functional composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2004-10-19

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  10. Charm and Beauty Production from Semileptonic Decays at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juengst, Markus [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the photoproduction of b-quarks at threshold at HERA The cross section of bb-bar photoproduction in ep collisions is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Events containing b-quarks are identified through detection of two low momentum electrons in the final state. Semileptonic decays bb-bar {yields} ee X are exploited in the kinematic range of the photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}, the inelasticity 0.2 < y < 0.8 and the pseudorapidity of the b-quarks |{eta}(b), {eta}(b-bar)| < 2. The differential b-quark production cross section is measured as a function of the transverse b-quark momentum and extends the previously experimentally accessible phase space towards the b-quark production threshold. The results are compared to other b-quark cross section measurements, as well as to QCD predictions. Measurement of charm and beauty production in deep inelastic ep scattering from decays into muons at HERA The production of charm and beauty quarks in ep interactions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA for squared four-momentum exchange Q{sup 2}>20 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. Charm and beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Differential cross sections were measured for muon transverse momenta p{sub T}{sup {mu}>}1.5 GeV and pseudo-rapidities -1.6<{eta}{sup {mu}<}2.3, as a function of p{sub T}{sup {mu}}, {eta}{sup {mu}}, Q{sup 2} and Bjorken x. The charm and beauty contributions to the proton structure function F{sub 2} were also extracted. The results agree with previous measurements based on independent techniques and are well described by QCD predictions. Measurement of beauty production in DIS and F2b b-bar extraction at ZEUS Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of events with beauty quarks

  11. Open Beauty Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sefkow, Felix

    2001-01-01

    We review measurements of open beauty production at HERA, with emphasis on recent results based on lifetime signatures. The beauty cross sections in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering are found to be higher than expected in QCD at next-to-leading order. The discussion includes new results on beauty production in e+e-, gamma-gamma and p-bar-p interactions. An outlook on the potential for measurements with the upgraded HERA collider and experiments is also given.

  12. Charm and Beauty in Photoproduction at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Monica

    2014-04-01

    The photoproduction of beauty and charm quarks at the ep collider HERA are presented. The b-quarks production was investigated in the bb → eeX' channel and the differential production cross section was measured as a function of the average transverse momentum of the beauty quarks down to the threshold. The cross section of D* meson decaying in the golden channel was determined both inclusively and in D*-tagged dijet events. Exploiting the characteristics of the heavy-flavoured hadron decays, beauty and charm quark cross sections were also measured in dijet events using secondary vertices or semi-muonic decays.

  13. Beauty and Cuteness in Peripheral Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana eKuraguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Guo, Liu, & Roebuck (2011 showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006, we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45 observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter. The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  14. Beautifully strange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The list of famous Bristolians is an illustrious one. The Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, for example, is recognized everywhere in Bristol for his many iconic structures, even though he was not born, bred or even resident in the city. Another well-known son of the city is the Hollywood legend Cary Grant, born as Archie Leach in the suburb of Horfield and now commemorated with a striking bronze statue outside Bristol's hands-on science museum. The physicist Paul Dirac actually went to the same elementary school as Grant/Leach, and the abstract sculpture dedicated to him stands just a stone's throw away from Grant's bronze likeness. Dirac also has a building named after him: Dirac House, the headquarters of IOP Publishing (which publishes Physics World).

  15. Charm, beauty and top at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, O.; Geiser, A.; Lisovyi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  16. Charm, Beauty and Top at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, O; Lisovyi, M

    2015-01-01

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  17. Charm, Beauty and Top at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, O.; Geiser, A.; Lisovyi, M.

    2015-06-15

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  18. Charm, Beauty and Top at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  19. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  20. Musings about Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…

  1. Payments for scenic beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Rohit; Kerr, John

    2007-01-01

    Although payments for scenic beauty are older than payment schemes for most other environmental services, scenic beauty itself is hard to define. It often encompasses a range of environmental services for consumptive (hunting, fishing) or non-consumptive (bird watching, boating) use. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  2. Measruement of beauty production in DIS and F{sub 2}{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b} extraction at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}>2 GeV{sup 2}, and inelasticity, 0.05beauty contribution to the structure function F{sub 2} was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  3. Asymmetry and Symmetry in the Beauty of Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hessamian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in the published literature has mostly been on symmetry as the critical source for beauty judgment. In fact, both symmetry and asymmetry serve as highly aesthetic sources of beauty, whether the context is perceptual or conceptual. The human brain is characterized by symbolic cognition and this type of cognition facilitates a range of aesthetic reactions. For example, both art and natural scenery contain asymmetrical elements, which nevertheless render the whole effect beautiful. A further good case in point is, in fact, human faces. Normally, faces are structurally left-right symmetrical content-wise but not size-wise or function-wise. Attractiveness has often been discussed in terms of content-wise full-face symmetry. To test whether or not attractiveness can be gleaned only from the presence of left-right full-faces we tested half faces. Three separate groups of participants viewed and rated the attractiveness of 56 full-faces (women’s and men’s, their 56 vertical left hemi-faces and 56 vertical right hemi-faces. We found no statistically significant differences in the attractiveness ratings of full- and hemi-faces (whether left or right. Instead, we found a strong and significant positive correlation between the ratings of the hemi- and full-faces. These results are consistent with the view that the underpinning of human facial beauty is complex and that bilateral symmetry does not constitute a principle factor in beauty assessment. We discuss that the highly evolved human brain, compared to other animals, as well as symbolic and abstract cognition in humans enable a wide variety of aesthetic reactions.

  4. Cycles of Beauty Culture: Ethnography of Beauty Clinics Commodification

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Murlianti

    2014-01-01

    Skin care is not a completely new in beauty treatments. Previously there have been other types of cultural industry which also adopted the medical science, such as cosmetic and beauty salon industries. But, skin care beauty clinic successfully introduces the services of beauty treatments which are considered the healthiest. This paper is a summary of the research on how beauty clinic quickly became a part of everyday life of its consumers. The research focused on Natasha Skin Care, a most pop...

  5. Effect of new adjuvant chemotherapy combined with reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy on breast retention beauty effect and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Lin Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of new adjuvant chemotherapy combined with reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy on breast retention beauty effect and immune function.Methods:110 cases patients with breast cancer were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group and control group. Observation group received reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy, control group received conventional modified radical mastectomy. Then cosmetic effect, quality of life and negative emotion and immune function were compared.Results:(1) Cosmetic effects: Cosmetic effect of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group (92.73%vs. 58.18%). (2) Negative emotions: AMA, HAMD, SAS, SDS scores of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group; (3) Immune function: CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells of the observation group were significantly higher than those of control group; CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of control group. (4) Life quality and negative emotions: life quality score and HAMA score, HAMD score, SAS score, SDS score of the observation group were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: Reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy helps to improve cosmetic effect, alleviate negative mood, enhance immune function, and improve patients’ life quality.

  6. Structural Chemistry of Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ This innovative research group on structural chemistry of functional materials was approved by NSFC in 2005.Headed by Prof.HONG Maochun, the team consists of several young research scientists from the CAS Fujian Institute of Research on the Structures of Matter, including Profs CAO Rong, LU Canzhong, GUO Guocong, CHEN Zhongning, MAO Jianggao Mao and CHEN Ling.

  7. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  8. Beauty in chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Atkins

    2006-01-01

    Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  9. Conference Summary - Beauty 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Sheldon

    2000-01-01

    Comment: 19 pages, 8 figures; to be published in Proceedings of Beauty 2000, Kibbutz Maagan, Israel, September, 2000, edited by S. Erhan, Y. Rozen, and P. E. Schlein, Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, 2001. Corrected references

  10. Beauty and the Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanette C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the television program "Beauty and the Beast." Suggests that, despite his inhuman appearance, the Beast has transcended the physical confinement of the tunnels and has traveled the universe of his imagination. (RS)

  11. What Is Beauty?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡应余

    2007-01-01

    <正> It seems that beauty and women are twins. You are joking? No, I am not. Observe for yourself. Ads on fashion flood TV screens, radio programs, magazines, newspapers, and the streets. Whether they have realized or not, women are besieged by a sea of fashions. They are taught to think that without beautiful clothes they will grow old and lose their charm. So who dares to neglect dressing up at the cost of their appearance and youth?

  12. The medicalization of beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Poli Neto; Sandra N.C. Caponi; Silvana Polchlopek

    2007-01-01

    Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study o...

  13. BEAUTY'99 Conference Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, P.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of B hadrons are expected to break new ground in measuring CP-violation effects. This series of BEAUTY conferences, originating from the 1993 conference in Liblice, has contributed significantly in developing ideas of CP-violation measurements using B hadrons and formulating and comparing critically the B-physics experiments. In the '99 conference in Bled we saw the ripening of the field and the first fruit emerging - Tevatron have produced beautiful B-physics results and more ...

  14. Chinese Beauty Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing beauty Zhang Zilin walked away with the Miss World 2007 crown before a partisan crowd on December 1,daz- zling the judging panel with her high-voltage smile and elegant confidence. The 23-year-old Miss China set the night alight in Sanya,in south China’s Hainan Province,when she emerged from a bevy of 106 of the world’s most beautiful women to become China’s first Miss World in 57 years

  15. Unitarity Corrections and Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Ducati, M B

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the color dipole picture for the description of the deep inelastic process, mainly the structure functions which are driven directly by the gluon distribution. Estimates for those functions are obtained using the effective dipole cross section given by the Glauber-Mueller approach in QCD, encoding the corrections due to the unitarity effects associated with the saturation phenomenon. Frame invariance is verified in the calculations of the observables when analysing the experimental data.

  16. Structure functions and parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom); Roberts, R.G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.

  17. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  18. The dipole model structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to the evolution of the valence structure functions based on the Colour Dipole Cascade Model for deep inelastic lepto-production. We show that this approach leads to an evolution equation similar to the DGLAP equation. In our approach the dependence on Q2 is however much weaker and the evolution levels out at high Q2. (orig.)

  19. Shape of hadron structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q02 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states gives good results for nucleon, pion, and kaon structure functions. 2 figures

  20. Small is beautiful: the unusual transformation of nanocrystalline layered α-zirconium phosphate into a new 3D structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Monica; Vivani, Riccardo; Donnadio, Anna; Troni, Elisabetta; Fop, Sacha; Casciola, Mario

    2015-09-21

    Nanosized α-zirconium phosphate, α-ZrP, undergoes a phase transition at 120 °C, which is not observed with microcrystalline α-ZrP in the same conditions, and which leads to a new 3D phase. The new compound, with formula Zr(HPO4)2 (τ'-ZrP), consists of cubelike nanoparticles and has a tetragonal unit cell (space group P43212, a = 7.955 Å, c = 10.744 Å). The structure of τ'-ZrP is in close relationship with that of the already known τ-ZrP. Both structures are made of packed chains of eight-membered rings, composed of Zr atoms connected to bridging HPO4 groups. The main difference between the two structures concerns the different orientation of the uncoordinated P-OH groups, pointing into the channels. The in situ XRPD analysis on nanosized α-ZrP, performed at 120 °C as a function of time, provided information about the kinetics of the formation of τ'-ZrP, showing that the α-ZrP phase is directly transformed into τ'-ZrP. Moreover, τ'-ZrP is converted into α-ZrP at room temperature in the presence of water vapor. It was proved that the free phosphoric acid, which is originally present in small amounts in nanosized α-ZrP and τ'-ZrP, is necessary for the interconversion between the two phases. As a matter of fact, the removal of phosphoric acid, by washing α-ZrP and τ'-ZrP with anhydrous ethanol, inhibits the above conversion. PMID:26322869

  1. Proton structure functions at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Bruno

    2001-10-01

    The electron-proton collider HERA, like an electron-mycroscope, explores the structure of the proton down to 10-16 cm and up to the situation of very high parton densities. The proton energy was upgraded from 820 to 920 GeV in the Fall of '98 and the luminosity has also substantially improved, with another factor of 3 upgrade expected to follow this year. Inclusive proton structure functions have been studied with incident e+ and e- of 27 GeV in the neutral (NC) and charged (CC) current interactions as functions of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2, and of the fractional proton momentum carried by partons, x. The structure function F2, as well as the γ-Z0 interference term xF3, have been measured in a range of Q2 and 1/x that extends by orders of magnitude that reached by fixed target experiments. The DGLAP evolution equations [1] allow for a perturbative NLO QCD fit of the measured non-perturbative structure functions in the available kinematic range: αS and the gluon density at low x are fitted at the same time with good precision. The longitudinal structure function, FL, can be determined within the DGLAP formalism. With CC, the electroweak unification has been tested; at high x, a first flavor decomposition of the light quarks is achieved. The contribution to F2 of the charm quark has been measured and results to be relevant. Bounds on the radius of quarks and on compositeness are derived from the data at the highest Q2, 100

  2. Factor XIII: Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Verena; Kohler, Hans P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last two decades, it became evident that factor XIII (FXIII) is not only a crucial determinant of clot characteristics but also has potentially important functions in many various fields such as bone biology, immunity, and adipogenesis. In this review, we aim to summarize the latest findings regarding structure and function of FXIII. In regard to FXIII structure, much progress has been made recently to understand how its subunits are held together. In the A subunit, the activation peptide has a crucial role in the formation of FXIII-A2 dimers. In the B subunit, Sushi domains that are involved in binding to the A subunit and in B2 dimer formation have been identified. In regard to FXIII function, interactions with immune cells and the complement system have been described. A novel function of FXIII-A in adipogenesis has been suggested. The role of FXIII-A in osteoblast differentiation has been further investigated; however, a novel double knockout mouse deficient in both FXIII-A and transglutaminase 2 showed normal bone formation. Thus, more research, in particular, into the cellular functions of FXIII-A is still required. PMID:27019464

  3. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  4. Why Beauty Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblat, Tanya; Mobius, Markus

    2006-01-01

    We decompose the beauty premium in an experimental labor market where “employers†determine wages of “workers†who perform a maze-solving task. This task requires a true skill which we show to be unaffected by physical attractiveness. We find a sizable beauty premium and can identify three transmission channels: (a) physically attractive workers are more confident and higher confidence increases wages; (b) for a given level of confidence, physically attractive workers are (wrongly) cons...

  5. Beauty in Hume's Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Salmani

    2010-01-01

    Although Hume, regarding his basic ideas, explicitly identifies beauty as a sentiment, but in some passages it is introduced not as a sentiment but as a real quality. In some other passages, it also seemed like a secondary quality. Some interpreters, just by referring to these unclear passages in Hume’s writings, offered a kind of interpretations from Hume’s basic idea of beauty that finally is incompatible with his entire philosophy. We attempt, in this paper, by presenting the Hume’s theory...

  6. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from the web.

  7. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-01-01

    Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from t...

  8. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  9. Structure and Function of Glucansucrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, B. W.; Vujičić-Žagar, A.

    2008-03-01

    Glucansucrases are relatively large (~160 kDa) extracellular enzymes produced by lactic acid bacteria. Using sucrose as a substrate they synthesize high molecular mass glucose polymers, called α-glucans, which allow the bacteria to adhere to surfaces and create a biofilm. The glucan polymers are of importance for the food and dairy industry as thickening and jellying agents. An overview is given of the current insights into the structure and functioning of these and related enzymes.

  10. A Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based genetic sensor for functional screening of vitamin D3 analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Sharma, Nynne; Bak, Rasmus Otkjær;

    2011-01-01

    Analogues of vitamin D3 are extensively used in the treatment of various illnesses, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory skin diseases, and cancer. Functional testing of new vitamin D3 analogues and formulations for improved systemic and topical administration is supported by sensitive screening me...

  11. Measurement of charm and beauty production in deep inelastic ep scattering from decays into muons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The production of charm and beauty quarks in ep interactions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA for squared four-momentum exchange Q{sup 2} > 20GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. Charm and beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Differential cross sections were measured for muon transverse momenta p{sub T}{sup {mu}}>1.5 GeV and pseudorapidities -1.6<{eta}{sup {mu}}<2.3, as a function of p{sub T}{sup {mu}}, {eta}{sup {mu}}, Q{sup 2} and Bjorken x. The charm and beauty contributions to the proton structure function F{sub 2} were also extracted. The results agree with previous measurements based on independent techniques and are well described by QCD predictions. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of charm and beauty production in deep inelastic ep scattering from decays into muons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Mattingly, M.C.K. [Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI (United States); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [Bologna University (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Paul, E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brook, N.H.; Heath, G.P.; Morris, J.D. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E. [Calabria University, Physics Department (Italy); INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Kim, J.Y. [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Ibrahim, Z.A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T. [Universiti Malaya, Jabatan Fizik, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F. [Columbia Univ., Nevis Laboratories, Irvington on Hudson, NY (United States); Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Cracow (Poland); Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W. [Jagellonian Univ., Dept. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)] [and others

    2010-01-15

    The production of charm and beauty quarks in ep interactions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA for squared four-momentum exchange Q{sup 2}>20 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. Charm and beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Differential cross sections were measured for muon transverse momenta p{sub T}{sup {mu}}>1.5 GeV and pseudorapidities -1.6<{eta} {sup {mu}} <2.3, as a function of p{sub T}{sup {mu}}, {eta}{sup {mu}}, Q{sup 2} and Bjorken x. The charm and beauty contributions to the proton structure function F{sub 2} were also extracted. The results agree with previous measurements based on independent techniques and are well described by QCD predictions. (orig.)

  13. My Beautiful Friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷全

    2004-01-01

    I have many toys in my room.Al-though they can’t speak,I treat them asmy friends.I like playing with them.Among them,my favorite is the beautiful girl-Barbiedoll.Her name is Kelly,same as my English name.She cameto my family a year ago as my birthday gift.

  14. A Window of Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yan Hong (front, third from the right), Mr Leo Passage, President of Pivot Point (front, second from the right) and Peng Jinzhao, President of Pivot Point—Asia Region (front, fourth from the right) with the students of the Sichuan Pivot Point Beauty Institute.

  15. Spectroscopy of beautiful baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caloi, R.; Gentile, S.; Mignani, R. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1980-09-20

    By assuming a non-relativistic quark model, an estimate of the masses of the low-lying (non-strange and non-charmed) beautiful baryons is given. Electromagnetic mass splittings of the same baryons are also discussed in some detail.

  16. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir eZeki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source such as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to image the activity in the brains of 15 mathematicians when they viewed mathematical formulae which they had individually rated as beautiful, indifferent or ugly. Results showed that the experience of mathematical beauty correlates parametrically with activity in the same part of the emotional brain, namely field A1 of the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC, as the experience of beauty derived from other sources.

  17. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Atiyah, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the activity in the brains of 15 mathematicians when they viewed mathematical formulae which they had individually rated as beautiful, indifferent or ugly. Results showed that the experience of mathematical beauty correlates parametrically with activity in the same part of the emotional brain, namely field A1 of the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), as the experience of beauty derived from other sources.

  18. Tissue Factor Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Butenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein that is essential to life. It is a component of the factor VIIa-TF complex enzyme and plays a primary role in both normal hemostasis and thrombosis. With a vascular injury, TF becomes exposed to blood and binds plasma factor VIIa, and the resulting complex initiates a series of enzymatic reactions leading to clot formation and vascular sealing. Many cells, both healthy, and tumor cells, produce detectable amounts of TF, especially when they are stimulated by various agents. Despite the relative simplicity and small size of TF, there are numerous contradictory reports about the synthesis and presentation of TF on blood cells and circulation in normal blood either on microparticles or as a soluble protein. Another subject of controversy is related to the structure/function of TF. It has been almost commonly accepted that cell-surface-associated TF has low (if any activity, that is, is “encrypted” and requires specific conditions/reagents to become active, that is, “decrypted.” However there is a lack of agreement related to the mechanism and processes leading to alterations in TF function. In this paper TF structure, presentation, and function, and controversies concerning these features are discussed.

  19. Supramolecular Structure and Function 9

    CERN Document Server

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta

    2007-01-01

    The book is based on International Summer Schools on Biophysics held in Croatia which, contrary to other workshops centered mainly on one topic or technique, has very broad scope providing advanced training in areas related to biophysics. This volume is presenting papers in the field of biophysics for studying biological phenomena by using physical methods (NMR, EPR, FTIR, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) and/or concepts (predictions of protein-protein interactions, virtual ligand screening etc.). The interrelationship of supramolecular structures and there functions is enlightened by applications of principals of these physical methods in the biophysical and molecular biology context.

  20. Structure and function of aggrecan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aggrecan is the major proteoglycan in the articular cartilage. This molecule is important in the proper functioning of articular cartilage because it provides a hydrated gel structure (via its interaction with hyaluronan and link protein) that endows the cartilage with load-bearing properties. It is also crucial in chondroskeletal morphogenesis during development. Aggrecan is a multimodular molecule expressed by chondrocytes. Its core protein is composed of three globular domains (Gl, G2, and G3) and a large extended region (CS) between G2 and G3 for glycosaminoglycan chain attachment. G1 comprises the amino terminus of the core protein. This domain has the same structural motif as link protein. Functionally, the G1 domain interacts with hyaluronan acid and link protein, forming stable ternary complexes in the extracellular matrix.G2 is homologous to the tandem repeats of G1 and of link protein and is involved in product processing. G3makes up the carboxyl terminus of the core protein. It enhances glycosaminoglycan modification and product secretion. Aggrecan plays an important role in mediating chondrocyte-chondrocyte and chondrocyte-matrix interactions through its ability to bind hyaluronan.

  1. The face, beauty, and symmetry: Perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidel, Dr. Dahlia W.; Cohen, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of “beautiful” faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. “Same” responses were allowed. No difference between the...

  2. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  3. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, E.F.

    1973-01-01

    The author feels that ''an almost universal idolatry of gigantism'' has caused the urgent crisis of today's society. The book expresses his philosophy of the beauty of thinking in less grandiose terms. He offers some smaller-scale yet highly feasible solutions to many of the problems created by bigness--the environmental crisis, the energy shortage, the dehumanization of industrial workers, the flight from rural areas, and the decay of cities. (MCW)

  4. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  5. Shibusa: extracting beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Monty; Dickens, Pip

    2012-01-01

    Shibusa – Extracting Beauty celebrates a number of artistic endeavours: music, painting and the skill of making in general with particular reflection upon Japanese aesthetics. Composer, Monty Adkins and visual artist, Pip Dickens (through a Leverhulme Trust Award collaboration) investigate commonality and difference between the visual arts and music exploring aspects of rhythm, pattern, colour and vibration as well as outlining processes utilised to evolve new works within these practic...

  6. Sublimity, beauty and decorum

    OpenAIRE

    White, Luke

    2007-01-01

    This catalogue essay examines the work of two contemporary abstract painters, Maisie Kendall and Richmond Burton, who were showing together at the Royal Academy Schools Gallery in London, in Autumn 2007. It traces the fate of the "decorative" in modern art, and relates this term to Neoclassical attitudes to decorum. Tracing the turn away from decorum as a validating term in art, with the rise of the related (and gendered) notions of the sublime and the beautiful (with the privileging of the f...

  7. Politics of Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Ken-ichi Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    I look back at the history of modern aesthetics to grasp its current situation and to propose its possibilities for the future. The early modern period, during which aesthetics came into being, was a great historical turning point for civilization. Our contemporary period shares this character, and it is worthwhile for us to consult its history in order to reflect on our civilization. Aesthetics began with Baumgarten’s proposal, which consisted in a triple subject: sensibility, beauty, an...

  8. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  9. A beautiful theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ed Nosal; Peter Rupert

    2002-01-01

    It wasn’t A Beautiful Mind—the book or the movie—that made John Forbes Nash, Jr., famous. It was his work in game theory, a theory that models strategic interactions between people as games. Before Nash, the only games theorists could get a handle on were artificial ones with no real-world applications. Nash’s insights enabled economists to expand the use of game theory to interesting practical problems.

  10. Measurement of charm and beauty production in deep inelastic ep scattering from decays into muons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of charm and beauty quarks in ep interactions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA for squared four-momentum exchange Q2 > 20GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb-1. Charm and beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Differential cross sections were measured for muon transverse momenta pTμ>1.5 GeV and pseudorapidities -1.6μTμ, ημ, Q2 and Bjorken x. The charm and beauty contributions to the proton structure function F2 were also extracted. The results agree with previous measurements based on independent techniques and are well described by QCD predictions. (orig.)

  11. Two beautiful new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In beautiful agreement with the Standard Model, two new excited states (see below) of the Λb beauty particle have just been observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Similarly to protons and neutrons, Λb is composed of three quarks. In the Λb’s case, these are up, down and… beauty.   Although discovering new particles is increasingly looking like a routine exercise for the LHC experiments (see previous features), it is far from being an obvious performance, particularly when the mass of the particles is high. Created in the high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC, these new excited states of the Λb particle have been found to have a mass of, respectively, 5912 MeV/c2 and 5920 MeV/c2. In other words, they are over five times heavier than the proton or the neutron. Physicists only declare a discovery when data significantly show the relevant signal. In order to do that, they often have to analyse large samples of data. To ...

  12. Structures and Functions of Oligosaccharins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter

    1995-12-01

    We have made considerable progress during the 2.5 year funding period just ending in our studies of the structures and functions of oligosaccharide signal molecules (oligosaccharins). We have emphasized studies of the enzymes that solubilize, process, and degrade oligosaccharins and of the proteins that inhibit those enzymes. We have been especially interested in elucidating how oligosaccharins and their processing enzymes participate in determining the outcome of challenges to plants by pathogenic microbes. We have studied, to a lesser extent, the roles of oligosaccharins in plant growth and development. Abstracts of papers describing results acquired with support from this grant that have been published, submitted, or in preparation are presented to summarize the progress made during the last two and one half years. The report highlights the most important contributions made in our oiigosaccharin research during this time period, and the corresponding abstract is referenced. Results of work in progress are described primarily in conjunction with our application for continued support.

  13. Preasymptotic effects in beauty decays

    OpenAIRE

    Guberina, B.; Melic, B.; Stefancic, H.

    2000-01-01

    Large preasymptotic effects in beauty decays have been found using heavy-quark and SU(3) symmetry, as well as experimental data on charmed hyperons. Contrary to rather uniform beauty-meson lifetimes, a much larger spread of beauty-baryon lifetimes is predicted. However, it is highly unlikely that, theoretically, the $ \\tau(\\Lambda_b)/\\tau(B_d^0) $ ratio, which at present deviates more than $1\\sigma$ from the experimental result, can be lowered below 0.9.

  14. Hadroproduction of Charm and Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Karchin, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    Recent results on the hadroproduction of charm and beauty are discussed in the context of the current theoretical and experimental status. The areas covered include production of open charm and beauty particles and charm and beauty quarkonia. Experimental results from both fixed target and colliding beam experiments are presented and compared to theoretical predictions. Predictions based on QCD perturbation theory are generally successful in explaining the shapes of differential cross section...

  15. Structure Functions in Semihadronic Tau Decays

    OpenAIRE

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Finkemeier, Markus; Mirkes, Erwin; Urech, Res

    1996-01-01

    We review a variety of topics related to hadronic structure functions in exclusive semihadronic tau decays. We introduce the concept of structure functions and summarize the most important concepts. We then calculate the decay $\\tau \\to 3 \\pi \

  16. Structure Function Estimated From Histological Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William D

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic scattering is determined by not only the properties of individual scatterers but also the correlation among scatterer positions. The role of scatterer spatial correlation is significant for dense medium, but has not been fully understood. The effect of scatterer spatial correlation may be modeled by the structure function as a frequency-dependent factor in the backscatter coefficient (BSC) expression. The structure function has been previously estimated from the BSC data. The aim of this study is to estimate the structure function from histology to test if the acoustically estimated structure function is indeed caused by the scatterer spatial distribution. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections from dense cell pellet biophantoms were digitized. The scatterer positions were determined manually from the histological images. The structure function was calculated from the extracted scatterer positions. The structure function obtained from histology showed reasonable agreement in the shape but not in the amplitude, compared with the structure function previously estimated from the backscattered data. Fitting a polydisperse structure function model to the histologically estimated structure function yielded relatively accurate cell radius estimates ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, two types of mouse tumors that have similar cell size and shape but distinct cell spatial distributions were studied, where the backscattered data were shown to be related to the cell spatial distribution through the structure function estimated from histology. In conclusion, the agreement between acoustically estimated and histologically estimated structure functions suggests that the acoustically estimated structure function is related to the scatterer spatial distribution.

  17. Literary aesthetics: beauty, the brain, and Mrs. Dalloway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that beauty is in part a matter of prototype approximation. Some research suggests that unanticipated pattern recognition is important as well. This essay begins by briefly outlining an account of beauty based on these factors. It goes on to consider complications. Minor complications include the partial incompatibility of these accounts and the importance of differentiating judgments of beauty from aesthetic response. More serious issues include the relative neglect of literature in neurologically-based discussions of beauty, which tend to focus on music or visual art. There is also a relative neglect of emotion, beyond the reward system. Finally, there is the almost complete absence of the sublime. After considering these problems broadly, the essay turns to Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway, examining its treatment of beauty and sublimity. The aim of this section is not merely to illuminate Woolf's novel by reference to neuroscientific research. It is equally, perhaps more fully, to expand our neuroscientifically grounded account of aesthetic response by drawing on Woolf's novel. In Mrs. Dalloway, there are gestures toward prototypes and patterns in beauty. But the key features are clearly emotional. Specifically, the emotions at issue in feelings of beauty and sublimity appear to be primarily attachment, on the one hand, and a profound sense of isolation, on the other. Woolf's novel also points us toward other features of aesthetic experience, crucially including the emotion-sharing that is a key function of the production and circulation of art.

  18. Literary aesthetics: beauty, the brain, and Mrs. Dalloway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that beauty is in part a matter of prototype approximation. Some research suggests that unanticipated pattern recognition is important as well. This essay begins by briefly outlining an account of beauty based on these factors. It goes on to consider complications. Minor complications include the partial incompatibility of these accounts and the importance of differentiating judgments of beauty from aesthetic response. More serious issues include the relative neglect of literature in neurologically-based discussions of beauty, which tend to focus on music or visual art. There is also a relative neglect of emotion, beyond the reward system. Finally, there is the almost complete absence of the sublime. After considering these problems broadly, the essay turns to Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway, examining its treatment of beauty and sublimity. The aim of this section is not merely to illuminate Woolf's novel by reference to neuroscientific research. It is equally, perhaps more fully, to expand our neuroscientifically grounded account of aesthetic response by drawing on Woolf's novel. In Mrs. Dalloway, there are gestures toward prototypes and patterns in beauty. But the key features are clearly emotional. Specifically, the emotions at issue in feelings of beauty and sublimity appear to be primarily attachment, on the one hand, and a profound sense of isolation, on the other. Woolf's novel also points us toward other features of aesthetic experience, crucially including the emotion-sharing that is a key function of the production and circulation of art. PMID:24290272

  19. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  20. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates.

    OpenAIRE

    Semir eZeki; John Paul Romaya; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source such as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the activity in the b...

  1. Beauty and Testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Robert

    2000-01-01

    I ask whether, and how far, it is possible legitimately to acquire the belief that a given item is beautiful on the basis of someone's testimony that it is. This is an issue that concerned Kant. Kant held that testimony could never be a legitimate source of such judgements, and clearly took his account of aesthetic judgement to explain this fact. I argue that Kant's theory does not, in fact, provide the materials for a satisfactory explanation. Was Kant at least right about the explanadum? Wh...

  2. A Corporate Beauty Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, John R.; Campbell R. Harvey; Manju Puri

    2010-01-01

    We conduct beauty contest experiments, using close to 2,000 subjects to study the facial traits of CEOs. In one experiment we use pairs of photographs and find that subjects rate CEO faces as appearing more "competent" and less "likable" than non-CEO faces. Another experiment matches CEOs from large firms against CEOs from smaller firms and finds large-firm CEOs look more competent and likable. In a third experiment, subjects numerically rate the facial traits of CEOs. We find that executive ...

  3. Beauty97 Conference Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan, Samim

    1998-01-01

    CP-violation is one of the least understood phenomena in our field. There are major experimental programs in all high energy laboratories around the world which will hopefully remedy this within the next decade. The study of CP-violating effects in B meson decays will allow stringent tests of the Standard Model to be made and may point the way to New Physics. The Beauty97 conference provided a forum for these experiments to discuss their physics potential and experimental challenges relating ...

  4. Theory of Beauty Lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Matthias(PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099, Mainz, Germany)

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of the theoretical understanding of the lifetimes of beauty hadrons is given. A model-independent analysis using the heavy-quark expansion allows for a description of the lifetime ratios tau(B-)/tau(B0) and tau(Lambda_b)/tau(B0) in a small region of parameter space. It is demonstrated that the lifetime ratio tau(B-)/tau(B0) cannot be used to extract the decay constant of the B meson. Implications for the semileptonic branching ratio and charm yield in B decays are pointed out.

  5. A Beautiful Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moliner, Federico

    In 1981, a time when our science administrators still believed that small is beautiful, I was sent to Cuba with a very simple mission: To establish contact with the solid state physicists at the University of Havana in order to identify affinities and prepare the ground for possible collaborations. I count this as one of the most fortunate events in my professional and human experience. It marked the beginning of a long lasting and very fruitful collaboration as well as of many brotherly friendships that have significantly contributed to the enrichment of my life as a human being.

  6. She Looks so Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Karen de Kock

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a story that illustrates how the medium of music is able to provide comfort, even in extreme cases of hopelessness, when all other efforts seem futile. I will relate how the creative act of music-making within an institutional setting, was able to provide comfort to a self-injurious female psychiatric client, who had been institutionalised all her life, to restore a sense of beauty and dignity which had been lost. The music that was created in the moment was also able to c...

  7. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  8. Escaping Beauty through moral narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigate through ethnographic studies the shared cultural meanings expressed about human beauty. How is sense making about the notion of beauty constructed, verballized and negotiated in a group of young females between 24 and 26 years old. Furthermore the study discuss and elaborate...

  9. Flu BM2 structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Flu viruses package essential functions into a small integral membrane protein known as M2. Such small membrane proteins represent major challenges for structural biology. A new study presented in this issue details the structure and functions of the influenza B M2 protein through the use of functional domain–specific solution NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Nuclear effects in the structure functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Marco; E Oset; S K Singh

    2003-11-01

    By using a relativistic framework and accurate nuclear spectral function the structure functions 2 and 3 of deep inelastic charged lepton and neutrino scattering are calculated in nuclei and results are presented.

  11. The Classification of Design Beauty from the Perspective of Human’s Cognitive-affective-volitional Structure%从人的知情意结构角度对设计美的分类1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黔

    2016-01-01

    According to Immanuel Kant, human’s psychological structure can be divided into three aspects: cognition, affection and volition. Such a tripartite structure can be used as the standard for the classification of design beauty. Patterns of design beauty that focus on cognition (human’s cognitive ability) convey philosophical interest. Objects of this type employ standardized but interesting expressive forms to reveal human’s rational spirit and advanced technology. Patterns of design beauty that emphasize affection (emotional competence) convey humor. Objects of this type use exaggerated and paradoxical relationship combined by the content and the form to relfect the superiority of the main body. Patterns of design beauty that put high value on volition (desire) convey gorgeousness. Objects of this type apply exquisite craft, expensive material and intricate combination way to show the distinctive status of the main body.%按按康德的观点,人的心理结构可分为知、情、意三个方面。这种三分结构可作为设计美的分类的标准。侧重于知——人的认知能力的设计美形态是理趣,是对象以规范合理且不乏趣味的形式体现出人的理性精神与先进技术的设计美形态。侧重于情——情感能力的设计美形态是诙谐,是对象以夸张的、矛盾的内容与形式的组合关系体现出主体的优越感的设计美形态。侧重于意——欲望的设计美形态是华丽,是对象以精致的工艺、昂贵的材质、繁复的组合方式体现出主体与众不同的身份地位的设计美形态。

  12. The structure and function of cartilage proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Roughley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage contains a variety of proteoglycans that are essential for its normal function. These include aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican. Each proteoglycan serves several functions that are determined by both its core protein and its glycosaminoglycan chains. This review discusses the structure/function relationships of the cartilage proteoglycans, and the manner in which perturbations in proteoglycan structure or abundance can adversely affect tissue function.

  13. Symmetry and Beauty in Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Plato writes about Beauty in many of his dialogues, particularly in the Symposium, but he has no word equivalent to our "Symmetry", and this concept was not then formalised. Nevertheless, there are indications that some aspects of the concept were understood, if only intuitively. Plato has a very abstract concept of beauty, and when he uses "beauty" to characterise the so-called "Platonic Solids" in the Timaeus, he seems to be emphasising at least their regularity. It can be argued that the w...

  14. Beauty and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Michael S.

    2000-08-01

    Spectacular colour images have been made by combining CCD images in three different passbands using Adobe Photoshop. These beautiful images highlight a variety of astrophysical phenomena and should be a valuable resource for science education and public awareness of science. The wide field images were obtained at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) by mounting a Hasselblad or Nikkor telephoto lens in front of a 2K × 2K CCD. Options of more than 30 degrees or 6 degrees square coverage are produced in a single exposure in this way. Narrow band or broad band filters were placed between lens and CCD enabling deep, linear images in a variety of passbands to be obtained. We have mapped the LMC and SMC and are mapping the Galactic Plane for comparison with the Molonglo Radio Survey. Higher resolution images have also been made with the 40 inch telescope of galaxies and star forming regions in the Milky Way.

  15. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View

    OpenAIRE

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying...

  16. Toward a brain-based theory of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of paintings and listened to musical excerpts, both of which they rated on a scale of 1-9, with 9 being the most beautiful. This allowed us to select three sets of stimuli--beautiful, indifferent and ugly--which subjects viewed and heard in the scanner, and rated at the end of each presentation. The results of a conjunction analysis of brain activity showed that, of the several areas that were active with each type of stimulus, only one cortical area, located in the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), was active during the experience of musical and visual beauty, with the activity produced by the experience of beauty derived from either source overlapping almost completely within it. The strength of activation in this part of the mOFC was proportional to the strength of the declared intensity of the experience of beauty. We conclude that, as far as activity in the brain is concerned, there is a faculty of beauty that is not dependent on the modality through which it is conveyed but which can be activated by at least two sources--musical and visual--and probably by other sources as well. This has led us to formulate a brain-based theory of beauty.

  17. Structure and Function of Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob

    the water-lipid interface, structural movements occurring during activation have been difficult to probeexperimentally. In this work, novel variants of TlL were constructed based on rational design with amutated lid-region in order to elucidate the impact of the lid-residue composition and characteristics...

  18. Predicting protein structure classes from function predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, I.; Rahnenfuhrer, J.; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to using the information contained in sequence-to-function prediction data in order to recognize protein template classes, a critical step in predicting protein structure. The data on which our method is based comprise probabilities of functional categories; for given......-to-structure prediction methods....

  19. Correlation Functions and Glass Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, Y.; Nehaoua, N.; Telghemti, B.; Guemid, S.; Deraddji, N. E.; Belkhir, H.; Mekki, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    This work presents the use of molecular dynamics (MD) and the code of Dl Poly, in order to study the structure of fluoride glass after melting and quenching. We are realized the processing phase liquid-phase, simulating rapid quenching at different speeds to see the effect of quenching rate on the operation of the devitrification. This technique of simulation has become a powerful tool for investigating the microscopic behaviour of matter as well as for calculating macroscopic observable quantities. As basic results, we calculated the interatomic distance, angles and statistics, which help us to know the geometric form and the structure of PbF2. These results are in experimental agreement to those reported in literature.

  20. Taxi Drivers and Beauty Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F

    1997-01-01

    The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The British economist John Maynard Keynes likened playing the market to voting for the prettiest face in a beauty contest; hence the second part of this article’s title.

  1. WAY TO DETERMINE STIFFNESS FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-ming; GAI Bing-zheng

    2005-01-01

    For calculating the stiffness function of a structure, the differential equation of the vibration of the structure was divided into the differential equation on the original stiffness function that was known, and Fredholm integral equation of the first kind on the undetermined stiffness function that was unknown. And the stable solutions of the integral equation, when the smooth factor was equal to zero, was solved by the extrapolation with p smooth factors. So the stiffness function of the structure is obtained. Applied examples show that the method is feasible and effective.

  2. PA01.75. Hidden beauty concepts in ayurveda w.r.t agada tantra

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanimath, Gurusiddeshwar J.; Sharanesh, T.; Ashwinikumar,; Anita, M.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Beauty is not in the face; Beauty is a light in the heart. In our Ayurveda it is stated that Physical, Mental and Spiritual beauty as a combined unit projects the cosmetic sense of Ayurveda (Ch.Su 1/41). According to Ayurveda healthy skin is the result of overall condition of individuals and prescribes numerous skin care treatments that need to be pursued at every stage of life. Ayurveda determines beauty by Prakruti(body constitution), Sara (structural predominance), Samhanana (comp...

  3. Success: Talent, Intelligence or Beauty?

    OpenAIRE

    Gergaud, Olivier; GINSBURGH, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the Celebrity 100 annual list of the world’s most “powerful celebrities” compiled and published by Forbes Magazine. The lists provide an interesting collection of people, that includes their earnings, and the perception of citizens concerning the attributes that made them become celebrities. We analyze the relationship between their earnings and the perceptions on their intelligence, talent, beauty and other attributes, and show that though beauty plays a role, intelligence and tal...

  4. Beauty and Health: Anthropological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This essay, written as a ‘teaser’ for an up-coming symposium, reflects on how human beauty can be understood from an anthropological and medical anthropological perspective. First, it considers how aesthetic and healing rationales can conflict or merge in a variety of medical technologies and health practices. Second, it discusses beauty in relation to the socioeconomic transformations of modernity and globalization. It suggests the need for a theoretical framework that departs from a strictl...

  5. Pion structure function in nuclear medium

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    We study the pion structure function in nuclear medium using the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model, and its implication for the nuclear pion enhancement of the sea quark distribution in nuclei. By using the operator product expansion, medium effect of the nuclear matter is incorporated in calculations of the twist-2 operators. We find density dependence of the pion structure function is rather weak around the nuclear matter density. We also discuss how the medium modification of the pion structure...

  6. Structural Induction Principles for Functional Programmers

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, James

    2013-01-01

    User defined recursive types are a fundamental feature of modern functional programming languages like Haskell, Clean, and the ML family of languages. Properties of programs defined by recursion on the structure of recursive types are generally proved by structural induction on the type. It is well known in the theorem proving community how to generate structural induction principles from data type declarations. These methods deserve to be better know in the functional programming community. ...

  7. The LIGNUM functional-structural tree model

    OpenAIRE

    Perttunen, Jari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to construct a single tree model that builds a bridge between traditional process based tree models and detailed, three-dimensional architectural tree models. The result of the thesis, the functional-structural tree model LIGNUM, integrates both the functional and the structural aspects of woody arborescent plants in a single generic modelling framework. The thesis consists of five articles and the summary part. The first article presents the model structure of...

  8. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying the meaning of beauty through its representation of women. These influences largely influence and alter women's perceptions of their body image and in trying to meet the goals of beauty as represented by the media. This may result in dissatisfaction with their body image. Advertisements can encourage women to indulge in smoking as a fashionable trend or opt for plastic surgery in attempts to acquire beauty. This paper concludes with implications of the issues relating to changing perceptions of beauty and suggests recommendations. PMID:26998213

  9. Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheel, Hanne; Farré, Ricard

    2013-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia is an extremely common disorder of gastrointestinal function. The disorder is thought to be heterogeneous, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varied symptom patterns. A diversity of changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure has been described in functional dyspepsia. These involve alterations in the stomach, such as impaired accommodation, delayed gastric emptying and hypersensitivity, and alterations in the duodenum, such as increased sensitivity to duodenal acid and/or lipids and low-grade inflammation. In this Review, we summarize all these abnormalities in an attempt to provide an integrated overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. PMID:23318268

  10. The structure and function of catalytic RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Before the discovery of ribozymes,RNA had been proposed to function as a catalyst,based on the discovery that RNA folded into high-ordered structures as protein did.This hypothesis was confirmed in the 1980s,after the discovery of Tetrahymena group I intron and RNase P ribozyme.There have been about ten ribozymes identified during the past thirty years,as well as the fact that ribosomes function as ribozymes.Advances have been made in understanding the structures and functions of ribozymes,with numerous crystal structures resolved in the past years.Here we review the structure-function relationship of both small and large ribozymes,especially the structural basis of their catalysis.

  11. The structure and function of catalytic RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiJia; HUANG Lin; ZHANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    Before the discovery of ribozymes, RNA had been proposed to function as a catalyst, based on the discovery that RNA folded into high-ordered structures as protein did. This hypothesis was confirmed in the 1980s, after the discovery of Tetrahymena group I intron and RNase P ribozyme. There have been about ten ribozymes identified during the past thirty years, as well as the fact that ribosomes function as ribozymes. Advances have been made in understanding the structures and functions of ribozymes, with numerous crystal structures resolved in the past years. Here we review the structure-function re-lationship of both small and large ribozymes, especially the structural basis of their catalysis.

  12. A trigger for beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of B-meson experiments, in a fixed-target high-energy proton machine (Tevatron) is discussed. Compared to a B-meson factory experiment, it can produce 105, Banti B's per hour, using 108 protons per second, but it suffers from high background and needs high selectivity to cope with the million times higher interaction rate. To overcome these difficulties a technique called the 'optical trigger for beauty' is proposed, based on the detection of Cherenkov photons produced in a 2 mm thick LiF crystal, through a fast photodetector. Its virtue is that it is opaque to minimum-bias events originating in a small target, but sensitive to the high impact parameter B-meson decay charged particles from a secondary vertex. Calculations and first simulations results give a good efficiency for B-meson detection. A multistep trigger, combining the 'optical trigger' and a tracking detector, allows significant selection and a consequent enrichment of the data sample. Taking into account its fast response (∝ 1 ns), the above considerations can be extended to other hadronic machines, especially those with high-rate environments such as the LHC or SSC. (orig.)

  13. She Looks so Beautiful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen de Kock

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a story that illustrates how the medium of music is able to provide comfort, even in extreme cases of hopelessness, when all other efforts seem futile. I will relate how the creative act of music-making within an institutional setting, was able to provide comfort to a self-injurious female psychiatric client, who had been institutionalised all her life, to restore a sense of beauty and dignity which had been lost. The music that was created in the moment was also able to carry and support all the individuals who were creating it - even in the most desperate moments where those that were supposed to be "in command" were experiencing a sense of uncertainty. The story further demonstrates how a client, a care-worker and a therapist, three individuals from very diverse backgrounds and life circumstances, were able to transcend their different histories to come together and connect on a level which they have not been able to do outside the music therapy room.

  14. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  15. Calculation of moments of structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress on the lattice computation of low moments of both the unpolarised and polarised nucleon structure functions is reviewed with particular emphasis on continuum and chiral extrapolations and comparison between quenched and unquenched fermions. (orig.)

  16. Structure functions near the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute hadron masses and the lowest moments of unpolarized and polarized nucleon structure functions down to pion masses of 300 MeV, in an effort to make unambiguous predictions at the physical light quark mass. (orig.)

  17. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  18. New Parametrizations for the Photon Structure Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last year four new parametrizations of the Hadronic Photon Structure Function at Next to Leading Order have appeared. In this talk, I briefly review the main features of the three of them: the FFNSCJK, CJK and AFG. (author)

  19. Structural and functional properties of designed globins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yasuhiro Isogai; Anna Ishii; Manabu Ishida; Masahiro Mukai; Motonori Ota; Ken Nishikawa; Tetsutaro Iizuka

    2000-06-01

    De novo design of artificial proteins is an essential approach to elucidate the principles of protein architecture and to understand specific functions of natural proteins and also to yield novel molecules for medical and industrial aims. We have designed artificial sequences of 153 amino acids to fit the main-chain framework of the sperm whale myoglobin structure based on the knowledge-based energy functions to evaluate the compatibility between protein tertiary structures and amino acid sequences. The synthesized artificial globins bind a single heme per protein molecule as designed, which show well-defined electrochemical and spectroscopic features characteristic of proteins with a low-spin heme. Redox and ligand binding reactions of the artificial heme proteins were investigated and these heme-related functions were found to vary with their structural uniqueness. Relationships between the structural and functional properties are discussed.

  20. Beauty photoproduction using decays into muons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty in ep collisions at HERA are measured. The data were recorded with the ZEUS detector between 1996 and 2000. The measurements are restricted to photoproduction processes, i.e. collision events with small four-momentum transfer squared, Q2∼0. Two jets with transverse momentum pT>7(6) GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of muons from semi-leptonic decays of the beauty quark. The variable used to discriminate between beauty and background is the transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the jet axis. The fraction of beauty is determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. Cross-sections have been measured as a function of the muon and jet variables as well as a function of dijet correlation variables. Dijet correlations in beauty production have been measured for the first time in ZEUS and are found in agreement with QCD NLO predictions. (orig.)

  1. A Cook Book of Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2015-01-01

    The structure function is a useful quantity to characterize wavefront distortions. We derive expressions for the structure functions of the averaged wavefront phase and slopes. The expressions are valid within the inertial range of atmospheric turbulence, and are meant to serve as engineering formulae when reconstructing profiles of the atmospheric turbulence, specifically in the context of atmospheric profiling instruments (e.g. SLODAR and S-DIMM+) and multi-conjugate adaptive optical systems.

  2. Recent Structure Function Results from CCFR

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, B T; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A G; Yang, U K; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2000-01-01

    A new structure function analysis of CCFR deep inelastic nu-N and nubar-N scattering data is presented for previously unexplored kinematic regions down to Bjorken x=0.0045 and Q^2=0.3 GeV^2. Comparisons to charged lepton scattering data from NMC and E665 experiments are made and the behavior of the structure function F2_nu is studied in the limit Q^2 -> 0

  3. Zinc finger structure-function in Ikaros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marvin; A; Payne

    2011-01-01

    The zinc finger motif was used as a vehicle for the initial discovery of Ikaros in the context of T-cell differentiation and has been central to all subsequent analyses of Ikaros function.The Ikaros gene is alternately spliced to produce several isoforms that confer diversity of function and consequently have complicated analysis of the function of Ikaros in vivo.Key features of Ikaros in vivo function are associated with six C2H2 zinc fingers;four of which are alternately incorporated in the production of the various Ikaros isoforms.Although no complete structures are available for the Ikaros protein or any of its family members,considerable evidence has accumulated about the structure of zinc fingers and the role that this structure plays in the functions of the Ikaros family of proteins.This review summarizes the structural aspects of Ikaros zinc fingers,individually,and in tandem to provide a structural context for Ikaros function and to provide a structural basis to inform the design of future experiments with Ikaros and its family members.

  4. Cycles of Beauty Culture: Ethnography of Beauty Clinics Commodification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murlianti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin care is not a completely new in beauty treatments. Previously there have been other types of cultural industry which also adopted the medical science, such as cosmetic and beauty salon industries. But, skin care beauty clinic successfully introduces the services of beauty treatments which are considered the healthiest. This paper is a summary of the research on how beauty clinic quickly became a part of everyday life of its consumers. The research focused on Natasha Skin Care, a most popular beauty clinic in Indonesia at the moment. According to Richard Johnson, the process of a culture industry reaches the society through a communication that in form a pattern cyclic communications. The stages in the pattern are interconnected but slipped, each stage is affecting others but are not specified in an uncertain manner; between the producer of culture industry with its consumers. This study is a multidiscipline research using three methods of interpretation namely ethnography, discourses analysis, and social hermeneutic study.Klinik kecantikan bukanlah budaya yang benar-benar baru dalam perawatan kecantikan. Sebelumnya telah ada jenis industri budaya lain yang juga mengadopsi ilmu kedokteran, seperti industri kosmetik dan salon kecantikan. Namun klinik kecantikan sukses menyandang predikat sebagai jasa perawatan kecantikan yang dianggap paling sehat. Tulisan ini merupakan rigkasan penelitian tentang bagaimana klinik kecantikan begitu cepat menjadi bagian hidup sehari–hari masyarakat konsumennya. Fokus penelitian ini adalah Natasha Skin Care, sebuah klinik kecantikan paling popular di Indonesia saat ini. Menurut Richard Johson proses sebuah industri budaya sampai pada masyarakat konsumennya melalui komunikasi yang timpang, membentuk pola komunikasi siklik, saling terhubung namun penuh dengan keterpelesetan, saling mewarnai namun tidak menentukan secara pasti antara produsen industri budaya dengan masyarakat konsumennya. Penelitian ini ditempuh

  5. Structure and Structure-activity Relationship of Functional Organic Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research theme The group is made up of junior scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Elemento-organic Chemistry, Nankai University.The scientists focus their studis on the structure and structure-activity relationship of functional organic molecules not only because it has been the basis of their research, but also because the functional study of organic compounds is now a major scientific issue for organic chemists around the world.

  6. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  7. Sub-structures in hadrons and proton structure functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Khorramian, Ali N.

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the partonic structure of constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order. Using a convolution method, Structure function of proton is presented. While the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. Excellent agreement with data in a wide range of x = [10 -6, 1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2 for Fp2 is reached.

  8. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  9. Safe is beautiful{exclamation_point}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, H.D.K. [COVRA N.V., Vlissingen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: hccovra@zeelandnet.nl

    2006-07-01

    In the Netherlands long-term (100y) storage of all waste types in above ground, engineered structures, is a basic element of the waste management system. This is not a 'wait-and-see' solution, because at the same time provisions are taken for the final disposal. Facilities for treatment and storage of low, medium and high-level waste are in operation. The facility for high-level waste was commissioned in 2003. This facility is not only a technical building but also a work of art. We show that we are proud on our work. SAFE = BEAUTIFUL{exclamation_point} (author)

  10. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T

    2010-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...

  11. Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh

    2005-01-01

    Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials addresses three distinct but related topics: (i) magnetoelastic materials such as magnetic martensites and magnetic shape memory alloys, (ii) the magnetocaloric effect related to magnetostructural transitions, and (iii) colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and related magnanites. The goal is to identify common underlying principles in these classes of materials that are relevant for optimizing various functionalities. The emergence of apparently different magnetic/structural phenomena in disparate classes of materials clearly points to a need for common concepts in order to achieve a broader understanding of the interplay between magnetism and structure in this general class of new functional materials exhibiting ever more complex microstructure and function. The topic is interdisciplinary in nature and the contributors correspondingly include physicists, materials scientists and engineers. Likewise the book will appeal to scientists from all these areas.

  12. The proteome: structure, function and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Keiran; Kelley, Lawrence A; Islam, Suhail A; MacCallum, Robert M; Muller, Arne; Pazos, Florencio; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2006-03-29

    This paper reports two studies to model the inter-relationships between protein sequence, structure and function. First, an automated pipeline to provide a structural annotation of proteomes in the major genomes is described. The results are stored in a database at Imperial College, London (3D-GENOMICS) that can be accessed at www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk. Analysis of the assignments to structural superfamilies provides evolutionary insights. 3D-GENOMICS is being integrated with related proteome annotation data at University College London and the European Bioinformatics Institute in a project known as e-protein (http://www.e-protein.org/). The second topic is motivated by the developments in structural genomics projects in which the structure of a protein is determined prior to knowledge of its function. We have developed a new approach PHUNCTIONER that uses the gene ontology (GO) classification to supervise the extraction of the sequence signal responsible for protein function from a structure-based sequence alignment. Using GO we can obtain profiles for a range of specificities described in the ontology. In the region of low sequence similarity (around 15%), our method is more accurate than assignment from the closest structural homologue. The method is also able to identify the specific residues associated with the function of the protein family.

  13. Sleeping Beauties in Meme Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Leihan; Xu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    A sleeping beauty in diffusion indicates that the information, can be ideas or innovations, will experience a hibernation before a sudden spike of popularity and it is widely found in citation history of scientific publications. However, in this study, we demonstrate that the sleeping beauty is an universal phenomenon in information diffusion and even more inspiring, there exist two consecutive sleeping beauties in the entire lifetime of propagation, suggesting that the information, including trending topics, search queries or Wikipedia views, which we call memes, will go unnoticed for a period and suddenly attracts some attention, and then it falls asleep again and later wakes up with another unexpected popularity peak. Further explorations on this phenomenon show that intervals between two wake ups follow an exponential distribution and the second awakening stage generally reaches its peak at a higher velocity and will bring a wider dissemination. Taking these findings into consideration, the upgraded Bass ...

  14. Function and Significance of Packaging Beauty of Artistic Conception%包装意境美的功能与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐培玲

    2012-01-01

    探讨了包装意境美是包装设计的最高境界,这种意境可以让消费者产生功利境界、艺术境界和伦理境界。论述了功利境界在提升产品附加值、实现生产商和消费者互利共赢的作用;阐述了艺术境界在包装设计中的表现形式及对塑造品牌、满足消费者精神需求和培养潜在消费群体等方面的重要意义,分析了伦理境界是沟通消费者与商品包装之间信任的桥梁,是构建公平、公正和谐社会的前题,并进一步论述了包装意境3 种境界之间的关系以及重要意义。%It discussed the beauty of artistic conception of packaging was the highest realm of packaging design,which could let consumer produce utilitarian realm,art realm and moral realm.It discussed the utilitarian realm in improving the added value of products,manufacturers and consumers to achieve mutual benefit and win-win effect;elaborated artistic representation in packaging design and to create brand, to meet consumer demand and cultivation of the spirit of the potential consumer groups has important significance; analyzed the ethical realm was the communication between consumer and commodity packaging trust bridge, was the construction harmonious society fairness, justice should. It further discussed the packaging conception of the three realms as well as the relationship between the important significance.

  15. Beauty and brains don't mix?

    OpenAIRE

    Fallesen, Krista Bjerknæs; Schultz, Astrid Andrea; Nielsen, Christine Strube; Hansen, Sandra Springborg

    2014-01-01

    This project revolves around beautiful people. There do not exist a recipe for having a beautiful appearance, but we are from childhood as individuals 'coded' to recognize what is beautiful. This project is based on the fact that beautiful people are assigned values that they do not necessarily possess. These values will be described through Pierre Bourdieu's theory about capital and habitus. Some values will be examined especially in relation to one's job situation. Today's labor market will...

  16. Two beautiful proofs of Pick's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Sundström, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present two different proofs of Pick’s theorem and analyse in what ways might be perceived as beautiful by working mathematicians. In particular, we discuss two concepts, generality and specificity, that appear to contribute to beauty in different ways. We also discuss possible implications on insight into the nature of beauty in mathematics, and how the teaching of mathematics could be impacted, especially in countries in which discussions of beauty and aesthetics are notably absent from...

  17. Hadronic Structure Functions from the Universal and the Basic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, F.

    2005-04-01

    It is shown that there is a basic structure common to all hadrons, which is generated perturbatively in QCD. Basically, it is a valence quark with its own cloud of quarks and gluons, a quasi-particle that we will call it a valon. In the valon representation, structure functions of nucleon and pion are calculated and is shown that there is an excellent agreement between the data and the model results in a wide range of kinematics. Calculation of the polarized structure functions also shows that there is a sizeable orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin of a valon coming from the partonic cloud.

  18. The Staunch Beauty of Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    MANY women like to collect dried flowers. Unable to bear the sight of beautiful blossoms withering, they press them between the leaves of books. As time passes, the original fresh flowers turn into thin pale-colored specimens, but a careful viewer will notice that they have taken on a new grace—just like Ren Jie herself; though no longer young, she has managed to create beauty out of her later life. Ren Jie’s love of flowers dates back to her childhood, when she started to collect flower specimens. As she grew up, she learned how to paint; later, she

  19. All things bright and beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    'All Things Bright and Beautiful' was exhibited in 20/21 Visual Arts Centre, Scunthorpe, which is sited in a 'redundant' church. The fundamental question that the exhibition explored concerned the role of 'the animal' within contemporary art and within secular society, which in turn hoped to prompt reflections on our understanding of the place of 'the human' in the world and in nature. If there is no divine order, as posited by the hymn 'All Things Bright and Beautiful', where does this leave...

  20. Performance of Pain, Performance of Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James

    2006-01-01

    "Performance of pain, performance of beauty" explores performance projects in war zones using Elaine Scarry's definitions of "pain" and "beauty" as a starting point. The way in which pain constricts the body and the experience that beauty can take a person beyond the body become a contested framework for considering two examples of performance.…

  1. GRASPs in Golgi Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus is a central intracellular membrane organelle for trafficking and modification of proteins and lipids. Its basic structure is a stack of tightly aligned flat cisternae. In mammalian cells, dozens of stacks are concentrated in the pericentriolar region and laterally connected to form a ribbon. Despite extensive research in the last decades, how this unique structure is formed and why its formation is important for proper Golgi functioning remain largely unknown. The Golgi ReAssembly Stacking Proteins, GRASP65 and GRASP55, are so far the only proteins shown to function in Golgi stacking. They are peripheral membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi cisternae that form trans-oligomers through their N-terminal GRASP domain, and thereby function as the glue to stick adjacent cisternae together into a stack and to link Golgi stacks into a ribbon. Depletion of GRASPs in cells disrupts the Golgi structure and results in accelerated protein trafficking and defective glycosylation. In this minireview we summarize our current knowledge on how GRASPs function in Golgi structure formation and discuss why Golgi structure formation is important for its function.

  2. Phenomenological study of the nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F2) and polarized (g1) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F2 and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions gp,n,d and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends

  3. Structural methods for studying IRES function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Costantino, David A; Filbin, Megan E; Hammond, John; Pfingsten, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) substitute RNA sequences for some or all of the canonical translation initiation protein factors. Therefore, an important component of understanding IRES function is a description of the three-dimensional structure of the IRES RNA underlying this mechanism. This includes determining the degree to which the RNA folds, the global RNA architecture, and higher resolution information when warranted. Knowledge of the RNA structural features guides ongoing mechanistic and functional studies. In this chapter, we present a roadmap to structurally characterize a folded RNA, beginning from initial studies to define the overall architecture and leading to high-resolution structural studies. The experimental strategy presented here is not unique to IRES RNAs but is adaptable to virtually any RNA of interest, although characterization of RNA-protein interactions requires additional methods. Because IRES RNAs have a specific function, we present specific ways in which the data are interpreted to gain insight into that function. We provide protocols for key experiments that are particularly useful for studying IRES RNA structure and that provide a framework onto which additional approaches are integrated. The protocols we present are solution hydroxyl radical probing, RNase T1 probing, native gel electrophoresis, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, and strategies to engineer RNA for crystallization and to obtain initial crystals. PMID:17913644

  4. DIS structure functions from the saturation model

    OpenAIRE

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a description of inclusive and diffractive structure functions in DIS at small $x$, using a model based on high energy factorization. In this model the two processes have physical interpretation in terms of the virtual photon wave function and the dipole cross section. We postulate the dipole cross section form in a way in which unitarity is taken into account. A good description of data (including DIS diffraction) is obtained after determining three parameters of the dipole cross ...

  5. Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1980-01-01

    Combining fractal theory with computer art, this book introduces a creative use of computers. It describes graphic methods for detecting patterns in complicated data and illustrates simple techniques for visualizing chaotic behavior. ""Beautiful."" - Martin Gardner, Scientific American. Over 275 illustrations, 29 in color.

  6. Beauty Products and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: High school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer education especially as it concerns the consumer's desire for beauty. Included are considerations of cosmetics, health spas, reducing salons, wigs, and jewelry. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is discursively organized through the topics listed above. The physical appearance of…

  7. Quantum Beauty: Real and Ideal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Does the world embody beautiful ideas? Pythagoras and Plato intuited that it should; Newton and Maxwell demonstrated how it could. But modern physics, and especially the quantum physics at its foundation, answers with a much more resounding and definitive 'Yes' I'll bring in history and art, as well as science, to make the case.(author)

  8. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains original…

  9. [Structure and functions of glutathione transferases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedets, O M

    2014-01-01

    Data about classification, nomenclature, structure, substrate specificity and role of many glutathione transferase's isoenzymes in cell functions have been summarised. The enzyme has been discovered more than 50 years ago. This family of proteins is updated continuously. It has very different composition and will have demand for system analysis for many years.

  10. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  11. Functional-structural modelling in Gramineae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, C.; Andrieu, B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Evers, J.B.; Drouet, D.; Escobar-Gutierriez, A.J.; Vos, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Gramineae have been a pioneer group among non-woody plants to be modelled with the approach of functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM). During the past decade, models have focussed on morphological aspects of plant development. They now provide crop scientists with general guidelines for bu

  12. Tagged nuclear structure functions with $HERMES$

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano SimulaINFN - Sezione Sanita'

    2014-01-01

    The production of slow nucleons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off nuclei, $A(e, e'N)X$, is analyzed for kinematical conditions accessible at $HERA$ with the $HERMES$ detector. The sensitivity of the semi-inclusive cross section to possible medium-dependent modifications of the nucleon structure function is illustrated.

  13. Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that structural functionalism as a method for conducting fieldwork and as a format for the analysis of ethnographic data remains a powerful model, one that is easily understood by professional educators. As a heuristic device, functionalist theory can help in the solution of a problem that is otherwise incapable of theoretical…

  14. Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)

    1988-01-01

    This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur­ rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti­ vated by concrete problems of applicat...

  15. Sub-structures in hadrons and proton structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the partonic structure of constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order. Using a convolution method, Structure function of proton is presented. While the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. Excellent agreement with data in a wide range of x = [10-6, 1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2 for Fp2 is reached

  16. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutle, Sarah

    2010-02-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -}1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that {delta}{phi}{sup jj}={phi}{sup j1}-{phi}{sup j2}={pi}. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst {delta}{phi}{sup jj} significantly lower than {pi} is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus {delta}{phi}{sup jj} for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  17. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb-1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that Δφjj=φj1-φj2=π. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst Δφjj significantly lower than π is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus Δφjj for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  18. Revealing the Beauty behind the Sleeping Beauty Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mariolis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    A large number of essays address the Sleeping Beauty problem, which undermines the validity of Bayesian inference and Bas Van Fraassen's 'Reflection Principle'. In this study a straightforward analysis of the problem based on probability theory is presented. The key difference from previous works is that apart from the random experiment imposed by the problem's description, a different one is also considered, in order to negate the confusion on the involved conditional probabilities. The resu...

  19. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes. PMID:23508477

  20. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  1. Structure and function of mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christophe; Brandt, Ulrich; Hunte, Carola; Zickermann, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest and most complicated enzyme of the respiratory chain. Fourteen central subunits represent the minimal form of complex I and can be assigned to functional modules for NADH oxidation, ubiquinone reduction, and proton pumping. In addition, the mitochondrial enzyme comprises some 30 accessory subunits surrounding the central subunits that are not directly associated with energy conservation. Complex I is known to release deleterious oxygen radicals (ROS) and its dysfunction has been linked to a number of hereditary and degenerative diseases. We here review recent progress in structure determination, and in understanding the role of accessory subunits and functional analysis of mitochondrial complex I. For the central subunits, structures provide insight into the arrangement of functional modules including the substrate binding sites, redox-centers and putative proton channels and pump sites. Only for two of the accessory subunits, detailed structures are available. Nevertheless, many of them could be localized in the overall structure of complex I, but most of these assignments have to be considered tentative. Strikingly, redox reactions and proton pumping machinery are spatially completely separated and the site of reduction for the hydrophobic substrate ubiquinone is found deeply buried in the hydrophilic domain of the complex. The X-ray structure of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica provides clues supporting the previously proposed two-state stabilization change mechanism, in which ubiquinone redox chemistry induces conformational states and thereby drives proton pumping. The same structural rearrangements may explain the active/deactive transition of complex I implying an integrated mechanistic model for energy conversion and regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26921811

  2. NAC transcription factors: structurally distinct, functionally diverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Addie Nina; Ernst, Heidi A; Leggio, Leila Lo;

    2005-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors, and the family is present in a wide range of land plants. Here, we summarize the biological and molecular functions of the NAC family, paying particular attention to the intricate regulation of NAC protein...... level and localization, and to the first indications of NAC participation in transcription factor networks. The recent determination of the DNA and protein binding NAC domain structure offers insight into the molecular functions of the protein family. Research into NAC transcription factors has...

  3. Longitudinal Structure Function FL from Charm Structure Function F2c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Rezaei; G.R.Boroun

    2013-01-01

    We predict the effect of the charm structure function on the longitudinal structure function at small x.In NLO analysis we find that the hard Pomeron behavior gives a good description of FL and Fkc (k =2,L) at small x values.We conclude that a direct relation between FL∝ F2c would provide useful information on how to measure longitudinal structure function at high Q2 values.Having checked that this model gives a good description of the data,when compared with other models.

  4. Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.

  5. Structure and function of endothelial caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Radu-Virgil

    2002-06-01

    Caveolae are spherical invaginations of the plasma membrane and associated vesicles that are found at high surface densities in most cells, endothelia included. Their structural framework has been shown to consist of oligomerized caveolin molecules interacting with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae have been involved in many cellular functions such as endocytosis, signal transduction, mechano-transduction, potocytosis, and cholesterol trafficking. Some confusion still persists in the field with respect to the relationship between caveolae and the lipid rafts, which have been involved in many of the above functions. In addition to all these, endothelial caveolae have been involved in capillary permeability by their participation in the process of transcytosis. This short review will focus on their structure and components, methods used to determine these components, and the role of caveolae in the transendothelial exchanges between blood plasma and the interstitial fluid. PMID:12112442

  6. MRI in Optic Neuritis: Structure, Function, Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating condition of the optic nerve characterised by transient visual loss and eye pain. ON is the presenting symptom in 20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the 15 year risk of developing MS after ON is about 50%. Decline in vision...... resonance imaging (MRI), and the visual evoked potential (VEP) continues to show a delayed P100 indicating persistent demyelination. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy between structure and function could be due to either a redundancy in the visual pathways so that some degree of signal loss...... will have very few or no clinical symptoms, or it could be due to compensatory mechanisms in the visual pathway or the visual cortex. In order to understand the pathophysiology and recovery processes in ON it is essential to have sensitive methods to asses both structure and function. These methods...

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boura, Evzen, E-mail: boura@uochb.cas.cz; Nencka, Radim, E-mail: nencka@uochb.cas.cz

    2015-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.

  9. Pavilion Analysis of "Pavilion":An Analysis of Function and Artistic Conception Beauty of Pavilion from the Perspective of Classical Landscape Painting and Poems%亭“亭”论--以古典山水画与诗词文赋视角论亭的功能及意境美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁富新

    2015-01-01

    亭作为中国古典园林艺术中兼具实用和艺术审美的建筑艺术种类,其功能结构与物质实体自古至今已有巨大变化。同时,亭的艺术审美形象及其意境美也随之改变。由于对园林中“物质之亭”的论述已很丰富,因此选取纯粹艺术领域——古典山水画与诗词文赋中的“亭”,对其进行审美形象和意境的分析,则更具有建设性的意义。%As a type of architectural art which has both practical and artistic aesthetics in Chinese classical garden art, the functional structure and material reality of pavilion has changed a lot from of old until in now. At the same time, the pavilion's aesthetic image and artistic conception beauty have also changed accordingly. Due to that the discussions about“material pavilion”in the garden have been abundant enough, so it is of more constructive signiifcance to select the"Pavilion"in the pure artistic area, such as the“Pavilion”in classical landscape paintings and poems and analyze the aesthetic image and artistic conception.

  10. Structure function calculations for Ostwald Ripening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1990-01-01

    A program for computing the structure function for configurations involved in Ostwald Ripening was written. The basic algorithms are derived from a mathematical analysis of a two-dimensional model system developed by Bortz, et. al. (1974). While it is expected that the values form the computer simulations will reflect Ostwald Ripening, at this point the program is still being tested. Some preliminary runs seem to justify the expectations.

  11. Truncated Moment Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Psaker; W. Melnitchouk; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel

    2007-11-16

    We employ a novel new approach using "truncated" moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to study local quark-hadron duality, and the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twists. Because truncated moments obey the same Q^2 evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.

  12. Increased Functionality Porous Optical Fiber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wooddell, Michael Gary

    2007-01-01

    A novel fiber optic structure, termed stochastic ordered hole fibers, has been developed that contains an ordered array of six hollow tubes surrounding a hollow core, combined with a nanoporous glass creating a unique fully three dimensional pore/fiber configuration. The objective of this study is to increase the functionality of these stochastic ordered hole fibers, as well as porous clad fibers, by integrating electronic device components such as conductors, and semiconductor...

  13. Structural and functional neuroimaging in intractable epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchure Swati; Kesavadas Chandrasekharan; Thomas Bejoy

    2010-01-01

    Medical management remains unsatisfactory in about a third of patients with epilepsy and some of them are candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Structural and functional neuroimaging plays an important role in the identification of the precise cortical region responsible for seizures and is very crucial for a good surgical outcome. Furthermore, identification of eloquent cortical areas near the region to be resected is essential to avoid postoperative neurologic deficit. The magnetic res...

  14. Structure, function, and plasticity of GABA transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa eScimemi

    2014-01-01

    GABA transporters belong to a large family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. They are widely expressed throughout the brain, with different levels of expression in different brain regions. GABA transporters are present in neurons and in astrocytes and their activity is crucial to regulate the extracellular concentration of GABA under basal conditions and during ongoing synaptic events. Numerous efforts have been devoted to determine the structural and functional properties of GABA transp...

  15. Functional-structural modelling in Gramineae

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fournier; Andrieu, B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Evers, J.B.; Drouet, D.; Escobar-Gutierriez, A.J.; VOS, J

    2007-01-01

    The Gramineae have been a pioneer group among non-woody plants to be modelled with the approach of functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM). During the past decade, models have focussed on morphological aspects of plant development. They now provide crop scientists with general guidelines for building new cereal models. We present some of them here, considering the different aspects of cereal architectural modelling: plant development, pattern formation and plant geometry. We also review ...

  16. What is the beauty standard?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华山

    2005-01-01

    最近,你校学生会组织学生开展了一场讨论,主题是:What is the beauty standard?假若你是学生会主席,请根据下表学生讨论的结果写份总结材料并谈谈对以上观点的看法。

  17. Facial beauty and fractal geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    1998-01-01

    What is it that makes a face beautiful? Average faces obtained by photographic (Galton 1878) or digital (Langlois & Roggman 1990) blending are judged attractive but not optimally attractive (Alley & Cunningham 1991) --- digital exaggerations of deviations from average face blends can lead to higher attractiveness ratings (Perrett, May, & Yoshikawa 1994). My novel approach to face design does not involve blending at all. Instead, the image of a female face with high ratings is composed from a ...

  18. Structural and functional neuroimaging in intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchure Swati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical management remains unsatisfactory in about a third of patients with epilepsy and some of them are candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Structural and functional neuroimaging plays an important role in the identification of the precise cortical region responsible for seizures and is very crucial for a good surgical outcome. Furthermore, identification of eloquent cortical areas near the region to be resected is essential to avoid postoperative neurologic deficit. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol for epilepsy can be individually tailored depending on the seizure semiology and possibly electroencephalography. New MRI techniques demonstrate the structure of the brain in fine detail, help in understanding the underlying pathology, and demonstrate functional activity of the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Metabolic imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission tomography (SPECT visualize metabolic alterations of the brain in the ictal and interictal states. In MR-negative epilepsy patients, these techniques may have localizing value. The proper use and interpretation of the findings provided by these new technologies is crucial. In this review article, we discuss various conventional and advanced MRI techniques, interpretation of various findings, and the role of functional imaging modalities, such as functional MRI, PET, and SPECT in the localization of epileptogenic substrate as well as for understanding the pathophysiology, propagation, and neurochemical correlates of epilepsy.

  19. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example......, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader...... sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts....

  20. Characterizing Molecular Structure by Combining Experimental Measurements with Density Functional Theory Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan M.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, the power and synergy of combining experimental measurements with density functional theory computations as a single tool to unambiguously characterize the molecular structure of complex atomic systems is shown. Here, we bring three beautiful cases where the interaction between the experiment and theory is in very good agreement for both finite and extended systems: 1) Characterizing Metal Coordination Environments in Porous Organic Polymers: A Joint Density Functional Theory and Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy Study 2) Characterization of Rhenium Compounds Obtained by Electrochemical Synthesis After Aging Process and 3) Infrared Study of H(D)2 + Co4+ Chemical Reaction: Characterizing Molecular Structures. J.M. López-Encarnación, K.K. Tanabe, M.J.A. Johnson, J. Jellinek, Chemistry-A European Journal 19 (41), 13646-13651 A. Vargas-Uscategui, E. Mosquera, J.M. López-Encarnación, B. Chornik, R. S. Katiyar, L. Cifuentes, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 220, 17-21

  1. A New Kind of Beauty Out of the Underlying Scaling of Geographic Space

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bin; Sui, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Geographic space demonstrates scaling or hierarchy, implying that there are far more small things than large ones. The scaling pattern of geographic space, if visualized properly (i.e., based on head/tail breaks), can evoke a sense of beauty. This is our central argument. This beauty is a new type of aesthetic at a deeper structural level, and differs in essence from an intuitive sense of harmony, perceived in terms of color, shape, texture, and ratio. This new kind of beauty was initially de...

  2. Enhancer trapping in zebrafish using the Sleeping Beauty transposon

    OpenAIRE

    Welle Zachary; Hermanson Spencer B; Sivasubbu Sridhar; Davidson Ann E; Balciunas Darius; Ekker Stephen C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Among functional elements of a metazoan gene, enhancers are particularly difficult to find and annotate. Pioneering experiments in Drosophila have demonstrated the value of enhancer "trapping" using an invertebrate to address this functional genomics problem. Results We modulated a Sleeping Beauty transposon-based transgenesis cassette to establish an enhancer trapping technique for use in a vertebrate model system, zebrafish Danio rerio. We established 9 lines of zebrafis...

  3. Hadron spectroscopy from strangeness to charm and beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, B.S., E-mail: zoubs@ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Quarks of different flavors have different masses, which will cause breaking of flavor symmetries of QCD. Flavor symmetries and their breaking in hadron spectroscopy play important role for understanding the internal structures of hadrons. Hadron spectroscopy with strangeness reveals the importance of unquenched quark dynamics. Systematic study of hadron spectroscopy with strange, charm and beauty quarks would be very revealing and essential for understanding the internal structure of hadrons and its underlying quark dynamics.

  4. Hadron spectroscopy from strangeness to charm and beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarks of different flavors have different masses, which will cause breaking of flavor symmetries of QCD. Flavor symmetries and their breaking in hadron spectroscopy play important role for understanding the internal structures of hadrons. Hadron spectroscopy with strangeness reveals the importance of unquenched quark dynamics. Systematic study of hadron spectroscopy with strange, charm and beauty quarks would be very revealing and essential for understanding the internal structure of hadrons and its underlying quark dynamics

  5. Explosions in Majestic Spiral Beauties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Images of beautiful galaxies, and in particular of spiral brethren of our own Milky Way, leaves no-one unmoved. It is difficult indeed to resist the charm of these impressive grand structures. Astronomers at Paranal Observatory used the versatile VIMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope to photograph two magnificent examples of such "island universes", both of which are seen in a southern constellation with an animal name. But more significantly, both galaxies harboured a particular type of supernova, the explosion of a massive star during a late and fatal evolutionary stage. The first image (PR Photo 33a/04) is of the impressive spiral galaxy NGC 6118 [1], located near the celestial equator, in the constellation Serpens (The Snake). It is a comparatively faint object of 13th magnitude with a rather low surface brightness, making it pretty hard to see in small telescopes. This shyness has prompted amateur astronomers to nickname NGC 6118 the "Blinking Galaxy" as it would appear to flick into existence when viewed through their telescopes in a certain orientation, and then suddenly disappear again as the eye position shifted. There is of course no such problem for the VLT's enormous light-collecting power and ability to produce sharp images, and this magnificent galaxy is here seen in unequalled detail. The colour photo is based on a series of exposures behind different optical filters, obtained with the VIMOS multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope during several nights around August 21, 2004. About 80 million light-years away, NGC 6118 is a grand-design spiral seen at an angle, with a very small central bar and several rather tightly wound spiral arms (it is classified as of type "SA(s)cd" [2]) in which large numbers of bright bluish knots are visible. Most of them are active star-forming regions and in some, very luminous and young stars can be perceived. Of particular interest is the comparatively bright stellar-like object situated directly

  6. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jähne, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.jaehne1@stud.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rizzoli, Silvio O. [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Helm, Martin S., E-mail: martin.helm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures.

  7. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures

  8. Phenylalanine hydroxylase: function, structure, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flydal, Marte I; Martinez, Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the phenylalanine catabolism, consuming about 75% of the phenylalanine input from the diet and protein catabolism under physiological conditions. In humans, mutations in the PAH gene lead to phenylketonuria (PKU), and most mutations are mainly associated with PAH misfolding and instability. The established treatment for PKU is a phenylalanine-restricted diet and, recently, supplementation with preparations of the natural tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor also shows effectiveness for some patients. Since 1997 there has been a significant increase in the understanding of the structure, catalytic mechanism, and regulation of PAH by its substrate and cofactor, in addition to improved correlations between genotype and phenotype in PKU. Importantly, there has also been an increased number of studies on the structure and function of PAH from bacteria and lower eukaryote organisms, revealing an additional anabolic role of the enzyme in the synthesis of melanin-like pigments. In this review, we discuss these recent studies, which contribute to define the evolutionary adaptation of the PAH structure and function leading to sophisticated regulation for effective catabolic processing of phenylalanine in mammalian organisms.

  9. STRUCTURE AND GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF LEO LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Yudha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lio language is a language spoken in Central Flores. Having limited morphological process in general and affixation process involving verbs (head marking and nouns (dependent marking in particular, it is classified into an isolating language. The studies exploring the languages spoken in the eastern part of Indonesia using Lexical Functional Grammar and the theory of typology are highly limited. In addition, Lio language is merely an isolating one and does not have cross referencing. It is this which inspired the writer to conduct research in syntax. This study aims at investigating the canonic structure, the types of verbs used as predicates, the grammatical function, the alternate of clausal structure, the mapping and the pivotance in Lio language. The results of analysis show that the clauses in Lio language can be divided into basic clauses with verbal and nonverbal predicates. The  predicates of the verbal clauses are classified into simple, serial, and causative.  The serial verbal constructions are distinguished based on the semantic features of the verbal components forming the serial verbal constructions. These types can be observed from the nature of the relationships among the components forming the serial verbal constructions. A serial verbal construction is made up of more than one verbs and behaves as a simple predicate. There is no dependence marker among the components forming the serial verb.  The causative structure also forms monoclause and biclause. The functional mapping uses the features [+/-r] and [+/-o], the argument uses the features [-r] and [-o] which are mapped to  SUBJ, [-r] and [+o] are mapped to OBJ, [+r] and [+o] are mapped to OBJ2 or OBJ? and [+r] and [-o] are mapped to OBL (Oblique. Lio language has GF SUBJ and OBJ as the nuclear GF (nuclear grammatical function, and OBL, COMP, and ADJ as the nonnuclear grammatical functions. The SUBJ appears before the verb (preverbal position and the OBJ appears after the

  10. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  11. Nucleon structure functions from constituent quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramian, Ali N.; Arash, Firooz

    1999-10-01

    We have used a constituent quarks model to describe the nucleon structure function, F2( χ, Q2), for a wide range of χ=[10 -6,1] and Q2 = [0.5, 5000] GeV2. We have found that although F2 rises as χ decreases, but there exists some χ0 ≤ 10 -4 - 10 -5, below which the rise of F2 subsides drastically and hence, exhibits an almost flat behavior, compatible with the latest results from HERA, at least for low Q2.

  12. Proton structure function at small Q^2

    OpenAIRE

    Donnachie, A; Landshoff, P V

    1993-01-01

    A fit is made to the data for the proton structure function up to Q^2=10 GeV^2, including the real gamma p total cross-section. It is economical and simple, and its form is motivated by physical principles. It is extrapolated down to very small values of x. Data for the ratio (nu W_2^n/nu W_2^p) are also fitted. A FORTRAN program for the fit to (nu W_2^p) is available by email on request Figure 5 from the original version has been deleted.

  13. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  14. Models of protocellular structures, functions and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; New, Michael H.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The central step in the origin of life was the emergence of organized structures from organic molecules available on the early earth. These predecessors to modern cells, called 'proto-cells,' were simple, membrane bounded structures able to maintain themselves, grow, divide, and evolve. Since there is no fossil record of these earliest of life forms, it is a scientific challenge to discover plausible mechanisms for how these entities formed and functioned. To meet this challenge, it is essential to create laboratory models of protocells that capture the main attributes associated with living systems, while remaining consistent with known, or inferred, protobiological conditions. This report provides an overview of a project which has focused on protocellular metabolism and the coupling of metabolism to energy transduction. We have assumed that the emergence of systems endowed with genomes and capable of Darwinian evolution was preceded by a pre-genomic phase, in which protocells functioned and evolved using mostly proteins, without self-replicating nucleic acids such as RNA.

  15. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 Tee vertical stroke 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q2. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9Tee2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q2. (orig.)

  17. Sexually objectifying media exposure and girls’ internalization of beauty ideals, self-objectification and body surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study (n= 558; Mean age= 15.6, SD=1.49) investigated how exposure to sexually objectifying music television, primetime television programs, fashion magazines and social networking sites is related to the internalization of beauty ideals, self-objectification and body surveillance among adolescent girls. Structural equation models for each type of sexually objectifying media showed direct relationships between sexually objectifying media and the internalization of beauty id...

  18. Measurement of charm and beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and test beam studies of ATLAS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libov, Vladyslav

    2013-08-15

    A measurement of charm and beauty production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA is presented. The analysis is based on the data sample collected by the ZEUS detector in the period from 2003 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb{sup -1}. The kinematic region of the measurement is given by 5beauty quarks. Secondary vertices due to decays of charm and beauty hadrons are reconstructed, in association with jets. The jet kinematics is defined by E{sup jet}{sub T}>4.2(5) GeV for charm (beauty) and -1.6<{eta}{sup jet}<2.2 for both charm and beauty, where E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, respectively. The significance of the decay length and the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with the secondary vertex are used as discriminating variables to distinguish between signal and background. Differential cross sections of jet production in charm and beauty events as a function of Q{sup 2}, y, E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are measured. Results are compared to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) predictions from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the fixed flavour number scheme. Good agreement between data and theory is observed. Contributions of the charm and beauty production to the inclusive proton structure function, F{sup cbar} {sup c}{sub 2} and F{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b}{sub 2}, are determined by extrapolating the double differential cross sections using NLO QCD predictions. Contributions to the test beam program for the Insertable B-Layer upgrade project of the ATLAS pixel detector are discussed. The test beam data analysis software package EUTelescope was extended, which allowed an efficient analysis of ATLAS pixel sensors. The USBPix DAQ system was integrated into the EUDET telescope allowing test beam

  19. Structure and Function of KH Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde, R.; Regan, E

    2008-01-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and

  20. My Beautiful Relationship with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gian; Franco; Terenzi

    2014-01-01

    <正>The beautiful story of friendship began in 1987 when I served as Captain Regent(Head of State)of San Marino.Back then,I had some knowledge of China and decided to realize my dream of paying an offi cial visit there during my tenure.It was my first trip,so I did not know what was awaiting me.However,I was sure it would be something positive.At the head of a delegation,I arrived in China in February 1988.The reception was meticulous and incom-

  1. Markkinointisuunnitelma RVB Beauty Clinic Kotka

    OpenAIRE

    Piipponen, Tiia

    2012-01-01

    Työn tarkoituksena oli tehdä markkinointisuunnitelma RVB Beauty Clinic Kotkalle. Tavoitteena oli selvittää yrityksen nykytilanne käytössä olevien tietolähteiden avulla ja luoda näiden perusteella selkeitä linjauksia yrityksen markkinointiin. Markkinointisuunnitelmaa lähdin luomaan asiakassuhdemarkkinoinnin näkökulmasta, koska kyseessä on yritys, jossa työskentelee vain yksi henkilö. Lähtötilanteen selvityksessä käytin yrittäjän ja maahantuojan haastatteluja, kilpailijoiden kotisivuja ja e...

  2. Beautiful Mirrors at the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kunal; Shepherd, William; Tait, Tim M. P.; Vega-Morales, Roberto(Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS-UMR 8627, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91405, Orsay Cedex, France)

    2010-01-01

    We explore the "Beautiful Mirrors" model, which aims to explain the measured value of $A^b_{FB}$, discrepant at the $2.9\\sigma$ level. This scenario introduces vector-like quarks which mix with the bottom, subtly affecting its coupling to the $Z$. The spectrum of the new particles consists of two bottom-like quarks and a charge -4/3 quark, all of which have electroweak interactions with the third generation. We explore the phenomenology and discovery reach for these new particles at the LHC, ...

  3. A Beautiful Proof by Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to present an example of a proof by induction that in the opinion of the present author has great aesthetic value. The proof in question is Thomassen’s proof that planar graphs are 5-choosable. I give a self-contained presentation of this result and its proof, and a personal account of why I think this proof is beautiful. A secondary purpose is to more widely publicize this gem, and hopefully make it part of a standard set of examples for examining characteristics ...

  4. Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Structure, Function, and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf Horrell, Erin M.; Boulanger, Mary C.; D’Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a melanocytic Gs protein coupled receptor that regulates skin pigmentation, UV responses, and melanoma risk. It is a highly polymorphic gene, and loss of function correlates with a fair, UV-sensitive, and melanoma-prone phenotype due to defective epidermal melanization and sub-optimal DNA repair. MC1R signaling, achieved through adenylyl cyclase activation and generation of the second messenger cAMP, is hormonally controlled by the positive agonist melanocortin, the negative agonist agouti signaling protein, and the neutral antagonist β-defensin 3. Activation of cAMP signaling up-regulates melanin production and deposition in the epidermis which functions to limit UV penetration into the skin and enhances nucleotide excision repair (NER), the genomic stability pathway responsible for clearing UV photolesions from DNA to avoid mutagenesis. Herein we review MC1R structure and function and summarize our laboratory’s findings on the molecular mechanisms by which MC1R signaling impacts NER. PMID:27303435

  5. Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Structure, Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Marissa Wolf Horrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R is a melanocytic Gs protein coupled receptor that regulates skin pigmentation, UV responses, and melanoma risk. It is a highly polymorphic gene, and loss of function correlates with a fair, UV-sensitive, and melanoma-prone phenotype due to defective epidermal melanization and sub-optimal DNA repair. MC1R signaling, achieved through adenylyl cyclase activation and generation of the second messenger cAMP, is hormonally controlled by the positive agonist melanocortin, the negative agonist agouti signaling protein, and the neutral antagonist β-defensin 3. Activation of cAMP signaling up-regulates melanin production and deposition in the epidermis which functions to limit UV penetration into the skin and enhances nucleotide excision repair, the genomic stability pathway responsible for clearing UV photolesions from DNA to avoid mutagenesis. Herein we review MC1R structure and function and summarize our laboratory’s findings on the molecular mechanisms by which MC1R signaling impacts nucleotide excision repair.

  6. Complex Analyses of Plankton Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Havens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates some complex methods that have been used to characterize the structure and function of freshwater plankton communities. The focus is on methods related to plankton size structure and carbon transfer. The specific methods reviewed are 1 size spectrum analysis, 2 size-fractionated phytoplankton productivity, 3 size-fractionated zooplankton grazing, 4 plankton ecological transfer efficiency, and 5 grazer effects on phytoplankton community structure. Taken together, these methods can provide information on community ecological properties that are directly related to practical issues including water quality and fisheries productivity. However, caution is warranted since application without a complete understanding of assumptions and context of the manipulations could lead to erroneous conclusions. As an example, experimental studies involving the addition or removal of zooplankton, especially when coupled with nutrient addition treatments, could provide information on the degree of consumer vs. resource control of phytoplankton. Resource managers subsequently could use this information in developing effective measures for controlling nuisance algal biomass. However, the experiments must be done critically and with sufficient safeguards and other measurements to ensure that treatments (e.g., zooplankton exclosure by screening of water actually are successful and do not introduce other changes in the community (e.g., removal of large algae. In all of the methods described here, the investigator must take care when generalizing results and, in particular, carry out a sufficient number of replications to encompass both the major seasonal and spatial variation that occurs in the ecosystem.

  7. Structure, dynamics, and function of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenfelder, H.; Berendzen, J.R.; Garcia, A.; Gupta, G.; Olah, G.A.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Trewhella, J.; Wood, C.C.; Woodruff, W.H.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors enhanced Los Alamos' core competency in Bioscience and Biotechnology by building on present strengths in experimental techniques, theory, high-performance computing, modeling, and simulation applied to biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function. Specifically, the authors strengthened their capabilities in neutron/x-ray scattering, x-ray crystallography, NMR, laser, and optical spectroscopies. Initially they focused on supporting the Los alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the design and implementation of new neutron scattering instrumentation, they developed new methods for analysis of scattering data, and they developed new projects to study the structures of biomolecular complexes. The authors have also worked to strengthen interactions between theory and experiment, and between the biological and physical sciences. They sponsored regular meetings of members from all interested LANL technical divisions, and supported two lecture series: ''Biology for Physicists'' and ''Issues in Modern Biology''. They also supported the formation of interdisciplinary/inter-divisional teams to develop projects in science-based bioremediation and an integrated structural biology resource. Finally, they successfully worked with a multidisciplinary team to put forward the Laboratory's Genome and Beyond tactical goal.

  8. Free Harmonious Beauty of Greek Sculpture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓杨

    2015-01-01

    Greek art in the content and form of the art of the beautiful, harmonious effect fully expresses the interpretation of the height of the spirit of freedom, and the Greek sculpture is a powerful representative of Greek art. In this paper, from a few large sculpture art to savor the Greek sculpture artistic freedom and harmonious beauty.

  9. Is Beauty an Archaic Spirit in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, Howard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the unfashionable and taboo idea that beauty matters. The author's supposition is that beauty as a poetic force should be regarded as one of the defining characteristics central to pedagogic practice. In making this claim he draws upon a few of Charles Dickens' and William Wordsworth's ideas in support of the importance of…

  10. ATTRACTION OF STUDENTS TOWARDS BEAUTY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Ali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation and impact of deceptive beauty advertising (Ads with and on the buying behavior of the university students toward beauty products. Developed instrument contained nineteen questions. Five point Likert scale was used and the response rate was 94.667%. Two variables were computed; buying behavior of university students towards beauty products was dependent variable; and deceptive beauty ads were independent variable. Descriptive statistics, correlation and liner regression techniques were used with the help of SPSS 16. Positive and significant correlation and impact was found with and on the buying behavior of university students toward beauty products which means that the use of beauty products increases with the increase in deception in beauty products ads. The data were collected from university students and non-serious attitude of students were the limitations of this study. In this study, the main focus was on the buying behavior of students and beauty products ads, and it will serve as a benchmark for prospective researchers for future study.

  11. Beautiful Exit: Break Up With A Smile

    OpenAIRE

    Alajoutsijärvi, K; MÖller, K.; Tähtinen, J. (Jaana)

    1999-01-01

    This paper constructs a framework describing communication strategies available in dissolving interorganisational buyer-seller relationships. In particular, we bring in a quality aspect, as we are looking for strategies that could be labelled "beautiful exits". A beautiful exit is achieved by using a communication strategy that minimises damages occurring to the disengager, the other party and the connected network.

  12. Charm and beauty physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of charm and beauty physics studies at Fermilab is reviewed. Data from fixed target experiments on charm production, semi-leptonic decay, and Cabibbo suppressed decays as well as charmonium studies in antiproton annihilation are described. In addition beauty results from CDF and E653 are reviewed and prospects for studies of B physics at collider detectors are discussed

  13. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T. L.; Chan, Henry H.; Ho, Wilson W. S.; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H. L.; Rogers, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic a...

  14. The "Beautiful" pain: cosmetic surgery and the embodiment of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Alexias, George; Dilaki, Georgija; Tsekeris, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on women undergoing plastic surgery operations, highlighting their particular attitude toward pain, which is caused by the desperate pursuit of beauty. Extracting data from semi-structured interviews, it is shown how pain is defied, eliminated or even denied by individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery. Since cosmetic procedures are carried out for aesthetic reasons, people disconnect this process from any negative emotion and ignore pain and trauma yielded from surgical op...

  15. Structural and functional diversity of desmosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Robert M; Green, Kathleen J

    2013-12-01

    Desmosomes anchor intermediate filaments at sites of cell contact established by the interaction of cadherins extending from opposing cells. The incorporation of cadherins, catenin adaptors, and cytoskeletal elements resembles the closely related adherens junction. However, the recruitment of intermediate filaments distinguishes desmosomes and imparts a unique function. By linking the load-bearing intermediate filaments of neighboring cells, desmosomes create mechanically contiguous cell sheets and, in so doing, confer structural integrity to the tissues they populate. This trait and a well-established role in human disease have long captured the attention of cell biologists, as evidenced by a publication record dating back to the mid-1860s. Likewise, emerging data implicating the desmosome in signaling events pertinent to organismal development, carcinogenesis, and genetic disorders will secure a prominent role for desmosomes in future biological and biomedical investigations.

  16. Structural and Functional Views of Mechatronic Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    in the costumer view as well in the production view. In this paper, the relationships in mechatronic products between the functional and structural levels are explored in relation to modularity. A list of commonly used module drivers is presented and a qualitative survey is used to explore significance......The development and subsequent production of industrial products are often complicated tasks. The complication increases with combined product as mechatronic products and is further complicated when large variety is required. Modularity is often used to achieve optimum in these complications both...... of influence on these module drivers when applying mechatronic product technology and view levels. The result is summarized in a list of which drivers should be addressed in a mechatronic product approach to modularity. Keywords:...

  17. Macrodomains: Structure, Function, Evolution, and Catalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Perina, Dragutin; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments indicate that macrodomains, an ancient and diverse protein domain family, are key players in the recognition, interpretation, and turnover of ADP-ribose (ADPr) signaling. Crucial to this is the ability of macrodomains to recognize ADPr either directly, in the form of a metabolic derivative, or as a modification covalently bound to proteins. Thus, macrodomains regulate a wide variety of cellular and organismal processes, including DNA damage repair, signal transduction, and immune response. Their importance is further indicated by the fact that dysregulation or mutation of a macrodomain is associated with several diseases, including cancer, developmental defects, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the current insights into macrodomain evolution and how this evolution influenced their structural and functional diversification. We highlight some aspects of macrodomain roles in pathobiology as well as their emerging potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:26844395

  18. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming

    2010-02-04

    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  19. Structure and function of carbonic anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-07-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyse the interconversion between CO2 and bicarbonate as well as other hydrolytic reactions. Among the six genetic families known to date, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs, detailed kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies have allowed a deep understanding of the structure-function relationship in this superfamily of proteins. A metal hydroxide nucleophilic species of the enzyme, and a unique active site architecture, with half of it hydrophilic and the opposing part hydrophobic, allow these enzymes to act as some of the most effective catalysts known in Nature. The CA activation and inhibition mechanisms are also known in detail, with a large number of new inhibitor classes being described in the last years. Apart from the zinc binders, some classes of inhibitors anchor to the metal ion coordinated nucleophile, others occlude the entrance of the active site cavity and more recently, compounds binding outside the active site were described. CA inhibition has therapeutic applications for drugs acting as diuretics, antiepileptics, antiglaucoma, antiobesity and antitumour agents. Targeting such enzymes from pathogens may lead to novel anti-infectives. Successful structure-based drug design campaigns allowed the discovery of highly isoform selective CA inhibitors (CAIs), which may lead to a new generation of drugs targeting these widespread enzymes. The use of CAs in CO2 capture processes for mitigating the global temperature rise has also been investigated more recently. PMID:27407171

  20. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  1. Wavelets and Geometric Structure for Function Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xiang YANG

    2004-01-01

    With Littlewood-Paley analysis, Peetre and Triebel classified, systematically, almost all the usual function spaces into two classes of spaces: Besov spaces (B)s,q p(s ∈ R,0 < p,q ≤∞) and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces (F)s,q p(s∈R,0<p<∞,0<q≤∞); but the structure of dual spaces (D)s,q p of (F)s,q p(s∈R, 0<p≤1≤q≤∞) is very different from that of Besov spaces or that of Triebel-Lizorkin spaces, and their structure cannot be analysed easily in the Littlewood-Paley analysis. Our main goal is to characterize (D)s,q p (s ∈ R, 0<p= 1≤q≤∞) in tent spaces with wavelets. By the way, some applications are given: (i) Triebel-Lizorkin spaces for p = ∞ defined by Littlewood-Paley analysis cannot serve as the dual spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin spaces for p = 1; (ii) Some inclusion relations among these above spaces and some relations among(B)o,q1,(F)o,q1 and L1 are studied.

  2. A study of the prevalence of respiratory morbidity and ventilatory obstruction in beauty parlour workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in beauty parlor workers of Lucknow, India, to assess the prevalence of respiratory morbidity and lung function abnormalities compared to their control subjects belonging to the same socioeconomic status and ethnic group, having never been exposed to the workplace of beauty parlor and having not used any cosmetics. Respiratory morbidity and bronchial obstruction based on PEFR study was conducted in 196 beauty parlor workers and 35 control subjects. All the participants were non-smokers and were matched for age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. Peak expiratory flow rate were performed using Peak Flow meter. Symptomatic workers showed bronchial obstruction (28%, and this prevalence was significantly higher ( P P < 0.01 than male workers (1.42. Overall respiratory morbidity among beauty parlor workers showed higher (12.7% when compared with control group (2.8% but differences couldn′t attain any significance. Although nonsignificant, workers in beauty parlor showed more prevalence (9.4% of bronchial obstruction based on PEFR than controls (4%. This study showed that beauty parlor workers were more prone to respiratory morbidity and lung function abnormalities, as the study group selected were non-smokers.

  3. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01抗敏医美学>据说橄榄树非常长寿,可以健康地存活1000年,所以科学家相信橄榄树含有保持青春的成分,知名的皮肤科医生及抗衰老专家Nicholas Perricone博士研发的Perricone MD护肤品牌,就是以橄榄叶及其果实的天然分子橄榄多酚为敏感肌肤带来有效护理的抗衰老系列。

  4. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>01Christian Dior贵族淑女踏春归来随着马蹄声的配乐响起,Christian Dior宣布贵族淑女的时代回归。绣花、珍珠、花朵这些春意盎然的细节都运用到了薄纱以及各种轻盈的材质上。马鞭与马靴还有骑马的高帽搭配着长裙,优雅帅气的骑士装扮瞬间抓住了在场女士们的心。在妆容上,化妆师

  5. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01闪耀细胞思维论〉Cle de Peau Beaute认为每一个皮肤细胞,犹如脑细胞一样,能够自我思考。它们均具有处理各种情报的能力,只要有效管理细胞使之接收更多正面讯息,阻截负面情报,提升肌肤本身的机制优化细胞机能,便能诱导更多正面讯息能量的吸收,从而改善皮肤质量。而全新Basic Care系列,便是因应闪耀细胞管理而研发。

  6. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmine; Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>022010 Chanel春夏高级成衣发布会后台彩妆探秘在这场仿佛是法国皇后Marie Antoinette在凡尔赛宫的小农庄重现的时装秀上,除了精致奢华的新款时装令人眼前一亮之外,彩妆创意总监Peter Phillips在妆容上也为我们带来了新一年的流行趋势,那就是以高雅别致的米色调为主,打造令人耳目一新、清新富有朝气的妆容。这种邻家女孩味十足的妆容效果,基本适合所有的女性,所有的场合。如果你嫌妆容过于"平淡",那

  7. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01皇室御用彩妆盒〉Cle de peau Beaute邀得皇室御用珠宝设计师Shaun Leane,为春夏特别推出的Luminizing Face Enhancer设计一个闪烁夺目的盒子。Shaun Leane曾任皇室御用珠宝师及Alexander McQueen的首席珠宝设计师。他是英国FlPG获奖者,该奖项专门表扬技术超凡的珠宝匠师。精美闪烁的宝石切割面粉盒,一丝不苟的设计,令彩妆盒精致如珠宝盒一样,带有高贵优雅气派。Shaun Leane指出:"最初构思包装设计时,第一个念头是塑造既富触感又美观的盒子。在美感方面,我们希望设计宛如一件多琢面的

  8. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd Ji

    2010-01-01

    <正>01Rene Gruau与美妆传承法国画家Rene Gruau的重要,不仅来自他独特的虚实结合水彩风格,将东西方绘画艺术相结合,令20世纪中期的人们耳目一新。他与Dior品牌合作,让插画与Dior在50年代推出的"New Look"风格紧密结合,流畅大气的线条勾勒出明显的女性曲线,修身、高雅、大气,这些插画与人们脑中的Dior服饰产生了不可分割的联系。2010年11月10日至2011年1月9日,名为"Dior插画展:Rene Gruau与美妆传承"的展览将于伦敦萨默塞特宫隆重举行。这场展览将向公众展现里程碑式的艺术珍品,荟集了经严格甄选的Dior高级定制礼服,以及Gruau特别为Dior香水化妆品品牌、古董香水瓶、时装手绘稿和杂志精心绘就的原创插画。六位英国出生的插画家亦将应邀在此次展览中展示画作,Gruau与Dior迪奥品牌的无间合作正是他们的灵感源泉。

  9. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paris; Sun

    2011-01-01

    <正>01美妆拜占庭拜占庭艺术(Byzantine art)指东罗马帝国的艺术。大体来说,所有拜占庭的艺术都充满了精神的象征主义。重视心象,不容有写实主义的存在。为配合Chanel巴黎一拜占庭高级手工坊系列成衣发布,Chanel全球彩妆创意总监彼德·菲利浦斯以世界知名的狄奥多拉女皇Theodora的马赛克肖像图为灵感创作了一组妆容,而肖像图中女皇眉峰部分所描绘的红色眼影线条,被他用作了这次妆

  10. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd Ji

    2010-01-01

    <正>01Chanel 2010 Couture Makeup在高级订制服的秀场上,时装及配饰不但影响着未来一至两季的服装潮流,模特的妆容作为整个系列的点睛之笔,也对妆容的流行指明方向。由Chanel全球彩妆创意总监Peter Philips为秋冬高级订制系列创作的红色概念妆容就是其中一个例子。Peter Philips表示,他的设计概念来自Karl Lagerfeld向他展示的设计草图:"我发现他在所有的模特嘴上都加上了一抹红色。而他展示给我看的第一件外套也是红色

  11. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01救生员认可的有机防晒美国生态环境研究专家Chris Birchby的家人,不幸患上黑色素瘤,令他明白防晒的重要,同时作为生态环境研究专家,他亦希望护肤品不会加重地球的负担,所以研发出防晒品牌COOLA,以有机天然成分为主,同时以物理性及化学性的防晒配方,推出高效的防晒产品,除了获得各个有机认证外,亦获得美国救生员协会的认可。

  12. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd Ji

    2010-01-01

    <正>01悦木之源"眼咖啡">一直以为,累了、困了只要一杯咖啡就能提神解乏。却没想到,咖啡的活力还能喂进眼睛里,仿佛永远没有睡醒的倦怠双眼,在遇见悦木之源人参活力焕亮眼霜之后便能苏醒。这款在业界素有"精神眼霜"、"眼咖啡"、"加班眼霜"等众多俏皮昵称的Origins GinzingTM人参活力焕亮眼霜优选两款醒神植物能量——"百草之王"人参与"醒神之王"咖啡,同时融汇了冬虫夏草、木兰花、锦紫苏、橙皮苷、黄芩、绿茶等多种活力秘方,能够有效针对改善黑眼圈、眼部浮肿和眼疲劳等眼部问题,仿佛给倦眼来一杯Espresso。

  13. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01蜗牛美容秘辛〉早于1980年,智利皮肤科医生Mr.Fernando Bascunan就已发现蜗牛分泌物具有非凡的护肤功效。当时他的家族以养殖蜗牛为生,并出口至欧洲各国成为美食。多年来在处理蜗牛的过程中,Fernando Bascunan意外地发现,工人被工具刮伤的患处不但没有发炎伤口愈合会更快,也不会留下疤痕。自此以后,他就开始对蜗牛进行研究,发现蜗牛黏液可在人类皮肤上产生嫩肤、再生及修复的神奇功效。近年来不少美容品牌都开始投放资源,研发蜗牛黏液护肤品,其中来自韩国的MISSHA,以韩国锦

  14. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01意大利大家闺秀>Valentino除了经典的火红女郎形象外,近年时装秀的蕾丝都充分表现出品牌对女性妩媚的诠释。而今次Valentino的首支吞氛更是为其女性时装及生活方式所启发。为了这支香氛像是一束综合了多种鲜花精炼而成的香味,选用的材料都极度女性化,充分代表了Valentino女性的独特气质,因此便以Valentina命名。品牌邀两位杰出的调香师:Oliver Cresp

  15. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01从不泛黄的照片谈美白>现在什么都谈数码化,数码相机的科技水平也越来越高,但是十分值得纪念的相片,还是会有冲印出来的冲动。富士牌的相机胶卷你一定听过用过吧,用它冲印出来的相片,不论经过多少年,相片上的颜色不只没有泛黄,更没有褪色。原来,照相的相机胶卷是用骨胶原制成的。相同道理,如果富士能将相机胶卷用的骨胶原保持最佳状态,它们亦会知道怎样保护我们皮肤的骨胶原。所以当富士推出Fijifilm beauty系列,对女士们来说,可谓福音!

  16. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01摩诃之美>摩诃本为梵文,在佛教中有超越有情与无情,在无边无际、有形与无形之间显得圆通神妙用的意思。正如Cle de PeauBeaute秋冬妆容系列,以光亮色彩从黑暗中反映出来,以阴影映衬着明亮的双眸,以光泽衬托出不一样的色彩。品牌的彩妆美容形象师Lucia Pieroni说:"色彩在黑暗中绽亮生辉,令眼影细滑如丝。炯炯有神的明眸,在色彩与质感交织下美丽迷人,映照神秘的黑夜。"而系列最新三款让人惊艳的眼影色调,以散发不同光芒的珠光组合塑造聚光焦点,色彩中若隐若现的光泽,在瞳孔中映照出神秘光芒,演绎高贵优雅的魅力。色调可随意混配,

  17. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>眉:自然生态眉首先要扭转精致、服帖、细长才是完美眉形的观念。选择比发色淡一度的眉粉自下眉头处1cm处为起点,向眉峰轻扫,进而顺延至眉尾,别忘记用余粉将眉毛边缘处做好过渡。最后用眉形修饰膏以先顺再逆的方向梳理眉毛,缔造根根分明的印象。眼:亚洲人的内陷式双眼皮,令彩色眼线往往不足以提升眼晴的精气神。双色眼线以深色在靠近内眼睑的位置铺底,此处精细和轻巧的眼尾上挑是关键,然后用明媚的彩色眼线以略宽出1~2cm的方式勾勒,霎时拥有明眸点睛的魅惑力。

  18. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01有机"炼金术">古时人们相信可以从金属中提炼长生不老的丹药,虽然现代科学已证实炼金术不能提炼所谓"仙丹",但却令人类对物质和化学有了进一步的认识和了解。因为这些知识,让我们可以从自然环境中萃取各种天然成分,合成及研发成各种不只对皮肤或身体有益的产品,更有效地减少了浪费和不必要的消耗。

  19. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>01DNA科技注入睫毛膏>在护肤品中添加生物基因技术,已不再是什么大新闻。但你听说过,在睫毛膏里也加入这一科技吗?7月即将问市的Lancome全新梦魅臻采睫毛膏,就以兰蔻高科技研究成果为基础,加入了独一无二的基因配比技术,用以启动睫毛干细胞的活性,促进干细胞新生,仿佛为睫毛注入第二次生命般,让睫毛变长变密。同时,特别研制的刷头,可以更好的让膏体和睫毛接触,达到更完美的浓睫艳眸效果。www.lancome.com

  20. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd; Ji; Paris; Sun

    2011-01-01

    <正>01纸艺幻发纸艺能成为备受关注的艺术形态,是因为纸本身拥有轻盈及可塑性强的特质,再配合极富想象力的创作,即能呈现出千变万化的视觉形象,承载无限艺术价值。沙宣认为头发与纸艺的创作概念如出一辙,今年冬季亦从纸艺中汲取灵感,设计出了轻盈、可塑的概念发型。以"逆重幻觉"为名的发型特辑借用纸艺"挣脱重力的束缚仿佛能够对抗万有引力的存在"这一概念,丰盈的发型在充满空气感的同时,造型上也十分具有纸张所带来的结构感。当被问及如何打造这样的发型时,其创意总监回答:"关键在于拥有轻盈可塑的健康秀发。"道理虽不难,达到却不易。

  1. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; Stephen; Behrens; 王海强

    2006-01-01

    古往今来,人们一直通过语言、艺术或思考来探究人生的真谛。有人以追求人生的真理为乐,甚至是舍生取义;也有人在追求真理的过程中不断完善自己的生命。本文以朴实的文笔娓娓述说了一个令人深思而嗟叹的故事。故事女主人公相貌丑陋,但却以她独特的灵气、细腻的美感、动人的话语征服了人心。她对待人生的态度和生活的勇气,无疑会令所有的身体健康者汗颜!

  2. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01澳大利亚有机美发>澳大利亚天然资源丰富,所以不少美容品牌都从当地的有机农庄获取原材料,主要因为有机草本成分内含的维他命、矿物质等营养成分比非有机草本植物高,同时有助减少吸收不必要的抗生素、农药等化学成分,令消费者更安心使用。澳洲进口品牌australian organics,在澳洲拥有十五年历史,产品包括面部护理、沐浴及身体护理以及头发护理系列。其有机成分获澳洲国家可持续农业协会机构(NASAA)认可,并属澳洲低碳产品商认可成员,全部产品均于澳洲制造,绝对不含石化成分、人造香料、色素及任何基因改造和动物测试,成分温和,容易吸收,特别适合亚洲人肌肤。品牌根据不同发质及肌肤需要,以天然草本成分调配不同配方外,亦以舒缓、减压、安抚情绪、助眠等有机香熏精华调配而成,让秀发及头部皮肤获得细致呵护之余,于感官上也同时得到洗涤,令日常护理程序变得更轻松。

  3. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正> 今年起,说到最有效的抗氧化成分,你脑中该留下一个新名词"IDEBENONE 艾地苯"。这种由 ELIZABETH ARDEN 携手 BOTOX 肉毒杆菌素的创造者——ALLERGAN 联手推出的新成分已被运用在"PREVAGE 逆时橘灿精纯凝露"中,掀起了全球医学美容热潮。被称为"抗氧化超人"的它在18岁后即可每天使用,对抗光老化及预防皱纹。

  4. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>01帝王之水典藏版华丽开售>现在你不必亲身飞到巴黎或香港等地,Guerlain巴黎之家专属限量香氛上海梅龙镇伊势丹精品专柜店将在7月隆重揭幕。作为国内唯一一家精品店,也是香榭丽舍大道68号LaMaison Guerlain娇兰之家的华丽缩影,在此你可以独家购买到帝王之水金箔蜂姿琉金典藏版等多款限量版香水。帝王之水乃品牌创始人Pierre Francois Pascal为法国Eugenie皇后特别制作的新婚礼物,清新、芬芳而怡神的它,是橙花、香橼、柠檬、

  5. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd; Ji; Paris; Sun

    2011-01-01

    <正>01一片蓝心向北非Giorgio Armani用一种颜色完成了2011春夏女装秀,撒哈拉沙漠中部游牧民族图阿雷格人的文化就是其女装的灵感来源。而品牌彩妆的特质在于其质感和色彩都基于时装的灵感、布料的材质之上。2011年春夏妆容,其灵感同样延续来自图阿雷格人面纱的颜色——靛蓝。设计师Giorgio Armani认为:"蓝与黑的搭配会让经典的黑色更有生命力。"通过对蓝色和黑色搭配的重新诠释,赋予了品牌招牌式优雅更富故事性与情境感的篇章。

  6. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>01至真"纸"美>美国时装真人秀节目《Project Runway》在最近的一期节目里,请参赛者们用牛皮纸来代替寻常的布料,做出属于自己的牛皮纸时装,结果平时表现平平的参赛者都发挥得不错。原因何在?牛皮纸那朴实无华,却坚韧有型的特色赋予了"材料"更多的可塑性,同时也呼应了当下全球大热的

  7. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>眼部的流线美学2014秋冬的T台妆容,醒目又流畅的眼妆深入人心,能够一根根修饰睫毛的睫毛刷,触感光滑柔软的丝绒效果眼影,勾勒夸张猫眼效果的厚泽眼线,所有的产品都重在打造自然流畅中可扩大眼形的清秀眼妆。01细致巧妙地提亮肌肤疲惫黯淡区域圣罗兰明彩笔1#2.5ml/RMB36002柔滑质感与千变万化的妆效圣罗兰臻彩四色眼影5#5g/RMB56003惊艳系列,打造含情脉脉的眼神迪奥单色眼影3g/RMB31004打造诱惑双眸的波普粉色迪奥魅惑睫毛膏9ml/RMB36005精致珍珠母贝令双眸晶莹闪亮希恩黎植物炫彩眼影06极其柔软,幼滑的眼线笔希思黎植物丝缎眼线笔

  8. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    一年之中,可以好好重整肌肤状况的有两个时段,分别是3,4月和10,11月,这两个时节,肌肤刚从剧烈的换季变化中回复平稳,最适合趁机除去累积的废物,并补充肌肤所需的营养,就像大病之后需要恢复元气一样。

  9. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01植村秀东京眼妆美学〉植村秀这彩妆品牌相信是不少潮流达人的心头好,不只因为其一流品质,更因为品牌从来以"不停构思改进与发掘"为哲学,不断推陈出新。今季炎夏,配合自由配搭彩妆盒,及全新系列眼影色系,品牌打造个人独特的彩妆盒。彩妆盒由日本著名建筑师干久美子设计,简洁优雅之余,亦令彩妆盒不需使用任何黏贴工具,亦能轻松替换眼影及胭脂组合。

  10. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01好莱坞巨星的活肤秘诀>由匈牙利皮肤科医生Dr.Laszlo创办的纽约品牌Emo Laszlo,一直深受皇室名人及好莱坞巨星的喜爱,今年是Emo Laszlo创立八十五周年,特别以五位家喻户晓的好莱坞女星为灵感,推出八十五周年限量版好莱坞尊贵系列。五款尊贵系列的原装产品分别为珍珠亮采唤肤啫喱、魅惑水润修护眼霜、Refresh尊贵宝石再生补湿霜、搪瓷肌抗氧化修护霜及丝滑

  11. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kidd Ji

    2010-01-01

    <正>01逆转光老化>光老化是目前被认为肌肤衰老的最大元凶。有害的紫外线深入肌肤深处,直接伤害细胞DNA,破坏肌肤自我更新过程,同时引发自由基,对肌肤造成进一步的间接伤害。在美国,激光被运用在光老化引起的皱纹、松弛的肌肤治疗上,因为术后红肿的反应并不多,所以很多人都能接受。但你需要为之付出疼痛感和一到两万元的高额费用。随着美容产品技术的提高与开发,基于医学美容的CLINIQUE

  12. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmine; Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>03Jean Paul Gaultier 2010春夏高级订制:梦游"奇幻乐园"〉老顽童Jean Paul Gaultier这次给彩妆大师Tom Pecheux出了一个趣味横生的妆容课题—fantasy land。于是Tom Pecheux把墨西哥人、外星人、甚至是热映的电影《Avatar》都搬上了T台。模特们的妆容被大自然的缤纷色彩所填满,限部以天空蓝、植物绿、夕阳橙和大地黄为

  13. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paris; Sun

    2011-01-01

    <正>01Aesop来自澳洲的"伊索寓言">"伊索寓言"在巴黎上演,Aesop巴黎店最新橱窗展,伊索灵魂漫游于方寸橱窗间。成立于1987年的澳洲品牌伊索(Aesop),在纯天然植物护肤的基础上率先推行有机理念,并结合内外调理的"理智"生活哲学。出身于拥有最多濒临绝种的奇花异草、珍禽怪兽的澳大利亚净土,品牌从研发、测试到

  14. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01台湾有机>说起护肤品的出产地,瑞士美国等欧美传统美容王国当然占市场大部分位置,但有时候因气候水土不同,在美国用起来一流的产品,来到亚洲可能就要大打折扣。近年除了韩国,台湾出产的美容护肤产品亦大受欢迎,除了一流的质量外,价位亦十分相宜。以统欣生物科技公司旗下品牌之一Deary媞尔妮为例,在身体及脸部保养品领域开发专研,以有机草本原料,配合独特研发技术,其面膜销售更是台湾连锁便利店排行第一。统欣生物科技公司,除了研发有效的护肤品之余,亦对护

  15. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmine; Chris

    2009-01-01

    <正>01寻找秋冬发型灵感>Aveda刚发表了新一季发型及发色潮流造型照,品牌的环球创作总监Antoinette Beenders介绍这系列灵感启发自80年代的歌德式华丽,他说:"今季的造型设计大量运用了复古味极浓的经典剪裁和发色。"一如以往,Aveda的造型设计无论是发型及发色都相当实用,参考价值甚高,想改变造型又没有头绪的话,可到品牌的网址找找合心意的发色与发型,更有来自世界各地的造型师所提供的理发建议。除此之外,可留意这辑造型照的另一个特别之处:模特儿所穿的礼服,全采用可循环再用的物料制造,如旧报纸、旧牛仔布料及风衣等,重新解构再造,非常合乎Aveda的环保原则。

  16. Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmine; Chris

    2010-01-01

    <正>01沪上定制妆容〉香奈儿巴黎——上海高级手工坊将时尚大帝Karl Lagerfeld和彩妆大师Peter Philips都带来了上海,除了为上海度身定做的华服之外,那颇有东方韵味的妆容也令人印象深刻。Peter在采访中透露这次妆面的灵感来自Karl给他看的一部电影——《花样年华》。模特们的妆容需要看上去既要有像张曼玉穿旗袍时的优雅,又能表现出如未来女战士般的魄力。正如服装秀一开场,模特们所穿着服装的灵

  17. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie Kwok

    2012-01-01

    <正>01世界海洋大同>La Mer的世界海洋日活动,不仅要提升大家对海洋美态和修复力量的关注,更要呼吁人们对它脆弱的生态多加爱惜。La Mer相信海洋植物如太平洋海藻,其惊人力量尚未被完全发掘及理解,所以我们应全力支持生态保育,为下一代守护并保存这大自然的瑰宝。今年的世界海洋日活动鼓励大众探索、发掘和欣赏海洋宝库。La Mer特别设计了一百毫升的世界海洋日Creme de la Mer限量版面霜,瓶身设计的灵感亦撷取

  18. BEAUTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katie; Kwok

    2011-01-01

    <正>01Burberry Body全新香氛>Burberry Body找来英国女演员兼模特儿Rosie Huntington-Whiteley,让她成为品牌的第一位代言人,从她身上完美地体现出感性、自信和谦逊的平衡。全新香氛使用的成分亦不简单,除了以天然玫瑰精油和香草为基调外,前调的苦艾酒曾一度是欧洲禁酒,也是梵高每次画画必喝的最爱。品牌还在香水瓶上花了不少心思,品牌刨作总监Christopher Bailey表示:"我常将

  19. Causative get-constructions in the dialogued passages in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night as gender-conditioned structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołąbek Rafał

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that in modern sociolinguistics there is a consensus with regard to the fact that the language of males and females differs. The initial sections of the article briefly address the peculiarities of gendered speech as to provide a theoretical background for checking whether the causative get is used similarly or differently by men and women in the two of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels: The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night. The basic expectation formed is that the motifs for triggering the use of causative get are of social rather than structural nature. Before the analysis is carried out, the group of the English periphrastic causatives are sketchily characterized. Generally, what has been found is that there is a clear, socially-motivated pattern of how F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the causative get in the dialogued occurrences in his two novels. Get is a characteristic of men’s talk, but it is also the expected form while female characters address male ones - hence the verb is labelled as “masculine” get. Moreover, it has been discovered that there does not seem to be any particular pattern in either the speaker’s mood or the speaker’s attitude expressed that would trigger the use of the causative verb in question. Yet, what seems to be a well-defined tendency, when it comes to the speaker-hearer power relation, is that the speaker usually assumes a more superior position than the hearer when he or she uses the causative verb. The superiority in most cases is strongly associated with masculinity. Hence, what is postulated is that the causative get is labelled not only as “masculine" but also as “superior”.

  20. Evaluation of Eyelid Function and Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimkin, Michael G; Holds, John B

    2016-05-01

    The eyes and periocular area are the central aesthetic unit of the face. Facial aging is a dynamic process that involves skin, subcutaneous soft tissues, and bony structures. An understanding of what is perceived as youthful and beautiful is critical for success. Knowledge of the functional aspects of the eyelid and periocular area can identify pre-preoperative red flags. PMID:27105795

  1. Bathing in Reeking Wounds: The Liberal Arts, Beauty, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2014-01-01

    A historic dialectic exists between the beautiful and the bestial. The bestial destroys the beautiful, but in a bloody miracle, the beautiful emerges from the womb of the bestial, the "terrible beauty" of which the poet W. B. Yeats wrote. The liberal arts, so often thought to dwell in a remote ivory tower, embody this dialectic. Wars and…

  2. Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilena, M; Mariotti, B; Manzano, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent molecular and genomic studies carried out in a number of model dioecious plant species, including Asparagus officinalis, Carica papaya, Silene latifolia, Rumex acetosa and Marchantia polymorpha, have shed light on the molecular structure of both homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and also on the gene functions they have maintained since their evolution from a pair of autosomes. The molecular structure of sex chromosomes in species from different plant families represents the evolutionary pathway followed by sex chromosomes during their evolution. The degree of Y chromosome degeneration that accompanies the suppression of recombination between the Xs and Ys differs among species. The primitive Ys of A. officinalis and C. papaya have only diverged from their homomorphic Xs in a short male-specific and non-recombining region (MSY), while the heteromorphic Ys of S. latifolia, R. acetosa and M. polymorpha have diverged from their respective Xs. As in the Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila, the accumulation of repetitive DNA, including both transposable elements and satellite DNA, has played an important role in the divergence and size enlargement of plant Ys, and consequently in reducing gene density. Nevertheless, the degeneration process in plants does not appear to have reached the Y-linked genes. Although a low gene density has been found in the sequenced Y chromosome of M. polymorpha, most of its genes are essential and are expressed in the vegetative and reproductive organs in both male and females. Similarly, most of the Y-linked genes that have been isolated and characterized up to now in S. latifolia are housekeeping genes that have X-linked homologues, and are therefore expressed in both males and females. Only one of them seems to be degenerate with respect to its homologous region in the X. Sequence analysis of larger regions in the homomorphic X and Y chromosomes of papaya and asparagus, and also in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes

  3. Perceived beauty of random texture patterns: A preference for complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Jay; Liby, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    We report two experiments on the perceived aesthetic quality of random density texture patterns. In each experiment a square grid was filled with a progressively larger number of elements. Grid size in Experiment 1 was 10×10 with elements added to create a variety of textures ranging from 10%-100% fill levels. Participants rated the beauty of the patterns. Average judgments across all observers showed an inverted U-shaped function that peaked near middle densities. In Experiment 2 grid size was increased to 15×15 to see if observers preferred patterns with a fixed density or a fixed number of elements. The results of the second experiment were nearly identical to that of the first showing a preference for density over fixed element number. Ratings in both studies correlated positively with a GIF compression metric of complexity and with edge length. Within the range of stimuli used, observers judge more complex patterns to be more beautiful.

  4. Perceived beauty of random texture patterns: A preference for complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Jay; Liby, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    We report two experiments on the perceived aesthetic quality of random density texture patterns. In each experiment a square grid was filled with a progressively larger number of elements. Grid size in Experiment 1 was 10×10 with elements added to create a variety of textures ranging from 10%-100% fill levels. Participants rated the beauty of the patterns. Average judgments across all observers showed an inverted U-shaped function that peaked near middle densities. In Experiment 2 grid size was increased to 15×15 to see if observers preferred patterns with a fixed density or a fixed number of elements. The results of the second experiment were nearly identical to that of the first showing a preference for density over fixed element number. Ratings in both studies correlated positively with a GIF compression metric of complexity and with edge length. Within the range of stimuli used, observers judge more complex patterns to be more beautiful. PMID:27155800

  5. Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M.;

    2011-01-01

    disease models. In this report, we present transgenic pigs created by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition in primary porcine fibroblasts in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Göttingen minipigs expressing green fluorescent protein are produced by transgenesis with DNA...... plasmid DNA. Our findings illustrate critical issues related to DNA transposon-directed transgenesis, including coincidental plasmid insertion and relatively low Sleeping Beauty transposition activity in porcine fibroblasts, but also provide a platform for future development of porcine disease models...... using the Sleeping Beauty gene insertion technology....

  6. Structure-based inference of molecular functions of proteins of unknown function from Berkeley Structural Genomics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Hou; Shin, Dong Hae; Hou, Jingtong; Chandonia, John-Marc; Das, Debanu; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2007-09-02

    Advances in sequence genomics have resulted in an accumulation of a huge number of protein sequences derived from genome sequences. However, the functions of a large portion of them cannot be inferred based on the current methods of sequence homology detection to proteins of known functions. Three-dimensional structure can have an important impact in providing inference of molecular function (physical and chemical function) of a protein of unknown function. Structural genomics centers worldwide have been determining many 3-D structures of the proteins of unknown functions, and possible molecular functions of them have been inferred based on their structures. Combined with bioinformatics and enzymatic assay tools, the successful acceleration of the process of protein structure determination through high throughput pipelines enables the rapid functional annotation of a large fraction of hypothetical proteins. We present a brief summary of the process we used at the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center to infer molecular functions of proteins of unknown function.

  7. Particle identification for beauty physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, T.

    1987-01-01

    We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10/sub 9/ HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  9. My beautiful hometown Gao Chun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晟

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the southwestern part of Jiangsu Province,the southern suburbs of the ancient city of Nanjing,there is a magical and quaint land, distributing the heat,revealing fascinating charm like a brilliant pearl. It has natural ecology(自然生态),beautiful scenery and rich resources(富饶的资源)and has got the famous reputation of being a land of fish and rice(鱼米之乡 ).This is Gaochun, the Jiangnan Holy Land (江南胜地) called by the Qianlong emperor(乾隆皇帝)in Qing Dynasty and now it is one of the Top 100 Counties(百强县之一), Red Sun Corporation and Wu Jiazui Jinling First Richest Village belong to Gao Chun.

  10. Experimental situation of beauty oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental situation of the evidences for beauty oscillations is reviewed. After a brief description of the formalism the results from the CERN proton-antiproton collider are described and compared with the results from electron-positron colliders. Whereas the experiments on the continuum measure a mixture of χs and χd the experiments on the Υ (4s) are only sensitive to χd. A forecast for 1992 is given and a method is described which allows to measure χs. A precision measurement of χs would allow to further constrain the CKM matrix and would eventually lead to a determination of the phase in the matrix

  11. Beautiful mirrors at the LHC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.; Shepherd, W.; Tait, T. M. P.; Vega-Morales, R.; High Energy Physics; Northwestern Univ; Univ. of California at Irvine

    2010-01-01

    We explore the 'Beautiful Mirrors' model, which aims to explain the measured value of A{sub FB}{sup b}, discrepant at the 2.9{sigma} level. This scenario introduces vector-like quarks which mix with the bottom, subtly affecting its coupling to the Z. The spectrum of the new particles consists of two bottom-like quarks and a charge -4/3 quark, all of which have electroweak interactions with the third generation. We explore the phenomenology and discovery reach for these new particles at the LHC, exploring single mirror quark production modes whose rates are proportional to the same mixing parameters which resolve the A{sub FB}{sup b} anomaly. We find that for mirror quark masses {approx}< 500 GeV, a 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb{sup -1} is required to reasonably establish the scenario and extract the relevant mixing parameters.

  12. Polarized and Unpolarized Structure Functions in the Valon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz

    2006-02-01

    Hadrons are considered as the bound states of their structureful constituents, the Valons. The valon structure is calculated perturbatively in QCD; which is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. This structure is used to calculate Proton and pion structure functions. For the case of polarized structure function, the valon representation, not only gives all the available data on gp,n,d1, but also requires a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon.

  13. Models of Protocellular Structure, Function and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Szostak, Jack W.; Keefe, Tony; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of any record of protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models that capture important features of protocellular systems. Such efforts are currently underway in a collaborative project between NASA-Ames, Harvard Medical School and University of California. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures. The centerpiece of this project is a method for the in vitro evolution of protein enzymes toward arbitrary catalytic targets. A similar approach has already been developed for nucleic acids in which a small number of functional molecules are selected from a large, random population of candidates. The selected molecules are next vastly multiplied using the polymerase chain reaction. A mutagenic approach, in which the sequences of selected molecules are randomly altered, can yield further improvements in performance or alterations of specificities. Unfortunately, the catalytic potential of nucleic acids is rather limited. Proteins are more catalytically capable but cannot be directly amplified. In the new technique, this problem is circumvented by covalently linking each protein of the initial, diverse, pool to the RNA sequence that codes for it. Then, selection is performed on the proteins, but the nucleic acids are replicated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Structure and function of DNA polymerase μ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA polymerases are enzymes playing the central role in DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination. DNA polymerase μ (pol μ DNA polymerase λ (pol λ) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) in X family DNA polymerases function in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is the predonmiant repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NHEJ involves enzymes that capture both ends of the broken DNA strand, bring them together in a synaptic DNA-protein complex, and repair the DSB. Pol μ and pol λ fill in the gaps at the junction to maintain the genomic integrity. TdT synthesizes N region at the junction during V(D)J recombination and promotes diversity of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene. Among these three polymerases, the regulatory mechanisms of pol μ remain rather unclear. We have approached the mechanism of pol μ from both sides of structure and cellular dynamics. Here, we propose some new insights into pol μ and the probable NHEJ model including our findings. (author)

  15. [Glutamate Metabotropic Receptors: Structure, Localisation, Functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2016-01-01

    The data on the structure, location and functions of the metabotropic glutamate receptor is shown. The family consists of 8 mGluRs subtypes and is divided into three groups: I group--mGluRs1/mGluRs5, II group--mGluRs2/mGluRs3, III group--mGluRs4/mGluRs6/mGluRs7/mGluRs8. They are associated with G-protein; signaling in the cells is carried out by IP3 or adenylate cyclase signaling pathways, in the result of which, mGluRs modify glial and neuronal excitability. Receptors are localized in the CNS and periphery in non-neuronal tissues: bone, heart, kidney, pancreas pod and platelets, the gastrointestinal tract, immune system. Their participation in the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, mental and cognitive disorders, autoimmune processes, etc. is displayed. Agonists, antagonists, allosteric modulators of mGluRs are considered as potential medicines for treatment of mental diseases, including depression, fragile X syndrome, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, Parkinson's disease, etc. PMID:27530046

  16. Yeast peroxisomes: structure, functions and biotechnological opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-06-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. In yeasts, peroxisomes play important roles in cell metabolism, especially in different catabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylic shunt and methanol metabolism, as well as some biosynthetic processes. In addition, peroxisomes are the compartment in which oxidases and catalase are localized. New peroxisomes mainly arise by fission of pre-existing ones, although they can also be formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Peroxisomes consist of matrix-soluble proteins and membrane proteins known as peroxins. A total of 34 PEX peroxin genes and proteins have been identified to date. and their functions have been elucidated. Protein import into peroxisomes depends on peroxins and requires specific signals in the structure of transported proteins: PTS1, PTS2 and mPTS. The mechanisms of metabolite penetration into peroxisomes are still poorly understood. Peroxisome number and the volume occupied by these organelles are tightly regulated. Methanol, fatty acids and methylamine act as efficient peroxisome proliferators, whereas glucose and ethanol induce peroxisome autophagic degradation (pexophagy). To date, 42 Atg proteins involved in pexophagy are known. Catabolism and alcoholic fermentation of the major pentose sugar, xylose, depend on peroxisomal enzymes. Overexpression of peroxisomal transketolase and transaldolase activates xylose fermentation. Peroxisomes could be useful as target organelles for overexpression of foreign toxic proteins. PMID:27189367

  17. Is beauty skin deep – an approach to a beautiful face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone dreams of a beautiful and flawless face but true beauty is God given gift. Plastic surgery and various filler techniques can just highlight certain features and are just the temporary procedures. Features that further enhance the attractiveness of a beautiful face are the hair, skin, and teeth. These areas are the easiest to routinely enhance. There are many methods of facial sculpting including botulinum toxin, fillers and various other invasive plastic surgery techniques.

  18. Is beauty skin deep – an approach to a beautiful face

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri

    2014-01-01

    Everyone dreams of a beautiful and flawless face but true beauty is God given gift. Plastic surgery and various filler techniques can just highlight certain features and are just the temporary procedures. Features that further enhance the attractiveness of a beautiful face are the hair, skin, and teeth. These areas are the easiest to routinely enhance. There are many methods of facial sculpting including botulinum toxin, fillers and various other invasive plastic surgery techniques.

  19. Past and Future Perfect? Beauty, Affect and Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article engages with and draws on what have been called two recent “turns” in feminist theory: to beauty and to affect. While much feminist research has concentrated on the beauty industry, where beauty is conceived as a series of economic, social and cultural practices, the authors suggest that beauty should also be understood as an embodied affective process. The authors’ focus is on understanding the conceptions of beauty that emerged in their own empirical work with white British gir...

  20. When beauty is only skin deep; optimizing the sensitivity of specular neutron reflectivity for probing structure beneath the surface of thin filmsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkrzak, Charles F.; Carpenter, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Frank; Berk, Norman F.

    2011-11-01

    Specular neutron reflectometry has become an established probe of the nanometer scale structure of materials in thin film and multilayered form. It has contributed especially to our understanding of soft condensed matter of interest in polymer science, organic chemistry, and biology and of magnetic hard condensed matter systems. In this paper we examine a number of key factors which have emerged that can limit the sensitivity of neutron reflection as such a probe. Among these is loss of phase information, and we discuss how knowledge about material surrounding a film of interest can be applied to help resolve the problem. In this context we also consider what role the quantum phenomenon of interaction-free measurement might play in enhancing the statistical efficiency for obtaining reflectivity or transmission data.

  1. The Relation between the ideal of beauty and dependent beauty in Kant's philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Amin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant organizes his analysis in terms of four moments of the judgment of taste, each of which is supposed to contribute something essential to the complete exposition of the beautiful in "Critique of Judgment". He, in the third moment, based on the key concept analysis of "purposiveness", reaches to the beauty definition "a purposiveness without a purpose" (subjective purposiveness. Below this moment, two concepts of "dependent beauty" and "the ideal of beauty" also arises that aesthetic judgment in both of them is based on an objective purposiveness and a concept indicating nature of the object and the perfection of the object that is considered as default for judgment. This default in dependent beauty is perfection of the object and in the ideal of beauty is a concept from the sum of the rational idea and the aesthetic normal idea, but this point of view is in contradiction with the principle of Kant's aesthetic, which judgment of the beautiful just relies on the subjective purposiveness. This article reviewing the concept of purposiveness and the type of subjective purposiveness in the ideal of beauty and dependent beauty, attempts to explain the aesthetic value of these concepts and their differences and similarities, and finally to determine the position of these two concepts in Kant's philosophy.

  2. Geometries, Electronic Structures, and Electron Detachment Energies of Small Boron Sulfide Anions: A Density Functional Theory Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qiao-Ling; GUO Jin-Chang; LI Si-Dian

    2008-01-01

    A density functional theory investigation on the geometries, electronic structures, and electron detachment energies of BS-, BS2-, B(BS)2- and B(BS)3- has been performed in this work. The linear ground-state structures of BS- (Ccov, 1∑+) and BS2- (D∞h, 1∑g+) prove to be similar to the previously reported BO- and BO2- with systematically lower electron detachment energies. Small boron sulfide clusters are found to favor the formation of-B=S groups which function basically as σ-radicals and dominate the ground-state structures of the systems. The perfect linear B(BS)2- (D∞h, 3∑g) and beautiful equilateral triangle B(BS)3- (D3h, 2A1") turn out to be analogous to the well-known C2v BH2 and D3h BH3, respectively. The electron affinities of BS, BS2, B(BS)2 and B(BS)3 are predicted to be 2.3, 3.69, 3.00 and 3.45 eV, respectively. The electron detachment energies calculated for BS-, BS2-, B(BS)2-, and B(BS)3- may facilitate future photoelectron spectroscopy measurements to characterize the geometrical and electronic structures of these anions.

  3. Neuroaesthetics and the trouble with beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R; Rehding, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly being called upon to address issues within the humanities. We discuss challenges that arise, relating to art and beauty, and provide ideas for a way forward. PMID:23526878

  4. Neuroaesthetics and the trouble with beauty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevil R Conway

    Full Text Available Neuroscience is increasingly being called upon to address issues within the humanities. We discuss challenges that arise, relating to art and beauty, and provide ideas for a way forward.

  5. [Blood-nerve barrier: structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and surrounding extracellular space or blood contents, and is localized the innermost layer of multilayered ensheathing perineurium and endoneurial microvessels. Since the BNB is a key structure controlling the internal milieu of the peripheral nerve parenchyma, adequate understanding of the BNB is crucial for developing treatment strategies for human peripheral nervous system disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and diabetic and various metabolic/toxic neuropathies. However, fewer studies have been conducted on the BNB, if we compare against the number of studies on the blood-brain barrier. This is because of the lack of adequate human cell lines originating from the BNB. In our laboratory, human immortal cell lines from the BNB, namely, the endothelial cell line and pericyte cell line, have recently been established and vigorous investigations of their biological and physiological properties are now underway. Pericytes constituting the BNB were found to possess robust ability of controlling BNB integrity via secretion of various cytokines and growth factors including bFGF, VEGF, GDNF, BDNF, and angiopoietin-1. Unknown soluble factors secreted by pericytes also contribute to the upregulation of claudin-5 in endothelial cells in the BNB and thus, strengthen the barrier function of the BNB. In diabetic neuropathy, pericytes were shown to regulate the vascular basement membrane, while AGEs were shown to induce basement membrane hypertrophy and disrupt the BNB by increasing the autocrine secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta from pericytes. In this review article, we discuss the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the human BNB as well as the molecular mechanisms of mononuclear cell infiltration across the BNB. PMID:21613659

  6. Hadronic couplings of open beauty states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong interaction coupling parameters of particles with beauty quantum number are obtained using dispersion sum rules in various forms, e.g. current algebra sum rules, superconvergence sum rules and finite energy sum rules etc. These sum rules lead to a set of algebraic relations among masses and coupling constants. We compare the hadronic couplings of beautiful particles as obtained from various techniques and discuss their implications on the hadronic production of these states. (author)

  7. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons at the LEP collider experiment and at the fixed target experiments E653 are reviewed and discussed. The world average of b lifetime is now =1.29±0.05 ps. The exclusive lifetime measurements for b+, b-, b0 are presented. The lifetime difference among the different species of charm and of beauty hadrons are discussed. (author) 25 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narison, S. (OPM, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 (France))

    1991-08-01

    We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f{sub B} is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.).

  9. On the Beautiful and the Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Parret

    2011-01-01

    Classical aesthetics sees the experience of the beautiful as an anthropological necessity. But, in fact, the beautiful is rather the central category designating classical art, and one can question the relevance of this category considering contemporary art. The reference term most frequently used for contemporary art is interesting: works of art solicit the interests of my faculties (the cognitive-intellectual, the pragmatic community-oriented moral, the affective aesthetic faculties). It is...

  10. The beauty of knots at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Amabilino, David B

    2012-01-01

    What makes a given object look beautiful to the observer, be it in the macroscopic world or at the molecular level? This very general question will be briefly addressed at the beginning of this essay, in relation to contemporary molecular chemistry and biology, leading to the general statement that, most of the time, beauty is tightly connected to function as well as to the cultural background of the observer. The main topic of the present article will be that of topologically non-trivial molecules or molecular ensembles and the fascination that such species have exerted on molecular or solid state chemists. Molecules with a graph identical to Kuratowski's K₅ or K₃,₃ graphs are indeed highly attractive from an aesthetical viewpoint, but perhaps even more fascinating and beautiful are molecular knots. A general discussion will be devoted to these compounds, which are still considered as exotic species because of the very limited number of efficient synthetic strategies leading to their preparation. Particularly efficient are templated approaches based either on transition metals such as copper(I) or on organic groups able to form hydrogen bonds or acceptor-donor stacks. A particularly noteworthy property of knots, and in particular of the trefoil knot, is their topological chirality. The isolation of both enantiomers of the trefoil knot (3₁) could be achieved and showed that such species have fascinating chiroptical properties. Finally, various routes to more complex and beautiful knots than the trefoil knot, which is the simplest non-trivial knot, will be discussed in line with the remarkable ability of transition metals to gather and orient in a very precise fashion several organic components in their coordination spheres, thus leading to synthetic precursors displaying geometries which are perfectly well adapted to the preparation of the desired knots or links.

  11. Pion Structure Function $F_{2}^{\\pi}$ in the Valon Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arash, Firooz

    2003-01-01

    Partonic structure of constituent quark (or{\\it{valon}}) in the Next-to-Leading Order is used to calculate pion structure function. This is a further demonstration of the finding that the constituent quark structure is universal, and once it is calculated, the Structure of any hadron can be predicted thereafter, using a convolution method, without introducing any new free parameter. The results are compared with the pion structure function from ZEUS Coll. Leading Neutron Production in $e^{+}p...

  12. Nucleon structure functions in noncommutative space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Rafiei, Ali; Mirjalili, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    In the context of noncommutative space-time, we investigate the nucleon structure functions which plays an important role to identify the internal structure of nucleons. We use the corrected vertices and employ new vertices that appear in two approaches of noncommutativity and calculate the proton structure functions in terms of noncommutative tensor \\theta_{\\mu\

  13. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  14. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Martin, A. D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE, Durham (United Kingdom); Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S., E-mail: thorne@hep.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-06

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m{sub c} and m{sub b} to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δm{sub c}=0.05 GeV and Δm{sub b}=0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the (MS)-bar definition.

  15. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Ian C.; Shehzadi, Ramoona; Juengst, Markus [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn (Germany); Roloff, Philipp; Libov, Vladyslav [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The study of heavy flavour production in ep collisions is one of the main research topics at HERA. In two recent analyses the production of heavy quarks in deep inelastic scattering has been studied with the ZEUS detector using the full HERA II dataset. In one of these analyses, the heavy flavour events were identified using electrons from semileptonic decays. The fractions of events containing the heavy quarks were extracted from a likelihood fit using variables sensitive to electron identification as well as to semileptonic decays. In the second analysis, the heavy flavour content in events with a jet was extracted using the decay length significance and invariant mass of the secondary vertices. Total and differential cross sections were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure function F{sub 2}, were extracted from the double-differential cross sections.

  16. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy quark masses $m_c$ and $m_b$ to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of $\\Delta m_c =0.05~{\\rm GeV}$ and $\\Delta m_b =0.25~{\\rm GeV}$, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with 3 and 4 active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of 5 flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ definition.

  17. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R.S. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Martin, A.D. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m{sub c} and m{sub b} to vary away from their default values.Wemake PDF sets available in steps of Δm{sub c} = 0.05 GeV and Δm{sub b} = 0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values.We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the MS definition. (orig.)

  18. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses mc and mb to vary away from their default values.Wemake PDF sets available in steps of Δmc = 0.05 GeV and Δmb = 0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values.We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the MS definition. (orig.)

  19. Deep inelastic beauty production at HERA in the kT-factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the cross section of beauty production in ep deep inelastic scattering at HERA collider in the framework of the kT-factorization approach. The unintegrated gluon distributions in a proton are obtained from the full CCFM, from unified BFKL-DGLAP evolution equations as well as from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We investigate different production rates and study the b-quark contribution to the inclusive proton structure function F2(x,Q2) at small x and at moderate and high values of Q2. Our theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations. We demonstrate the importance of leading ln 1/x contributions in description of the HERA data

  20. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses mc and mb to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δmc=0.05 GeV and Δmb=0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the (MS)-bar definition

  1. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m_c and m_b to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δ m_c =0.05 GeV and Δ m_b =0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the overline{MS} definition.

  2. Nuclear enhanced power corrections to DIS structure functions

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianwei; Zhu, Wei

    2001-01-01

    We calculate nuclear enhanced power corrections to structure functions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We find that the nuclear medium enhanced power corrections at order of $O(\\alpha_s/Q^2)$ enhance the longitudinal structure function $F_L$, and suppress the transverse structure function $F_1$. We demonstrate that strong nuclear effects in $\\sigma_A/\\sigma_D$ and $R_A/R_D$, recently observed by HERMES Collaboration, can be explained in ...

  3. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  4. The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, George [The New York Times

    2010-10-20

    "Science in the 21st century has become industrialized. The experiments so often celebrated in the newspapers - sequencing the genome, proving the existence of the top quark, discovering a new planet by analyzing the wobble of a distant start - cost millions of dollars. They generate terabytes of data to be analyzed by supercomputers, calculating factories that spew out so much heat that they are equipped with cooling stacks and consume the energy of a small town. The experiments are carried out by research teams that have grown to the size of small corporations. But until very recently the most earth-shaking science came from individual pairs of hands. From a single mind confronting the unknown. The great experiments that mark the edges of our understanding were most often performed by one or two scientists and usually on a tabletop. Computation, if there was any, was carried out on paper or later with a slide rule. These experiments were designed and conducted with such straightforward elegance that they deserve to be called beautiful." (excerpt from the slide presentation accompanying the video)

  5. Beauty Meson Decays To Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, A V

    2001-01-01

    We study decays of beauty (B) mesons into the final states containing charmonium mesons. The data were collected by the CLEO experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring from 1990 to 1999. First, we describe a technique that significantly improves the reconstruction efficiency for decays of J/ y and y (2S) mesons into a pair of leptons. This reconstruction method is used in all the analyses presented in this dissertation. Then we present a study of B decays to the χc 1 and χc2 charmonium states and compare our results with the predictions of different theoretical models of charmonium production. After that we report the first observation of the decay B → J/ y &phis;K, which is the first B meson decay requiring a creation of an additional ss¯ quark pair. Then we measure the B0 and B+ meson masses from B0 → y (′) K0S and B+ → y (′) K+ decays. The method employed eliminates the dominant systematic uncertainty associated w...

  6. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Ghahramany; G.R.Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2) from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  7. Calculation of the Gluon Distribution Function Using Alternative Method for the Proton Structure Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Ghahramany; G.R. Boroun

    2003-01-01

    A calculation of the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is reported with an approximation method that relates the reduced cross section derivative and the F2(x, Q2) scaling violation at low x by using quadratic form for the structure function. This quadratic form approximation method can be used to determine the structure function F2 (x, Q2)from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low x. This new approach can determine the structure functions F2(x,Q2) with reasonable precision even for low x values which have not been investigated. We observe that the Q2 dependence is quadratic over the full kinematic covered range. To test the validity of our new determined structure functions, wefind the gluon distribution function in the leading order approximation with our new calculation for the structure functions and compare them with the QCD parton distribution functions.

  8. Measurement of the Electron Structure Function at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Asman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Berat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besancon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Bruckman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D; Cuevas, J; D'Hondt, J; da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; De Boer, W; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; de Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelof, T; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Foeth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; Garcia, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouznetsov, O; Krumstein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Lopez, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Marechal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martinez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; Mc Nulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W; Mjoernmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Moenig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mueller, U; Muenich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nemecek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdniakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Richard, F; Ridky, J; Rivero, M; Rodriguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovsky, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Slominski, W; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassov, T; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Szwed, J; Tabarelli, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tome, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2010-01-01

    The hadronic part of the Electron Structure Function (ESF) has been measured for the first time, using e+e- data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s) = 91.2-209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The ESF data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the quasi-real photon virtuality contribution is significant. The presented data can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function analyses and help in refining existing parametrizations.

  9. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  10. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC; SVETLANA TRIVIC

    2000-01-01

    1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  11. Verified Analysis of Functional Data Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Nipkow, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In recent work the author has analyzed a number of classical functional search tree and priority queue implementations with the help of the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL. The functional correctness proofs of AVL trees, red-black trees, 2-3 trees, 2-3-4 trees, 1-2 brother trees, AA trees and splay trees could be automated. The amortized logarithmic complexity of skew heaps, splay trees, splay heaps and pairing heaps had to be proved manually.

  12. Purification, structure and function of bioactive peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eriste, Elo

    2004-01-01

    Peptides are vitally important molecules and many evoke cellular responses. The completion of several genome sequencing projects has revealed a number of new genes. However, as functional peptides often contain posttranslational modifications and/or occur at various lengths, it is of great importance to detect, purify and characterize novel bioactive peptides. To achieve these goals, new methods for peptide detection, isolation and functional characterization have to be d...

  13. Nucleon structure functions from relativistic constituent quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Melnitchouk, W

    1994-01-01

    We investigate deep inelastic lepton scattering from the nucleon within a constituent quark picture, in which the internal structure of constituent quarks is modeled by meson and diquark dressing. In a covariant framework this structure leads to a breakdown of the factorization necessary for a convolution formulation. We perform our analysis in time-ordered perturbation theory in the infinite momentum frame where factorization of subprocesses is automatic. Numerical results are compared with recent data on valence quark distributions in the proton.

  14. Neural network parametrization of deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a parametrization of deep-inelastic structure functions which retains information on experimental errors and correlations, and which does not introduce any theoretical bias while interpolating between existing data points. We generate a Monte Carlo sample of pseudo-data configurations and we train an ensemble of neural networks on them. This effectively provides us with a probability measure in the space of structure functions, within the whole kinematic region where data are available. This measure can then be used to determine the value of the structure function, its error, point-to-point correlations and generally the value and uncertainty of any function of the structure function itself. We apply this technique to the determination of the structure function F2 of the proton and deuteron, and a precision determination of the isotriplet combination F2[p-d]. We discuss in detail these results, check their stability and accuracy, and make them available in various formats for applications. (author)

  15. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  16. Visualizing and Clustering Protein Similarity Networks: Sequences, Structures, and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Te-Lun; Hu, Geng-Ming; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Research in the recent decade has demonstrated the usefulness of protein network knowledge in furthering the study of molecular evolution of proteins, understanding the robustness of cells to perturbation, and annotating new protein functions. In this study, we aimed to provide a general clustering approach to visualize the sequence-structure-function relationship of protein networks, and investigate possible causes for inconsistency in the protein classifications based on sequences, structures, and functions. Such visualization of protein networks could facilitate our understanding of the overall relationship among proteins and help researchers comprehend various protein databases. As a demonstration, we clustered 1437 enzymes by their sequences and structures using the minimum span clustering (MSC) method. The general structure of this protein network was delineated at two clustering resolutions, and the second level MSC clustering was found to be highly similar to existing enzyme classifications. The clustering of these enzymes based on sequence, structure, and function information is consistent with each other. For proteases, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient is 0.86 between sequence and function classifications, 0.82 between sequence and structure classifications, and 0.78 between structure and function classifications. From our clustering results, we discussed possible examples of divergent evolution and convergent evolution of enzymes. Our clustering approach provides a panoramic view of the sequence-structure-function network of proteins, helps visualize the relation between related proteins intuitively, and is useful in predicting the structure and function of newly determined protein sequences. PMID:27267620

  17. Structural plasticity upon learning: regulation and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Pico; Donato, Flavio; Muller, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have provided long-sought evidence that behavioural learning involves specific synapse gain and elimination processes, which lead to memory traces that influence behaviour. The connectivity rearrangements are preceded by enhanced synapse turnover, which can be modulated through changes in inhibitory connectivity. Behaviourally related synapse rearrangement events tend to co-occur spatially within short stretches of dendrites, and involve signalling pathways partially overlapping with those controlling the functional plasticity of synapses. The new findings suggest that a mechanistic understanding of learning and memory processes will require monitoring ensembles of synapses in situ and the development of synaptic network models that combine changes in synaptic function and connectivity.

  18. Structural and functional imaging: Particularities in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, INSERM, Serv Neuropediat, U663, F-75015 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [UnivParis 05, F-75005 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [CEA, I2BM, Neurospin, SHFJ, F-91191 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    Surgery of partial epilepsies in childhood has largely benefited from the recent advances of imaging techniques, which carry a triple goal: (1) to contribute to the localization of the epilepsy onset zone, (2) to detect and delineate an underlying lesion, and (3) to study the spatial relationship between the epileptogenic zone and the neighboring functional cortex, in order to select patients and plan the resection. This noninvasive pre-surgical imaging workup must be compared to clinical and electrical data to estimate the postoperative prognosis, while invasive techniques such as SEEG, cortical stimulations, and IAT often remain indispensable in difficult cases, i.e., in cryptogenic epilepsies. As in adults, advances in MRI allow us to detect more and more subtle underlying lesions, but this requires repeating MR studies during early childhood and using adapted sequence parameters to account for ongoing myelination. Ictal SPECT and PET imaging prove especially useful in planning depth electrode placement when video-EEG is not contributive, when MRI looks normal or shows multiple abnormalities, or in cases of discrepant findings. Multimodal imaging greatly enhances the sensitivity of all of these techniques. Finally, functional MRI of motor and language functions provide noninvasive cortical mapping of essential functions, using age-adapted paradigms, in cooperating children from age five to six and from IQs around 60. (authors)

  19. The structure and function of endophilin proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Ole; Brodin, Lennart; Jung, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Members of the BAR domain protein superfamily are essential elements of cellular traffic. Endophilins are among the best studied BAR domain proteins. They have a prominent function in synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE), receptor trafficking and apoptosis, and in other processes that require...

  20. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of wa...

  1. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Kowalchuk, George A; van Veen, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate r

  2. Galactosaminoglycan Function and Oligosaccharide Structure Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G. Seidler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will discuss the importance of sequencing long chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains specifically derived from decorin. Decorin is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans and ubiquitously expressed primarily in the skin. Sequence information and diverse function of glycosaminoglycans is further influenced by variable expression through the core protein indicating the importance to analyse glycosaminoglycans from specific proteoglycans.

  3. Hidden Beauty: Using a Poem by Jayne Cortez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Reproduces a poem about an urban landscape by Jayne Cortez and reflects on how students are willing to tackle its complexities and its ideas about beauty. Finds that the poem is effective for a discussion of beauty among students. (PA)

  4. The curtain of reality. The secret beauty of deception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics research is a path on a 'road to reality', to paraphrase the title of a famous essay by R. Penrose. One school of thought interprets mathematics not only as a descriptive tool of reality but as the ultimate structure of reality. In this short note, the author supports this hypothesis speculative showing the performance to be reached by starting an investigation to 'flush out' mathematics and beauty in a symbolic constant of physics that alone could explain and justify the existence of the universe

  5. Quantifying the evolutionary divergence of protein structures: the role of function change and function conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-García, Alberto; Abia, David; Méndez, Raúl; Nido, Gonzalo S; Bastolla, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular clock hypothesis, stating that protein sequences diverge in evolution by accumulating amino acid substitutions at an almost constant rate, played a major role in the development of molecular evolution and boosted quantitative theories of evolutionary change. These studies were extended to protein structures by the seminal paper by Chothia and Lesk, which established the approximate proportionality between structure and sequence divergence. Here we analyse how function influences the relationship between sequence and structure divergence, studying four large superfamilies of evolutionarily related proteins: globins, aldolases, P-loop and NADP-binding. We introduce the contact divergence, which is more consistent with sequence divergence than previously used structure divergence measures. Our main findings are: (1) Small structure and sequence divergences are proportional, consistent with the molecular clock. Approximate validity of the clock is also supported by the analysis of the clustering coefficient of structure similarity networks. (2) Functional constraints strongly limit the structure divergence of proteins performing the same function and may allow to identify incomplete or wrong functional annotations. (3) The rate of structure versus sequence divergence is larger for proteins performing different functions than for proteins performing the same function. We conjecture that this acceleration is due to positive selection for new functions. Accelerations in structure divergence are also suggested by the analysis of the clustering coefficient. (4) For low sequence identity, structural diversity explodes. We conjecture that this explosion is related to functional diversification. (5) Large indels are almost always associated with function changes.

  6. The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.

  7. Hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the authors review the present status of their knowledge on the hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty. During a brief description of the properties of all charm and beauty particles reportedly observed in hadron-hadron experiments they discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the various experimental techniques. In particular they emphasise the quantitative problems associated with nuclear target experiments and show the progress that is being made in understanding the A-dependence problem. Focussing on charm cross sections the authors see that the data are becoming sufficiently good to give us a reliable and coherent picture which provides a serious test of the QCD fusion model. This same fusion model is then used with existing beauty cross section determinations to make some extrapolations. Finally, a few remaining puzzles and curiosities are underlined

  8. On the Beautiful and the Ugly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Parret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical aesthetics sees the experience of the beautiful as an anthropological necessity. But, in fact, the beautiful is rather the central category designating classical art, and one can question the relevance of this category considering contemporary art. The reference term most frequently used for contemporary art is interesting: works of art solicit the interests of my faculties (the cognitive-intellectual, the pragmatic community-oriented moral, the affective aesthetic faculties. It is interesting to notice that the categories of the beautiful and the ugly have an axiological-moral value. It looks as if the qualities of contemporary art works are judged according to the intensity of the impact on the interests of our faculties. It reveals important, in this respect, to distinguish the ugly from the sublime and the monstrous. Kant’s Third Critique is of some importance in defining these categories.

  9. On the Beauty in Keats’s Ode to Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凯

    2011-01-01

    Keats’s poems are famous for beauty,and Ode to Autumn is generally regarded as one of his most beautiful poems.In this ode,Keats presents a vivid picture of the harvesting autumn,in which many forms of beauty can be captured.The present paper attempts to conduct an analysis of the beauty in Keats’s Ode to Autumn,hopefully it could help readers better understand Keats and his works.

  10. Nuclear modification of structure functions in lepton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss nuclear structure functions in lepton scattering including neutrino reactions. First, the determination of nuclear parton distribution functions is explained by using the data of electron and muon deep inelastic scattering and those of Drell-Yan processes. Second, NuTeV sin^2 theta_W anomaly is discussed by focusing on nuclear corrections in the iron target. Third, we show that the HERMES effect, which indicates nuclear modification of the longitudinal-transverse structure function...

  11. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  12. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  13. Meson structure functions in the valon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parton distributions in a valon in the next-to-leading order are used to determine the parton distributions in a pion and kaon. The validity of the valon model is tested and it is shown that the partonic content of the valon is universal and independent of the valon type. We evaluate the valon distribution in the pion and kaon, and in particular it is shown that the results are in good agreement with the experimental data on the pion structure in a wide range of x=[10-4,1

  14. Meson structure functions in the valon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz

    2004-03-01

    Parton distributions in a valon in the next-to-leading order are used to determine the parton distributions in a pion and kaon. The validity of the valon model is tested and it is shown that the partonic content of the valon is universal and independent of the valon type. We evaluate the valon distribution in the pion and kaon, and in particular it is shown that the results are in good agreement with the experimental data on the pion structure in a wide range of x=[10-4,1].

  15. Three Kinds of Velocity Structure Function in Turbulent Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; JIANG Nan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the local multi-scale eddy structures in turbulent flows, we elucidate the essential difference between the real turbulent field with a finite Reynolds number and the Kolmogorov fully developed random field. The motion of fluid particles in the real turbulent field is not fully random. There exist multi-scale structures due to the effect of viscosity. Actually the movements of fluid particles in the turbulent field are restricted by such eddy structures. Furthermore, concept of the locally averaged velocity structure function is put forward to describe the relative strain distortion of two adjacent turbulent eddy structures at a certain scale. The time sequence of the longitudinal velocity component at different vertical locations in turbulent boundary layer has been elaborately measured by the constant temperature anemometry of model IFA-300 in a wind tunnel. The experiment proves that the locally averaged velocity structure function is in agreement with the wavelet-coefficient structure function.

  16. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  17. Piezo channels: from structure to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkers, Linda; Mechioukhi, Yasmine; Coste, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction is the conversion of mechanical stimuli into biological signals. It is involved in the modulation of diverse cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis as well as in the detection of sensory stimuli such as air vibration and mechanical contact. Therefore, mechanotransduction is crucial for organ development and homeostasis and plays a direct role in hearing, touch, proprioception, and pain. Multiple molecular players involved in mechanotransduction have been identified in the past, among them ion channels directly activated by cell membrane deformation. Most of these channels have well-established roles in lower organisms but are not conserved in mammals or fail to encode mechanically activated channels in mammals due to non-conservation of mechanotransduction property. A family of mechanically activated channels that counts only two members in human, piezo1 and 2, has emerged recently. Given the lack of valid mechanically activated channel candidates in mammals in the past decades, particular attention is given to piezo channels and their potential roles in various biological functions. This review summarizes our current knowledge on these ion channels.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Paramjit Khurana; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Anupama Gaur; Anita Kapur; Vikrant Gupta; Dibyendu Kumar; V. Ravi; Shubha Vij; Parul Khurana; Sulabha Sharma

    2004-04-01

    Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by whole-genome shotgun approach at relatively low coverage (4–6 X), were published and the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) declared high quality (>10 X), genetically anchored, phase 2 level sequence in 2002. In addition, phase 3 level finished sequence of chromosomes 1, 4 and 10 (out of 12 chromosomes of rice) has already been reported by scientists from IRGSP consortium. Various estimates of genes in rice place the number at > 50,000. Already, over 28,000 full-length cDNAs have been sequenced, most of which map to genetically anchored genome sequence. Such information is very useful in revealing novel features of macro- and micro-level synteny of rice genome with other cereals. Microarray analysis is unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously, functional analysis of rice genome has been initiated by marker-based characterization of useful genes and employing functional knock-outs created by mutation or gene tagging. Integration of this enormous information is expected to catalyze tremendous activity on basic and applied aspects of rice genomics.

  19. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  20. Beautiful skin%美丽肌肤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了皮肤皱纹生成的机理,抗皱有效成分、作用机理以及皮肤的抗衰老护理。介绍了一些美容食品、抗老化美容成分以及最具潜力的原料来源。%The mechanism of skin wrinkle formation,the active ingredients of anti-aging,the mechanism of action as well as skin anti-aging care were introduced here.Some beautiful foods,anti-aging beautiful ingredients and the most interesting source of feed were also related.

  1. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  2. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  3. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  4. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R D Morris; J A Morris

    2004-09-01

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show that there is a dynamic interaction between the mean number of new deleterious mutations per generation (), the mean number of deleterious mutations in the genome of the population () and percentage zygote survival (Zs). Increased leads to increased and a fall in Zs but it takes several generations before a new equilibrium is reached. If sexual attraction is influenced by the number of deleterious mutations in the genome of individuals then is reduced and Zs increased for any given value of . This fall in and rise in Zs is more marked in polygamous than monogamous mating systems. The model is specified such that deleterious mutations can occur without any observable or measurable effect on function. Thus sexual selection, in this organism, for low levels of deleterious mutations cannot be based on assessment of performance. Instead it is based on a simple symmetrical surface pattern that is flawlessly reproduced by organisms with no deleterious mutations, but is less than perfect, and therefore less attractive, if genetic systems have been deleted. A complex vital task requires a system with a high level of redundancy that acts so that the loss of one component has no observable effect and therefore cannot be used for sexual selection. The reproduction of a beautiful surface pattern also requires a low error, high redundancy genetic system; however, in this case there is advantage if a single deleterious mutation produces a recognisable change. This leads to the conclusion that sexual selection and sexual attraction should be based on beauty rather than utility, and explains the common observation in nature that it is the most beautiful that

  5. 右美托咪定对丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼用于脑功能区术中唤醒麻醉的影响探析%Right beauty's microphones set for complex ray fentanyl propofol used for brain functional areas of wake up the anesthesia effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查木哈格

    2015-01-01

    Objective to study the composite rui fentanyl propofol anesthesia technique used in the right brain function cannot set the wake effect of beauty.Methods 60 regular during perioperative period in patients with brain function research, randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Two groups of anesthesia method is the same, before anesthesia induction in patients with treatment group and control group respectively intravenous injection of saline and right beauty holds the mi. Observation compared two groups of patients in mean arterial pressure of different time and wake up time, incidence of body movement, choking incidence of cough.Results the treatment group of mean arterial pressure were lower than the control group at the time of withdrawal, wake up; The body move incidence of treatment group, the incidence of choking cough is lower than the control group,P 0.05, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion line for induction of general anesthesia surgery patients with right cerebral function beauty cannot decide it is better to wake up, suitable for clinical popularization.%目的:研究丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼麻醉脑功能区术中使用右美托咪定的唤醒效果。方法对60例行脑功能区手术患者进行研究,随机分成治疗组与对照组。两组麻醉方法相同,在麻醉诱导前对治疗组与对照组患者分别静脉注入生理盐水与右美托咪定。观察对比两组患者在不同时刻的平均动脉压和唤醒时间、体动发生率、呛咳发生率。结果治疗组的平均动脉压在停药时、唤醒时均低于对照组;治疗组的体动发生率、呛咳发生率低于对照组,P0.05,差异无统计学意义。结论对行全麻诱导的脑功能区手术患者使用右美托咪定唤醒效果较好,适合在临床推普及。

  6. Determining structure and function in nanomaterial biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, David M.

    Polymeric biomaterials represent the leading technologies available today for the repair of tissue damage and for targeted drug delivery. Perhaps the most valuable aspect of polymer-based systems is the extent to which their physical properties (e.g. elasticity, porosity, etc.) can be controlled and tuned by regulating experimental parameters during their synthesis. Biomaterial performance can be improved further still by including supplementary components resulting in a composite material. Synergetic interactions between the constituents of composite materials often results in bulk physical properties that are substantially more than the sum of individual parts. Through understanding and exploiting these sympathetic relationships, novel biocomposites can be developed which exhibit improved efficacy and biocompatibility. Here we report on the synthesis strategies and characterization of novel biocomposites from our laboratory. We look specifically at hydrogel composites containing a physically-associated network of PluronicRTM block copolymer along with a calcium-phosphate mineral component. Rheological results show that composites containing an in situ deposited mineral exhibit a significantly higher elastic modulus than composites of similar composition formed by conventional means. Moreover, analysis of the calcium-phosphate phase of in situ composites revealed that system parameters such as acidity play an integral role in determining the size and stability of the resultant mineral and subsequently the materials' expected in vivo performance. Changes to the structure in PluronicRTM/calcium-phosphate composite hydrogels during dehydration was investigated to provide a look into the mechanisms involved in composite formation. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis of these systems shows that hydrogen bonding interactions between phosphate ions and the polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer block significantly impact the nanoscale structure and long-range order contained

  7. Fiber: composition, structures, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian M; Monro, John A

    2013-01-01

    Kiwifruit dietary fiber consists of cell-wall polysaccharides that are typical of the cell walls of many dicotyledonous fruits, being composed of pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. The kiwifruit pectic polysaccharides consist of homo- and rhamnogalacturonans with various neutral, (arabino)-galactan side chains, while the hemicelluloses are mostly xyloglucan and xylan. The proportions of pectic polysaccharide, hemicellulose, and cellulose in both green 'Hayward' and 'Zespri® Gold' are similar and are little affected by in vitro exposure to gastric and small intestinal digestion. The hydration properties of the kiwifruit-swelling and water retention capacity-are also unaffected by foregut digestion, indicating that the functional properties of kiwifruit fiber survive in the foregut. However, in the hindgut, kiwifruit fiber is fermented, but whole kiwifruit consumed in association with slowly fermented fiber leads to distal displacement of fermentation, indicating that hindgut benefits of kiwifruit may result from its interaction with other dietary sources of fiber. PMID:23394983

  8. The structures and functions of oligosaccharins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.

    1991-08-01

    This document contains a summary of proposed research studying the role of oligosaccharins in developmental biology and in plant-microbe interactions. Research is described in the following areas of developmental biology: Use of the tobacco thin-cell-layer explant bioassay to screen for oligosaccharins that are able to regulate growth and morphogenesis; oligosaccharin receptors - searching for the receptor for biologically active alpha-1,4-oligogalacturnoides; molecular biology studies of endopolygalacturonase in tobacco tissues; investigation of membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides; the effect of structurally defined oligosaccharins on plant gene expression. In the area of plant-microbe interactions research is focused on: do oligosaccharins elicit the hypersensitive resistance response, and the polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP).

  9. History, structure, and function of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowniak, J

    1998-04-01

    The Internet stands at the forefront of telecommunications in medicine. This worldwide system of computers had its beginnings in networking projects in the United States and western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. The precursor of the Internet was ARPANET, a long-distance telecommunication network funded by the Department of Defense that linked together computers throughout the United States. In the 1980s, ARPANET was superseded by NSFNET, a series of networks created by the National Science Foundation, which established the present-day structure of the Internet. The physical structure of the Internet resembles and is integrated with the telephone system. Long-distance data transport services are provided by large telecommunication companies, called network service providers (NSPs), through high-capacity, high-speed national and international fiber optic cables. These transport services are accessed through Internet service providers, ISPs. ISPs, the equivalent of regional Bell operating companies, provide the physical link to the NSPs for individuals and organizations. Telecommunications on the Internet are standardized by a set of communications protocols, the TCP/IP protocol suite, that describe routing of messages over the Internet, computer naming conventions, and commonly used Internet services such as e-mail. At present, the Internet consists of over 20 million computer worldwide and is continuing to grow at a rapid rate. Along with the growth of the Internet, higher speed access methods are offering a range of new services such as real-time video and voice communications. Medical education, teaching, and research, as well as clinical practice, will be affected in numerous different ways by these advances. PMID:9579415

  10. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the ``paperclip`` and ``hammerhead`` RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a ``hammerhead,`` to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus_minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus_minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  11. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the paperclip'' and hammerhead'' RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a hammerhead,'' to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  12. History, structure, and function of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowniak, J

    1998-04-01

    The Internet stands at the forefront of telecommunications in medicine. This worldwide system of computers had its beginnings in networking projects in the United States and western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. The precursor of the Internet was ARPANET, a long-distance telecommunication network funded by the Department of Defense that linked together computers throughout the United States. In the 1980s, ARPANET was superseded by NSFNET, a series of networks created by the National Science Foundation, which established the present-day structure of the Internet. The physical structure of the Internet resembles and is integrated with the telephone system. Long-distance data transport services are provided by large telecommunication companies, called network service providers (NSPs), through high-capacity, high-speed national and international fiber optic cables. These transport services are accessed through Internet service providers, ISPs. ISPs, the equivalent of regional Bell operating companies, provide the physical link to the NSPs for individuals and organizations. Telecommunications on the Internet are standardized by a set of communications protocols, the TCP/IP protocol suite, that describe routing of messages over the Internet, computer naming conventions, and commonly used Internet services such as e-mail. At present, the Internet consists of over 20 million computer worldwide and is continuing to grow at a rapid rate. Along with the growth of the Internet, higher speed access methods are offering a range of new services such as real-time video and voice communications. Medical education, teaching, and research, as well as clinical practice, will be affected in numerous different ways by these advances.

  13. Tolerance and lymphoid organ structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Elizabeth Burrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Frontiers in Immunologic Tolerance explores barriers to tolerance from a variety of views of cells, molecules, and processes of the immune system. Our laboratory has spent over a decade focused on the migration of the cells of the immune system, and dissecting the signals that determine how and where effector and suppressive regulatory T cells traffic from one site to another in order to reject or protect allografts. These studies have led us to a greater appreciation of the anatomic structure of the immune system, and the realization that the path taken by lymphocytes during the course of the immune response to implanted organs determines the final outcome. In particular, the structures, microanatomic domains, and the cells and molecules that lymphocytes encounter during their transit through blood, tissues, lymphatics, and secondary lymphoid organs are powerful determinants for whether tolerance is achieved. Thus, the understanding of complex cellular and molecular processes of tolerance will not come from 96-well plate immunology, but from an integrated understanding of the temporal and spatial changes that occur during the response to the allograft. The study of the precise positioning and movement of cells in lymphoid organs has been difficult since it is hard to visualize cells within their 3-dimensional setting; instead techniques have tended to be dominated by 2-dimensional renderings, although advanced confocal and 2-photon systems are changing this view. It is difficult to precisely modify key molecules and events in lymphoid organs, so that existing knockouts, transgenics, inhibitors, and activators have global and pleiotropic effects, rather than precise anatomically restricted influences. Lastly, there are no well-defined postal codes or tracking systems for leukocytes, so that while we can usually track cells from point A to point B, it is exponentially more difficult or even impossible to track them to point C and

  14. Beauty meson decays to charmonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Alexey Valerievich

    2001-10-01

    We study decays of beauty (B) mesons into the final states containing charmonium mesons. The data were collected by the CLEO experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring from 1990 to 1999. First, we describe a technique that significantly improves the reconstruction efficiency for decays of J/ y and y (2S) mesons into a pair of leptons. This reconstruction method is used in all the analyses presented in this dissertation. Then we present a study of B decays to the χc 1 and χc2 charmonium states and compare our results with the predictions of different theoretical models of charmonium production. After that we report the first observation of the decay B --> J/ y φK, which is the first B meson decay requiring a creation of an additional ss¯ quark pair. Then we measure the B0 and B+ meson masses from B0 --> y (') K0S and B+ --> y (') K+ decays. The method employed eliminates the dominant systematic uncertainty associated with the previous B meson mass measurements at the e+e- colliders and results in a significant improvement in precision. After that we present a study of three B0 decay modes useful for time-dependent CP asymmetry measurements. In this study we reconstruct B0 --> J/ y K0S , B0 --> χc 1 K0S , and B0 --> J/ y π0 decays. The latter two decay modes are observed for the first time. We describe a K0S --> π0π0 detection technique and its application to the reconstruction of the decay B 0 --> J/ y K0S . Then we present a sensitivity study for the measurement of the mixing-induced CP violation in the neutral B meson system (parameter sin 2β) at CLEO using the method that requires a measurement of the decay time of only one meson in a B0overline B0 pair. Finally, we search for direct CP violation in decays B+/- --> J/ y K+/- and B +/- --> y (2S) K+/- . The results of this search are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and provide the first experimental test of the assumption that direct CP violation is negligible in B --> y (') K decays.

  15. Biochemical functional predictions for protein structures of unknown or uncertain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn L. Mills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential growth in the determination of protein sequences and structures via genome sequencing and structural genomics efforts, there is a growing need for reliable computational methods to determine the biochemical function of these proteins. This paper reviews the efforts to address the challenge of annotating the function at the molecular level of uncharacterized proteins. While sequence- and three-dimensional-structure-based methods for protein function prediction have been reviewed previously, the recent trends in local structure-based methods have received less attention. These local structure-based methods are the primary focus of this review. Computational methods have been developed to predict the residues important for catalysis and the local spatial arrangements of these residues can be used to identify protein function. In addition, the combination of different types of methods can help obtain more information and better predictions of function for proteins of unknown function. Global initiatives, including the Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI, COMputational BRidges to EXperiments (COMBREX, and the Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA, are evaluating and testing the different approaches to predicting the function of proteins of unknown function. These initiatives and global collaborations will increase the capability and reliability of methods to predict biochemical function computationally and will add substantial value to the current volume of structural genomics data by reducing the number of absent or inaccurate functional annotations.

  16. On a useful functional representation of control system structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Harvey L.

    1988-01-01

    An alternative structure for control systems is proposed. The structure is represented by a three-element block diagram and three functional definitions. It is argued that the three functional elements form a canonical set. The set includes the functions description, estimation and control. General overlay of the structure on parallel state and nested-state control systems is discussed. Breakdown of two real nested-state control systems into the proposed functional format is displayed. Application of the process to the mapping of complex control systems R and D efforts is explained with the Mars Rover Sample and Return mission as an example. A previous application of this basic functional structure to Space Station performance requirements organization is discussed.

  17. Joint Modelling of Structural and Functional Brain Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten;

    Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging have become the most important noninvasive windows to the human brain. A major challenge in the analysis of brain networks is to establish the similarities and dissimilarities between functional and structural connectivity. We formulate a non......-parametric Bayesian network model which allows for joint modelling and integration of multiple networks. We demonstrate the model’s ability to detect vertices that share structure across networks jointly in functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. Using two fMRI and dMRI scans per subject, we establish...... significant structures that are consistently shared across subjects and data splits. This provides an unsupervised approach for modeling of structure-function relations in the brain and provides a general framework for multimodal integration....

  18. Contributions of Consumer-perceived Creativity and Beauty to Willingness-to-pay for Design Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Kristensen, Tore; Reber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Consumer perception of creativity in design products equivalent in function was measured using global single-item ratings of creativity. The measure was found to have a high level of agreement between raters and have discriminant validity to another aesthetic construct, that of beauty. In two...... experiments using designer lamps and wrist watches as stimuli, the present study shows how creativity and beauty both positively influence consumer willingness-to-pay (WtP) for the designed product, but each explains different parts of the variance. The results show that it is essential to develop separate...... models of creativity and beauty evaluations in consumer psychology, in that they seem to be distinct factors, explaining different parts of the variance in their consequences on WtP....

  19. Measurement of beauty photoproduction using decays into muons in di-jet events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Tobias; Geiser, Achim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron - DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Reisert, Burkard [Max Planck Institute for Physics - Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Tassi, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 31C, 87036 Rende - CS (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Beauty photoproduction in di-jet events has been measured at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables as well as di-jet correlations are compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data are well described by predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. (author)

  20. Measurement of beauty photoproduction using decays into muons in dijet events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Beauty photoproduction in dijet events has been measured at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables as well as dijet correlations are compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data are well described by predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of beauty photoproduction using decays into muons in dijet events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauty photoproduction in dijet events has been measured at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb-1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables as well as dijet correlations are compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data are well described by predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. (orig.)

  2. Network-Level Structure-Function Relationships in Human Neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Betzel, Richard F; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Berman, Marc G; McIntosh, Anthony R; Sporns, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity are shaped by underlying patterns of anatomical connectivity. While numerous studies have demonstrated edge-wise correspondence between structural and functional connections, much less is known about how large-scale coherent functional network patterns emerge from the topology of structural networks. In the present study, we deploy a multivariate statistical technique, partial least squares, to investigate the association between spatially extended structural networks and functional networks. We find multiple statistically robust patterns, reflecting reliable combinations of structural and functional subnetworks that are optimally associated with one another. Importantly, these patterns generally do not show a one-to-one correspondence between structural and functional edges, but are instead distributed and heterogeneous, with many functional relationships arising from nonoverlapping sets of anatomical connections. We also find that structural connections between high-degree hubs are disproportionately represented, suggesting that these connections are particularly important in establishing coherent functional networks. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the network organization of the cerebral cortex supports the emergence of diverse functional network configurations that often diverge from the underlying anatomical substrate. PMID:27102654

  3. Structural properties of prokaryotic promoter regions correlate with functional features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meysman

    Full Text Available The structural properties of the DNA molecule are known to play a critical role in transcription. In this paper, the structural profiles of promoter regions were studied within the context of their diversity and their function for eleven prokaryotic species; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas auroginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Synechocystis sp., Synechoccocus elongates, Bacillus anthracis, and the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. The main anchor point for these promoter regions were transcription start sites identified through high-throughput experiments or collected within large curated databases. Prokaryotic promoter regions were found to be less stable and less flexible than the genomic mean across all studied species. However, direct comparison between species revealed differences in their structural profiles that can not solely be explained by the difference in genomic GC content. In addition, comparison with functional data revealed that there are patterns in the promoter structural profiles that can be linked to specific functional loci, such as sigma factor regulation or transcription factor binding. Interestingly, a novel structural element clearly visible near the transcription start site was found in genes associated with essential cellular functions and growth in several species. Our analyses reveals the great diversity in promoter structural profiles both between and within prokaryotic species. We observed relationships between structural diversity and functional features that are interesting prospects for further research to yet uncharacterized functional loci defined by DNA structural properties.

  4. Engineering structure and function using thermoresponsive biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszka, Martha K; MacKay, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly enables exquisite control at the smallest scale and generates order among macromolecular-building blocks that remain too small to be manipulated individually. Environmental cues, such as heating, can trigger the organization of these materials from individual molecules to multipartixcle assemblies with a variety of compositions and functions. Synthetic as well as biological polymers have been engineered for these purposes; however, biological strategies can offer unparalleled control over the composition of these macromolecular-building blocks. Biologic polymers are macromolecules composed of monomeric units that can be precisely tailored at the genetic level; furthermore, they can often utilize endogenous biodegradation pathways, which may enhance their potential clinical applications. DNA (nucleotides), polysaccharides (carbohydrates), and proteins (amino acids) have all been engineered to self-assemble into nanostructures in response to a change in temperature. This focus article reviews the growing body of literature exploring temperature-dependent nano-assembly of these biological macromolecules, summarizes some of their physical properties, and discusses future directions.

  5. Structure/function relationships in cellulolytic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Claeyssens

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cellulose and hemicellulose (mostly xylan), together with lignin, are the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls and from the largest reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The enzymatic hydrolysis of polymeric substances by extracellular enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and laccases, is preferred to chemical depolymerisation to avoid the production of toxic by-products and waste that are expensive to treat. The monosaccharides released through enzymatic hydrolysis can subsequently be microbially converted to commercial commodities, such as bio-ethanol (fuel extender) or microbial protein as feed supplements. The individual depolymerisering enzymes used, such as cellulases,xylanases and laccases, also have industrial application in (i) biobleaching in the paper and pulp industry, (ii) improvement of animal feed (poultry and ruminants) digestibility in feed industries, and (iii) dough rheology and bread volume in the baking process, and beer viscosity and filtration velocity during brewing. The cloning of the genes, coding for several xylan degrading enzymes, and their expression in Baker' s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus species)opened the possibility to study the pure enzymes, without contaminating activity.Trichoderma reesei produces several of these enzymes and detailed information on their specificity,synergies and structure/activity relationships is known. An overview will be presented.

  6. Novel mechanisms that regulate clot structure/function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-05-01

    The structure and function of the blood clot has been associated with altered risk of thrombosis. Dense fibrin structures with small pores increase the risk of thrombosis, and have major functional consequences by increasing the resistance to fibrinolysis and altering the visco-elastic properties of the clot. However, while the structural changes to the overall fibrin network have been extensively characterised, little is known regarding the intrafibrillar structure of fibrin, the way protofibrils are arranged inside the fibrin fibers and the functional consequences of this. This brief paper aims to review recent findings regarding novel mechanisms that regulate fibrin intrafibrillar structure, including the degree of protofibril packing, their functional consequences, and the effects of FXIII activation on clot structure and thrombosis. It is concluded that fibrin intrafibrillar structure represents a major novel mechanism that influences clot structure and stability. Future studies are required to investigate the role of fibrin intrafibrillar structure in the functional characteristics of the blood clot, and in diseases of bleeding and thrombosis.

  7. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  8. Functional substitution of coordination polyhedron in crystal structure of silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶大年; 马哲生; 赫伟; 李哲; 施倪承; D.Pushcharovsky

    2002-01-01

    On the bases of the study of comparative crystal chemistry of silicates it has been concluded that the octahedra and square pyramids of Ti-0 and Zr-O play functional role of tetrahedra of Si-O in the construction of crystal structures. Therefore, those silicates may be named titano-and zircono-silicates. Because of the functional similarity of coordination polyhedra, the structures of cristobalite and feldspar have been compared with those of perovskite and garnet, respectively. As a new concept, the functional replacement of tetrahedra by octahedra and/or pyramids is defined by the authors of this paper for favorable comparison of relative crystal structures.

  9. A structural biology perspective on NMDA receptor pharmacology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Michael C; Romero-Hernandez, Annabel; Furukawa, Hiro

    2015-08-01

    N-methyld-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) belong to the large family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which are critically involved in basic brain functions as well as multiple neurological diseases and disorders. The NMDARs are large heterotetrameric membrane protein complexes. The extensive extracellular domains recognize neurotransmitter ligands and allosteric compounds and translate the binding information to regulate activity of the transmembrane ion channel. Here, we review recent advances in the structural biology of NMDARs with a focus on pharmacology and function. Structural analysis of the isolated extracellular domains in combination with the intact heterotetrameric NMDAR structure provides important insights into how this sophisticated ligand-gated ion channel may function.

  10. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  11. Cellular regulation of the structure and function of aortic valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail El-Hamamsy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic valve was long considered a passive structure that opens and closes in response to changes in transvalvular pressure. Recent evidence suggests that the aortic valve performs highly sophisticated functions as a result of its unique microscopic structure. These functions allow it to adapt to its hemodynamic and mechanical environment. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in normal valve physiology is essential to elucidate the mechanisms behind valve disease. We here review the structure and developmental biology of aortic valves; we examine the role of its cellular parts in regulating its function and describe potential pathophysiological and clinical implications.

  12. Structure and function of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, R; Mackenzie, P I

    1997-12-01

    1. The uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the covalent addition of glucuronic acid to a wide range of lipophilic chemicals. They play a major role in the detoxification of many exogenous and endogenous compounds by generating products that are more polar and, thus, more readily excreted in bile or urine. 2. Inherited deficiencies in UGT forms are deleterious, as exemplified by the debilitating effects of hyperbilirubinaemia and neurotoxicity in subjects with mutations in the enzyme that converts bilirubin to its more polar glucuronide. 3. The UGT protein can be conceptually divided into two domains with the amino-terminal half of the protein demonstrating greater sequence divergence between isoforms. This region apparently determines aglycone specificity. The aglycone binding site is presumed to be a 'loose' fit, as many structurally diverse substrates can be bound by the same UGT isoform. The carboxyl-terminal half, which is more conserved in sequence between different isoforms, is believed to contain a binding site for the cosubstrate UDP glucuronic acid (UDPGA). 4. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and spans the membrane with a type I topology. The putative transmembrane domain is located near the carboxyl terminus of the protein such that only a small portion of the protein resides in the cytosol. This cytosolic tail is believed to contain an ER-targeting signal. The major portion of the protein is located in the ER lumen, including the proposed substrate-binding domains and the catalytic site. 5. The microsomal membrane impedes the access of UDPGA to the active site, resulting in latency of UGT activity in intact ER-derived microsomes. Active transport of UDPGA is believed to occur in hepatocytes, but the transport system has not been fully characterized. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity is also highly lipid dependent and the

  13. Functional and planning structures of education institutions areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Віталіївна Соколова

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main aspects of functional and planning organization of the education institutions. The features of the schools stationing in the city structure and its future extension are also defined. The major functional subdivisions are considered and the role of each of it in the education institution structure is investigated. The ratio of the functional zones depending on the specialization of educational institution is determined. The advantages of the functional zone cooperation of the multidisciplinary institutions are also considered. 

  14. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  15. Beauty Clinic Services and Using of Cosmetic for Beauty Clinic Attendees at Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    raharni budiarto

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic is one of pharmaceuticals preparation, with the vigorous cosmetic advertising in print media, electronic media or internet, communities are faced with cosmetics advertising, in which mostly are offering for skin care, especially women to get the skin whiter and brighter. Cosmetic advertising based on Ministry of Health regulation no. 386/Menkes/SK/1994. The objective of this study was to know the beauty clinic services and using of cosmetic for beauty clinic attendees and affecting f...

  16. Beauty and Brains: Detecting Anomalous Pattern Co-Occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Bertens, Roel; Vreeken, Jilles; Siebes, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Our world is filled with both beautiful and brainy people, but how often does a Nobel Prize winner also wins a beauty pageant? Let us assume that someone who is both very beautiful and very smart is more rare than what we would expect from the combination of the number of beautiful and brainy people. Of course there will still always be some individuals that defy this stereotype; these beautiful brainy people are exactly the class of anomaly we focus on in this paper. They do not posses intri...

  17. Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Trond H; Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2005-05-01

    By causing extinctions and altering community structure, anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt processes that maintain ecosystem integrity. However, the relationship between community structure and ecosystem functioning in natural systems is poorly understood. Here we show that habitat loss appeared to disrupt ecosystem functioning by affecting extinction order, species richness and abundance. We studied pollination by bees in a mosaic of agricultural and natural habitats in California and dung burial by dung beetles on recently created islands in Venezuela. We found that large-bodied bee and beetle species tended to be both most extinction-prone and most functionally efficient, contributing to rapid functional loss. Simulations confirmed that extinction order led to greater disruption of function than predicted by random species loss. Total abundance declined with richness and also appeared to contribute to loss of function. We demonstrate conceptually and empirically how the non-random response of communities to disturbance can have unexpectedly large functional consequences.

  18. Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…

  19. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556

    2015-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  20. Rare beauty and charm decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Puig Navarro, A

    2013-01-01

    Flavour changing neutral current decays of heavy flavoured hadrons are suppressed in the Standard Model and can be used to search for new physics contributions. We report a summary of the latest results from the LHCb collaboration on rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons.

  1. Rare Beauty and Charm Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Puig, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Flavour changing neutral current decays of heavy flavoured hadrons are suppressed in the Standard Model and can be used to search for new physics contributions. We report a summary of the latest results from the LHCb collaboration on rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons.

  2. Mathematicians in Schools: Uncovering Maths' Beautiful Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…

  3. Poplus Diversifolia:The Most Beautiful Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanHua

    2004-01-01

    Populus diversifolia,an old and rare tree species,is an only tree variety that can naturally grow into forest in Xinjiang's deserts.It is called "Tokolako"in the Uigur language,meaning"the most beautiful tree".Its extraordinary resistance to drought,sand wind and sanitization enables it to thrive in deserts and gains it repute

  4. [Study of hyperons and beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed research program is to study the production and decay properties of the hyperons and the beauty hadrons at Fermilab. Since the project was approved in 1989, a lot of progress has been made. This report is a summary of the achievements

  5. Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → pℓμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λℓ+ℓ−

  6. Why Beautiful People Are More Intelligent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kovar, Jody L.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that individuals perceive physically attractive others to be more intelligent than physically unattractive others. While most researchers dismiss this perception as a ''bias'' or ''stereotype,'' we contend that individuals have this perception because beautiful people indeed "are" more intelligent. The conclusion that…

  7. Beautiful Minds—For How Long.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lori Marino reviews the new bookBeautiful Minds, which investigates the "parallel lives" of primates and cetaceans and argues that despite the evolutionary distance of these large-brained mammals, they nevertheless share a capacity for complex communication and social behavior, representing a striking example of convergence in intelligence.

  8. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  9. Beautiful mass predictions from scalar lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, S.; Moriarty, K.J.M.

    1986-07-31

    Scalar lattice QCD methods are used to accurately predict the masses of hadrons with beauty, that is, states which contain a b quark. These states have not yet been seen in the laboratory. The accuracy of the predictions (approx.=25 MeV) make the calculation a good test of lattice methods as well as providing useful guidance for experimentalists.

  10. Beautiful Minds—For How Long

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Marino

    2008-01-01

    Lori Marino reviews the new bookBeautiful Minds, which investigates the "parallel lives" of primates and cetaceans and argues that despite the evolutionary distance of these large-brained mammals, they nevertheless share a capacity for complex communication and social behavior, representing a striking example of convergence in intelligence.

  11. Miss International Beauty Pageant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 47th Miss International Beauty Pageant, jointly sponsored by China Youth Concern Committee for the Advancement of Health and Physical Culture Development, International Culture Association, Kessles Paris, International Culture Exchange Organization,and co-organized by Beijing Kessles International Culture Media Co., Ltd., will be held in Beijing, China, according to the press conference on March 21.

  12. Measurement of charm and beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis two measurements of heavy quark production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA are presented. Cross sections for the production of heavy quarks can be calculated in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The heavy quark masses represent hard scales, which allow to apply perturbative methods. Charm production has been measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb-1. The hadronic decay channels D+ → K0Sπ+, Λ+c → pK0S and Λ+c → Λπ+ were reconstructed. The presence of a neutral strange hadron in the final state reduces the combinatorial background and extends the measured sensitivity into the region pT(D+, Λ+c) T2 (D+), η(D+), Q2 and x for the production of D+ mesons are in reasonable agreement with predictions from perturbative QCD. The fraction of c quarks hadronising into Λ+c baryons was extracted from a combination of both investigated Λ+c decay channels. The result is consistent with a previous measurement in the photoproduction regime and with the average e+e- value. The production of charm and beauty quarks has been measured with the ZEUS detector using the data collected between 2004 and 2007. This data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. The charm and beauty contents in events with a jet were determined using the decay-length significance and invariant mass of the reconstructed secondary decay vertices. Differential cross sections in EjetT, ηjet, Q2 and x are in reasonable agreement with predictions for perturbative QCD. The open charm and beauty contributions to the inclusive proton structure function F2 were extracted from double differential cross sections in x and Q2. The obtained Fcantic2 and Fbantib2 values are in good agreement with previous measurements and theoretical predictions. This measurement represents the most precise determination of Fbantib2 at the HERA collider in a large part of the accessible phase space. First test beam measurements using the EUDET pixel telescope

  13. The b1 structure function and nuclear pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The b1 structure function is measurable in deep inelastic scattering from polarized nuclei with unpolarized beams. The contributions of nuclear pions are evaluated and found to be small, about 2%. 8 refs

  14. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. PMID:27327864

  15. Nonlinear correction to the longitudinal structure function at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G.R. [Razi University, Physics Department, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    We computed the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L}, using the nonlinear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (NLDGLAP) evolution equation approach at small x. For the gluon distribution, the nonlinear effects are related to the longitudinal structure function. As the very small-x behavior of the gluon distribution is obtained by solving the Gribov, Levin, Ryskin, Mueller and Qiu (GLR-MQ) evolution equation with the nonlinear shadowing term incorporated, we show that the strong rise that corresponds to the linear QCD evolution equations can be tamed by screening effects. Consequently, the obtained longitudinal structure function shows a tamed growth at small x. We computed the predictions for all details of the nonlinear longitudinal structure function in the kinematic range where it has been measured by the H1 Collaboration and made comparisons with the computation by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt at the second order with input data from the MRST QCD fit. (orig.)

  16. Functional oxide structures on a surface of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The investigations of the plasma electrolytic processes in our laboratory are aimed to the development of conditions of formation of oxide layers with determined composition, structure and functional properties on the surface of valve metals (Al, Ti) and their alloys.

  17. A notion of functional completeness for first-order structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne R. Alomo Temgoua

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Using ☆-congruences and implications, Weaver (1993 introduced the concepts of prevariety and quasivariety of first-order structures as generalizations of the corresponding concepts for algebras. The notion of functional completeness on algebras has been defined and characterized by Burris and Sankappanavar (1981, Kaarli and Pixley (2001, Pixley (1996, and Quackenbush (1981. We study the notion of functional completeness with respect to ☆-congruences. We extend some results on functionally complete algebras to first-order structures A=(A;FA;RA and find conditions for these structures to have a compatible Pixley function which is interpolated by term functions on suitable subsets of the base set A.

  18. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Mo

    Full Text Available Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  19. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  20. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes. PMID:26930202

  1. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes. PMID:26930202

  2. A model for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis that, in the leading twist approximation and to all orders of perturbative QCD, there exists a momentum scale Q20 at which hadrons are pure valence quark (or antiquark) bound states leads to definite predictions on their structure functions. Predictions are made here using a non-relativistic approximation for the bound states. Good agreement with experiment is found for nucleon, pion and kaon structure functions

  3. New insights into structure and function of type I collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in mammalians and strongly conserved throughout evolution. It constitutes one third of the human proteome and comprises three-quarters of the dry weight of human skin. It is widely accepted as a major structural component in animal body such as in bones, cartilage and skins. More and more studies have shown that, in addition to the structural function, collagens can induce or regulate many cellular functions and processes such as cell differentiat...

  4. Automatic structures and growth functions for finitely generated abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamei, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the formal power series whose n-th coefficient is the number of copies of a given finite graph in the ball of radius n centred at the identity element in the Cayley graph of a finitely generated group and call it the growth function. Epstein, Iano-Fletcher and Uri Zwick proved that the growth function is a rational function if the group has a geodesic automatic structure. We compute the growth function in the case where the group is abelian and see that the denominator of the rational function is determined from the rank of the group.

  5. Toward a structural understanding of IRES RNA function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbin, Megan E; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2009-06-01

    Protein synthesis of an RNA template can start by two different known mechanisms: cap-dependent translation initiation and cap-independent translation initiation. The latter is driven by RNA sequences called internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that are found in both viral RNAs and cellular mRNAs. The diverse mechanisms used by IRESs are reflected in their structural diversity, and this structural diversity challenges us to develop a cohesive model linking IRES function to structure. With more direct structural information available for the viral IRESs, data suggest an inverse correlation between the degree to which an IRES RNA can form a stable structure on its own and the number of factors that it requires to function. Lessons learned from the viral IRESs may help understand the cellular IRESs, although more structural data are needed before any strong links can be made. PMID:19362464

  6. Myoglobin Structure and Function: A Multiweek Biochemistry Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.; Kirk, Sarah R.; Meyer, Scott C.; Holman, Karen L. McFarlane

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure,…

  7. Tactile Teaching: Exploring Protein Structure/Function Using Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Tim; Morris, Jennifer; Colton, Shannon; Batiza, Ann; Patrick, Michael; Franzen, Margaret; Goodsell, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The technology now exists to construct physical models of proteins based on atomic coordinates of solved structures. We review here our recent experiences in using physical models to teach concepts of protein structure and function at both the high school and the undergraduate levels. At the high school level, physical models are used in a…

  8. Structure-Function Studies on the Prolactin Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxholm, Gitte Wolfsberg

    information on the intracellular domains (ICDs) of these receptors. The overall aim of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of cytokine receptor signaling through structure-function studies on the prolactin receptor (PRLR). The primary focus of this thesis was to structurally characterize...

  9. PA01.75. Hidden beauty concepts in ayurveda w.r.t agada tantra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanimath, Gurusiddeshwar J.; Sharanesh, T.; Ashwinikumar; Anita, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Beauty is not in the face; Beauty is a light in the heart. In our Ayurveda it is stated that Physical, Mental and Spiritual beauty as a combined unit projects the cosmetic sense of Ayurveda (Ch.Su 1/41). According to Ayurveda healthy skin is the result of overall condition of individuals and prescribes numerous skin care treatments that need to be pursued at every stage of life. Ayurveda determines beauty by Prakruti(body constitution), Sara (structural predominance), Samhanana (compactness of body), Twak (skin complexion), Pramana (measurement) and Dirghayu lakshana (symptom of long life). Ayurveda cosmetology started with garbhini paricharya, Dinacharya, Ratricharya and Ritucharya with practice of medicinal herbs and minerals. In day-to-day life, knowingly or unknowingly we exposing lots of chemicals /toxins to our body, those spoiling our natural beauty silently, this same concept is explained in Agada tantra under concept of Dhooshivisha (Su.Ka 2/33) and Garaviasha. Method: 1. Literature review of concept related to cosmetology in relation to Agada Tantra.2. Analysis and Interpretation of mode of action of Agada yoga's in relieving the symptoms of Twak vikaras. Result: 1. Specific Agada yogas like Bilwadi Agada , Dhooshivishari Agada, Moorvadi choorna, Paarantyadi Keram shows best preventive and curative action in twak vikaras.2. Some of the Agadas like Moorvadi choona (A.hrudaya) lepas have enhansess the internal and external beauty. Conclusion: Agada tantra is not only a branch of Ayurveda it deals with management of acute and chronic diseases but also a added benefit of being used for cosmetology.

  10. Computing the partition function for kinetically trapped RNA secondary structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Lorenz

    Full Text Available An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in O(n3 time and O(n2 space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1 the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures--indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2 the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3 the (modified maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected

  11. Towards a structural understanding of IRES RNA function

    OpenAIRE

    Filbin, Megan E.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Protein synthesis of an RNA template can initiate by two different known mechanisms: cap-dependent translation initiation and cap-independent translation initiation. The latter is driven by RNA sequences called internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that are found in both viral RNAs and cellular mRNAs. The diverse mechanisms used by IRESs are reflected in their structural diversity, and this structural diversity challenges us to develop a cohesive model linking IRES function to structure. With...

  12. Functional-structural plant modelling in crop production

    OpenAIRE

    VOS, J; Marcelis, L.F.M.; de Visser; Struik, P.C.; Evers, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) describe in quantitative terms the development over time of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of plants as governed by physiological processes and affected by environmental factors. FSPMs are particularly suited to analyse problems in which the spatial structure of the plant or its canopy is an essential factor to explain, e.g., plant competition (intra-plant, inter-plant, inter-species) and the effects of plant configuration and plant manipulatio...

  13. [Function of surface membrane structures in Thiobacillus thiooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Karavaĭko, G I

    1975-01-01

    The function of the surface membrane structures was studied with cytochemical techniques on ultrathin sections of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The transport of elementary sulphur inside the cell involves the surface membrane structures, while oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid takes place on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. The surface membrane structures are supposed also to participate in the primary dissolution of elementary sulphur at the site of contact of the cells with the mineral.

  14. Beauty and ugliness in the bodies and faces of others: an fMRI study of person esthetic judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hernández-Tamames, J A; Martín, A; Urrutia, M

    2014-09-26

    Whether beauty and ugliness represent two independent judgement categories or, instead, opposite extremes of a single dimension is a matter of debate. In the present 3T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, 20 participants were scanned while judging faces and nude bodies of people classified as extremely ugly, extremely beautiful, or indifferent. Certain areas, such as the caudate/nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), exhibited a linear relationship across esthetic judgments supporting ugliness as the lowest extreme of a beauty continuum. Other regions, such as basal occipital areas, displayed an inverse pattern, with the highest activations for ugly and the lowest for beautiful ones. Further, several areas were involved alike by both the very beautiful and the very ugly stimuli. Among these, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as the posterior and medial portions of the cingulate gyrus. This is interpreted as the activation of neural circuits related to self- vs. other-assessment. Beauty and ugliness in the brain, at least in relation to natural and biologically and socially relevant stimuli (faces and bodies), appear tightly related and non-independent. Finally, neutral stimuli elicited strong and wide activations of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems together with longer reaction times and higher error rates, probably reflecting the difficulty of the human brain to classify someone as indifferent.

  15. SARA: a server for function annotation of RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Emidio; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2009-07-01

    Recent interest in non-coding RNA transcripts has resulted in a rapid increase of deposited RNA structures in the Protein Data Bank. However, a characterization and functional classification of the RNA structure and function space have only been partially addressed. Here, we introduce the SARA program for pair-wise alignment of RNA structures as a web server for structure-based RNA function assignment. The SARA server relies on the SARA program, which aligns two RNA structures based on a unit-vector root-mean-square approach. The likely accuracy of the SARA alignments is assessed by three different P-values estimating the statistical significance of the sequence, secondary structure and tertiary structure identity scores, respectively. Our benchmarks, which relied on a set of 419 RNA structures with known SCOR structural class, indicate that at a negative logarithm of mean P-value higher or equal than 2.5, SARA can assign the correct or a similar SCOR class to 81.4% and 95.3% of the benchmark set, respectively. The SARA server is freely accessible via the World Wide Web at http://sgu.bioinfo.cipf.es/services/SARA/.

  16. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, James; 10.4204/EPTCS.76

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming (MSFP 2012), taking place on 25 March, 2012 in Tallinn, Estonia, as a satellite event of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2012. MSFP is devoted to the derivation of functionality from structure. It highlights concepts from algebra, semantics and type theory as they are increasingly reflected in programming practice, especially functional programming. The workshop consists of two invited presentations and eight contributed papers on a range of topics at that interface.

  17. Solving crystal structures with the symmetry minimum function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unravelling the Patterson function (the auto-correlation function of the crystal structure) (A.L. Patterson, Phys. Rev. 46 (1934) 372) can be the only way of solving crystal structures from neutron and incomplete diffraction data (e.g. powder data) when direct methods for phase determination fail. The negative scattering lengths of certain isotopes and the systematic loss of information caused by incomplete diffraction data invalidate the underlying statistical assumptions made in direct methods. In contrast, the Patterson function depends solely on the quality of the available diffraction data. Simpson et al. (P.G. Simpson et al., Acta Crystallogr. 18 (1965) 169) showed that solving a crystal structure with a particular superposition of origin-shifted Patterson functions, the symmetry minimum function, is advantageous over using the Patterson function alone, for single-crystal X-ray data.This paper describes the extension of the Patterson superposition approach to neutron data and powder data by (a) actively using the negative regions in the Patterson map caused by negative scattering lengths and (b) using maximum entropy Patterson maps (W.I.F. David, Nature 346 (1990) 731). Furthermore, prior chemical knowledge such as bond lengths and angles from known fragments have been included. Two successful structure solutions of a known and a previously unknown structure (M. Hofmann, J. Solid State Chem., in press) illustrate the potential of this new development. ((orig.))

  18. Functional clustering in hippocampal cultures: relating network structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we investigate the relationship between gross anatomic structural network properties, neuronal dynamics and the resultant functional structure in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Specifically, we studied cultures as they developed under two conditions: the first supporting glial cell growth (high glial group), and the second one inhibiting it (low glial group). We then compared structural network properties and the spatio-temporal activity patterns of the neurons. Differences in dynamics between the two groups could be linked to the impact of the glial network on the neuronal network as the cultures developed. We also implemented a recently developed algorithm called the functional clustering algorithm (FCA) to obtain the resulting functional network structure. We show that this new algorithm is useful for capturing changes in functional network structure as the networks evolve over time. The FCA detects changes in functional structure that are consistent with expected dynamical differences due to the impact of the glial network. Cultures in the high glial group show an increase in global synchronization as the cultures age, while those in the low glial group remain locally synchronized. We additionally use the FCA to quantify the amount of synchronization present in the cultures and show that the total level of synchronization in the high glial group is stronger than in the low glial group. These results indicate an interdependence between the glial and neuronal networks present in dissociated cultures

  19. On the analytic proton structure function with heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytic proton structure function including quark mass is derived in the framework of color glass condensate. To get the massive proton structure function we keep the quark mass in photon wave function in the derivation process although the calculation is much more complicated than the massless case. It shows that the quark mass plays a key role in the description of the experimental data of proton structure function, and the cross-section of γ*p scattering will be divergent without quark mass regulation. To have the right threshold behavior and a smooth transition in the limit Q2 → 0, the quark mass has to include in the cross-section. (orig.)

  20. On the analytic proton structure function with heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.; Zeng, J.; Li, Q.; Zhou, F. [Guizhou Normal University, College of Physics and Electronics Science, Guiyang (China); Zhou, D. [Huazhong Normal University, Institute of Particle physics, Wuhan (China); Xiang, W. [Guizhou Normal University, College of Physics and Electronics Science, Guiyang (China); South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Department of Physics, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The analytic proton structure function including quark mass is derived in the framework of color glass condensate. To get the massive proton structure function we keep the quark mass in photon wave function in the derivation process although the calculation is much more complicated than the massless case. It shows that the quark mass plays a key role in the description of the experimental data of proton structure function, and the cross-section of γ{sup *}p scattering will be divergent without quark mass regulation. To have the right threshold behavior and a smooth transition in the limit Q{sup 2} → 0, the quark mass has to include in the cross-section. (orig.)

  1. Optical investigation of functional structures in isolated perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Robert; Boehnert, Markus; Mahlke, Christine; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2000-11-01

    Light scattering in tissue of mammals and humans is affected by subcellular structures. Since these structures correlate well with the status of cells and tissue, light scattering seems to be ideal for monitoring of functional tissue state. By use of EMPHO SSK Oxyscan we investigated functional parameters in a novel kind of isolated perfused pig heart model. In this perfusion model we use organs obtained by the local slaughterhouse that are reanimated at our institute by application of a heart-lung machine. By creating 3D-images of tissue scattering we found an interesting relation between anatomical structures of myocardium and the 3D-images. Additionally, we detected coherence between backscattered light intensity and functional tissue status. Furthermore, we got a sight into the redox state of cytochrome aa3, b and c by creating difference spectra. We believe that this new kind of tissue imaging method will give us the opportunity to get new insights into myocardial function.

  2. Structural features for functional selectivity at serotonin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Daniel; Wang, Chong; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Huang, Xi-Ping; Vardy, Eyal; McCorvy, John D; Jiang, Yi; Chu, Meihua; Siu, Fai Yiu; Liu, Wei; Xu, H Eric; Cherezov, Vadim; Roth, Bryan L; Stevens, Raymond C

    2013-05-01

    Drugs active at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can differentially modulate either canonical or noncanonical signaling pathways via a phenomenon known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. We report biochemical studies showing that the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide, its precursor ergotamine (ERG), and related ergolines display strong functional selectivity for β-arrestin signaling at the 5-HT2B 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, whereas they are relatively unbiased at the 5-HT1B receptor. To investigate the structural basis for biased signaling, we determined the crystal structure of the human 5-HT2B receptor bound to ERG and compared it with the 5-HT1B/ERG structure. Given the relatively poor understanding of GPCR structure and function to date, insight into different GPCR signaling pathways is important to better understand both adverse and favorable therapeutic activities. PMID:23519215

  3. Rational Design of a Structural and Functional Nitric Oxide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, N.; Lin, Y; Gao, Y; Zhao, X; Russell, B; Lei, L; Miner, L; Robinson, H; Lu, Y

    2009-01-01

    Protein design provides a rigorous test of our knowledge about proteins and allows the creation of novel enzymes for biotechnological applications. Whereas progress has been made in designing proteins that mimic native proteins structurally, it is more difficult to design functional proteins. In comparison to recent successes in designing non-metalloproteins, it is even more challenging to rationally design metalloproteins that reproduce both the structure and function of native metalloenzymes. This is because protein metal-binding sites are much more varied than non-metal-containing sites, in terms of different metal ion oxidation states, preferred geometry and metal ion ligand donor sets. Because of their variability, it has been difficult to predict metal-binding site properties in silico, as many of the parameters, such as force fields, are ill-defined. Therefore, the successful design of a structural and functional metalloprotein would greatly advance the field of protein design and our understanding of enzymes. Here we report a successful, rational design of a structural and functional model of a metalloprotein, nitric oxide reductase (NOR), by introducing three histidines and one glutamate, predicted as ligands in the active site of NOR, into the distal pocket of myoglobin. A crystal structure of the designed protein confirms that the minimized computer model contains a haem/non-haem FeB centre that is remarkably similar to that in the crystal structure. This designed protein also exhibits NO reduction activity, and so models both the structure and function of NOR, offering insight that the active site glutamate is required for both iron binding and activity. These results show that structural and functional metalloproteins can be rationally designed in silico.

  4. El ojo hermoso The beautiful eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Como cirujanos estéticos siempre nos esforzamos por alcanzar resultados hermosos que sean agradables a los sentidos. Esto es particularmente cierto en el terreno del rejuvenecimiento periorbitario. Según la estadística de la Sociedad Americana de Cirujanos Plásticos la blefaroplastia estética es uno de los procedimientos mas frecuentes y su frecuencia va en aumento tanto en hombres como en mujeres. El rejuvenecimiento periorbitario adecuado debería restaurar la percepción interior del paciente respecto a belleza y juventud de sus ojos, así como proporcionar un aspecto externo que sea "estético" o agradable a los sentidos. Para lograr este objetivo, se requiere una comprensión de la estética facial, tanto en términos subjetivos como objetivos. Los investigadores han demostrado que la percepción del atractivo o la belleza en la cara de un individuo es relativamente constante entre observadores independientes, desafiando el dicho popular de que "la belleza está en el ojo del espectador." Presentamos una actualización del tema y una amplia iconografía. La información recogida de la literatura y de años experiencia clínica debería permitir al lector desarrollar una mayor sensibilidad estética, para obtener resultados óptimos en el rejuvenecimiento periorbitario.As aesthetic surgeons we are always striving to achieve beautiful results that are pleasurable to the senses. This is particularly certain in the land of the periorbital rejuvenation. According to the statistics of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, aesthetic blepharoplasty is one of the procedures most commonly performed and goes in increase its so much frequency in men as in women. Successful periorbital rejuvenation should restore the patient"s inner sense of beauty and youthfulness as well as provide an outward appearance that is ‘aesthetic" or pleasurable to the senses. To accomplish this lofty goal, the aesthetic surgeon must strive to create "the beautiful

  5. PDB-UF: database of predicted enzymatic functions for unannotated protein structures from structural genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlewski Leszek

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of protein structures from structural genomics centers dramatically increases in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Many of these structures are functionally unannotated because they have no sequence similarity to proteins of known function. However, it is possible to successfully infer function using only structural similarity. Results Here we present the PDB-UF database, a web-accessible collection of predictions of enzymatic properties using structure-function relationship. The assignments were conducted for three-dimensional protein structures of unknown function that come from structural genomics initiatives. We show that 4 hypothetical proteins (with PDB accession codes: 1VH0, 1NS5, 1O6D, and 1TO0, for which standard BLAST tools such as PSI-BLAST or RPS-BLAST failed to assign any function, are probably methyltransferase enzymes. Conclusion We suggest that the structure-based prediction of an EC number should be conducted having the different similarity score cutoff for different protein folds. Moreover, performing the annotation using two different algorithms can reduce the rate of false positive assignments. We believe, that the presented web-based repository will help to decrease the number of protein structures that have functions marked as "unknown" in the PDB file. Availability http://paradox.harvard.edu/PDB-UF and http://bioinfo.pl/PDB-UF

  6. Pion structure function F2π in the valon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz

    2003-03-01

    Partonic structure of constituent quark (or valon) in the next-to-leading order is used to calculate pion structure function. This is a further demonstration of the finding that the constituent quark structure is universal, and once it is calculated, the structure of any hadron can be predicted thereafter, using a convolution method, without introducing any new free parameter. The results are compared with the pion structure function from ZEUS Collaboration leading neutron production in e+p collisions at HERA. We found good agreement with the experiment. A resolution for the issue of normalization of the experimental data is suggested. In addition, the proportionality of F2π and F2p, which have caused confusion in the normalization of ZEUS data is discussed and resolved.

  7. Pion structure function F2π in the valon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partonic structure of constituent quark (or valon) in the next-to-leading order is used to calculate pion structure function. This is a further demonstration of the finding that the constituent quark structure is universal, and once it is calculated, the structure of any hadron can be predicted thereafter, using a convolution method, without introducing any new free parameter. The results are compared with the pion structure function from ZEUS Collaboration leading neutron production in e+p collisions at HERA. We found good agreement with the experiment. A resolution for the issue of normalization of the experimental data is suggested. In addition, the proportionality of F2π and F2p, which have caused confusion in the normalization of ZEUS data is discussed and resolved

  8. Electron crystallography for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Membrane proteins are important research targets for basic biological sciences and drug design, but studies of their structure and function are considered difficult to perform. Studies of membrane structures have been greatly facilitated by technological and instrumental advancements in electron microscopy together with methodological advancements in biology. Electron crystallography is especially useful in studying the structure and function of membrane proteins. Electron crystallography is now an established method of analyzing the structures of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, which resembles their natural biological environment. To better understand the neural system function from a structural point of view, we developed the cryo-electron microscope with a helium-cooled specimen stage, which allows for analysis of the structures of membrane proteins at a resolution higher than 3 Å. This review introduces recent instrumental advances in cryo-electron microscopy and presents some examples of structure analyses of membrane proteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin, water channels and gap junction channels. This review has two objectives: first, to provide a personal historical background to describe how we came to develop the cryo-electron microscope and second, to discuss some of the technology required for the structural analysis of membrane proteins based on cryo-electron microscopy.

  9. Tensor-polarized structure functions: Tensor structure of deuteron in 2020's

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S

    2014-01-01

    We explain spin structure for a spin-one hadron, in which there are new structure functions, in addition to the ones ($F_1$, $F_2$, $g_1$, $g_2$) which exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon, associated with its tensor structure. The new structure functions are $b_1$, $b_2$, $b_3$, and $b_4$ in deep inelastic scattering of a charged-lepton from a spin-one hadron such as the deuteron. Among them, twist-two functions are related by the Callan-Gross type relation $b_2 = 2 x b_1$ in the Bjorken scaling l...

  10. Ontogenetic functional diversity: size structure of a keystone predator drives functioning of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L

    2013-05-01

    A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because

  11. The Evolution of Protein Structures and Structural Ensembles Under Functional Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Liberles, David A; Grahnen, Johan A.; Jessica Siltberg-Liberles

    2011-01-01

    Protein sequence, structure, and function are inherently linked through evolution and population genetics. Our knowledge of protein structure comes from solved structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), our knowledge of sequence through sequences found in the NCBI sequence databases (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), and our knowledge of function through a limited set of in-vitro biochemical studies. How these intersect through evolution is described in the first part of the review. In the secon...

  12. Generating function approach to reliability analysis of structural systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The generating function approach is an important tool for performance assessment in multi-state systems. Aiming at strength reliability analysis of structural systems, generating function approach is introduced and developed. Static reliability models of statically determinate, indeterminate systems and fatigue reliability models are built by constructing special generating functions, which are used to describe probability distributions of strength (resistance), stress (load) and fatigue life, by defining composite operators of generating functions and performance structure functions thereof. When composition operators are executed, computational costs can be reduced by a big margin by means of collecting like terms. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the generating function approach can be widely used for probability modeling of large complex systems with hierarchical structures due to the unified form, compact expression, computer program realizability and high universality. Because the new method considers twin loads giving rise to component failure dependency, it can provide a theoretical reference and act as a powerful tool for static, dynamic reliability analysis in civil engineering structures and mechanical equipment systems with multi-mode damage coupling.

  13. MULTI-SCALE COHERENT STRUCTURES IN TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER DETECTED BY LOCALLY AVERAGED VELOCITY STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; JIANG Nan; WANG Zhen-dong; SHU Wei

    2005-01-01

    The time sequence of longitudinal velocity component at different vertical locations in turbulent boundary layer was finely measured in a wind tunnel. The concept of coarse-grained velocity structure functions, which describes the relative motions of straining and compressing for multi-scale eddy structures in turbulent flows, was put forward based on the theory of locally multi-scale average. Based on the consistency between coarse-grained velocity structure function and Harr wavelet transformation, detecting method was presented,by which the coherent structures and their intermittency was identified by multi-scale flatness factor calculated by locally average structure function. Phase-averaged evolution course for multi-scale coherent eddy structures in wall turbulence were extracted by this conditional sampling to educe scheme. The dynamics course of multi-scale coherent eddy structures and their effects on statistics of turbulent flows were studied.

  14. Charm and beauty production at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabana, Sonia [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees (SUBATECH), Ecole des Mines, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes (France)

    2011-01-15

    We review selected highlights on charm and beauty production at RHIC from p+p, d+Au and A+A collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200GeV, and compare them to model calculations. We focus on two particular issues, jet quenching and quarkonia. Anomalous energy loss (jet quenching) of quarks passing through the dense and hot matter built in heavy ion collisions is one of the outstanding discoveries made at RHIC. This phenomenon allows for an estimate of the initial gluon density. Furthermore, color screening of hidden charm and beauty states is a key signature of the QCD phase transition, allowing an estimate of the initial temperature. We present results on the flavour dependence of jet quenching. Heavy flavour production in A+A as compared to p+p collisions will be discussed for open and hidden charm.

  15. Hidden Beauty in Twisted Viking Neck Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Many hoards found in Ireland, Scotland, Orkney Islands, and Scandinavia demonstrate the vikings ability to fabricate beautiful arm and neck rings of twisted silver and gold rods. Characteristic for such rings is the uniform appearance of the twisted pattern along the length of the arm ring, as well as from one arm ring to another, also when found at distant geographical locations. How can the appearance of the twisted wires be so perfectly repetitive? We demonstrate that the answer is that the vikings utilized a self-forming motif: The pattern arises from a twisting of the wires to a maximally rotated configuration. That is why the twist patterns in these arm and neck rings are beautiful, repetitive, and universal.

  16. Non-leptonic decays of beauty decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Ikaros I; Shifman, M; Uraltsev, N; Vainshtein, A I

    1994-01-01

    "Anyone who keeps the ability to see beauty never grows old" (Franz Kafka). In the last few years considerable progress has been achieved in our understanding of the decays of heavy flavour hadrons. One can now calculate inclusive transition rates in QCD proper through an expansion in inverse powers of the heavy flavour quark mass without recourse to phenomenological assumptions. The non-perturbative contributions are treated systematically in this way; they are found to produce corrections of order a few percent in beauty decays, i.e. typically somewhat smaller than the perturbative corrections. One finds, among other things: (a) The lifetime of $B^-$ mesons is predicted to be longer than that of $B^0$ mesons by several percent. (b) The QCD prediction for the semileptonic branching ratio of $B$ mesons appears to exceed present experimental values.

  17. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  18. The Hidden Beauty in Biomedical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Norman; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Caretakers, researchers and photographers working in a busy academic settings, every day are faced with images that are awe-inspiring for their beauty and for the terror they may represent to patients suffering from disease. Beauty in this context is a relative term. It may be seen as the delicate lacework of cells within the normal human brain reminiscent of a Jackson Pollack masterpiece, or the multitude of colors and textures formed by fungal organisms in a microbiology lab. Herein lies the juxtaposition image makers seek to represent. When contemplated in isolation, each represents a visually interesting image. However, when viewed with an awareness of the context in which the image was obtained, each image takes on the ability to evoke an alternative human emotion.

  19. China's Most Beautiful Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLiang

    2005-01-01

    “China's Most Beautiful Books 2004”, an annual national award for books' graphic design, came out in Shanghai in January, 2005. Twenty-four publications won the titles and were recommended to participate in “The Most Beautiful Books of the World 2005” competition which will be held in Leibzig, Germany. The award winners included both best sellers with simplistic design such as “Us Three” and “Niu Niu: A Father's Notes”, and thread-bound traditional books such as “Ma De's Painting Album”, “Nanmu Carvings in West of Hunan Province”, “Watch the Three Gorges” and “Culture of Southeast China: Key Words”。

  20. Population structure analysis using rare and common functional variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Lili

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to genotype and measure hundreds of thousands of rare genetic variations in individuals across the genome. Characterization of high-density genetic variation facilitates control of population genetic structure on a finer scale before large-scale genotyping in disease genetics studies. Population structure is a well-known, prevalent, and important factor in common variant genetic studies, but its relevance in rare variants is unclear. We perform an extensive population structure analysis using common and rare functional variants from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome sequence. The analysis based on common functional variants required 388 principal components to account for 90% of the variation in population structure. However, an analysis based on rare variants required 532 significant principal components to account for similar levels of variation. Using rare variants, we detected fine-scale substructure beyond the population structure identified using common functional variants. Our results show that the level of population structure embedded in rare variant data is different from the level embedded in common variant data and that correcting for population structure is only as good as the level one wishes to correct.