WorldWideScience

Sample records for beat world hunger

  1. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  2. A Practical Problem Approach to World Hunger: Universities Fighting World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the profession's history, family and consumer sciences professionals have worked to consider what should be done about various social issues affecting individuals, families, and communities across the world. Hunger is a global issue pertaining to the right to life, human survival, sustainable communities, and promotion of healthy…

  3. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  4. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  5. Politics of hunger to be topic of World Food Day international teleconference

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    Why does the modern world food system fail to adequately feed some 800 million people?" This and other topics will be addressed during the 21st annual international World Food Day Teleconference, entitled "The Politics of Hunger: What's at Stake?

  6. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS – A SOLUTION TO WORLD HUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity and become eco-contaminants, and can, especially in the long terms, negatively affect the human health. Authors think that patenting of living organisms by the multinational companies is unacceptable and unfair from the bioethical perspective, not only because they tend to hold monopolies in production and trade of GM plants, but also because of their efforts to gain domination over the very life. Finally, analyses made by many scientists show that the thesis that "Gene Revolution" will resolve the problem of hunger in the world was not justified in the previous decade.

  7. Synopsis: 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the tenth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 2000, but still has a long way to go, with levels of hunger still serious or alarming in 52 countries. The theme of this year’s report is armed conflict and the challenge of hunger. Conflict and hunger are closely associated. Indeed, conflict is the main cause of persistent sever...

  8. Hunger in the World

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler,J; Vitori,J; De Baer,E

    1975-01-01

    3 exposés sont présentés par: Jean Ziegler, conseiller national et professeur de sociologie à l'université de Genève, qui dira entre autre que les riches deviennent toujours plus riches et les pauvres toujours plus pauvres...(et qu'en est-il en 2006???) Edmond Kaeser, fondateur de Terre des Hommes qui depuis 43 ans consacre son temps aux pauvres et Jacques Vitori, membre permanent de la confédération mondiale du travail. La projection d'un film tourné au Bangladesch en hiver 1974 après une très grande famine, sera commenté par Erika de Baer qui a passé plusieurs semaines au Bangladesch peu après le film.

  9. Finger-to-Beat Coordination Skill of Non-dancers, Street Dancers, and the World Champion of a Street-Dance Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akito; Fujii, Shinya; Okano, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory–motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory–motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition. Under the extend-on-the-beat condition, both the dancers and non-dancers showed a spontaneous transition from the extend-on-the-beat to the flex-on-the-beat or to a phase wandering pattern. However, the critical frequency at which the transition occurred was significantly higher in the dancers (3.3 Hz) than in the non-dancers (2.6 Hz). Under the flex-on-the-beat condition, the dancers were able to maintain their coordination pattern more stably at high beat rates compared to the non-dancers. Furthermore, the world champion matched the timing of movement peak velocity to the beat across the different beat rates. This may give a sense of unity between the movement and the beat for the audience because the peak velocity of the rhythmic movement works as a temporal cue for the audiovisual synchrony perception. These results suggest that the skills of accomplished dancers lie in their small finger movements and that the sensorimotor learning of street dance is characterized by a stabilization of the coordination patterns, including the inhibition of an unintentional transition to other coordination patterns. PMID:27148148

  10. Finger-to-Beat Coordination Skill of Non-dancers, Street Dancers, and the World Champion of a Street-Dance Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akito; Fujii, Shinya; Okano, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory-motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory-motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition. Under the extend-on-the-beat condition, both the dancers and non-dancers showed a spontaneous transition from the extend-on-the-beat to the flex-on-the-beat or to a phase wandering pattern. However, the critical frequency at which the transition occurred was significantly higher in the dancers (3.3 Hz) than in the non-dancers (2.6 Hz). Under the flex-on-the-beat condition, the dancers were able to maintain their coordination pattern more stably at high beat rates compared to the non-dancers. Furthermore, the world champion matched the timing of movement peak velocity to the beat across the different beat rates. This may give a sense of unity between the movement and the beat for the audience because the peak velocity of the rhythmic movement works as a temporal cue for the audiovisual synchrony perception. These results suggest that the skills of accomplished dancers lie in their small finger movements and that the sensorimotor learning of street dance is characterized by a stabilization of the coordination patterns, including the inhibition of an unintentional transition to other coordination patterns. PMID:27148148

  11. World Beat: Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, Gregory H.

    1994-09-01

    Malaysia is soaring economically, but it lags behind in science education. Starting virtually from scratch, astronomy proponents are building an astronomy education program. Its focus is a gleaming new planetarium in Kuala Lumpur.

  12. Hunger and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Özenoğlu, Aliye; Ünal, Gökçe

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies and disturbances in metabolism of neurotransmitters and hormones, induced by nutrient deficiencies, affect the behavior of individuals. In this review, the effect of deficiencies that occur in the body as a result of hunger on the formation of aggression and violent behavior are intended to be explained by biological processes. Articles published between the years 1993-2014 using keywords hunger, lack of nutrients, aggression, violence were scanned on Pubmed database, ho...

  13. "The Hunger Games" and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…

  14. Beat Dreams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Two of the founding members of the Beat Generation of the 1950s wrote dream books with almost identical titles: Jack Kerouac's Book of Dreams (1961) and William Burroughs' My Education: A Book of Dreams (1995). This paper queries the function of such dream books, both from a perspective of seeing...... dream writing as a confessional genre, and from the perspective of didacticism implicit in sharing one's dream life with one's readers. What role does memory, politics, fantasies and reality play in communicating with and via dreams?...

  15. Alliances in "The Hunger Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…

  16. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. PMID:27328100

  17. Military Famine, Human Rights, and Child Hunger: A Cross-National Analysis, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Scanlan, Stephen J.; Peterson, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of world hunger have focused on economic growth and international food aid, assuming that food supply is the critical issue. The authors show that food access rooted in social stratification and military power is the central problem. Synthesizing the entitlement and military famine approaches to hunger, the authors examine the effects…

  18. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. PMID:27246454

  19. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches.

  20. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  1. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  2. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  3. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  4. Neurophysiology of Hunger and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2008-01-01

    Hunger is defined as a strong desire or need for food while satiety is the condition of being full or gratified. The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The regulation of food intake is a complex behavior. It requires discrete nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) to detect…

  5. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  6. The MDG on poverty and hunger : how reliable are the hunger estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Nubé, M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hunger-related indicators are used for tracking progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, with one of the targets being to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 as compared to 1990. The prevalence of people

  7. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  8. Nutribusiness: an aspect of the political economy of persistent hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omawale

    1984-01-01

    The failure of nutrition programs to significantly impact on the prevalent hunger in underdeveloped countries is attributed to nutribusiness. This term conceptually links the activities of profit-motivated capitalist enterprises to the continuous generation of poverty and hunger. The actors are all part of a hierarchy dominated by multinational corporate interests and including bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, nutrition institutes, and nutrition professionals at various levels. Although many lower-level nutrition workers are unwittingly caught up in the system, most of the higher-level professionals are conscious of their roles, which they selfishly perform for personal advancement. The Philippine nutrition system is examined as an example of nutribusiness, albeit in a very obvious and extreme form. On the available evidence, the conclusion is drawn that in countries dominated by capitalist production, nutrition activities amount to nutribusiness. Consequently, the elimination and prevention of persistent hunger in underdeveloped countries must start with their disengagement from the world capitalist system and their pursuit of socialist transformation.

  9. Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood...

  10. Off beat: pluralizing rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hoogstad; B. Stougaard Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    Off Beat: Pluralizing Rhythm draws attention to rhythm as a tool for analyzing various cultural objects. In fields as diverse as music, culture, nature, and economy, rhythm can be seen as a phenomenon that both connects and divides. It suggests a certain measure with which people, practices, and cul

  11. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  12. beat a dead horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕浙

    2005-01-01

    beat a dead horse的字面意思为“鞭打死马”。“鞭打死马”有什么作用?毫无疑问,一点意义也没有。因此,该习语的意思相当于中文的“徒劳,白费力气,白费口舌”。如:

  13. Beliefs about wife beating: an exploratory study with Lebanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Nadine; Chang, Doris F; Ginges, Jeremy

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in understanding the sociocultural contexts and risk factors for domestic violence in the Arab world. This study provides an analysis of the religious, legal, and familial contexts of domestic violence in Lebanon and assesses contemporary attitudes toward women and wife beating in a sample of 206 Lebanese university students. Gender, patriarchal attitudes, religion, childhood experiences with family violence, and mother's employment status were investigated as predictors of attitudes toward wife beating. Consistent with feminist theories of wife abuse, gender and attitudes toward women's roles emerged as the strongest predictors of beliefs about wife beating. PMID:20445079

  14. Beat wave development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of experiments on beat wave acceleration have been completed at UCLA. Here we examined the suitability of a theta pinch as a plasma source. The beatwave was excited to amplitudes providing GeV/m-scale accelerating fields. However, trapped magnetic fields within the theta-pinch plasma hindered the injection of test particles. Optical diagnostics were developed to measure the accelerating gradient-length product which was found to be around 3 MeV. Future plans are also discussed. copyright 1989 American Institute of Physics

  15. Resonant Bloch-wave beatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Torner, Lluis

    2014-07-01

    We introduce Bloch-wave beatings in arrays of multimode periodically bent waveguides with a transverse refractive index gradient. The new phenomenon manifests itself in the periodic drastic increase of the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that accompanies resonant conversion of modes guided by the individual waveguides. The Bloch-wave beatings are found to be most pronounced when the length of the resonant mode conversion substantially exceeds the longitudinal period of the Bloch oscillations. The beating frequency decreases when the amplitude of waveguide bending decreases, while the beating amplitude is restricted by the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that emerge from the second allowed band of the Floquet-Bloch lattice spectrum.

  16. Resonant Bloch-wave beatings

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce Bloch-wave beatings in arrays of multimode periodically bent waveguides with a transverse refractive index gradient. The new phenomenon manifests itself in the periodic drastic increase of the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that accompanies resonant conversion of modes guided by the individual waveguides. The Bloch-wave beatings are found to be most pronounced when the length of the resonant mode conversion substantially exceeds the longitudinal period of the Bloch oscillations. The beating frequency decreases when the amplitude of waveguide bending decreases, while the beating amplitude is restricted by the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that emerge from the second allowed band of the Floquet-Bloch lattice spectrum.

  17. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and motivated…

  18. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  19. The Geographical and Biophysical Correlates of Hunger and Infant Mortality: Lessons from CIESIN's Poverty Mapping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Balk, D.; Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Storeygard, A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a collection of recent efforts to integrate global spatial datasets and survey microdata to investigate drivers of hunger and infant mortality. They were motivated by a desire on the part of the United Nations Millennium Project to understand the conditions under which the world's poor and hungry live, for the purpose of improving the diagnosing the causes of poverty and hunger, designing interventions, and understanding the interactions among different Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). First, at the global level, it reports on a number of explorations that were undertaken to characterize the large-scale distribution of the world's poor in terms of climatic, topographic, land cover, ecosystem, and hydrologic factors. Second, at the regional level, it reports on an analysis of the correlates of hunger in Africa. Third, it reports on work combining survey microdata with spatial data in a study of infant mortality in West Africa. Lastly, it discusses ongoing work to combine these two scales at the continental and global scale in the context of drivers of hunger.

  20. [Štampar's contemporary Josip Šilović: the founder of the Colonization fund for orphans from hunger-stricken Croatian areas and the Fund for orphans of Croatian emigrants during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agneza

    2015-11-01

    This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.

  1. Masses for Galactic Beat Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.; Morgan, Siobahn M.; Böhm-Vitense, Erika

    2000-08-01

    Accurate mass determinations for Cepheids may be used to determine the degree of excess mixing in the interiors of their main-sequence progenitors: the larger the excess mixing, the larger the luminosity of the Cepheid of a given mass, or the smaller the mass of a Cepheid with given luminosity. Dynamical masses determined recently for a few Cepheid binaries indicate excess mixing somewhat stronger than that corresponding to the convective overshoot models by Schaller et al. Beat Cepheids can be used similarly to test main-sequence mixing in stellar interiors. The period ratios for beat Cepheids depend on luminosity, Teff, heavy element abundance, and mass. By comparing pulsational models and the observationally derived luminosity, Teff, metallicities, and period ratios it is possible to obtain masses for these stars, the so-called beat masses. With the old opacities masses much smaller than the evolutionary masses were obtained. With the new OPAL opacities a beat mass close to the dynamical mass was obtained for the binary beat Cepheid Y Carinae, showing that it is now possible to obtain reliable beat masses. In this paper, we determine beat masses for seven Galactic beat Cepheids for which photometric and spectroscopic data are available. We find an average mass around 4.2+/-0.3 Msolar for these stars, though the actual error limits for each star may be larger mainly because of uncertainties in E(B-V) and the heavy element abundances. (As derived spectroscopically, beat Cepheids are in general metal-poor, with -0.4relation between the derived beat masses and the luminosities again indicates excess mixing that is somewhat larger than that corresponding to the models by Schaller et al.

  2. On hunger and child mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2012-01-01

    Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements. PMID:22451985

  3. The Hunger Stones: a new source for more objective identification of historical droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Libor

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.

  4. The Faces of Hunger: The Educational Impact of Hunger on Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph John; Matsuura, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' living in poverty and academic underachievement challenges schools across the nation. Poverty is particularly prevalent among children with disabilities. One detrimental condition of poverty that directly affects student development and academic achievement is food insecurity and hunger. With the increasing…

  5. Everybody Eats: Using Hunger Banquets to Teach about Issues of Global Hunger and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah A.; Harris, Whitney M.; Fondren, Kristi M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiential and active learning exercises can benefit students in sociology courses, particularly, courses in which issues of inequality are central. In this paper, we describe using hunger banquets-an active learning exercise where participants are randomly stratified into three global classes and receive food based upon their class position-to…

  6. "Hunger Games"Feminist Narrative Resolve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui

    2016-01-01

    "The Hunger Games"is a personal heroine to type"I"perspective to expand public narrative fiction. Female Charac-ters in"see"in establishing their dominant position, while the male marginalization, and construction of the female conscious-ness. Personal type disclosed in the narrative voice has justifiably authority, but the female narrator in the narrative process will encounter all kinds of repression, the author let people keep their own voice, using the first-person narrative voice group spokes-men style, interior monologue strategy digestion Men authority, breaking the traditional patriarchal narrative traditions under the order issued roundabout way hidden female voice, access to authoritative narrative.

  7. Beat Subterranean: Tactics of Assemblage and Worldmaking in Beat Generation Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzino, Jimmy Michael

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation argues that the core beat trope of the subterranean can be developed as a productive means of literary analysis. I show that beat writers conceive of themselves and their work as existing within vast "underground" networks of radical and avant-garde art and literature, and by locating the beats within such assemblages, the subterranean offers, above all, a model for reconceptualizing beat geography. While the Beat Generation has been regarded as quintessentially American, beat...

  8. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  9. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 David Lovell-Smith,2 Timothy Kenealy,3 Riccardo Bianchi4 1Unit of Preventive Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH, has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG. These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition. Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern. IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. Keywords: energy intake, hunger, energy balance, food intake regulation, prevention, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, risks

  10. Wealth geography, environment and hunger: small critic contribution to the current agrarian/agricultural model of the natural resources usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.

  11. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  12. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiet

  13. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  14. Musicians' Perception of Beat in Monotonic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses musicians' perceptions of beat in monotonic stimuli and attempts to define empirically the range of perceived beat tempo in music. Subjects performed a metric pulse in response to periodic stimulus tones. Results indicate a relatively narrow range within which beats are perceived by trained musicians. (LS)

  15. Hunger strike among detainees: guidance for good medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Eytan, Ariel; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2012-09-17

    Hunger strike is a regularly reported problem in prison. Although clinical situations are rarely severe, hospitalisation is often considered. In consequence, it is not only physicians working in prisons, but also hospital medical teams who face challenges related to hunger strike, involving somatic, psychological, legal and human rights aspects. Furthermore, deontological rules must be strictly respected when delivering care, particularly in prison setting. Starvation involves metabolic changes and can cause severe, and sometimes even irreversible or fatal complications. Moreover, the phase of re-alimentation should not be trivialised, as re-feeding syndrome is a potentially fatal phenomenon. This article provides guidance for monitoring and management of patients on hunger strike.

  16. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  17. Abstract Possible: The Birmingham Beat

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron; Salinas, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Gruppeutstilling. Samarbeidspartner: Alejandra Salinas. ABSTRACT YOUR SHIT IS Video loop and billboard. Eastside Projects, Birmingham UK Abstract Possible: The Birmingham Beat Curated by Maria Lind 6 October - 1 December 2012. Invited artists: José León Cerrillo, Zachary Formwalt, Goldin+Senneby, Wade Guyton, Yelena Popova, Alejandra Salinas and Aeron Bergman. Visningssted: Eastside Projects, Birmingham, UK. Se også: http://eastsideprojects.org/past/abstract-possible

  18. Beating phantasies: Mourned and unmourned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Giuseppina

    2016-06-01

    This paper intends to explore the organizing function and fate of sado-masochistic phantasies in their fixed form, in the psychic life of patients who have suffered early traumas, due to environmental vicissitudes and maternal psychopathology. The theoretical starting point is provided by the Novicks' research into transitory and permanent beating phantasies in adult and child patients, their onset and their psychic function, based on an examination of Freud's paper 'A child is being beaten'. In this text Freud achieves an unprecedented syncretism, locating the phantasy at the intersection between the oedipal complex, which is a vertical structure organizing sexual and generational differences, and the fraternal dimension, which is horizontal and organizes the lateral relationship with that similar but different other who is the sibling. Reporting in some detail material from the analyses of two young women, whose clinical presentation and early traumas show some similarities, the author puts in the context of the analytic work the emerging of the sado-masochistic phantasies, emphasizing their use and function in the transference-countertransference interplay. The beating phantasies shore up a precarious sense of self, threatened with psychic depletion and death, in identification with the absent mother of early infancy. An overly close relationship with a sibling, experienced as a narcissistic double, compounds the clinical picture, to establish the triangle formed by the parent(s) and two children which features in the beating phantasy. Finally, the author explores the contribution of ameliorating factors, such as alternative identificatory figures, constitutional endowment and capacity for sublimation, to account for the different fate of the fixed beating phantasies. PMID:26602362

  19. Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Christopher E.

    2002-04-01

    Among all the advanced accelerator concepts that use lasers as the power source, most of the effort to date has been with the idea of using a laser pulse to excite a accelerating mode in a plasma. Within this area, there are a variety of approaches for creating the accelerating mode, as indicated by the other talks in this session. What is common to these approaches is the physics of how a laser pulse pushes on plasma electrons to organize electron-density perturbations, the sources of the ultra-high (> GeV/M) accelerating gradients. It is the "ponderomotive force", proportional to the local gradient of the of the laser intensity, that pushes plasma electrons forward (on the leading edge of the pulse) and backwards (on the trailing edge) which leads to harmonic motion of the electrons. As the laser pulse moves through the plasma at group velocity Vg c, the oscillating electrons show up macroscopically as a plasma mode or wave with frequency w equal to the plasma frequency and k = w/Vg. For short laser pulses, this is the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) concept. Closely related is the Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration (PBWA) concept. Here, the laser pulse that perturbs the plasma is composed of two closely-spaced frequencies that "beat", i.e., periodically constructively and destructively interfere, forming an electromagnetic beat wave. One can visualize this as a train of short pulses. If this beating frequency is set to the plasma frequency, then each pulse in the train will reinforce the density perturbation caused by the previous pulse. The principal advantage of multiple pulses driving up the plasma wave as opposed to a single pulse is in efficiency, allowing for the production of relatively large diameter (more 1-D like) accelerating modes. In this talk I will discuss past, current and planned PBWA experiments which are taking place at UCLA, RAL in England, and LULI in France.

  20. Quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song Bin

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear quantum-beat pump-probe Auger spectroscopy is introduced by discussing a relatively simple four-level model system. We consider a coherent wave packet involving two low-lying states that was prepared by an appropriate pump pulse. This wave packet is subsequently probed by a weak, time-delayed probe pulse with nearly resonant coupling to a core-excited state of the atomic or molecular system. The resonant Auger spectra are then studied as a function of the duration of the probe pulse and the time delay. With a bandwidth of the probe pulse approaching the energy spread of the wave packet, the Auger yields and spectra show quantum beats as a function of pump-probe delay. An analytic theory for the quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy will be presented, which allows for the reconstruction of the wave packet by analyzing the delaydependent Auger spectra. The possibility of extending this method to a more complex manifold of electronic and vibrational energy levels is also discussed.

  1. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  2. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  3. World Food Day Curriculum, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Janet

    Hunger and malnutrition lead to the deaths of 13-18 million people a year; 75 percent of these victims are children. World Food Day was created to focus attention on the world's food and farm problems and to encourage the world's people to become directly involved in the solution of these problems. It is sponsored jointly by the United Nations…

  4. Bondage fantasies and beating fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J

    1998-10-01

    Two male patients had masochistic sexual fantasies: one had bondage fantasies, the other beating fantasies. Each patient had been traumatized in childhood by his experiences with a martyr mother. Each had developed the belief that in an intimate sexual relationship with a woman he would hurt her. As a consequence, each tended to suppress his sexuality. Each used masochistic fantasies to reassure himself that he was not hurting his fantasied or real partner. The reassurance made it safe to experience his sexual feelings. The two patients' use of their masochistic fantasies is compared to the fetishist's use of his fetish, as described by Freud. PMID:9820894

  5. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p satiety (p hunger state.

  6. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people.

  7. Possible instabilities in the beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the concept of the beat wave accelerator is studied with emphasis put on the plasma physics. An important effect is the relativistic nature of the electrons oscillating in the electric field of the beat wave. Various instabilities are presented which could limit the overall efficiency of the accelerating process. (author)

  8. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  9. Elastic interactions synchronize beating in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ohad; Safran, Samuel A

    2016-07-13

    Motivated by recent experimental results, we study theoretically the synchronization of the beating phase and frequency of two nearby cardiomyocyte cells. Each cell is represented as an oscillating force dipole in an infinite, viscoelastic medium and the propagation of the elastic signal within the medium is predicted. We examine the steady-state beating of two nearby cells, and show that elastic interactions result in forces that synchronize the phase and frequency of beating in a manner that depends on their mutual orientation. The theory predicts both in-phase and anti-phase steady-state beating depending on the relative cell orientations, as well as how synchronized beating varies with substrate elasticity and the inter-cell distance. These results suggest how mechanics plays a role in cardiac efficiency, and may be relevant for the design of cardiomyocyte based micro devices and other biomedical applications. PMID:27352146

  10. M. Paryz on Gavin Jones’s American Hungers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Jones. American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008. 20/21 Series. ISBN: 978-0-691-12753-8.American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945 by Gavin Jones is an insightful study of the ways of representing poverty in selected works by Herman Melville, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, James Agee, and Richard Wright.  The choice of authors for discussion perhaps suggests a limited scope...

  11. Synopses: Welthunger-Index 2015: Hunger und bewaffnete Konflikte

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Der Welthunger-Index (WHI) 2015 ist der zehnte in einer Reihe jährlicher Berichte, in denen die Hungersituation weltweit, nach Regionen und auf Länderebene mithilfe eines multidimensionalen Ansatzs dargestellt wird. Er zeigt, dass weltweit seit dem Jahr 2000 Fortschritte bei der Bekämpfung von Hunger erzielt wurden, dass aber angesichts noch immer „ernster“ oder „sehr ernster“ Hungerwerte in 52 Ländern nach wie vor viel zu tun bleibt. Das Thema des vorliegenden Berichts lautet „Hunger und bew...

  12. 77 FR 37869 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National Hunger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA... collection is a revision of a currently approved collection for the National Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES... 703-305-2657. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form. Form:...

  13. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

  14. Electrical Brain Responses to Beat Irregularities in Two Cases of Beat Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Lidji, Pascale; Honing, Henkjan; Palmer, Caroline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu-but not Marjorie-compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception. PMID:26941591

  15. Electrical Brain Responses to Beat Irregularities in Two Cases of Beat Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Lidji, Pascale; Honing, Henkjan; Palmer, Caroline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu-but not Marjorie-compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception.

  16. Electrical brain responses to beat irregularities in two cases of beat deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 event-related potential (ERP components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu – but not Marjorie – compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception.

  17. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  18. Rats learn to eat more to avoid hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise; Booth, David A

    2009-04-01

    Several recent experiments have provided evidence that the ingestion of a distinctive food by rats can be a learnt instrumental act as well as an associatively conditioned reaction. In the previous work, maintenance food was withheld for shorter and longer durations on different days following access to the training food. Extra eating before the longer fast was interpreted as avoidance of hunger. This interpretation was based on the evidence showing that extra eating as a result of classical conditioning comes from pairing food stimuli with the presence of little or no hunger because of repletion with energy nutrients. The theory that the extra eating arose from a response-depletion contingency was tested in the present experiment by training rats on only a long fast or only a short fast. Greater increase in intake was seen before the longer fast. The results also replicated previously seen cycles of increase, decrease, and renewed increase in putative deficit-avoidant eating over about three trials, indicating that the extra eating reduces the response-reinforcing hunger and that the consequent part-extinction restores reinforcement. The shape of the learning curve was consistent with these cycles occurring from the start of training, further supporting the view that the increase in food intake before a long delay in refeeding is hunger-reinforced instrumental behaviour. PMID:19048448

  19. The Year of the Rat ends: time to fight hunger!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Leirs, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as cl

  20. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  1. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  2. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van I.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three

  3. Dynamic focusing in the zebrafish beating heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Delgado, L.; Peralta, M.; Mercader, N.; Ripoll, J.

    2016-03-01

    Of the large amount of the animal models available for cardiac research, the zebrafish is extremely valuable due to its transparency during early stages of development. In this work a dual illumination laser sheet microscope with simultaneous dual camera imaging is used to image the beating heart at 200 fps, dynamically and selectively focusing inside the beating heart through the use of a tunable lens. This dual color dynamic focusing enables imaging with cellular resolution at unprecedented high frame rates, allowing 3D imaging of the whole beating heart of embryonic zebrafish.

  4. On the beating of reinforcement pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Eero

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the effect of reinforcement pulp beating on the strength of mechanical pulp-dominated paper. The main purpose of reinforcement pulp beating is to improve the runnability of paper. The first objective of this study was to maximize the runnability related strength properties by beating. It was assumed that the flaw-resisting ability of paper correlates with the runnability of the dry paper web. In-plane fracture properties were assumed ...

  5. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p < 0.001). The comparison of gustatory sensitivity indicated significantly higher sensitivity to sweet, sour and salty in hunger (p < 0.001), but significantly higher sensitivity to bitter tastant in satiety (p < 0.001). With this prospective study, we were able to show that both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity were affected by hunger state. PMID:25744049

  6. Different Rebellions--The and the Angry Beat Generation Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧国芳

    2012-01-01

    The Beat Generation (BG) and the Angry Man (AYM) both emerged after the Second World War. Thus, the misunderstanding of the two has existed for a long time. Large quantities of people called the BG the American Angry Young Man. Undoubtedly, the two resembled each other to some extent. However, the BG and the AYM can't be treated alike, for their differences far outweighed their similarities. This paper aims to analyze their differences in many aspects like the national environment and their memberships, which consequently led to other differences such as the differences in essences, features, influence and finale.

  7. Beating Depression …Help Is Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Beating Depression …Help Is Available Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... treatments are available from your physician. Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  8. Visualizing acoustical beats with a smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Marcos H; Castro-Palacio, Juan C; Gómez-Tejedor, José A; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new Physics laboratory experiment on Acoustics beats is presented. We have designed a simple experimental setup to study superposition of sound waves of slightly different frequencies (acoustic beat). The microphone of a smartphone is used to capture the sound waves emitted by two equidistant speakers from the mobile which are at the same time connected to two AC generators. The smartphone is used as a measuring instrument. By means of a simple and free AndroidTM application, the sound level (in dB) as a function of time is measured and exported to a .csv format file. Applying common graphing analysis and a fitting procedure, the frequency of the beat is obtained. The beat frequencies as obtained from the smartphone data are compared with the difference of the frequencies set at the AC generator. A very good agreement is obtained being the percentage discrepancies within 1 %.

  9. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute To Improve Blood Pressure, Try the DASH Diet If you're one ...

  10. Hunger and memory; CRTC coordinates long-term memory with the physiological state, hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    Animals form and store memory, which advantageously adjusts their behavior later on. Although the growing body of evidences suggests the basic mechanisms of memory, it is not clear whether and in which physiological state memory functions can be altered. Here we discuss our recent study that mild fasting facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila.(1) Canonical LTM in flies is induced by multiple training with rest intervals, and is mediated by a transcription factor, CREB and its binding protein, CBP. However, fasting allows LTM formation (fLTM) only by single-cycle training, in a manner dependent on another CREB binding protein, CRTC. Although it has been controversial, we are convinced that gene expression in a specific neural structure, called mushroom body (MB), is required for LTMs. We also showed data suggesting that reduced insulin signaling during fasting activates CRTC, thereby inducing fLTM formation. These data provides the conceptual advance that flies adapt their mechanisms for LTM formation according to their internal condition, hunger state. Due to limited food resources in the wild, fLTM could be one of the major form of LTM in natural environment. Furthermore, our data also indicate a novel conception that improvement of memory deficit might be achieved by activation of CRTC.

  11. Heart Beat Classification Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khazaee

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel system to classify three types of electrocardiogram beats, namely normal beats and two manifestations of heart arrhythmia. This system includes three main modules: a feature extraction module, a classifier module, and an optimization module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set combining the shape features and timing features is proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module, a multi-class support vector machine (SVM)-b...

  12. Analysis of spiritual pressure of the Beat Generation in On the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英波

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make an analysis of the double spiritual pressure of the Beat Generation in On the Road. Through the analysis, it shows the readers an actual American society after the World War II, and spiritual pressures that American young people meet.

  13. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  14. Hunger, U.S.A.: A Report by the Citizens' Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    The findings of the Citizen's Board of Inquiry are that: (1) hunger and malnutrition affect millions of Americans and are increasing in severity each year; (2) infant deaths, organic brain damage, retarded growth and learning rates, increased vulnerability to disease, withdrawal, apathy, alienation, frustration, and violence result from hunger and…

  15. LHC news November 30, 2009 - LHC beats world energy record!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    On Sunday Nov 29th 2009, the LHC operators managed to reach for the first time the record energy of 1.08 TeV with one beam. A few hours later, on Mon Nov. 30 at 00:44 they managed to circulate both beams at the record energy of 1.18 TeV for 45 minutes.

  16. Proarrhythmic electrical remodelling is associated with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Oros, Avram; Schoenmakers, Marieke;

    2007-01-01

    Acquired long-QT syndrome in combination with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation duration (BVR) is associated with lethal torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) in dogs with remodelled heart after atrioventricular block (AVB). We evaluated the relative contributions of bradycardia...

  17. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  18. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18640.001 PMID:27554486

  19. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states. PMID:27554486

  20. Predicting Hunger: The Effects of Appetite and Delay on Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read; van Leeuwen B

    1998-11-01

    Preferences often fluctuate as a result of transient changes in hunger and other visceral states. When current decisions have delayed consequences, the preferences that should be relevant are those that will prevail when the consequences occur. However, consistent with the notion of an intrapersonal empathy gap (Loewenstein, 1996) we find that an individual's current state of appetite has a significant effect on choices that apply to the future. Participants in our study made advance choices between healthy and unhealthy snacks (i.e., fruit and junk food) that they would receive in 1 week when they were either hungry (late in the afternoon) or satisfied (immediately after lunch). In 1 week, at the appointed time, they made an immediate choice, an opportunity to change their advance choice. Our main predictions were strongly confirmed. First, advance choices were influenced by current hunger as well as future hunger: hungry participants chose more unhealthy snacks than did satisfied ones. Second, participants were dynamically inconsistent: they chose far more unhealthy snacks for immediate choice than for advance choice. An additional hypothesis related to gender differences was also confirmed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9831521

  1. Optical Beat-Wave Experiment on CTIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert; Hwang, David; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Ben; Evans, Russell

    2009-11-01

    By launching intense electromagnetic waves at differing frequencies, a wave at the beat (difference) frequency can be created within a region of plasma. The beat wave is efficiently damped, and electron current generated, if the beat frequency is close to local plasma frequency, and if phase velocity is close to electron thermal velocity. Beat-wave acceleration of plasma electrons was previously demonstrated at low plasma density [1]. At the higher densities of the CTIX compact-toroid accelerator, plasma frequencies are such that CO2 lasers (f 30 THz) are a cost-effective driver. An experiment is being prepared to test beat-wave current drive using two TEA CO2 lasers on CTIX. The experiment will test models of wave mixing, quasilinear modification of the velocity distribution, and amplification of seed current by plasma kinetic effects. An application of the methods developed may be standoff current generation in a target plasma. Experimental issues to be addressed include: precisely-timed production of the compressed, target plasma; grating tuning of the CO2 lasers for frequency selection; high-peak-power, simultaneous operation of TEA lasers, design of optics; optical and plasma diagnostics. Initial results will be presented.[4pt] [1] Rogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., Phys. Rev. Lett. v68 p3877 (1992).

  2. Intermode beat stabilized laser with frequency pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Araki, T; Suzuki, N

    1994-01-20

    A frequency-stabilized two-mode He-Ne laser has been developed. The intermode beat frequency of the experimental laser was approximately 600 MHz for a 25-cm cavity. The laser frequency in which the mode stands is pulled to the center of the gain curve (frequency pulling). The degree of pulling depends on where the longitudinal modes stand in the broadened gain curve. Beat frequency is thereby changed periodically of the order of hundreds of kilohertz with respect to cavity expansion. The frequency pulling was effectively used for frequency stabilization of the laser. The standing position of the longitudinal mode lights was locked in the gain curve by controlling the change of intermode beat frequency. A microwave mixer was applied to extract the frequency change of the intermode beat. Excellent frequency stability (10(10) for the laser oscillation and 10(6) for the beat frequency) was attained. The polarization orthogonality of the proposed laser was superior to that of Zeeman lasers.

  3. An Unwilling Partnership With the Great Society Part II: Physicians Discover Malnutrition, Hunger and the Politics of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2016-07-01

    The civil rights and social legislation of the Great Society following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was slow to provide relief for black in the South. Mississippi Senator James Eastland led an effort to defund Head Start, including his state's program, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), a program with a strong medical component. A senatorial committee, including Robert Kennedy, came to investigate CDGM in 1967. The unimaginable poverty, hunger, malnutrition and chronic disease found in black families was vehemently denied by Eastland. Visits of physician groups then corroborated the findings. The Mississippi delegation made sure that food relief never came and funding for CDGM ceased. Health services were lost to 6000 impoverished children. The epic television documentary, Hunger in America, soon premiered on network television. It triggered ongoing efforts to address health disparities, including implementation of the National Nutrition and Health Survey (NHANES). Similar physician leadership is needed to address the lasting health disparities in our country. PMID:27432045

  4. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... duration of nonnutritive sucking for calves fed via 1.5-mm tubes compared with calves in the 2 other treatments. The duration of nonnutritive sucking increased with increasing level of hunger. Furthermore, calves with reduced hunger showed a lower frequency of butting than calves at the 2 other hunger...

  5. Beat that Word: How Listeners Integrate Beat Gesture and Focus in Multimodal Speech Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Diana; Chu, Mingyuan; Wang, Lin; Özyürek, Asli; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Communication is facilitated when listeners allocate their attention to important information (focus) in the message, a process called "information structure." Linguistic cues like the preceding context and pitch accent help listeners to identify focused information. In multimodal communication, relevant information can be emphasized by nonverbal cues like beat gestures, which represent rhythmic nonmeaningful hand movements. Recent studies have found that linguistic and nonverbal attention cues are integrated independently in single sentences. However, it is possible that these two cues interact when information is embedded in context, because context allows listeners to predict what information is important. In an ERP study, we tested this hypothesis and asked listeners to view videos capturing a dialogue. In the critical sentence, focused and nonfocused words were accompanied by beat gestures, grooming hand movements, or no gestures. ERP results showed that focused words are processed more attentively than nonfocused words as reflected in an N1 and P300 component. Hand movements also captured attention and elicited a P300 component. Importantly, beat gesture and focus interacted in a late time window of 600-900 msec relative to target word onset, giving rise to a late positivity when nonfocused words were accompanied by beat gestures. Our results show that listeners integrate beat gesture with the focus of the message and that integration costs arise when beat gesture falls on nonfocused information. This suggests that beat gestures fulfill a unique focusing function in multimodal discourse processing and that they have to be integrated with the information structure of the message.

  6. Beat Noise Limitation in Coherent Time-Spreading OCDMA Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken-ichi; Kitayama; Koji; Mutsushima

    2003-01-01

    The BER performance of the coherent time-spreading OCDMA network is analyzed by considering the MAI and beat noises as well as the other additive noises. The influence and solution for the beat noise issue are discussed.

  7. Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158584.html Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings Evidence favors hot water or hot packs to ease pain ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- If you're unlucky enough to suffer a jellyfish sting, new research says that heat is better than cold for easing the pain. ...

  8. Beat the Instructor: An Introductory Forecasting Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Brent R.; Eliasson, Janice B.

    2013-01-01

    This teaching brief describes a 30-minute game where student groups compete in-class in an introductory time-series forecasting exercise. The students are challenged to "beat the instructor" who competes using forecasting techniques that will be subsequently taught. All forecasts are graphed prior to revealing the randomly generated…

  9. Quantum beats of the rigid rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, K.; Rembieliński, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics is investigated of a free particle on a sphere (rigid rotor or rotator) that is initially in a coherent state. The instability of coherent states with respect to the free evolution leads to nontrivial time-development of averages of observables representing the position of a particle on a sphere that can be interpreted as quantum beats.

  10. Mechanical communication in cardiac cell synchronized beating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsan, Ido; Drori, Stavit; Lewis, Yair E.; Cohen, Shlomi; Tzlil, Shelly

    2016-05-01

    Cell-cell communication, which enables cells to coordinate their activity and is essential for growth, development and function, is usually ascribed a chemical or electrical origin. However, cells can exert forces and respond to environment elasticity and to mechanical deformations created by their neighbours. The extent to which this mechanosensing ability facilitates intercellular communication remains unclear. Here we demonstrate mechanical communication between cells directly for the first time, providing evidence for a long-range interaction that induces long-lasting alterations in interacting cells. We show that an isolated cardiac cell can be trained to beat at a given frequency by mechanically stimulating the underlying substrate. Deformations are induced using an oscillatory mechanical probe that mimics the deformations generated by a beating neighbouring cardiac cell. Unlike electrical field stimulation, the probe-induced beating rate is maintained by the cell for an hour after the stimulation stops, implying that long-term modifications occur within the cell. These long-term alterations provide a mechanism for cells that communicate mechanically to be less variable in their electromechanical delay. Mechanical coupling between cells therefore ensures that the final outcome of action potential pacing is synchronized beating. We further show that the contractile machinery is essential for mechanical communication.

  11. Model for the heart beat-to-beat time series during meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, A.; Diambra, L.; Malta, C. P.

    2003-09-01

    We present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a pacemaker, that simulates the membrane potential of the sinoatrial node, modulated by a periodic input signal plus correlated noise that simulates the respiratory input. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce in the phase space the trajectory of experimental heart beat-to-beat interval data. The data sets were recorded during meditation practices of the Chi and Kundalini Yoga techniques. Our study indicates that in the first case the respiratory signal has the shape of a smoothed square wave, and in the second case it has the shape of a smoothed triangular wave.

  12. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Cardiac beat-to-beat alternations driven by unusual spiral waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Yun; Woo, Sung-Jae; Hwang, Seong-min; Hong, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyoung J.

    2007-01-01

    Alternans, a beat-to-beat temporal alternation in the sequence of heartbeats, is a known precursor of the development of cardiac fibrillation, leading to sudden cardiac death. The equally important precursor of cardiac arrhythmias is the rotating spiral wave of electro-mechanical activity, or reentry, on the heart tissue. Here, we show that these two seemingly different phenomena can have a remarkable relationship. In well controlled in vitro tissue cultures, isotropic populations of rat vent...

  14. Left ventricular beat to beat performance in atrial fibrillation: dependence on contractility, preload, and afterload

    OpenAIRE

    Muntinga, H; Gosselink, A; Blanksma, P; De Kam, P J; van der Wall, E; Crijns, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess independent determinants of beat to beat variation in left ventricular performance during atrial fibrillation.
DESIGN—Prospective study.
SETTING—University hospital.
PATIENTS—Seven patients with chronic non-valvar atrial fibrillation.
INTERVENTIONS—Invasive and non-invasive haemodynamic variables were assessed using a non-imaging computerised nuclear probe, a balloon tipped flow directed catheter, and a non-invasive fingertip blood pressure measurement system linked to a p...

  15. Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Hunger In Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Otieno, Zipora Awuor

    2008-01-01

    The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the International development community. Poverty in Africa is predominately rural, majority of the poor people live in rural areas and are dependent on food production through farming or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. It is estimated that over two hundred million people in Sub-Saharan Africa live in extreme poverty and among these are the rural poor in Eastern and South...

  16. In time with rhythms : beat perception and sensorimotor synchronisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlichting, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Music and beat perception are strongly connected to movement, a phenomenon known as sensorimotor synchronisation. Neurophysiologically, simple metronome-like beat sounds entrain neural oscillations, so that the brain oscillates with the same frequency as the beat frequency. The usefulness of being e

  17. Finger beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to successive hand elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raamat, R; Jagomägi, K; Talts, J; Mäger, I

    2009-06-01

    We investigated finger beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to a series of successive hand elevations in 14 normal volunteers. By passive elevation of the hand by 40 cm and lowering it again after a minute, calibrated hydrostatic pressure changes were induced in the finger arteries of the subjects. Three successive procedures with a 2-min interval between them were performed. Transitions between positions were completed smoothly over a 10-s period. Non-invasive beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the finger arteries was measured by applying the servo-oscillometric physiograph (University of Tartu, Estonia). A good agreement between the evoked MAP changes during all the three hand elevations (-31.2, -30.4 and -30.0 mmHg, respectively) and the calculated hydrostatic pressure change (-31.0 mmHg) was obtained. The height difference of approximately 40 cm and rate of 4-5 cm/s can be recommended for the hand elevation test, greater postural changes and higher rates may diminish agreement between the measured blood pressure response and the corresponding hydrostatic pressure change. The applied hydrostatic test may be helpful for assessing the accuracy of beat-to-beat finger blood pressure measurement. PMID:19027338

  18. Model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat time interval series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Alberto; Diambra, Luis; Malta, C. P.

    2005-09-01

    In this study we present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a set of differential equations used to simulate the membrane potential of a single rabbit sinoatrial node cell, excited with a periodic input signal with added correlated noise. This signal, which simulates the input from the autonomous nervous system to the sinoatrial node, was included in the pacemaker equations as a modulation of the iNaK current pump and the potassium current iK. We focus at modeling the heart beat-to-beat time interval series from normal subjects during meditation of the Kundalini Yoga and Chi techniques. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that while the embedding of pre-meditation and control cases have a roughly circular shape, it acquires a polygonal shape during meditation, triangular for the Kundalini Yoga data and quadrangular in the case of Chi data. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce the trajectory of the experimental data in the phase space. The embedding of the Chi data could be reproduced using a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a square wave. In the case of Kundalini Yoga data, the embedding was reproduced with a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a triangular wave having a rising branch of longer duration than the decreasing branch. Our study provides an estimation of the respiratory signal using only the heart beat-to-beat time interval series.

  19. Social modeling effects on snack intake among young men: The role of hunger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Herman, C.P.; Larsen, J.K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether young men adjusted their snack-food intake to that of a same-sex eating companion. Additionally, hunger was assessed as a possible moderating variable. A total of 59 young men (M age = 21.73) participated. An interaction between participants’ hunger and confederate's inta

  20. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  1. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge…

  2. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.

  3. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

  4. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

  5. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

  6. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…

  7. 77 FR 30294 - Award of a Single Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC AGENCY: Office of Policy, Research and... single source cooperative agreement to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC to support a Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow. C.F.D.A. Number: 93.647. Statutory Authority: The award...

  8. Beat that Word: How Listeners Integrate Beat Gesture and Focus in Multimodal Speech Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Diana; Chu, Mingyuan; Wang, Lin; Özyürek, Asli; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Communication is facilitated when listeners allocate their attention to important information (focus) in the message, a process called "information structure." Linguistic cues like the preceding context and pitch accent help listeners to identify focused information. In multimodal communication, relevant information can be emphasized by nonverbal cues like beat gestures, which represent rhythmic nonmeaningful hand movements. Recent studies have found that linguistic and nonverbal attention cues are integrated independently in single sentences. However, it is possible that these two cues interact when information is embedded in context, because context allows listeners to predict what information is important. In an ERP study, we tested this hypothesis and asked listeners to view videos capturing a dialogue. In the critical sentence, focused and nonfocused words were accompanied by beat gestures, grooming hand movements, or no gestures. ERP results showed that focused words are processed more attentively than nonfocused words as reflected in an N1 and P300 component. Hand movements also captured attention and elicited a P300 component. Importantly, beat gesture and focus interacted in a late time window of 600-900 msec relative to target word onset, giving rise to a late positivity when nonfocused words were accompanied by beat gestures. Our results show that listeners integrate beat gesture with the focus of the message and that integration costs arise when beat gesture falls on nonfocused information. This suggests that beat gestures fulfill a unique focusing function in multimodal discourse processing and that they have to be integrated with the information structure of the message. PMID:27027421

  9. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  10. Modeling of Nonlinear Beat Signals of TAE's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Berk, Herbert; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin

    2012-03-01

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod reveal Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) together with signals at various beat frequencies, including those at twice the mode frequency. The beat frequencies are sidebands driven by quadratic nonlinear terms in the MHD equations. These nonlinear sidebands have not yet been quantified by any existing codes. We extend the AEGIS code to capture nonlinear effects by treating the nonlinear terms as a driving source in the linear MHD solver. Our goal is to compute the spatial structure of the sidebands for realistic geometry and q-profile, which can be directly compared with experiment in order to interpret the phase contrast imaging diagnostic measurements and to enable the quantitative determination of the Alfven wave amplitude in the plasma core

  11. Heart Beat Classification Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khazaee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel system to classify three types of electrocardiogram beats, namely normal beats and two manifestations of heart arrhythmia. This system includes three main modules: a feature extraction module, a classifier module, and an optimization module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set combining the shape features and timing features is proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module, a multi-class support vector machine (SVM-based classifier is proposed. For the optimization module, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to search for the best value of the SVM parameters and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has very high recognition accuracy. This high efficiency is achieved with only little features, which have been selected using particle swarm optimizer.

  12. Robotic Catheters for Beating Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kesner, Samuel Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Compliant and flexible cardiac catheters provide direct access to the inside of the heart via the vascular system without requiring clinicians to stop the heart or open the chest. However, the fast motion of the intracardiac structures makes it difficult to modify and repair the cardiac tissue in a controlled and safe manner. In addition, rigid robotic tools for beating heart surgery require the chest to be opened and the heart exposed, making the procedures highly invasive. The novel robot...

  13. Beat-to-beat left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation: radionuclide assessment with the computerized nuclear probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is wide beat-to-beat variability in cycle length and left ventricular performance in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, left ventricular ejection fraction and relative left ventricular volumes were evaluated on a beat-to-beat basis with the computerized nuclear probe, an instrument with sufficiently high sensitivity to allow continuous evaluation of the radionuclide time-activity curve. Of 18 patients with atrial fibrillation, 5 had mitral stenosis, 6 had mitral regurgitation, and 7 had coronary artery disease. Fifty consecutive beats were analyzed in each patient. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction ranged from 17 to 51%. There was substantial beat-to-beat variation in cycle length and left ventricular ejection fraction in all patients, including those with marked left ventricular dysfunction. In 14 patients who also underwent multiple gated cardiac blood pool imaging, there was an excellent correlation between mean ejection fraction derived from the nuclear probe and gated ejection fraction obtained by gamma camera imaging (r . 0.90). Based on beat-to-beat analysis, left ventricular function was dependent on relative end-diastolic volume and multiple preceding cycle lengths, but not preceding end-systolic volumes. This study demonstrates that a single value for left ventricular ejection fraction does not adequately characterize left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, both the mean beat-to-beat and the gated ejection fraction may underestimate left ventricular performance at rest in such patients

  14. Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.

  15. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  16. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  17. “In hunger for bread, not in thirst for revenge”: Belly, bellum and rebellion in Coriolanus and The Hunger Games trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soncini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A play saturated with images of food, eating and being eaten, Coriolanus provides the most thoroughgoing exploration of the hunger paradigm within the Shakespearean corpus. From the very early moments of the tragedy, Shakespeare’s emphasis on hunger as a literal, material condition is paralleled by a probing investigation of the rhetorical and metaphorical dimension of alimentary imagery and its problematic applicability, and actual application, in the political sphere – most notably, in Menenius Agrippa’s fable of the belly, a rhetorical attempt at naturalizing social inequality which however fails to appease the plebeians’ threatened uprising against the Roman aristocracy.Shakespeare’s politicization of hunger has played a crucial role in securing and shaping Coriolanus’s afterlife. This essay deals with a very recent take on Coriolanus by investigating the Shakespearean palimpsest within Suzanne Collins’s highly popular The Hunger Games trilogy (2008-2010. While unacknowledged by the author and so far unregistered in critical studies of the novels, Collins’s extensive borrowing from Coriolanus across the three instalments of her science fiction adventure amounts to a consistent and comprehensive reframing of Shakespeare’s hunger paradigm, here remoulded into cautionary dystopia about the social and political order of the global era.

  18. Attosecond Quantum-Beat Spectroscopy in Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Shivaram, Niranjan; Timmers, Henry; Sandhu, Arvinder

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of electron wavepackets determines the course of many physical and chemical phenomena and attosecond spectroscopy aims to measure and control such dynamics in real-time. Here, we investigate radial electron wavepacket motion in Helium by using an XUV attosecond pulse train to prepare a coherent superposition of excited states and a delayed femtosecond IR pulse to ionize them. Quantum beat signals observed in the high resolution photoelectron spectrogram allow us to follow the field-free evolution of the bound electron wavepacket and determine the time-dependent ionization dynamics of the low-lying 2p state.

  19. Beats on the Table: Beat Writing in the Chicago Review and Big Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van der Bent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Kleine literaire tijdschriften, zogenaamde little magazines, hebben een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de doorbraak, in de loop van de jaren vijftig, van de Amerikaanse Beat Generation. Aangezien grotere uitgeverijen en de gevestigde tijdschriften lange tijd terugschrokken voor de zowel inhoudelijk als formeel van de norm afwijkende uitingen van de Beats, verscheen hun werk aanvankelijk vooral in kleinere tijdschriften als de twee waaraan in dit artikel aandacht wordt besteed: de Chicago Review en Big Table. Aan de hand van een beschrijving van de inhoud van deze twee tijdschriften wordt geprobeerd duidelijk te maken hoe het werk van de Beat Generation zich in deze tijdschriften gaandeweg een eigen plaats verwierf. Speciale aandacht wordt besteed aan de rol van de redacteuren Irving Rosenthal en Paul Carroll; door zijn uitgekiende strategie om voor het omstreden werk van Beat-auteur William S. Burroughs geleidelijk een steeds grotere plaats in te ruimen, bepaalde vooral Rosenthal het veranderende karakter van de Chicago Review. De veranderingen bij dat tijdschrift verliepen niet zonder slag of stoot en waren voor de eigenaar ervan, de University of Chicago, op een gegeven moment aanleiding om de Chicago Review aan censuur te onderwerpen. Ook deze censuur en de reactie erop, de oprichting van Big Table, worden in het artikel belicht.

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF INDIA'S RIGHT TO FOOD ACT: THE CORRELATION OF HUNGER, POVERTY AND FEMALE LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Shetty

    2014-04-01

    Results: There was a close correlation in rankings of states on the hunger index with their ranks on the below poverty and female literacy front, but with a few caveats. Poverty was not always synonymous with hunger and the relationship between hunger and the proportion of literate women in the state was complex. Conclusions: This study establishes that a stratagem of combatting hunger based on the provision of food grains to people below the poverty line is to a large extent, feasible. The empowering stipulation of the eldest woman as family head should benefit the cause of female literacy in the long run, however low levels of female literacy are generally prevalent in the hungrier states. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 145-150

  1. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, pmotivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. PMID:27133731

  2. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  3. Narratives of Food Insecurity in Tippecanoe County, Indiana: Economic Constraints in Local Meanings of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Hingson, LaReina; Anaele, Agaptus; Sen, Soumitro; Jones, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity and its most extreme form, hunger, have increased exponentially in the United States since 2006. This essay seeks to contribute to our understanding of hunger by attending to the context of the financial crisis as an organizing frame for understanding local meanings of hunger. Within a broader framework of the culture-centered approach (CCA) that works to identify and develop locally rooted solutions to food insecurity, we describe through locally grounded stories of food insecurity the financial climate where large percentages of U.S. households have been cast into poverty because of the crash of an unregulated economy. These local understandings of hunger in the context of the economy offer entry points for organizing a food-insecure coalition that seeks to address the stigma around food insecurity. PMID:26512625

  4. The chemical composition of Galactic beat Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, V.; Lemasle, B.; Chekhonadskikh, F.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Yushchenko, A.; Anderson, R. I.; Belik, S.; da Silva, R.; Inno, L.

    2016-08-01

    We determine the metallicity and detailed chemical abundances (α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements) for the almost complete (18/24) sample of Galactic double mode Cepheids (also called beat Cepheids). Double mode Cepheids are Cepheids that pulsate in two modes simultaneously. We calibrate a new relation between their metallicity and their period ratio P1/P0. This linear relation allows to determine the metallicity of bimodal Cepheids with an accuracy of 0.03 dex in the range of [Fe/H] from +0.2 to -0.5 dex. By extrapolating the relation to Magellanic Clouds beat Cepheids, we provide their metallicity distribution function. Moreover, by using this relation, we also provide the first metallicity estimate for two double-mode F/1O Cepheids located in and beyond the Galactic bulge. Finally, we report the discovery of a super-Lithium rich double mode Cepheid V371 Per which has a Lithium abundance of logA(Li) = 3.54 ± 0.09 dex. Along with V1033 Cyg (which is an ordinary classical Cepheid), it is the second known Cepheid of such type in the Galaxy.

  5. Wanting a bit(e) of everything. The role of hunger in variety seeking.

    OpenAIRE

    Goukens, Caroline; Dewitte, Siegfried; Pandelaere, Mario; Warlop, Luk

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether consumers seek more or less variety when shopping on an empty stomach. The data show that hunger increases variety seeking when consumers make multiple food choices at once. In a first study, participants in the hungry condition selected a more varied flavor set than satiated participants. Food attractiveness mediated the hunger effect. In study 2, we manipulated food attractiveness by the presence of stale food. In study 3, we increased variety seeking by introducing an a...

  6. Paradox and Alienation in Kafka’s short story—A Hunger Artist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅芬; 熊美玲

    2014-01-01

    A Hunger Artist, one of Franz Kafka’s favorite works, arouses critics’ great attention.Paradox permeates the entire story and is vividly displayed in it.Alienation is the major theme of the story.On the other hand, the short story traces out a tragedy of the hunger artist’s struggle, which is also an actual portraiture of author’s life.

  7. Addressing Child Hunger and Obesity in Indian Country: Report to Congress.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gordon; Vanessa Oddo

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes current statistics on hunger, obesity, and type II diabetes among children living in Indian Country, American Indian reservations, and other tribal lands. It offers comparable statistics for the general population. It also describes how the U.S. Department of Agriculture's nutrition programs serve children in Indian Country and how provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and other recent initiatives might improve these services.

  8. Cortical Activation in Response to Pure Taste Stimuli During the Physiological States of Hunger and Satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Lori; Cerf-Ducastel, Barbara; Murphy, Claire

    2008-01-01

    This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (er-fMRI) study investigated BOLD signal change in response to a series of pure gustatory stimuli that varied in stimulus quality when subjects were hungry and sated with a nutritional preload. Group analyses showed significant differences in activation in the hunger minus satiety condition in response to sucrose, caffeine, saccharin, and citric acid within the thalamus, hippocampus, and parahippocampus. When examining the hunger and sa...

  9. Addressing Child Hunger and Obesity in Indian Country: Report to Congress

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes current statistics on hunger, obesity, and type II diabetes among children living in Indian Country, American Indian reservations, and other tribal lands. It offers comparable statistics for the general population. It also describes how the U.S. Department of Agriculture's nutrition programs serve children in Indian Country and how provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and other recent initiatives might improve these services.

  10. Increased Short-Term Beat-To-Beat Variability of QT Interval in Patients with Acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, including ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for increased mortality in patients with acromegaly. Acromegaly may cause repolarization abnormalities such as QT prolongation and impairment of repolarization reserve enhancing liability to arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term beat-to-beat QT variability in patients with acromegaly. Thirty acromegalic patients (23 women and 7 men, mean age±SD: 55.7±10.4 years were compared with age- and sex-matched volunteers (mean age 51.3±7.6 years. Cardiac repolarization parameters including frequency corrected QT interval, PQ and QRS intervals, duration of terminal part of T waves (Tpeak-Tend and short-term variability of QT interval were evaluated. All acromegalic patients and controls underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Autonomic function was assessed by means of five standard cardiovascular reflex tests. Comparison of the two groups revealed no significant differences in the conventional ECG parameters of repolarization (QT: 401.1±30.6 ms vs 389.3±16.5 ms, corrected QT interval: 430.1±18.6 ms vs 425.6±17.3 ms, QT dispersion: 38.2±13.2 ms vs 36.6±10.2 ms; acromegaly vs control, respectively. However, short-term beat-to-beat QT variability was significantly increased in acromegalic patients (4.23±1.03 ms vs 3.02±0.80, P<0.0001. There were significant differences between the two groups in the echocardiographic dimensions (left ventricular end diastolic diameter: 52.6±5.4 mm vs 48.0±3.9 mm, left ventricular end systolic diameter: 32.3±5.2 mm vs 29.1±4.4 mm, interventricular septum: 11.1±2.2 mm vs 8.8±0.7 mm, posterior wall of left ventricle: 10.8±1.4 mm vs 8.9±0.7 mm, P<0.05, respectively. Short-term beat-to-beat QT variability was elevated in patients with acromegaly in spite of unchanged conventional parameters of ventricular repolarization. This enhanced temporal QT variability may be an early indicator of increased

  11. Acupuncture Treatment for 98 Cases of Ventricular Premature Beat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Baojie; Wang Feng; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ventricular premature beat is a commonly encountered arrhythmia,which can occur in patients with and without cardiac diseases.In TCM.ventricular premature beat fall into the category of palpitation and obstruction of qi in the chest.The authors treated it with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory thera-peutic effects.A summary follows.

  12. Time-domain analysis of beat-to-beat variability of repolarization morphology in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, L; Zareba, W

    1999-01-01

    There is growing evidence that beat-to-beat changes in ventricular repolarization contribute to increased vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias. Beat-to-beat repolarization variability is usually measured in the electrocardiogram (ECG) by tracking consecutive QT or RT intervals. However, these measurements strongly depend on the accurate identification of T-wave endpoints, and they do not reflect changes in repolarization morphology. In this article, we propose a new computerized time-domain method to measure beat-to-beat variability of repolarization morphology without the need to identify T-wave endpoints. The repolarization correlation index (RCI) is computed for each beat to determine the difference between the morphology of repolarization within a heart-rate dependent repolarization window compared to a template (median) repolarization morphology. The repolarization variability index (RVI) describes the mean value of repolarization correlation in a studied ECG recording. To validate our method, we analyzed repolarization variability in 128-beat segments from Holter ECG recordings of 42 ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients compared to 36 healthy subjects. The ICM patients had significantly higher values of RVI than healthy subjects (in lead X: 0.045 +/- 0.035 vs. 0.024 +/- 0.010, respectively; P 0.044). No significant correlation was found between the RVI values and the magnitude of heart rate, heart rate variability, QTc interval duration, or ejection fraction in studied ICM patients. In conclusion, our time-domain method, based on computation of repolarization correlation indices for consecutive beats, provides a new approach to quantify beat-to-beat variability of repolarization morphology without the need to identify T-wave endpoints. PMID:10688321

  13. Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; White, Melanie J; Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Increased frequency of eating in the absence of homeostatic need, notably through snacking, is an important contributor to overconsumption and may be facilitated by increased availability of palatable food in the obesogenic environment. Opportunistic initiation of snacking is likely to be subject to individual differences, although these are infrequently studied in laboratory-based research paradigms. This study examined psychological factors associated with opportunistic initiation of snacking, and predictors of intake in the absence of homeostatic need. Fifty adults (mean age 34.5years, mean BMI 23.9kg/m(2), 56% female) participated in a snack taste test in which they ate a chocolate snack to satiation, after which they were offered an unanticipated opportunity to initiate a second eating episode. Trait and behavioural measures of self control, sensitivity to reward, dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were taken. Results showed that, contrary to expectations, those who initiated snacking were better at inhibitory control compared with those who did not initiate. However, amongst participants who initiated snacking, intake (kcal) was predicted by higher food reward sensitivity, impulsivity and BMI. These findings suggest that snacking initiation in the absence of hunger is an important contributor to overconsumption. Consideration of the individual differences promoting initiation of eating may aid in reducing elevated eating frequency in at-risk individuals.

  14. Poor States Urged to Research Biotech, Fight Hunger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Brough; 柯善雪

    2002-01-01

    夜读此文,既兴奋,又悲凉。兴奋,是因为千百年来,人们靠天吃饭,地里的活,种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。得多少,并非“大跃进”可以吹出来的,而是有一个常规,种地能手,能超出常规亩产20%,已有登天之难。而如今,植物的遗传工程(genetic engineering of plants)令世人一惊:It can improve crop yields and develop resis-tance to drought(干旱),salinity(盐份)and pests(害虫)。Biotechnology is also used todevelop drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes and hepatitis(肝炎);悲凉的是,这些专利正紧锁于富国的保险柜中待价而沽:The big biotech companies are locking uppatents at an incredible(难以置信的)rate!其另一个借口是:The full impact of thesenew life sciences on health and the environment is not known。 本文末尾的一句话又让我们另有想法: Biotechnology is by no means the only answer to the problem of hunger as the words already producing more food than it needs。】

  15. Beat Perception and Sociability: Evidence from Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Beat perception in music has been proposed to be a human universal that may have its origins in adaptive processes involving temporal entrainment such as social communication and interaction. We examined beat perception skills in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder. Musical interest and hypersociability are two prominent aspects of the WS phenotype although actual musical and social skills are variable. On a group level, beat and meter perception skills were poorer in WS than in age-matched peers though there was significant individual variability. Cognitive ability, sound processing style, and musical training predicted beat and meter perception performance in WS. Moreover, we found significant relationships between beat and meter perception and adaptive communication and socialization skills in WS. Results have implications for understanding the role of predictive timing in both music and social interactions in the general population, and suggest music as a promising avenue for addressing social communication difficulties in WS. PMID:27378982

  16. Beat Perception and Sociability: Evidence from Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Beat perception in music has been proposed to be a human universal that may have its origins in adaptive processes involving temporal entrainment such as social communication and interaction. We examined beat perception skills in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder. Musical interest and hypersociability are two prominent aspects of the WS phenotype although actual musical and social skills are variable. On a group level, beat and meter perception skills were poorer in WS than in age-matched peers though there was significant individual variability. Cognitive ability, sound processing style, and musical training predicted beat and meter perception performance in WS. Moreover, we found significant relationships between beat and meter perception and adaptive communication and socialization skills in WS. Results have implications for understanding the role of predictive timing in both music and social interactions in the general population, and suggest music as a promising avenue for addressing social communication difficulties in WS. PMID:27378982

  17. Computer Simulation of the Beating Human Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Charles S.; McQueen, David M.

    2001-06-01

    The mechanical function of the human heart couples together the fluid mechanics of blood and the soft tissue mechanics of the muscular heart walls and flexible heart valve leaflets. We discuss a unified mathematical formulation of this problem in which the soft tissue looks like a specialized part of the fluid in which additional forces are applied. This leads to a computational scheme known as the Immersed Boundary (IB) method for solving the coupled equations of motion of the whole system. The IB method is used to construct a three-dimensional Virtual Heart, including representations of all four chambers of the heart and all four valves, in addition to the large arteries and veins that connect the heart to the rest of the circulation. The chambers, valves, and vessels are all modeled as collections of elastic (and where appropriate, actively contractile) fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. Results are shown as a computer-generated video animation of the beating heart.

  18. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating

    CERN Document Server

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive crosslinkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatiotemporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagell...

  19. Increased Short-Term Beat-To-Beat Variability of QT Interval in Patients with Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Andrea; Csajbók, Éva; Czékus, Csilla; Gavallér, Henriette; Magony, Sándor; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Várkonyi, Tamás T; Nemes, Attila; Baczkó, István; Forster, Tamás; Wittmann, Tibor; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Lengyel, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, including ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for increased mortality in patients with acromegaly. Acromegaly may cause repolarization abnormalities such as QT prolongation and impairment of repolarization reserve enhancing liability to arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term beat-to-beat QT variability in patients with acromegaly. Thirty acromegalic patients (23 women and 7 men, mean age±SD: 55.7±10.4 years) were compared with age- and sex-matched volunteers (mean age 51.3±7.6 years). Cardiac repolarization parameters including frequency corrected QT interval, PQ and QRS intervals, duration of terminal part of T waves (Tpeak-Tend) and short-term variability of QT interval were evaluated. All acromegalic patients and controls underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Autonomic function was assessed by means of five standard cardiovascular reflex tests. Comparison of the two groups revealed no significant differences in the conventional ECG parameters of repolarization (QT: 401.1±30.6 ms vs 389.3±16.5 ms, corrected QT interval: 430.1±18.6 ms vs 425.6±17.3 ms, QT dispersion: 38.2±13.2 ms vs 36.6±10.2 ms; acromegaly vs control, respectively). However, short-term beat-to-beat QT variability was significantly increased in acromegalic patients (4.23±1.03 ms vs 3.02±0.80, Pacromegaly in spite of unchanged conventional parameters of ventricular repolarization. This enhanced temporal QT variability may be an early indicator of increased liability to arrhythmia.

  20. Evaluation of the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of PulseOn wearable optical heart rate monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Jakub; Tarniceriu, Adrian; Renevey, Philippe; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) provides significant information about the health status of an individual. Optical heart rate monitoring is a comfortable alternative to ECG based heart rate monitoring. However, most available optical heart rate monitoring devices do not supply beat-to-beat detection accuracy required by proper HRV analysis. We evaluate the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of a recent wrist-worn optical heart rate monitoring device, PulseOn (PO). Ten subjects (8 male and 2 female; 35.9±10.3 years old) participated in the study. HRV was recorded with PO and Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 (BG2) device, which was used as an ECG based reference. HRV was recorded during sleep. As compared to BG2, PO detected on average 99.57% of the heartbeats (0.43% of beats missed) and had 0.72% extra beat detection rate, with 5.94 ms mean absolute error (MAE) in beat-to-beat intervals (RRI) as compared to the ECG based RRI BG2. Mean RMSSD difference between PO and BG2 derived HRV was 3.1 ms. Therefore, PO provides an accurate method for long term HRV monitoring during sleep. PMID:26738173

  1. Gimme the beat: assessment of low frequency beat noise for drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilawchuk, Steven; Froment, Patrick [aci Acoustical Consultants Inc. (Canada)], email: stevenb@aciacoustical.com, email: patrickf@aciacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The concern of an Alberta resident over the noise level from a drilling rig led to a low frequency noise impact assessment being done by an acoustic consulting firm. This paper describes the investigation that was conducted to determine the low frequency noise source, evaluate its sound emission levels and spectra, and propose mitigation options. Noise measurements were made over several days, with a sound level meter and additionally, a weather monitoring station was also used. Analysis showed low frequency tonal noise at the residential location, resulting in an overall sound level exceeding the permissible sound level imposed by the Alberta noise regulating bodies. Moreover, a beat phenomenon was observed, and after detailed investigation of possible sources, it was established that shale shakers were responsible for the low frequency noise and the beat phenomenon, a fact verified by beat theory. Due to the temporary nature of the drilling rig's operation, no thorough mitigation options could be proposed but a simple stop gap solution for the shale shakers allowed the reduction of low frequency tonal noise.

  2. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  3. Impulsivity and overeating in children in the absence and presence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn

    2015-10-01

    Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  5. Conditional control of quantum beats in a cavity QED system

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, D G; Orozco, L A; 10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012143

    2011-01-01

    We probe a ground-state superposition that produces a quantum beat in the intensity correlation of a two-mode cavity QED system. We mix drive with scattered light from an atomic beam traversing the cavity, and effectively measure the interference between the drive and the light from the atom. When a photon escapes the cavity, and upon detection, it triggers our feedback which modulates the drive at the same beat frequency but opposite phase for a given time window. This results in a partial interruption of the beat oscillation in the correlation function, that then returns to oscillate.

  6. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed

  7. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Shi, Y. C.; Deng, Y. Q.; Zhu, X. X.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Hu, X. G.

    2013-10-01

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed.

  8. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, W.; Shi, Y. C.; Deng, Y. Q.; Zhu, X. X.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Hu, X. G. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shanxi 710024 (China)

    2013-10-21

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed.

  9. On Ambivalence of the Beat Generation through the Main Character Holden in The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明利

    2014-01-01

    J. D. Sailinger was a famous English writer in 20th century. He is one of the representatives of the beat generation. In his novel The Catcher in the Rye, he uses a 16-year-old boy to speak out to the public about what the beat generation fears. Holden, as the main character in the novel, is not the typical sixteen-year-old boy. Holden has many characteristics that are not typical of anyone. He is very afraid of growing up. He feels the adult world is“phony,” everyone and everything are associated with it. Holden never actually states that he is afraid of growing up, or that he hates the idea of it, instead he expresses his resistance to become an adult by making the adult world into a place full of “phony,” dishonest, and shallow people, and comparing it to the honest, innocent, and fun world where a child lives. Sailinger uses the symbols to important ideas, and the most important symbol is Holden’s idea of being the catcher in the rye. The Catcher in the Rye is one of the famous works of the modern world. This thesis attempts to make an understanding of the beat generation and the current generations, and tries to find a way to solve the problems we are facing today.

  10. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  11. "'Jackin’ for Beats'": DJing for Citation Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Craig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A challenge in teaching English composition is helping students envision plagiarism as “borrowing” – showing love to author(s and/or text(s that further their argument(s, versus “stealing” – biting someone’s style and words. Alastair Pennycook (1996 and Sarah Wakefield (2006 have contributed pieces to the elaborate plagiarism/citation puzzle, while Houston Baker situated the hip-hop DJ in seminal text Black Studies, Rap and the Academy (1993. Merging these moments introduces critical questions: Did Diddy invent “the remix” or become the illest beat-biter ever? How did DJ/Producers Pete Rock and Large Professor pay homage to previous musical genres to further hip-hop remix production without just taking 4-8 bar samples, copying sources and claiming unethical ownership? And how can this discussion provide students a window into citation conversations? This article will remix these “texts” to introduce the idea of DJ Rhetoric to discuss plagiarism. Through the lens of the hip-hop DJ in writing classrooms, one can foster an appreciation of the difference between “love and theft” in student citation. This article will couple examples from hip-hop music/culture while simultaneously remixing interviews from various hip-hop DJ/producers to help answer these difficult questions.

  12. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  13. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  14. Training to estimate blood glucose and to form associations with initial hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The will to eat is a decision associated with conditioned responses and with unconditioned body sensations that reflect changes in metabolic biomarkers. Here, we investigate whether this decision can be delayed until blood glucose is allowed to fall to low levels, when presumably feeding behavior is mostly unconditioned. Following such an eating pattern might avoid some of the metabolic risk factors that are associated with high glycemia. Results In this 7-week study, patients were trained to estimate their blood glucose at meal times by associating feelings of hunger with glycemic levels determined by standard blood glucose monitors and to eat only when glycemia was Conclusion Subjects could be trained to accurately estimate their blood glucose and to recognize their sensations of initial hunger at low glucose concentrations. These results suggest that it is possible to make a behavioral distinction between unconditioned and conditioned hunger, and to achieve a cognitive will to eat by training.

  15. Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani

    2007-01-01

    The mercury beating heart (MBH) is a commonly performed experiment, which is based on varying oxidizing agents and substituting other metals for iron. Various modified versions of the classical demonstration of the experiment are presented.

  16. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  17. Botox Beats Implant for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Botox Beats Implant for Urinary Incontinence in Women But both have side effects that may affect ... 2016 TUESDAY, Oct. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For women with bladder incontinence who haven't been helped ...

  18. Modulation of attosecond beating in resonant two-photon ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Galán, Álvaro J; Martín, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the photoelectron attosecond beating at the basis of RABBIT (Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating By Interference of Two-photon transitions) in the presence of autoionizing states. We show that, as a harmonic traverses a resonance, its sidebands exhibit a peaked phase shift as well as a modulation of the beating frequency itself. Furthermore, the beating between two resonant paths persists even when the pump and the probe pulses do not overlap, thus providing a sensitive non-holographic interferometric means to reconstruct coherent metastable wave packets. We characterize these phenomena quantitatively with a general finite-pulse analytical model that accounts for the effect of both intermediate and final resonances on two-photon processes, at a negligible computational cost. The model predictions are in excellent agreement with those of accurate ab initio calculations for the helium atom in the region of the N=2 doubly excited states.

  19. Taming microwave plasma to beat thermodynamics in CO2 dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, G.; van den Bekerom, D.; N. den Harder,; Minea, T.; G. Berden,; Bongers, W.; Engeln, R.; Graswinckel, M.; Zoethout, E.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2015-01-01

    The strong non-equilibrium conditions provided by the plasma phase offer the opportunity to beat traditional thermal process energy efficiencies via preferential excitation of molecular vibrations. Simple molecular physics considerations are presented to explain potential dissociation pathways in a

  20. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. PMID:26620159

  1. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger.

  2. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-01

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. PMID:27397890

  3. Hunger at Home: A Higher Education Service Learning Course of Appraisal and Action in Community Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Service learning and civic engagement are playing an increasingly larger role in higher education. Unity College's Hunger at Home course could serve as a model for service learning in disciplines such as nutrition, sociology, and food and agriculture. The class worked with local partners to get a better understanding of hunger in the area, recent…

  4. Towards T1-limited magnetic resonance imaging using Rabi beats

    CERN Document Server

    Fedder, H; Rempp, F; Wolf, T; Hemmer, P; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2010-01-01

    Two proof-of-principle experiments towards T1-limited magnetic resonance imaging with NV centers in diamond are demonstrated. First, a large number of Rabi oscillations is measured and it is demonstrated that the hyperfine interaction due to the NV's 14N can be extracted from the beating oscillations. Second, the Rabi beats under V-type microwave excitation of the three hyperfine manifolds is studied experimentally and described theoretically.

  5. Towards T 1-limited magnetic resonance imaging using Rabi beats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, H.; Dolde, F.; Rempp, F.; Wolf, T.; Hemmer, P.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2011-03-01

    Two proof-of-principle experiments toward T 1-limited magnetic resonance imaging with NV centers in diamond are demonstrated. First, a large number of Rabi oscillations is measured and it is demonstrated that the hyperfine interaction due to the NV's 14N can be extracted from the beating oscillations. Second, the Rabi beats under V-type microwave excitation of the three hyperfine manifolds is studied experimentally and described theoretically.

  6. Hunger and Food Insecurity in Nairobi's Slums: An assessment using IRT models'

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Ousmane; BASCHIERI Angela; Falkingham, Jane; Muindi, Kanyiva

    2010-01-01

    Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings. Overall, little is known about the prevalence and magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in most cities. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of urban dwellers live on less than one dollar a day, it is obvious a large proportion of the urban population must be satisfied with just one m...

  7. Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Chatton, A; Claeys, F; Ribordy, F; Khan, R; Zullino, D

    2009-12-01

    The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight.

  8. Sudden cardiac death in dogs with remodeled hearts is associated with larger beat-to-beat variability of repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Truin, Michiel; van Opstal, Jurren M;

    2005-01-01

    Increased proarrhythmia in dogs with chronic AV block (AVB) has been explained by ventricular remodeling causing a decrease in repolarization reserve. Beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) has been suggested to reflect repolarization reserve, in which high variability represents...... diminished reserve and larger propensity for repolarization-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. A subset of chronic AVB dogs (10%) suffers sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the assumption that repolarization defects constitute a potentially lethal proarrhythmic substrate, we hypothesized that BVR in SCD dogs....... In comparison, dogs with acute AVB had low variability (1.3 +/- 0.3 ms; n = 9; P Cardiac electrical remodeling after AVB is associated with an increase in beat-to-beat variability of repolarization. Chronic AVB dogs displaying further elevated variability of repolarization are prone...

  9. Beat-to-beat assessment of left ventricular ejection in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beat-to-beat left ventricular ejection was evaluated in a group of 20 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation using a computerized single probe detector. The reference group consisted of 10 patients with sinus rhythm. For each patient 30 successive cardiac cycles were analyzed and the relative variations of four parameters were assessed: R-R interval, diastolic and systolic time intervals, and ejection amplitude, corresponding to the left ventricular stroke volume. The mean variations were respectively 3.4%, 10.4%, 8.4%, and 11.8% in patients with sinus rhythm, and 21.9%, 37.9%, 10.6% and 30.5% in patients with artrial fibrillation. This demonstrates that changes in ejection are mainly related to the duration of the filling phase, with nearly constant systolic times. Correlations between R-R intervals and systolic ejection amplitudes were highly significant (P<0.001) in patients with atrial fibrillation in 85% of cases. This information complements the average ejection fraction obtained from multiple cycle superimposition. (orig.)

  10. Beat-to-beat analysis method for magnetocardiographic recordings during interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multichannel magnetocardiography (MCG) during exercise testing has been shown to detect myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Previous studies on exercise MCG have focused on one or few time intervals during the recovery period and only a fragment of the data available has been utilized. We present a method for beat-to-beat analysis and parametrization of the MCG signal. The method can be used for studying and quantifying the changes induced in the MCG by interventions. We test the method with data recorded in bicycle exercise testing in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary artery disease. Information in all cardiac cycles recorded during the recovery period of exercise MCG testing is, for the first time, utilized in the signal analysis. Exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia was detected by heart rate adjustment of change in magnetic field map orientation. In addition to the ST segment, the T wave in the MCG was also found to provide information related to myocardial ischaemia. The method of analysis efficiently utilizes the spatial and temporal properties of multichannel MCG mapping, providing a new tool for detecting and quantifying fast phenomena during interventional MCG studies. The method can also be applied to an on-line analysis of MCG data. (author)

  11. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  12. Beating of wives: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J C

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a more in-depth analysis of wife beating from a cross-cultural perspective. As background for the analysis, the methodological, operationalization, and measurement in previous cross-cultural research on wife beating is examined. Subsequently, a review of findings from these studies and the theoretical explanations from selected disciplines are presented as the basis of selection of variables expected to affect the presence and severity of wife abuse in a given culture. These variables are then examined with evidence from female perspective ethnographies on eleven different societies. This cross-cultural analysis of wife beating has illuminated more issues of methodology and variations of patterns than it has answered any questions about what may increase the frequency and severity of wife-beating in a given culture. It is possible that the beating of wives is a personal expression of hostility against women that may be expressed in addition to, or instead of, institutionalized aggression toward women in that culture. As such, wife beating can take many forms. It can be an indication of manhood, a means of personal control, a reflection of personal animosity, and an expression of sexual jealousy. These personal forms would be paralleled by societal expression such as gang rape, control of women by exclusion from the public sphere, general hostility between sexes, and the virtue of women becoming an issue of extended family and community honor. In conclusion, the importance of the variables is summarized and directions for future cross-cultural research on wife beating are suggested.

  13. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.

  14. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives. PMID:26194871

  15. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  16. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  17. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger. PMID:16924308

  18. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  19. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger.

  20. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.

  1. Bulimics' responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A; Hill, A; Waller, G

    2001-08-01

    This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their nutritional behaviour, hunger levels and affective state. Cravings leading to a binge were associated with higher tension, lower mood and lower hunger than those cravings not leading to a binge. Levels of tension and hunger were the critical discriminating variables. The findings of the study support empirical evidence and models of emotional blocking in binge-eating behaviour and challenge the current cognitive starve-binge models of bulimia. The role of food cravings in the emotional blocking model is discussed in terms of a classically conditioned motivational state. Implications for treatment are addressed. PMID:11480829

  2. Insects, Food, and Hunger: The Paradox of Plenty for U.S. Entomology, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between invention/innovation in pest control practices, food supply, and hunger in the United States from 1920-1970. Includes discussions of the nature, development, and use of insecticides, control of specific pests, and public arguments over the safety of residues leading to search for nonchemical methods of control.…

  3. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. PMID:21111097

  4. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  5. THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON FOOD INTAKE AND HUNGER: RELATIONSHIP WITH ACYLATED GHRELIN AND LEPTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever-Ozen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05. The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05 interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management

  6. Professional Networks among Rural School Food Service Directors Implementing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…

  7. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  8. Putting a Face on Hunger: A Community-Academic Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…

  9. Dwelling in Possibilities: Our Students' Spectacular Hunger for Life Makes Them Radically Vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how today's student generation has a spectacular hunger for life and more life. They want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to multiply possibilities. The author…

  10. The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrer, Grace E; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Belcher, Britini R; Daniels, Michael J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2016-02-01

    Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), p<0.01). Habitual SSB intake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin.

  11. The effect of hunger on the acoustic individuality in begging calls of a colonially breeding weaver bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacot Alain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In colonially breeding birds, the ability to discriminate between individuals is often essential. During post-fledging care, parents have to recognize their own offspring among many other unrelated chicks in the breeding colony. It is well known that fledglings and food-provisioning parents of many bird species use contact calls to convey their identity. These calls are also often used as hunger-related signals of need in young birds. Here, we investigate how such calls incorporate signals of need and at the same time act as reliable indicators of each chick's identity. Results In a field study, we experimentally manipulated the hunger level of colonially breeding Jackson's golden-backed weaver (Ploceus jacksoni nestlings close to fledging and investigated its effects on acoustic call parameters. Some acoustic parameters that were related to the time-frequency pattern showed high individuality and were largely unaffected by a nestling's state of hunger. However, the majority of call parameters were significantly affected by hunger. Interestingly, most of these acoustic parameters showed both consistent changes with hunger and high between-individual differences, i.e. potential for individual recognition. Conclusion The results indicate that individual recognition processes can be based on static, hunger-independent call parameters, but also on dynamic hunger-related parameters that show high individuality. Furthermore, these signal properties suggest that the assessment of signals of need can be improved if the signal value is referenced to a chick's vocal spectrum.

  12. J point elevation as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z; Petriashvili, Sh; Archvadze, A; Azaladze, I

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. 36 patients were included in this observation. There are 36 patients (19-68 years old) with early repolarization ECG patterns. All this 36 patients were divided into two groups according to their level of J point elevation. First group consisted of 12 patients with J point elevation ≥0,15 mV; second group - of 24 patients with J point elevation premature ventricular beat during 24 h. Before and during this monitoring patients don't take any antyarrhythmic drugs. In the first group (J point elevation ≥0,15 mV) sum of premature ventricular beats were 27432, in the second group (J point elevation premature ventricular beats were 31 896. The results of this observational study shows that there is 1,72 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in first group. So, J point elevation equal or more then 0,15 mV, is more arrhythmogenic and induces premature ventricular beats. This is principally new and very important result.

  13. Landsat plays a key role in reducing hunger on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-08-24

    The United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs predicts 9.7 billion people will sit down every day to the global dinner table by 2050. If this prediction is correct, the world is going to need more crops, more livestock, and more efficient agricultural practices.

  14. Hunger In Los Angeles County Affects Over 200,000 Low-Income Adults, Another 560,000 At Risk

    OpenAIRE

    DiSogra, Charles A.; Yen, Wei; Flood, Michael; Ramirez, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Compiled with data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, this study found that more than three-quarters of a million low-income adults in Los Angeles County have a difficult time reliably putting enough food on the table and thus are considered "food insecure." Among these adults, 214,000 suffer from hunger and another 561,000 live at risk for hunger day to day. Most importantly, the study found that food insecurity and hunger are found in all parts of the county. Food insecurity ...

  15. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p satiety (14% increase, p hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food.

  16. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  17. Beat & beyond : memoir, myth and visual arts in women of the beat generation = Más allá del "Beat": memoria, mito y arte visual en las mujeres de la generación beat

    OpenAIRE

    Encarnación Pinedo, Estíbaliz

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es revaluar el trabajo de las mujeres de la Generación Beat dentro de un discurso artístico y literario post(Beat) o más allá de lo “Beat.” El capítulo dos, en el que se analizan once memorias, se centra en el dilema entre lo personal y lo literario y sirve para delinear el contexto socio-político y artístico en el que las autoras escribieron. A través del análisis de temas comunes a las distintas memorias (la escritura, los roles de género, y la conexión co...

  18. Robotic force stabilization for beating heart intracardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Shelten G; Yip, Michael C; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Perrin, Douglas P; del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    The manipulation of fast moving, delicate tissues in beating heart procedures presents a considerable challenge to surgeons. We present a new robotic force stabilization system that assists surgeons by maintaining a constant contact force with the beating heart. The system incorporates a novel, miniature uniaxial force sensor that is mounted to surgical instrumentation to measure contact forces during surgical manipulation. Using this sensor in conjunction with real-time tissue motion information derived from 3D ultrasound, we show that a force controller with feed-forward motion terms can provide safe and accurate force stabilization in an in vivo contact task against the beating mitral valve annulus. This confers a 50% reduction in force fluctuations when compared to a standard force controller and a 75% reduction in fluctuations when compared to manual attempts to maintain the same force. PMID:20425967

  19. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  20. Superresolution measurement of nanofiber diameter by modes beating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, E. F.; Solano, P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Fatemi, F. K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofibers are becoming an important tool in quantum information technologies for coupling photonics systems to atomic systems. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing these nanofibers prior to integration into an apparatus are desirable. In this work, we probe the light propagating in a fused silica optical nanofiber (750-nm-diameter) by coupling it evanescently to a 6- μm-diameter microfiber that is scanned along the nanofiber length. This technique is capable of observing all possible beat lengths among different propagating modes. The beat lengths are strongly dependent on the nanofiber diameter and refractive index of the fiber. The steep dependence has enabled measurements of the fiber diameter with sub-Angstrom sensitivity. The diameter extracted from the beat length measurements agrees with a measurement made using scanning electron microscopy. Work supported by NSF.

  1. On readout of vibrational qubits using quantum beats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readout of the final states of qubits is a crucial step towards implementing quantum computation in experiment. Although not scalable to large numbers of qubits per molecule, computational studies show that molecular vibrations could provide a significant (factor 2–5 in the literature) increase in the number of qubits compared to two-level systems. In this theoretical work, we explore the process of readout from vibrational qubits in thiophosgene molecule, SCCl2, using quantum beat oscillations. The quantum beats are measured by first exciting the superposition of the qubit-encoding vibrational states to the electronically excited readout state with variable time-delay pulses. The resulting oscillation of population of the readout state is then detected as a function of time delay. In principle, fitting the quantum beat signal by an analytical expression should allow extracting the values of probability amplitudes and the relative phases of the vibrational qubit states. However, we found that if this procedure is implemented using the standard analytic expression for quantum beats, a non-negligible phase error is obtained. We discuss the origin and properties of this phase error, and propose a new analytical expression to correct the phase error. The corrected expression fits the quantum beat signal very accurately, which may permit reading out the final state of vibrational qubits in experiments by combining the analytic fitting expression with numerical modelling of the readout process. The new expression is also useful as a simple model for fitting any quantum beat experiments where more accurate phase information is desired

  2. Can We Learn to Beat the Best Stock

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, A; Gogan, V; 10.1613/jair.1336

    2011-01-01

    A novel algorithm for actively trading stocks is presented. While traditional expert advice and "universal" algorithms (as well as standard technical trading heuristics) attempt to predict winners or trends, our approach relies on predictable statistical relations between all pairs of stocks in the market. Our empirical results on historical markets provide strong evidence that this type of technical trading can "beat the market" and moreover, can beat the best stock in the market. In doing so we utilize a new idea for smoothing critical parameters in the context of expert learning.

  3. The load-response of the flagellar beat

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Gary S; Wanger, Christian; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella exhibit regular bending waves that perform mechanical work on the surrounding fluid, to propel cellular swimmers and pump fluids inside organisms. Here, we quantify a force-velocity relationship of the beating flagellum, by exposing flagellated \\emph{Chlamydomonas} cells to controlled microfluidic flows. A simple theory of flagellar limit-cycle oscillations, calibrated by measurements in the absence of flow, reproduces this relationship quantitatively. We derive a link between the chemo-mechanical efficiency of the flagellar beat and its ability to synchronize to oscillatory flows.

  4. Analysis of ependymal ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Callaghan Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare beat frequency measurements of ependymal cilia made by digital high speed imaging to those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques. Using high speed video analysis the relationship of the power and recover strokes was also determined. Methods Ciliated strips of ependyma attached to slices from the brain of Wistar rats were incubated at 30°C and observed using a ×50 water immersion lens. Ciliary beat frequency was measured using each of the three techniques: the high speed video, photodiode and photomultiplier. Readings were repeated after 30 minutes incubation at 37°C. Ependymal cilia were observed in slow motion and the precise movement of cilia during the recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during the power stroke was measured. Results The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 30°C were 27.7 (26.6 to 28.8, 25.5 (24.4 to 26.6 and 20.8 (20.4 to 21.3 Hz, respectively. The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 37°C were 36.4 (34 to 39.5, 38.4 (36.8 to 39.9 and 18.8 (16.9 to 20.5 Hz. The inter and intra observer reliability for measurement of ciliary beat frequency was 3.8% and 1%, respectively. Ependymal cilia were observed to move in a planar fashion during the power and recovery strokes with a maximum deviation to the right of the midline of 12.1(11.8 to 13.0° during the power stroke and 12.6(11.6 to 13.6° to the left of the midline during the recovery stroke. Conclusion The photodiode technique greatly underestimates ciliary beat frequency and should not be used to measure ependymal ciliary beat frequency at the temperatures studied. Ciliary beat frequency from the high speed video and photomultiplier techniques cannot be used interchangeably. Ependymal cilia had minimal deviation to

  5. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during anaesthesia: assessment of respiration related beat-to-beat heart rate variability analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, P; Jäntti, V; Yli-Hankala, A

    1997-11-01

    Beat-to-beat heart rate variability analysis is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of neuropathy. Respiration-related heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) reflects the function of parasympathetic nervous system during spontaneous ventilation while awake. RSA is also claimed to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. Power spectrum analysis or various averaging techniques of the heart rate variability are usually applied. The current literature, however, does not usually interpret the ground rules and limitations of the method used, and this may sometimes lead to erroneous conclusions on the data. The aim of our study was to compare and analyse critically the performance of different methods of evaluating RSA during anaesthesia and positive pressure ventilation. Power spectrum analysis, the root mean square of the successive RR-interval difference (RMSSD), and two respiration related methods, RSA index and average phase RSA, were included in the comparison. To test these methods, 11 patients were anaesthetised with isoflurane and their lungs were ventilated mechanically with a frequency of 6 cycles min-1. Each patient received a bolus dose of atropine (20 micrograms kg-1) during the trial. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and tracheal pressure signal from respirator were recorded and analyses were performed off-line. We demonstrated that general indices, such as RMSSD, may be strongly affected by heart rate level and other non-respiration related variations in heart rate. We also showed that the effect of unwanted fluctuations on RSA can be reduced with respiration dependent beat-to-beat methods. Furthermore we confirmed that in addition to the amplitude, also the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia is of interest: the pattern is reversed in phase compared to spontaneous breathing while awake, as we have shown earlier. To analyse RSA during anaesthesia, we recommend the use of an average phase RSA method based on beat-to-beat variability

  6. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  7. Situating Hunger and Fullness Through the Lived Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    the question: how might we understand the multidimensionality of eating when eating is considered to be an inherently embodied and embedded practice situated in various social and normative arenas of everyday life? Based on an anthropological fieldwork conducted in Denmark over a period of two years....... By proposing the concept ‘eater-in-the-world’, the thesis intends to capture the complexity of an eater, thereby contributing to a more nuanced understanding of how eating can be analysed. This comprises the experiencing body of an eater, his/her visceral and sensuous engagement with the world...

  8. Investigation on laser accelerators. Plasma beat wave accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Hagiwara, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Sudo, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-04-01

    Laser accelerator technology has characteristics of high energy, compact, short pulse and high luminescence{center_dot}low emittance. This means potential many applications in wide ranges of fields as well as high energy and nuclear physics. High power short laser pulses are injected to a plasma in the typical example of laser accelerators. Large electric fields are induced in the plasma. Electrons in the plasma are accelerated with the ponderomotive force of the electric field. The principles of interaction on beat wave, wakefield accelerators, inverse free electron laser and inverse Cherenkov radiation are briefly introduced. The overview of plasma beat wave accelerator study is briefly described on the programs at Chalk River Laboratories(Canada), UCLA(USA), Osaka Univ. (Japan) and Ecole Polytechnique (France). Issues of the plasma beat wave accelerator are discussed from the viewpoint of application. Existing laser technologies of CO{sub 2}, YAG and YFL are available for the present day accelerator technology. An acceleration length of beat wave interaction is limited due to its phase condition. Ideas on multi-staged acceleration using the phasing plasma fiber are introduced. (Y. Tanaka)

  9. Theory of beat wave excitation in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of beat wave excitation in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma is presented. While the theory is general it applies directly to the experiments performed in Alaska by the ionospheric heating facilities HIPAS [High Power Auroral Simulation, Radio Sci. 25, 1269 (1990)] and HAARP [High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 257 (1998)]. A ray tracing (WKB) formalism appropriate for computations is developed. The computational implementation of this formalism and extensive results will be presented in a follow up to this paper. Also the beat wave excitation of upper-hybrid waves is investigated analytically. The complicated trajectories of these waves in the plasma are described. When this beat wave reaches the plasma wave resonance it can, in the HIPAS-HAARP experiments, attain nonlinear amplitude. The electrostatic upper-hybrid waves are trapped around the density maximum of the ionosphere. This trapping is investigated in detail. Beat wave pumping of the trapped modes is possible using HAARP and HIPAS or with split beams from HAARP

  10. Using Science and Much More to Beat the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The Beat the Flood challenge involves designing and building a model flood-proof home, which is then tested in "flood" conditions. It is set on the fictitious Watu Island. The children form teams, with each team member being assigned a responsibility for the duration of the task--team leader, chief recorder, and resource manager. This…

  11. Beat-wave accelerator studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study carried out in 1982-83 at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to examine how one might use the beat-wave principle to construct a useful high energy accelerator is reviewed, and comments are made on later developments. A number of problems are evident to which solutions cannot at present be foreseen. (author)

  12. Perceptions of Conducting: Accuracy in Detecting Modulated Beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    1992-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of viewers' ability to detect changes in conducting beat patterns. Reports that music education majors were significantly better able to detect tempo decreases than increases and better able than nonmajors to detect decreases. Indicates that nonmajors were better able than majors to identify tempo increases. (SG)

  13. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  14. Reduced Order Dead-Beat Observers for a Bioreactor

    CERN Document Server

    Karafyllis, Iasson

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the strong observability property and the reduced-order dead-beat observer design problem for a continuous bioreactor. New relationships between coexistence and strong observability, and checkable sufficient conditions for strong observability, are established for a chemostat with two competing microbial species. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback stabilization problem is solved for the case of one species.

  15. Subdividing the beat: auditory and motor contributions to synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    THE CURRENT STUDY EXAMINED HOW AUDITORY AND kinematic information influenced pianists' ability to synchronize musical sequences with a metronome. Pianists performed melodies in which quarter-note beats were subdivided by intervening eighth notes that resulted from auditory information (heard tones),

  16. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  17. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... supplement (fibre effect, P less than 0.01). No effect of fibre supplementation to VLCD was found on satiety, consistency of faeces and flatulence. The supplement of dietary fibre did not influence plasma concentrations of divalent cations as calcium, iron or magnesium, nor did it add any lowering effect...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  18. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  19. The Hunger Games Viral Marketing Campaign : A Study of Viral Marketing and Fan Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ilar, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines Lionsgate’s viral marketing campaign for The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012) and the marketing teams’ use of new marketing techniques and the online fan base. The essay also asks the question to what extent the fans’ participation in Lionsgate’s marketing campaign can be called fan labor. The study is based on a film industrial perspective and academic literature that deals with film marketing, the film industry, fandom and digital labor. The material used for the analysis ...

  20. Hungry today, unhappy tomorrow? Childhood hunger and subjective wellbeing later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco

    2015-03-01

    I use anchoring vignettes to show that, on data for eleven European countries, exposure to episodes of hunger in childhood leads people to adopt lower subjective standards to evaluate satisfaction with life in adulthood. I also show that, as a consequence, estimates of the association between childhood starvation and late-life wellbeing that do not allow for reporting heterogeneity are biased towards finding a positive correlation. These results highlight the need to consider rescaling when drawing inference on subjective outcomes.

  1. Factors associated with wife beating in Egypt: Analysis of two surveys (1995 and 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaher Enas; Labeeb Shokria; Mikolajczyk Rafael T; Akmatov Manas K; Khan Md Mobarak

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Wife beating is an important public health problem in many developing countries. We assessed the rates of wife beating and examined factors associated with wife beating in 1995 and 2005 in Egypt. Methods We used data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Egypt in 1995 and 2005 using multistage household sampling. Data related to wife beating included information from 7122 women in 1995 and 5612 women in 2005. Logistic regression was used to analyze fac...

  2. Finding the beat: a neural perspective across humans and non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Hugo; Grahn, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel; Rohrmeier, Martin; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    Humans possess an ability to perceive and synchronize movements to the beat in music (‘beat perception and synchronization’), and recent neuroscientific data have offered new insights into this beat-finding capacity at multiple neural levels. Here, we review and compare behavioural and neural data on temporal and sequential processing during beat perception and entrainment tasks in macaques (including direct neural recording and local field potential (LFP)) and humans (including fMRI, EEG and...

  3. Hunger and associated harms among injection drug users in an urban Canadian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Aranka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insufficiency is often associated with health risks and adverse outcomes among marginalized populations. However, little is known about correlates of food insufficiency among injection drug users (IDU. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hunger in a large cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Food insufficiency was defined as reporting "I am hungry, but don't eat because I can't afford enough food". Logistic regression was used to determine independent socio-demographic and drug-use characteristics associated with food insufficiency. Results Among 1,053 participants, 681 (64.7% reported being hungry and unable to afford enough food. Self-reported hunger was independently associated with: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 - 2.36, spending ≥ $50/day on drugs (AOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.91, and symptoms of depression (AOR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.45 - 4.48. Conclusion These findings suggest that IDU in this setting would likely benefit from interventions that work to improve access to food and social support services, including addiction treatment programs which may reduce the adverse effect of ongoing drug use on hunger.

  4. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  5. Uma abordagem fenomenológica da fome A phenomenological approach to hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Soares de FREITAS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo reúne alguns elementos para aprofundar a compreensão sobre os objetos da saúde e nutrição. Sua dimensão epistemológica refere-se à conjunção da hermenêutica descrita por Paul Ricoeur com a fenomenologia, e proporciona um caminho para a interpretação da fome, a qual é sentida e expressada por diferentes sujeitos em seus contextos sociais específicos. Trata-se de um estudo etnográfico da fome realizado em um bairro popular da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, cujo objetivo é a compreensão do fenômeno da fome, a partir do ponto de vista de atores sociais que vivem em condições de extrema pobreza.This study collects some elements to deepen the understanding of health and nutrition. Its epistemological dimension refers to the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur and the phenomenology, and seeks to interpret the phenomenon of hunger, which is felt and expressed by different individuals in their specific social contexts. The approach is based on an ethnographical study of hunger carried out in a poor district in Salvador, state of Bahia; objectively, this work emphasizes an approach to the understanding of the phenomenon of hunger, from the point of view of social actors who live under conditions of extreme poverty.

  6. Ambulatory instrument for monitoring indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure in superficial temporal artery using volume-compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamakoshi, K

    1996-11-01

    A portable instrument, based on a volume-compensation technique, is designed for ambulatory monitoring of indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) in the superficial temporal artery. The instrument consists of a small disc-type cuff and a portable unit carried by the subject. Several components are integrated in the cuff for applying counter-pressure to the artery, i.e. a reflectance-type photo-plethysmographic sensor for arterial volume detection, a pressure sensor for cuff pressure Pc measurement and a nozzle flapper-type- electro-pneumatic convertor for controlling Pc. The portable unit includes volume servo control circuitry and a microprocessor-based signal-processing and recording unit. This automatically performs all the necessary measurement procedures and stores into a memory IC element the processed systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure data, together with pulse intervals on a beat-to-beat basis from the servo-controlled Pc (indirectly measured BP waveform). With this instrument, momentary changes in BP during ambulatory situations such as bicycle ergometer exercise and daily activities including motorway driving are successfully recorded. From the results of simultaneous measurement of the subject's posture changes, the effect of posture change on blood pressure, e.g. baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, is also clearly demonstrated.

  7. Use of seismocardiogram for the beat-to-beat assessment of the Pulse Transit Time: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Marco; Vaini, Emanuele; Lombardi, Prospero

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new methodology for the estimation of Pulse Transit Time, PTT, based on the use of the seismocardiogram for the identification of the aortic valve opening, AO. This method has been implemented to obtain a first description of the AO-derived PTT beat-to-beat variability at rest and during the recovery after a cycloergometer exercise at 25W and 100W, its relation with systolic blood pressure, S(BP), and its difference with respect to variability of the Pulse Arrival Time, PAT (i.e. the BP transit time estimated by considering the ECG R peak instead of AO as proximal site). Our preliminary data indicate that 1) the fast components of the PTT variability are only marginally influenced by respiration; 2) only the slower components of the PTT variability are correlated with systolic BP; 3) major differences exist in the dynamics of PTT and PAT, being PAT variability significantly larger and importantly influenced by the beat-to-beat changes occurring in the Pre Ejection Period. PMID:26737949

  8. A review of beat-to-beat vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters for analyzing repolarization variability in ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad A; Abbott, Derek

    2016-02-01

    Elevated ventricular repolarization lability is believed to be linked to the risk of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. However, ventricular repolarization is a complex electrical phenomenon, and abnormalities in ventricular repolarization are not completely understood. To evaluate repolarization lability, vectorcardiography (VCG) is an alternative approach where the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal can be considered as possessing both magnitude and direction. Recent research has shown that VCG is advantageous over ECG signal analysis for identification of repolarization abnormality. One of the key reasons is that the VCG approach does not rely on exact identification of the T-wave offset, which improves the reproducibility of the VCG technique. However, beat-to-beat variability in VCG is an emerging area for the investigation of repolarization abnormality though not yet fully realized. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the techniques, findings, and efficacy of beat-to-beat VCG parameters for analyzing repolarization lability, which may have potential utility for further study. PMID:25992510

  9. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  10. Beat-to-beat systolic time-interval measurement from heart sounds and ECG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systolic time intervals are highly correlated to fundamental cardiac functions. Several studies have shown that these measurements have significant diagnostic and prognostic value in heart failure condition and are adequate for long-term patient follow-up and disease management. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using heart sound (HS) to accurately measure the opening and closing moments of the aortic heart valve. These moments are crucial to define the main systolic timings of the heart cycle, i.e. pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). We introduce an algorithm for automatic extraction of PEP and LVET using HS and electrocardiogram. PEP is estimated with a Bayesian approach using the signal's instantaneous amplitude and patient-specific time intervals between atrio-ventricular valve closure and aortic valve opening. As for LVET, since the aortic valve closure corresponds to the start of the S2 HS component, we base LVET estimation on the detection of the S2 onset. A comparative assessment of the main systolic time intervals is performed using synchronous signal acquisitions of the current gold standard in cardiac time-interval measurement, i.e. echocardiography, and HS. The algorithms were evaluated on a healthy population, as well as on a group of subjects with different cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the healthy group, from a set of 942 heartbeats, the proposed algorithm achieved 7.66 ± 5.92 ms absolute PEP estimation error. For LVET, the absolute estimation error was 11.39 ± 8.98 ms. For the CVD population, 404 beats were used, leading to 11.86 ± 8.30 and 17.51 ± 17.21 ms absolute PEP and LVET errors, respectively. The results achieved in this study suggest that HS can be used to accurately estimate LVET and PEP. (paper)

  11. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-01

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women. PMID:8331759

  12. An efficient method for ectopic beats cancellation based on radial basis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jorge; Torres, Ana; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the surface Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most extended noninvasive technique in cardiological diagnosis. In order to properly use the ECG, we need to cancel out ectopic beats. These beats may occur in both normal subjects and patients with heart disease, and their presence represents an important source of error which must be handled before any other analysis. This paper presents a method for electrocardiogram ectopic beat cancellation based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN). A train-able neural network ensemble approach to develop customized electrocardiogram beat classifier in an effort to further improve the performance of ECG processing and to offer individualized health care is presented. Six types of beats including: Normal Beats (NB); Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC); Left Bundle Branch Blocks (LBBB); Right Bundle Branch Blocks (RBBB); Paced Beats (PB) and Ectopic Beats (EB) are obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Four morphological features are extracted from each beat after the preprocessing of the selected records. Average Results for the RBFNN based method provided an ectopic beat reduction (EBR) of (mean ± std) EBR = 7, 23 ± 2.18 in contrast to traditional compared methods that, for the best case, yielded EBR = 4.05 ± 2.13. The results prove that RBFNN based methods are able to obtain a very accurate reduction of ectopic beats together with low distortion of the QRST complex.

  13. First Beta-Beating Measurement in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; Kain, V; Morita, A; Tomás, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J

    2009-01-01

    This note reports on the first LHC beta-beating and coupling measurements. Thanks to an excellent functioning of the BPM system and the related software, injection oscillations were recorded for the first 90 turns at all BPMs of Beam 2. Three different algorithms are used to measure the optics parameters from the BPM data. All algorithms show consistent measurements but feature different accuracy. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach shows a high resolution despite the limited number of turns. The vertical beta-beating is observed to be about a factor of two larger than in the horizontal plane. This asymetry is partly due to sextupoles misalignments but also suggests the possible existance of focusing errors at defocussing locations. Rather large coupling is observed since no skew quadrupole was excited at the time of the data acquisition. We also report a list of suspected malfunctioning BPMs identified through various analyses.

  14. Emergence of Synchronized Beating during the Regrowth of Eukaryotic Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan

    2011-09-01

    A fundamental issue in the biology of eukaryotic flagella is the origin of synchronized beating observed in tissues and organisms containing multiple flagella. Recent studies of the biflagellate unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provided the first evidence that the interflagellar coupling responsible for synchronization is of hydrodynamic origin. To investigate this mechanism in detail, we study here synchronization in Chlamydomonas as its flagella slowly regrow after mechanically induced self-scission. The duration of synchronized intervals is found to be strongly dependent on flagellar length. Analysis within a stochastic model of coupled phase oscillators is used to extract the length dependence of the interflagellar coupling and the intrinsic beat frequencies of the two flagella. Physical and biological considerations that may explain these results are proposed.

  15. A waveguide polarization toolset design based on mode beating

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings, D.C.; Holmes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    A toolset of waveguide elements is examined, which can be combined to produce polarization functional devices in a single contiguous waveguide. In particular, waveguide implementations of an optical isolator and a polarization modulator are discussed. The waveguide elements, i.e., quasi-phase-matched nonreciprocal polarization mode converter, reciprocal polarization mode converter (R-PMC), and a differential phase shifter, are all based on mode beating. A universal 3-dB R-PMC specification is...

  16. Robotic Motion Compensation for Beating Heart Intracardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Robert D.; Yuen, Shelten G.; Kettler, Daniel T.; Notovny, Paul M.; Plowes, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    3D ultrasound imaging has enabled minimally invasive, beating heart intracardiac procedures. However, rapid heart motion poses a serious challenge to the surgeon that is compounded by significant time delays and noise in 3D ultrasound. This paper investigates the concept of using a one-degree-of-freedom motion compensation system to synchronize with tissue motions that may be approximated by 1D motion models. We characterize the motion of the mitral valve annulus and show that it is well appr...

  17. Observation of chaotic beats in a driven memristive Chua's circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Ahamed, A. Ishaq; Srinivasan, K.; Murali, K.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a time varying resistive circuit realising the action of an active three segment piecewise linear flux controlled memristor is proposed. Using this as the nonlinearity, a driven Chua's circuit is implemented. The phenomenon of chaotic beats in this circuit is observed for a suitable choice of parameters. The memristor acts as a chaotically time varying resistor (CTVR), switching between a less conductive OFF state and a more conductive ON state. This chaotic switching is govern...

  18. Moving to the beat and singing are linked in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008 has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis. This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate than inaccurate and imprecise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism.

  19. Elastic Beating Pump Using Induced-Charge Electro-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-10-01

    Pumping a viscous liquid in a confined space is essential in microfluidic systems because the pressure-driven flow rate through small channels decreases with the third or fourth power of the channel size. Hence, inspired by a cilium's pumping ability in a confined space, we propose an elastic beating pump using a hydrodynamic force due to induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) and numerically examine the pumping performance. By the multiphysics coupled simulation technique based on the boundary element method along with the thin double-layer approximation, we find that by selecting the optimum rigidity of the elastic beam, the ICEO elastic beating pump functions effectively at high frequencies with low applied voltages and shows a large average flow velocity with a remarkably large peak velocity that may be useful to flow a liquid with unexpectedly high viscosity. Furthermore, we propose a simple model that explains the characteristics of the time response behavior of the ICEO elastic beating pump tosome extent. By this analysis, we can considerably contribute to developments in studies on the artificial cilia having versatile functions.

  20. Blessed are those that hunger and thirst for righteousness: Sharpening the ethical dimension of prophetic preaching in a context of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz W. de Wet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption has enormous negative consequences for the ideal of an orderly and peaceful society. Corruption does not only have a destructive impact on socio-economic life, but also on human relationships, value systems and vision for life. With this research the authors described the role of the ethical dimension of prophetic preaching in addressing the apparent lack of righteousness as it manifests in a context of corruption in the South African society. The problem field was explored with the focus on an apparent lack of vision and willingness to hunger and thirst for righteousness in the current manifestation of corruption in the South African society. Normative perspectives from Scripture (attempting to voice the impact of Jesus� words in the Beatitudes, with the focus on Matthew 5�6 were discussed. It is reasoned that Jesus� words pneumatologically proved to be essential in developing a sharpened and action-inducing vision of the righteousness of the kingdom of God breaking through in the praxis of a society struggling with the effects of corruption. The research culminated in the formulation of preliminary homiletic theory with a view to a vision for a kind of prophetic preaching that will be able to activate the consciousness of hungering and thirsting for the righteousness of God�s kingdom and lead the believer in a life culminating in blessed nourishment. The ethical dimension of prophetic preaching is anchored in the eschatological sphere, aimed at making the perceiver conscious of the distinct presence of the King, calling his people to a blessed presence in this world and empowering them with his promise of restoration of an abundant life for all.

  1. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  2. Agricultural Extension for the Invisible Actors in Hunger Drama in Rural Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, Ngozi

    2005-01-01

    It is now an undisputable fact that rural women farmers produce more than half of all the food grown in Nigeria. They are mainly responsibility for providing food for their families as they plant, harvest and fish, gather fuel wood, fetch water, cook as well as process and sell foodstuffs. This paper describes them as invisible actors in the hunger drama because though they feed the nation, they have little or no access to factors of production that boost productivity such as extension servic...

  3. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Roger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate subjective appetite during 8 h after intake of iso-caloric rye bread breakfasts varying in rye dietary fibre composition and content. Methods The study was divided into two parts. The first part (n = 16 compared the satiating effect of iso-caloric bread breakfasts including different milling fractions of rye (bran, intermediate fraction (B4 and sifted flour. The second part (n = 16 investigated the dose-response effect of rye bran and intermediate rye fraction, each providing 5 or 8 g of dietary fibre per iso-caloric bread breakfast. Both study parts used a wheat bread breakfast as reference and a randomised, within-subject comparison design. Appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat was rated regularly from just before breakfast at 08:00 until 16:00. Amount, type and timing of food and drink intake were standardised during the study period. Results The Milling fractions study showed that each of the rye breakfasts resulted in a suppressed appetite during the time period before lunch (08:30–12:00 compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. At a comparison between the rye bread breakfasts the one with rye bran induced the strongest effect on satiety. In the afternoon the effect from all three rye bread breakfasts could still be seen as a decreased hunger and desire to eat compared to the wheat reference bread breakfast. In the Dose-response study both levels of rye bran and the lower level of intermediate rye fraction resulted in an increased satiety before lunch compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. Neither the variation in composition between the milling fractions nor the different doses resulted in significant differences in any of the appetite ratings when compared

  4. The Year of the Rat ends - time to fight hunger!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Singleton, Grant R; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons....... Very often, agricultural experts focus on an increase in agricultural production to reduce food prices. It is postulated in this article that almost 280 million undernourished could additionally benefit if more attention were paid to reducing pre- and post-harvest losses by rodents. Moreover, rodent...

  5. Foraging behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua ) influenced by prey density and hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1995-01-01

    to 7 mm long) was observed visually, and prey attacks, swimming activity and gut contents were registered across a range of 1 to 120 copepod nauplii l(-1). When prey density decreased, larvae increased their swimming activity, increased their responsiveness to prey (distance of reaction) and decreased...... activity, prey selectivity, and hunger in a variable prey environment. Gadus morhua eggs were collected in March 1992 and 1993 from the Kattegat area, Denmark, fertilised and incubated in the laboratory. After hatching, the larvae were transferred to rearing tanks of 172 litres. The behaviour of larvae (6...

  6. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  7. Fighting hunger through small scale farming? : Investigating the farm size-productivity relationship in Zambian food production.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I use Zambia as a country case to discuss the role small-scale agriculture can play in achieving the MDG no. 1 on halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger. Within the field of agricultural development there is an ongoing debate concerning the future of small-scale farming in developing economies. The question is whether small-scale, owner-occupied farms can play a vital role in fighting hunger and poverty, or if further development of large mechanized farms is nee...

  8. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm;

    2014-01-01

    -term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...... of sharing such as social welfare. We test these predictions using self-reported hunger data as well as comparisons of subjects who participated in relevant online studies before and after eating lunch. Across four studies collected in two different welfare regimes—the United Kingdom and Denmark...

  9. Erasing the World's Slow Stain: Strategies to Beat Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christopher; Williams, Brian G.; Espinal, Marcos A.; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2002-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is perceived as a growing hazard to human health worldwide. Judgments about the true scale of the problem, and strategies for containing it, need to come from a balanced appraisal of the epidemiological evidence. We conclude in this review that MDR is, and will probably remain, a locally severe problem; that epidemics can be prevented by fully exploiting the potential of standard short-course chemotherapy (SCC) based on cheap and safe first-line drugs; and that best-practice SCC may even reduce the incidence of MDR where it has already become endemic. On the basis of the available, imperfect data, we recommend a three-part response to the threat of MDR: widespread implementation of SCC as the cornerstone of good tuberculosis control, improved resistance testing and surveillance, and the careful introduction of second-line drugs after a sound evaluation of cost, effectiveness, and feasibility.

  10. Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, Pablo; Scholich, Andre; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are the molecular motors responsible for the beating of cilia and flagella. These motors generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure inside the flagellum. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains that build up within the moving axoneme, but it is not known which components of stress or strain are involved, nor how they feed back on the dyneins. To answer this question, we used isolated, reactivate axonemes of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas as a model system. We derived a theory for beat regulation in a two-dimensional model of the axoneme. We then tested the theory by measuring the beat waveforms of wild type axonemes, which have asymmetric beats, and mutant axonemes, in which the beat is nearly symmetric, using high-precision spatial and temporal imaging....

  11. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time. PMID:26183899

  12. Latino Autobiography, the Aesthetic, and Political Criticism: The Case of Hunger of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Durán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This 2003 essay, entitled “Latino Autobiography, the Aesthetic, and Political Criticism: The Case of Hunger of Memory,” was previously published in Nor Shall Diamond Die: American Studies in Honour of Javier Coy, edited by Carme Manuel and Paul Scott Derrick (Valencia: Biblioteca Javier Coy d’estudis nord-americans, Universitat de València. In a fierce defense of the aesthetic properties of the ethnic autobiography, Isabel Durán, “as an outsider” to the politics of “Chicano” critics working in the US (“I am Spanish, and live in Spain”, argues that certain politicized critical approaches to ethnic autobiography inside the US have insisted on an identity politics that reads ethnic or minority writing as “good” if and only if it is “obedient” to the critic’s political ideology, regardless of its aesthetic value as art. Proposing a “renewed theory of the aesthetic,” Durán offers a strong refutation of Ramón Saldívar’s critical assessment of Richard Rodriguez’s Hunger of Memory, while simultaneously demonstrating how a transnational American Studies produces very different intellectual concerns.

  13. Hunger-Dependent Enhancement of Food Cue Responses in Mouse Postrhinal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Christian R; Ramesh, Rohan N; Sugden, Arthur U; Levandowski, Kirsten M; Minnig, Margaret A; Fenselau, Henning; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice. As in humans, neurons in mouse POR, but not V1, exhibited biases toward food-associated cues that were abolished by satiety. This emergent bias was mirrored by the innervation pattern of amygdalo-cortical feedback axons. Strikingly, these axons exhibited even stronger food cue biases and sensitivity to hunger state and trial history. These findings highlight a direct pathway by which the lateral amygdala may contribute to state-dependent cortical processing of motivationally relevant sensory cues. PMID:27523426

  14. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance. PMID:26762623

  15. Chemoreception of hunger levels alters the following behaviour of a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Marie; Crane, Adam L

    2015-12-01

    Chemically-mediated orientation is essential for many animals that must locate sites containing resources such as mates or food. One way to find these areas is by using publically-available information from other individuals. We tested a freshwater snail, Physa gyrina, for chemoreception of conspecific cues and predicted they could discriminate between cues based on information regarding hunger levels. We placed 'tracker' snails into a 2-arm arena where they could either follow or avoid an area previously used by a 'marker' snail. The hunger levels of both trackers and markers was manipulated, being either starved or fed. Starved and fed trackers did not differ in their following response when markers were hungry, but starved trackers were significantly more likely to follow fed markers, compared to fed trackers that tended to avoid areas used by fed markers. This outcome suggests that P. gyrina uses conspecific chemical cues to find food and potentially in some situations to avoid intra-specific food competition.

  16. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time.

  17. Auxiliary measures to assess factors related to food insecurity: Preliminary testing and baseline characteristics of newly designed hunger-coping scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Courtney; Smith, Teresa M; Calloway, Eric E; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Bertmann, Farryl M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary testing of new scales to assess hunger-coping behaviors in a very low-income population. Very low-income adults (≥ 19 years), caregivers to at least one child (n = 306) completed a survey in a community setting (e.g., libraries). The survey included novel items assessing hunger-coping behaviors (e.g., trade-offs to purchase food, strategies to stretch and obtain food), food insecurity status, and physiological hunger. Internal consistency of hunger-coping scales, one-way ANOVAs, post-hoc analyses, Spearman's correlations among variables. Respondents were 75% female, 51% African American, 34% White, and 15% Hispanic, and 73% earned food insecurity (FI), measured with the USDA 6-item HFSSM (rs = 0.42-0.68, ps food security measures to inform hunger prevention policy and programming. PMID:27462530

  18. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  19. Matrix Organisation : The design of cross-beat teamwork in newsrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Grubenmann, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Confronted by increased internal and external complexity, traditional forms of newswork have reached their limits. Journalistic start-ups, such as Quartz and NZZ.at, form emerging editorial teams around "obsessions" or "phenomena" to gain cross-beat perspectives of complex issues such as climate change, the financial crisis or the refugee crisis. Legacy media experimenting with cross-beat newswork see themselves confronted by challenges arising predominantly from beat structures. Consequently...

  20. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  1. Can compressed sensing beat the Nyquist sampling rate?

    CERN Document Server

    Yaroslavsky, L

    2015-01-01

    Data saving capability of "Compressed sensing (sampling)" in signal discretization is disputed and found to be far below the theoretical upper bound defined by the signal sparsity. On a simple and intuitive example, it is demonstrated that, in a realistic scenario for signals that are believed to be sparse, one can achieve a substantially larger saving than compressing sensing can. It is also shown that frequent assertions in the literature that "Compressed sensing" can beat the Nyquist sampling approach are misleading substitution of terms and are rooted in misinterpretation of the sampling theory.

  2. Enhanced timing abilities in percussionists generalize to rhythms without a musical beat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played), continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously), and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second). The meters of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals). In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists' superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences. PMID:25540617

  3. Distinguishing between overdrive excited and suppressed ventricular beats in guinea pig ventricular myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara eGreer-Short

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid ventricular pacing rates induces two types of beats following pacing cessation: recovery cycle length (RCL prolongation (overdrive suppression and RCL shortening (overdrive excitation. The goals of this study were to compare common experimental protocols for studying triggered activity in whole-heart preparations and differentiate between recovery beats using a new methodology. Post-pacing recovery beat cycle length (RCL and QRS were normalized to pre-paced R-R and QRS intervals and analyzed using a K-means clustering algorithm. Control hearts only produced suppressed beats: RCL ratio increased with rapid pacing (25±4.0%, n=10 without changing QRS duration. Rapid pacing during hypercalcemia + hypothermia (5.5 mM and 34°C produced significantly earlier excited beats (53±14%, n=5 with wider QRS durations (58±6.3%, n=5 than suppressed beats. Digoxin + hypothermia (0.75 M produced the most excited beats with significantly earlier RCL (44±3.2%, n=6 and wider QRS (60±3.1%, n=6 ratios relative to suppressed beats. Increasing pacing further shortened RCL (30±7.8%, n=6. In a prospective study, TTX (100 nM increased RCL ratio (15±6.0%, n=10 without changing the QRS duration of excited beats. The algorithm was compared to a cross-correlation analysis with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity. This ECG based algorithm distinguishes between triggered and automatic activity.

  4. Enhanced Timing Abilities in Percussionists Generalize to Rhythms Without a Musical Beat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played, continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously, and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second. The metres of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals. In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists’ superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  5. Simultaneous beat-by-beat investigation of the effects of the Valsalva maneuver on left and right ventricular filling and the possible mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Although the influence of the Valsalva maneuver on the heart and circulatory system has been investigated, the mechanism of intrathoracic pressure influencing cardiovascular function is unclear. To test our hypothesis that the interaction between the anatomy-determined partially-intrathoracic system and the fully-intrathoracic system might explain those issues and help to disclose the mechanism, we used the Hitachi dual pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic apparatus to investigate simultaneously the beat-by-beat influence of 40-mmHg Valsalva maneuver on left and right cardiac ventricular filling in 30 male adult volunteers. The mitral and tricuspid blood inflow velocity spectra during the Valsalva maneuver were recorded simultaneously. The peak velocity (PV, velocity-time integral (VTI and inflow volume (IV of each cycle were measured or calculated. The PV, VTI and IV of the left heart remained unchanged at the first beat after the Valsalva maneuver onset (compared with those at rest, p>0.1 and then decreased gradually to the lowest at the 11±1.2th beat (range, 9th to 12th beat. Simultaneously, the PV, VTI and IV of the right heart decreased significantly (p<0.05 at the first cycle, decreased rapidly to the lowest at the 6±0.8th beat (range, 4th to 7th beat and then increased gradually to the 9±1.3th beat (range, 8th to 10th beat. These results suggest that the left heart and right heart have different physiological responses to the Valsalva maneuver. These could be explained by our hypothesis, the interaction between the partially-intrathoracic system and the fully-intrathoracic system, which might help to disclose the mechanism of how intrathoracic pressure influences the heart and circulatory system.

  6. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  7. ‘Images of Globalisation: Paris 1889’. Review of Beat Wyss, Bilder von der Globalisierung. Die Weltausstellung von Paris 1889. Berlin: Insel Verlag, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-01-01

    This review analyses the study of the Paris World’s Fair of 1889 by Beat Wyss. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of Wyss’s interpretation, but also examines it in the larger context of literature on world fairs. It argues that Wyss’s book exemplifies a common pattern in scholarly studies of world fairs during the nineteenth century, namely, a tendency to focus on their function as forms of cultural representation, i.e. their role in advancing specific notions of regional, national and...

  8. The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota

    2015-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...

  9. QRS template matching for recognition of ventricular ectopic beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena

    2007-12-01

    We propose a quasi real-time method for discrimination of ventricular ectopic beats from both supraventricular and paced beats in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heartbeat waveforms were evaluated within a fixed-length window around the fiducial points (100 ms before, 450 ms after). Our algorithm was designed to operate with minimal expert intervention and we define that the operator is required only to initially select up to three 'normal' heartbeats (the most frequently seen supraventricular or paced complexes). These were named original QRS templates and their copies were substituted continuously throughout the ECG analysis to capture slight variations in the heartbeat waveforms of the patient's sustained rhythm. The method is based on matching of the evaluated heartbeat with the QRS templates by a complex set of ECG descriptors, including maximal cross-correlation, area difference and frequency spectrum difference. Temporal features were added by analyzing the R-R intervals. The classification criteria were trained by statistical assessment of the ECG descriptors calculated for all heartbeats in MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia Database. The performance of the classifiers was tested on the independent MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The achieved unbiased accuracy is represented by sensitivity of 98.4% and specificity of 98.86%, both being competitive to other published studies. The provided computationally efficient techniques enable the fast post-recording analysis of lengthy Holter-monitor ECG recordings, as well as they can serve as a quasi real-time detection method embedded into surface ECG monitors. PMID:17805974

  10. Unraveling the nature of coherent beatings in chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostál, Jakub [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Mančal, Tomáš; Pšenčík, Jakub [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Vácha, František [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Zigmantas, Donatas, E-mail: donatas.zigmantas@chemphys.lu.se [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-03-21

    Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy at 80 K was used to study chlorosomes isolated from green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. Two distinct processes in the evolution of the 2D spectrum are observed. The first being exciton diffusion, seen in the change of the spectral shape occurring on a 100-fs timescale, and the second being vibrational coherences, realized through coherent beatings with frequencies of 91 and 145 cm{sup −1} that are dephased during the first 1.2 ps. The distribution of the oscillation amplitude in the 2D spectra is independent of the evolution of the 2D spectral shape. This implies that the diffusion energy transfer process does not transfer coherences within the chlorosome. Remarkably, the oscillatory pattern observed in the negative regions of the 2D spectrum (dominated by the excited state absorption) is a mirror image of the oscillations found in the positive part (originating from the stimulated emission and ground state bleach). This observation is surprising since it is expected that coherences in the electronic ground and excited states are generated with the same probability and the latter dephase faster in the presence of fast diffusion. Moreover, the relative amplitude of coherent beatings is rather high compared to non-oscillatory signal despite the reported low values of the Huang-Rhys factors. The origin of these effects is discussed in terms of the vibronic and Herzberg-Teller couplings.

  11. Efficient heart beat detection using embedded system electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Oh, Sechang; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    The present day bio-technical field concentrates on developing various types of innovative ambulatory and wearable devices to monitor several bio-physical, physio-pathological, bio-electrical and bio-potential factors to assess a human body's health condition without intruding quotidian activities. One of the most important aspects of this evolving technology is monitoring heart beat rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) from which many other subsidiary results can be derived. Conventionally, the devices and systems consumes a lot of power since the acquired signals are always processed on the receiver end. Because of this back end processing, the unprocessed raw data is transmitted resulting in usage of more power, memory and processing time. This paper proposes an innovative technique where the acquired signals are processed by a microcontroller in the front end of the module and just the processed signal is then transmitted wirelessly to the display unit. Therefore, power consumption is considerably reduced and clearer data analysis is performed within the module. This also avoids the need for the user to be educated about usage of the device and signal/system analysis, since only the number of heart beats will displayed at the user end. Additionally, the proposed concept also eradicates the other disadvantages like obtrusiveness, high power consumption and size. To demonstrate the above said factors, a commercial controller board was used to extend the monitoring method by using the saved ECG data from a computer.

  12. In vivo electroporation mediated gene delivery to the beating heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick L Ayuni

    Full Text Available Gene therapy may represent a promising alternative strategy for cardiac muscle regeneration. In vivo electroporation, a physical method of gene transfer, has recently evolved as an efficient method for gene transfer. In the current study, we investigated the efficiency and safety of a protocol involving in vivo electroporation for gene transfer to the beating heart. Adult male rats were anesthetised and the heart exposed through a left thoracotomy. Naked plasmid DNA was injected retrograde into the transiently occluded coronary sinus before the electric pulses were applied. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points and gene expression was detected. Results were compared to the group of animals where no electric pulses were applied. No post-procedure arrhythmia was observed. Left ventricular function was temporarily altered only in the group were high pulses were applied; CK-MB (Creatine kinase and TNT (Troponin T were also altered only in this group. Histology showed no signs of toxicity. Gene expression was highest at day one. Our results provide evidence that in vivo electroporation with an optimized protocol is a safe and effective tool for nonviral gene delivery to the beating heart. This method may be promising for clinical settings especially for perioperative gene delivery.

  13. Robust estimation of the motile cilia beating frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meste, O; Brau, F; Guyon, A

    2015-10-01

    The estimation of the cilia beating frequency (CBF) is of great interest in understanding how the CBF modulates liquid fluxes and how it is controlled by the ciliated cell intra- and/or extracellular medium composition in physiological processes. Motion artifacts and camera defaults may hinder the computation of the frequency variations during long-lasting experiments. We have developed a new analysis approach consisting of a preliminary corrective step (removal of a grid pattern on the image sequence and shift compensation), followed by a harmonic model of the observed cilia using a maximum likelihood estimator framework. It is shown that a more accurate estimation of the frequency can be obtained by averaging the squared Fourier transform of individual pixels followed by a particular summation over the different frequencies, namely the compressed spectrum. Robustness of the proposed method over traditional approaches is shown by several examples and simulations. The method is then applied to images of samples containing ciliated ependymal cells located in the third cerebral ventricle of mouse brains, showing that even small variations in CBF in response to changes in the amount of oxygenation, pH or glucose were clearly visible in the computed frequencies. As a conclusion, this method reveals a fine metabolic tuning of the cilia beating in ependimocytes lining the third cerebral ventricle. Such regulations are likely to participate in homeostatic mechanisms regulating CSF movements and brain energy supply. PMID:26215519

  14. Soluble dietary fiber (Fibersol-2) decreased hunger and increased satiety hormones in humans when ingested with a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhong; Arumugam, Visalakshi; Haugabrooks, Esther; Williamson, Patricia; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that a digestion-resistant maltodextrin, Fibersol-2 (Archer Daniels Midland/Matsutani LLC, Decatur, IL, USA) may impact satiety by decreasing hunger, prolonging satiation, and/or increasing peripheral satiety signals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy subjects (9 men and 10 women) underwent 3 treatments in which they consumed a standardized meal with a tea containing 0, 5, or 10 g of Fibersol-2. A visual analog scale questionnaire was given in 30-minute intervals to measure subjective appetite and satiety. Blood was drawn just before the meal (time 0) and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after meal for measurements of plasma ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastrin, peptide YY, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, all by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were significant delays in hunger and increased satiety for 1.5 to 2 hours after treatment with 10 g of Fibersol-2. These delays did not occur after ingesting 0 or 5 g Fibersol-2 at any time. Control and 5 g Fibersol-2 treatments did not suppress increases in hunger postmeal; hunger scores increased and satiety scores decreased significantly (P satiety hormones and enhanced satiety.

  15. "Reforms Looked Really Good on Paper": Rural Food Service Responses to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…

  16. Baby's Gone A-Hunting: "The Hunger Games," "Bully," and Struggling to Grow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Movies that treat the imagined future and that deal with issues of adolescence coming to adulthood are represented by "The Hunger Games." The role of movies that present a dystopic view of the future in our actual attempts to deal with contemporary adolescence is discussed in this article. The use of images of the future as…

  17. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2). MEASUREMENTS

  18. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  19. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding s

  20. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  1. Interacting cortical and basal ganglia networks underlying finding and tapping to the musical beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shu-Jen; Chen, Joyce L; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2013-03-01

    Humans are able to find and tap to the beat of musical rhythms varying in complexity from children's songs to modern jazz. Musical beat has no one-to-one relationship with auditory features-it is an abstract perceptual representation that emerges from the interaction between sensory cues and higher-level cognitive organization. Previous investigations have examined the neural basis of beat processing but have not tested the core phenomenon of finding and tapping to the musical beat. To test this, we used fMRI and had musicians find and tap to the beat of rhythms that varied from metrically simple to metrically complex-thus from a strong to a weak beat. Unlike most previous studies, we measured beat tapping performance during scanning and controlled for possible effects of scanner noise on beat perception. Results showed that beat finding and tapping recruited largely overlapping brain regions, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG), premotor cortex, and ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC). Beat tapping activity in STG and VLPFC was correlated with both perception and performance, suggesting that they are important for retrieving, selecting, and maintaining the musical beat. In contrast BG activity was similar in all conditions and was not correlated with either perception or production, suggesting that it may be involved in detecting auditory temporal regularity or in associating auditory stimuli with a motor response. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses showed that these systems interact, indicating that more basic sensorimotor mechanisms instantiated in the BG work in tandem with higher-order cognitive mechanisms in PFC.

  2. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required. PMID:19673753

  3. Use of beat-to-beat cardiovascular variability data to determine the validity of sham therapy as the placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Charles E; Wilson, Thad E

    2014-11-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine researchers often use sham therapy as the placebo control during clinical trials. Optimally, the sham therapy should be a hands-on procedure that is perceptually indistinguishable from osteopathic manipulative treatment, does not create an effect on its own, and is not a treatment intervention. However, the sham therapy itself may often influence the outcome. The use of cardiovascular variability (eg, beat-to-beat heart rate variability) as a surrogate for the autonomic nervous system is one objective method by which to identify such an effect. By monitoring cardiovascular variability, investigators can assess autonomic nervous system activity as a response to the sham therapy and quickly determine whether or not the selected sham therapy is a true placebo control. The authors provide evidence for assessment of beat-to-beat heart rate variability as one method for assuring objectivity of sham therapy as a placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

  4. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  5. Human health and nutrition: How isotopes are helping to overcome ''hidden hunger''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of ways, the work of the IAEA is contributing to efforts directed at overcoming hidden hunger and other nutrition problems. The rationale for the IAEA's involvement is twofold. First, adequate nutrition is an essential component of any strategy for improving health, and the IAEA's Statute specifically identifies ''enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity'' as the major objective of programmes. Second, isotope techniques have a wide variety of applications -some of them unique - for targeted research in human nutrition, for assessing nutritional status, and for monitoring the effectiveness of nutritional intervention programmes. This article provides a brief overview of these techniques and their main applications in areas of human nutrition

  6. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  7. Violence in Pop-Culture Media and The Hunger Games as a Prime Artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Benson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA methodology to analyze the meanings conveyed in relation to violence in Suzanne Collins' popular novel The Hunger Games and its film. As a representational popular­culture artifact marketed to young adults and teens, it is a primary example for the exposure of this age group to the levels of violence regularly displayed in contemporary popular media. This analysis seeks to critique the assertion that the types of violent exposure in the novel and the film are possibly inappropriate for the audience targeted. A new wave of attention and awareness on the part of producers of popular media and people of contemporary society alike is necessary.

  8. Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-12-01

    Interoception is the ability to perceive internal bodily states. This involves the detection and awareness of static and changing afferent signals from the viscera, motivational states, affective reactions, and associated cognitions. We examined whether there are individual differences in any or all of these aspects of ingestion-related interoception and their possible causes. Individual variation in almost all aspects of interoception was documented for hunger, fullness and thirst - including how participants use, prioritise and integrate visceral, motivational, affective and cognitive information. Individual differences may arise from multiple causes, including genetic influences, developmental changes hypothesised to result from child feeding practices, and from conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and certain subtypes of obesity. A nutritionally poor diet, and dietary restraint, may also affect ingestion-related interoception. Finally, certain forms of brain injury, notably to the medial temporal lobes are associated with impaired ingestion-related interoception. We conclude by examining the practical and theoretical consequences of these individual differences.

  9. Hunger, food and drink in Brazilian popular music: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Vasconcelos, Mariana Perrelli; de Vasconcelos, Iris Helena Guedes

    2015-01-01

    The article reflects on how the themes of hunger, consumption of soft drinks and consumption of beans and rice are addressed in Brazilian popular music. We investigate the years of military dictatorship (1964-1985). The focus of the analysis is on the so-called protest song, a musical genre characterized by aesthetic, cultural, political, ideological and social criticism to military rule. The study of the ideology and philosophy of language of Mikhail Bakhtin is the theoretical reference; especially his concepts of "ideological sign" and "word." Analysis reveals that the protest song portrayed elements of the economic, political and social contexts and led to the diffusion of healthy or unhealthy eating habits or ideologies, contributing to the construction of the Brazilian dietary identity. PMID:26331641

  10. Keeping the Beat: A Large Sample Study of Bouncing and Clapping to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Pauline; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of humans move in time with a musical beat. This behaviour has been mostly studied through finger-tapping synchronization. Here, we evaluate naturalistic synchronization responses to music–bouncing and clapping–in 100 university students. Their ability to match the period of their bounces and claps to those of a metronome and musical clips varying in beat saliency was assessed. In general, clapping was better synchronized with the beat than bouncing, suggesting that the choice of a specific movement type is an important factor to consider in the study of sensorimotor synchronization processes. Performance improved as a function of beat saliency, indicating that beat abstraction plays a significant role in synchronization. Fourteen percent of the population exhibited marked difficulties with matching the beat. Yet, at a group level, poor synchronizers showed similar sensitivity to movement type and beat saliency as normal synchronizers. These results suggest the presence of quantitative rather than qualitative variations when losing the beat. PMID:27471854

  11. Modification of the algorithm for beat tracking of a musical melody

    OpenAIRE

    Khachai, M. Y.; Kobylkin, K. S.; Khachai, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    A new efficient modification of the known heuristic algorithm for real-time beat tracking is proposed. An improved formula for updating the relative frequencies of time intervals between adjacent onsets is used in the modification. The algorithm has shown good performance on the MIREX Beat Tracking test base. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

  12. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur L Bouwer

    Full Text Available The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN, an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing.

  13. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing.

  14. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing. PMID:24870123

  15. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Bouwer; T.L. van Zuijen; H. Honing

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespe

  16. Peak misdetection in heart-beat-based security : Characterization and tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-Pulse-Interval (IPI) of heart beats has previously been suggested for security in mobile health (mHealth) applications. In IPI-based security, secure communication is facilitated through a security key derived from the time difference between heart beats. However, there currently exists no

  17. Keeping the Beat: A Large Sample Study of Bouncing and Clapping to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Pauline; Vuvan, Dominique T; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of humans move in time with a musical beat. This behaviour has been mostly studied through finger-tapping synchronization. Here, we evaluate naturalistic synchronization responses to music-bouncing and clapping-in 100 university students. Their ability to match the period of their bounces and claps to those of a metronome and musical clips varying in beat saliency was assessed. In general, clapping was better synchronized with the beat than bouncing, suggesting that the choice of a specific movement type is an important factor to consider in the study of sensorimotor synchronization processes. Performance improved as a function of beat saliency, indicating that beat abstraction plays a significant role in synchronization. Fourteen percent of the population exhibited marked difficulties with matching the beat. Yet, at a group level, poor synchronizers showed similar sensitivity to movement type and beat saliency as normal synchronizers. These results suggest the presence of quantitative rather than qualitative variations when losing the beat. PMID:27471854

  18. Algorithm for identifying and separating beats from arterial pulse records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinuzzi Max E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project was designed as an epidemiological aid-selecting tool for a small country health center with the general objective of screening out possible coronary patients. Peripheral artery function can be non-invasively evaluated by impedance plethysmography. Changes in these vessels appear as good predictors of future coronary behavior. Impedance plethysmography detects volume variations after simple occlusive maneuvers that may show indicative modifications in arterial/venous responses. Averaging of a series of pulses is needed and this, in turn, requires proper determination of the beginning and end of each beat. Thus, the objective here is to describe an algorithm to identify and separate out beats from a plethysmographic record. A secondary objective was to compare the output given by human operators against the algorithm. Methods The identification algorithm detected the beat's onset and end on the basis of the maximum rising phase, the choice of possible ventricular systolic starting points considering cardiac frequency, and the adjustment of some tolerance values to optimize the behavior. Out of 800 patients in the study, 40 occlusive records (supradiastolic- subsystolic were randomly selected without any preliminary diagnosis. Radial impedance plethysmographic pulse and standard ECG were recorded digitizing and storing the data. Cardiac frequency was estimated with the Power Density Function and, thereafter, the signal was derived twice, followed by binarization of the first derivative and rectification of the second derivative. The product of the two latter results led to a weighing signal from which the cycles' onsets and ends were established. Weighed and frequency filters are needed along with the pre-establishment of their respective tolerances. Out of the 40 records, 30 seconds strands were randomly chosen to be analyzed by the algorithm and by two operators. Sensitivity and accuracy were calculated by means

  19. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins. PMID:18220952

  20. Observation of single- and two-photon beating between independent Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Wan; Ou, Z Y; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    By using spontaneous Raman processes in the high gain regime, we produce two independent Raman Stokes fields from an atomic ensemble. Temporal beating is observed between the two directly generated Stokes fields in a single realization. The beat frequency is found to be a result of an AC Stark frequency shift effect. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the process, the phases of the two Stokes fields change from one realization to another so that the beat signal disappears after average over many realizations. On the other hand, the beat signal is recovered in a two-photon correlation measurement, showing a two-photon interference effect. The two-photon beat signal enables us to obtain dephasing information in the Raman process. The dephasing effect is found to depend on the temperature of the atomic medium.

  1. Simple non-invasive analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.

  2. Direct visualization of mechanical beats by means of an oscillating smartphone

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Marcos H; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    The resonance phenomenon is widely known from Physics courses. Qualitatively speaking, it takes place in a driven oscillating system whenever the driven frequency approaches the natural frequency. It is when the amplitude of the oscillations become maximal. Very closely related to this phenomenon, there is another which is very surprising too. It takes place when the driven and natural frequencies of the system are slightly different and interfere constructively and destructively, forming the so called beats. The frequency of the beats is just the difference of the interfering waves frequencies. Beats are very noticeable in acoustic systems. We all have probably perceived them in the form of periodic ups and downs in the sound intensity volume. There are several works in this journal on visualizing the beats in acoustic systems. For instance, the microphone and the speaker of two mobile devices were used in previous work to analyze the acoustic beat produced by two signals of close frequencies. The formation ...

  3. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG GuoHai; MA XiaoZhou; TENG Bin

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is nu-merically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the pri-mary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  4. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  5. Synchronization using environmental coupling in mercury beating heart oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Tanu; Montoya, Fernando; Rivera, M.; Tajima, Shunsuke; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Parmananda, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report synchronization of Mercury Beating Heart (MBH) oscillators using the environmental coupling mechanism. This mechanism involves interaction of the oscillators with a common medium/environment such that the oscillators do not interact among themselves. In the present work, we chose a modified MBH system as the common environment. In the absence of coupling, this modified system does not exhibit self sustained oscillations. It was observed that, as a result of the coupling of the MBH oscillators with this common environment, the electrical and the mechanical activities of both the oscillators synchronized simultaneously. Experimental results indicate the emergence of both lag and the complete synchronization in the MBH oscillators. Simulations of the phase oscillators were carried out in order to better understand the experimental observations.

  6. The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Major, F

    2007-01-01

    This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...

  7. Oxidized Cellulose with Different Carboxyl Content: Structure and Properties before and after Beating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendula, Hejlová; Miloslav, Milichovský

    Our recent studies concentrated in investigating influence of beating oxidized cellulose, with different carboxyl content, on changing their basic properties (degree of polymerization, WRV - water resistant value and X-ray diffraction). Cellulose samples of oxidized cellulose were beated by toroidal beating machine. Cellulose consists of both amorphous and crystalline regions. Cellulose consists of linear chains of poly[ß-1,4-D- anhydroglucopyranose] (C6nH10n + 2O5n + 1 (n = degree of polymerization of glucose)), which crystallize through hydrogen bonding between the chains and has cellobiose as repeat unit. Oxidized cellulose is preparing by oxidation of cellulose in the C6 position of the glucopyranose units to carboxylic group (-COOH) and polyanhydroglukuronic acid (PAGA) is arised. An other option is oxidation with sodium hypochlorite with catalytic amounts of sodium bromide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) under various conditions. Beating and refining or mechanical treatment of fibers in water is an important step in using pulps for papermaking. It is an energy intensive process. The purpose of the treatment is to modify fiber properties to obtain the most desirable paper machine runnability and product properties. End of beating pulps was characterized by position, when all beated pulps under mixture passed through of riddle (about sizes mesh of 50). During beating of samples about different ratio of oxidation it was found, that samples with higher contents of COOH groups in starting pulp are characterized by a significantly lower specific beating energy consumption needed to achieving the same sizes of particles. X-ray analyse shows that for non-beated oxidized cellulose was perceptible high share amorphous contents compared with beated oxidized cellulose.

  8. Banding and Step-Stair Artifacts on the Cardiac-CT Caused By Pseudo-Ectopic Beats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amolak; Sethi, Yash; Watkins, Sonya; Youtsey, Angela; Thomas, Angie

    2009-01-01

    Step-stair and banding artifacts may result from irregular ventricular rhythm caused by atrial fibrillation or premature ectopic ventricular contractions. In the case reported here, severe banding and misalignment artifacts occurred due to electrocardiographic noise mimicking ectopic beats. Severe EKG noise or pseudo-ectopic beats may cause rare but serious artifacts during cardiac-CT acquisition. Vendor-provided software for correcting ectopic beats can be used to remove pseudo-ectopic beats...

  9. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  10. Real-Time Analysis of Beats in Music for Entertainment Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Der Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dancing actions for entertainment robots are usually designed in advance and saved in a database according to the beats and rhythm of the given music. This research is devoted to developing a real-time algorithm that can detect the primary information of the music needed for the actions of entertainment robots. The computation of the proposed algorithm is very efficient and can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing by a digital signal controller. The digitized music signal is first normalized to make the algorithm robust for miscellaneous music volume. Next, the primary features of the beat for the music are extracted. Based on the extracted features, the algorithm will then identify the occurrence of beats in the music through the use of an optimized classifier. From the accumulated information of the timing for the beats, the algorithm can provide the predicted timing information of the next beat through regression analysis. The type and tempo of the given music can also be derived thereafter. The entertainment robot can thus move or dance according to the information derived by the algorithm. A graphical user interface (GUI program in LabVIEW is also utilized to observe and verify the analysis results. In this study, the ratio for correct beat detection is greater than 90%. The prediction ratio for the correct timing of beats is over 80%, and it is 100% correct for both music type and music tempo.

  11. The evolutionary neuroscience of musical beat perception: the Action Simulation for Auditory Prediction (ASAP hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh D. Patel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Every human culture has some form of music with a beat: a perceived periodic pulse that structures the perception of musical rhythm and which serves as a framework for synchronized movement to music. What are the neural mechanisms of musical beat perception, and how did they evolve? One view, which dates back to Darwin and implicitly informs some current models of beat perception, is that the relevant neural mechanisms are relatively general and are widespread among animal species. On the basis of recent neural and cross-species data on musical beat processing, this paper argues for a different view. Here we argue that beat perception is a complex brain function involving temporally-precise communication between auditory regions and motor planning regions of the cortex (even in the absence of overt movement. More specifically, we propose that simulation of periodic movement in motor planning regions provides a neural signal that helps the auditory system predict the timing of upcoming beats. This action simulation for auditory prediction (ASAP hypothesis leads to testable predictions. We further suggest that ASAP relies on dorsal auditory pathway connections between auditory regions and motor planning regions via the parietal cortex, and suggest that these connections may be stronger in humans than in nonhuman primates due to the evolution of vocal learning in our lineage. This suggestion motivates cross-species research to determine which species are capable of human-like beat perception, i.e., beat perception that involves accurate temporal prediction of beat times across a fairly broad range of tempi.

  12. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Werner, Carola M; Knetemann, Myrthe; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-05-01

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels. To control for sequential learning of the order of the different sounds, we used temporally regular (isochronous) and jittered rhythmic sequences. The order of sounds was identical in both conditions, but only the regular condition allowed for the perception of a beat. Unexpected intensity decrements were introduced on the beat and offbeat. In the regular condition, both beat perception and sequential learning were expected to enhance detection of these deviants on the beat. In the jittered condition, only sequential learning was expected to affect processing of the deviants. ERP responses to deviants were larger on the beat than offbeat in both conditions. Importantly, this difference was larger in the regular condition than in the jittered condition, suggesting that beat perception influenced responses to rhythmic events in addition to sequential learning. The influence of beat perception was present both with and without attention directed at the rhythm. Moreover, beat perception as measured with ERPs correlated with musical abilities, but only when attention was directed at the stimuli. Our study shows that beat perception is possible when attention is not directed at a rhythm. In addition, our results suggest that attention may mediate the influence of musical abilities on beat

  13. Explanation of Image in "The Hunger Artist"%《饥饿艺术家》意象阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习琲

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains Kafka's short story "The Hunger Artist" through some images from three aspects:"the cage","the time" and "the audience" constitute the loneliness predicament,"the hunger artist" stay "hungry" for attitude against,"the leop-ard" and "the death of artist" should cause self-examination.%本文从卡夫卡的短篇小说《饥饿艺术家》中"笼子"、"时间"、"观众"诸意象构成的孤独困境,"饥饿艺术家"以"饥饿"为存在态度的反抗,以及"小豹"的生存状态和"艺术家之死"应引起的反思等方面对文本进行阐释。

  14. Quantum beats in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms in the presence of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Hastings, Hannah; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2016-05-01

    By exciting a coherent superposition and varying its phase evolution, quantum beats in the selective field ionization of Rydberg atoms have been observed. Here, we present a study exploring the effect of electric and magnetic fields on quantum beats. Beginning with a single excited state, a coherent superposition is created by a short electric field pulse in the presence of a static magnetic field. The resulting quantum beats are then observed in the field ionization spectrum. Additionally, millimeter-wave spectroscopy is used to probe the state populations in this superposition. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1205895 and No. 1205897.

  15. Food Insecurity with Hunger Is Associated with Obesity among HIV-Infected and at Risk Women in Bronx, NY

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Sirotin; Hoover, Donald R.; Qiuhu Shi; Kathryn Anastos; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US) yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infe...

  16. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sirotin

    Full Text Available Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women.Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity.Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31% reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20 after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use.Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  17. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  18. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  19. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  20. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  1. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  2. Non-heart-beating organ donation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, P M; Sepe, V

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 the non-heart-beating organ donation (NHBD) "Programma Alba" (Sunrise Programme) started in Pavia, Italy. The initial plan was to cut down waiting list for kidney transplantation, while its final aim is to shorten organ transplantation waiting lists. When compared to European countries and the USA, the Italian NHBD program has taken longer to get established. Initially Italian physicians were not entirely aware of the NHBD organ viability for transplantation, furthermore ethical issues and the need to regulate medical requirements to Italian law slowed down the NHBD program. In particular, Italian legislation provides for death ascertainment after irreversible cardiac arrest, 20-minute flat electrocardiogram. This no-touch period is longer when compared to worldwide legislation, and organ viability has been a main concern for Italian transplant doctors over the years. However, recent data let up to 40-minute warm ischemia time to preserve organ viability; this has encouraged Pavia's group to establish the NHBD "Programma Alba". It was designed according to Italian legislation from death diagnosis to graft placement, from this perspective must the significant role of the Transplant coordinator be recognized. Since 2007 seven kidneys have been gathered from seven NHBD. Of these, six NHBD kidneys have been transplanted. Currently, four patients are out of dialysis. This report is a detailed description of NHBD "Programma Alba" and its preliminary results. PMID:21617625

  3. Long beating wavelength in the Schwarz-Hora effect

    CERN Document Server

    Morokov, Y N

    1997-01-01

    Thirty years ago, H.Schwarz has attempted to modulate an electron beam with optical frequency. When a 50-keV electron beam crossed a thin crystalline dielectric film illuminated with laser light, electrons produced the electron-diffraction pattern not only at a fluorescent target but also at a nonfluorescent target. In the latter case the pattern was of the same color as the laser light (the Schwarz-Hora effect). This effect was discussed extensively in the early 1970s. However, since 1972 no reports on the results of further attempts to repeat those experiments in other groups have appeared, while the failures of the initial such attempts have been explained by Schwarz. The analysis of the literature shows there are several unresolved up to now contradictions between the theory and the Schwarz experiments. In this work we consider the interpretation of the long-wavelength spatial beating of the Schwarz-Hora radiation. A more accurate expression for the spatial period has been obtained, taking into account th...

  4. Taming microwave plasma to beat thermodynamics in CO2 dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, G J; van den Bekerom, D C M; den Harder, N; Minea, T; Berden, G; Bongers, W A; Engeln, R; Graswinckel, M F; Zoethout, E; van de Sanden, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The strong non-equilibrium conditions provided by the plasma phase offer the opportunity to beat traditional thermal process energy efficiencies via preferential excitation of molecular vibrations. Simple molecular physics considerations are presented to explain potential dissociation pathways in plasma and their effect on energy efficiency. A common microwave reactor approach is evaluated experimentally with Rayleigh scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess gas temperatures (exceeding 10(4) K) and conversion degrees (up to 30%), respectively. The results are interpreted on a basis of estimates of the plasma dynamics obtained with electron energy distribution functions calculated with a Boltzmann solver. It indicates that the intrinsic electron energies are higher than is favorable for preferential vibrational excitation due to dissociative excitation, which causes thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry to dominate. The highest observed energy efficiencies of 45% indicate that non-equilibrium dynamics had been at play. A novel approach involving additives of low ionization potential to tailor the electron energies to the vibrational excitation regime is proposed.

  5. Microwave radiation and heart-beat rate of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C K; Han, L F; Guy, A W

    1980-06-01

    Each of three adult New Zealand rabbits, 2 male and 1 female albinos, was exposed dorsally or ventrally, to 2450-MHz plane waves for 20 min under each of several field conditions: 1) to continuous waves (CW) at 5 mW/cm2; 2) to pulsed waves (PW) of 1-microsecond width that recurred 700 pps at an average of 5 mW/cm2 and at a peak of 7.1 W/cm2; 3) to PW of 10-microseconds width at a peak of 13.7 W/cm2 that were synchronized with and triggered by the R wave of the electrocardiogram (EKG) at various delay times (0, 100, and 200 ms; and 4) to CW at 80 mW/cm2. Carbon-loaded Teflon electrodes were used to record the EKG from forelimbs of an animal before, during, and after irradiation whilst it was maintained in a constant exposure geometry in a wooden squeeze box. Field induced changes in the heart-beat rate were observed at 80 mW/cm2 but not a lower average power densities, although a peak positive chronotropic effect might have been occasioned by PM introduced at 100 and 200 ms after the R wave peak. No cumulative effect was observed over a period of four months. Thermographic analysis revealed relatively little absorption of microwave energy by the myocardium irrespective of anatomical aspect of exposure.

  6. Short-term beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval is increased and correlates with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Andrea; Baczkó, István; Nagy, Viktória; Gavallér, Henriette; Csanády, Miklós; Forster, Tamás; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Lengyel, Csaba; Sepp, Róbert

    2015-09-01

    Stratification models for the prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) are inappropriate in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We investigated conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) repolarization parameters and the beat-to-beat short-term QT interval variability (QT-STV), a new parameter of proarrhythmic risk, in 37 patients with HCM (21 males, average age 48 ± 15 years). Resting ECGs were recorded for 5 min and the frequency corrected QT interval (QTc), QT dispersion (QTd), beat-to-beat short-term variability of QT interval (QT-STV), and the duration of terminal part of T waves (Tpeak-Tend) were calculated. While all repolarization parameters were significantly increased in patients with HCM compared with the controls (QTc, 488 ± 61 vs. 434 ± 23 ms, p < 0.0001; QT-STV, 4.5 ± 2 vs. 3.2 ± 1 ms, p = 0.0002; Tpeak-Tend duration, 107 ± 27 vs. 91 ± 10 ms, p = 0.0015; QTd, 47 ± 17 vs. 34 ± 9 ms, p = 0.0002), QT-STV had the highest relative increase (+41%). QT-STV also showed the best correlation with indices of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, i.e., maximal LV wall thickness normalized for body surface area (BSA; r = 0.461, p = 0.004) or LV mass (determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) normalized for BSA (r = 0.455, p = 0.015). In summary, beat-to-beat QT-STV showed the most marked increase in patients with HCM and may represent a novel marker that merits further testing for increased SCD risk in HCM. PMID:26313025

  7. Signaling hunger through aggression—the regulation of foraging in a primitively eusocial wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti; Chandrasekhar, K.; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2008-07-01

    Primitively eusocial wasps are generally headed by behaviorally dominant queens who use their aggression to suppress worker reproduction. In contrast, queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata are strikingly docile and non-aggressive. However, workers exhibit dominance-subordinate interactions among themselves. These interactions do not appear to reflect reproductive competition because there is no correlation between the relative position of an individual in the dominance hierarchy of the colony and the likelihood that she will succeed a lost/removed queen. Based on the observation that foraging continues unaltered in the absence of the queen and the correlation between dominance behavior and foraging, we have previously suggested that dominance-subordinate interactions among workers in R. marginata have been co-opted to serve the function of decentralized, self-organized regulation of foraging. This idea has been supported by an earlier experimental study where it was found that a reduced demand for food led to a significant decrease in dominance behavior. In this study, we perform the converse experiment, demonstrate that dominance behavior increases under conditions of starvation, and thus provide further evidence in support of the hypothesis that intranidal workers signal hunger through aggression.

  8. The Work of Hunger: Security, Development and Food-for-Work in Post-crisis Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Essex

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-for-work programs distribute food aid to recipients in exchange for labor, and are an important mode of aid delivery for both public and private aid providers. While debate continues as to whether food-for-work programs are socially just and economically sensible, governments, international institutions, and NGOs continue to tout them as a flexible and cost-effective way to deliver targeted aid and promote community development. This paper critiques the underlying logic of food-for-work, focusing on how this approach to food aid and food security promote labor force participation by leveraging hunger against poverty, and how the ideological and practical assumptions of food-for-work become enmeshed within discourses of geopolitical security. I rely on a case study examination of US-funded food-for-work programs implemented in Jakarta, Indonesia following the 1997 financial crisis. The crisis produced acute food insecurity and poverty in Indonesia, provoking fears of mob violence by the hungry poor and the spread of radical Islamism in the post-crisis political vacuum. Food-for-work programs were, in this context, meant to resolve the problems of both food insecurity and geopolitical insecurity by providing food to targeted populations, employment to those otherwise thrown out of work, and resituating the hungry poor in relation to broader scales of local, national, and global power.

  9. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Bublatzky, Florian; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-10-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine deprivation effects on visual attention to food stimuli at the level of distinct processing stages. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (16 females) were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 h of food deprivation or after normal food intake. Participants viewed a continuous stream of food and flower images while dense sensor ERPs were recorded. As revealed by distinct ERP modulations in relatively earlier and later time windows, deprivation affected the processing of food and flower pictures. Between 300 and 360 ms, food pictures were associated with enlarged occipito-temporal negativity and centro-parietal positivity in deprived compared to satiated state. Of main interest, in a later time window (approximately 450-600 ms), deprivation increased amplitudes of the late positive potential elicited by food pictures. Conversely, flower processing varied by motivational state with decreased positive potentials in the deprived state. Minimum-Norm analyses provided further evidence that deprivation enhanced visual attention to food cues in later processing stages. From the perspective of motivated attention, hunger may induce a heightened state of attention for food stimuli in a processing stage related to stimulus recognition and focused attention.

  10. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  11. Free-electron laser from wave-mechanical beats of 2 electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is possible, though technically difficult, to produce beams of free electrons that exhibit beats of a quantum mechanical nature. (1) the generation of electromagnetic radiation, e.g., light, based on the fact that the beats give rise to alternating charge and current densities; and a frequency shifter, based on the fact that a beam with beats constitutes a moving grating. When such a grating is exposed to external radiation of suitable frequency and direction, the reflected rediation will be shifted in frequency, since the grating is moving. A twofold increase of the frequency is readily attainable. It is shown that it is impossible to generate radiation, because the alternating electromagnetic fields that accompany the beats cannot reform themselves into freely propagating waves. The frequency shifter is useless as a practical device, because its reflectance is extremely low for realizable beams.

  12. Observation of Quantum Beat in Rb by Parametric Four-Wave Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chang-Jun; HE Jun-Fang; XUE Bing; ZHAI Xue-Jun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Two coupled parametric four-wave-mixing processes in Rb atoms are studied using perturbation theory, which reveals clear evidence of the appearance of quantum beat at 608cm-1, corresponding to the energy difference of the 7s - 5d states of Rb atoms, in the parametric four-wave-mixing signals. A pump-probe technique is utilized to observe the quantum beat. Time-varying characteristics of the quantum beat are investigated using time-dependent Fourier transform. The results show that the time-varying characteristics of the quantum beat not only offers a sensitive detecting method for observing the decay of atomic wave packets, but also provides a potential tool for monitoring the dissociation of molecules.

  13. Feedback in a cavity QED system for control of quantum beats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimmarusti A.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditional measurements on the undriven mode of a two-mode cavity QED system prepare a coherent superposition of ground states which generate quantum beats. The continuous system drive induces decoherence through the phase interruptions from Rayleigh scattering, which manifests as a decrease of the beat amplitude and an increase of the frequency of oscillation. We report recent experiments that implement a simple feedback mechanism to protect the quantum beat. We continuously drive the system until a photon is detected, heralding the presence of a coherent superposition. We then turn off the drive and let the superposition evolve in the dark, protecting it against decoherence. At a later time we reinstate the drive to measure the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the beats. The amplitude can increase by more than fifty percent, while the frequency is unchanged by the feedback.

  14. Beat synchronization predicts neural speech encoding and reading readiness in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff Carr, Kali; White-Schwoch, Travis; Tierney, Adam T; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Temporal cues are important for discerning word boundaries and syllable segments in speech; their perception facilitates language acquisition and development. Beat synchronization and neural encoding of speech reflect precision in processing temporal cues and have been linked to reading skills. In poor readers, diminished neural precision may contribute to rhythmic and phonological deficits. Here we establish links between beat synchronization and speech processing in children who have not yet begun to read: preschoolers who can entrain to an external beat have more faithful neural encoding of temporal modulations in speech and score higher on tests of early language skills. In summary, we propose precise neural encoding of temporal modulations as a key mechanism underlying reading acquisition. Because beat synchronization abilities emerge at an early age, these findings may inform strategies for early detection of and intervention for language-based learning disabilities. PMID:25246562

  15. The ability to tap to a beat relates to cognitive, linguistic, and perceptual skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T; Kraus, Nina

    2013-03-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship between motor output and auditory input, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would perform better on attention tests. Second, since auditory-motor synchronization requires fine temporal precision within the auditory system for the extraction of a sound's onset time, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would be less affected by backward masking, a measure of temporal precision within the auditory system. As predicted, tapping performance related to reading, attention, and backward masking. These results motivate future research investigating whether beat synchronization training can improve not only reading ability, but potentially executive function and auditory processing as well.

  16. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the ‘beat’ in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication, and unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms, or did not (metric complex rhythms, as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only. The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT, in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were ‘on’ or ‘off’ the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients.Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the Beat Alignment Test, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic

  17. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Pickett, Kristen A; Earhart, Gammon M; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the "beat" in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here, we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication) and in unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms) or did not (metric complex rhythms), as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only). The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT), in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were "ON" or "OFF" the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients. Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased) when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the BAT, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic medication influences beat-based and non-beat

  18. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  19. Stochastic Alternating Dynamics for Synchronous EAD-Like Beating Rhythms in Cultured Cardiac Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ning; ZHANG Hui-Min; LIU Zhi-Qiang; DING Xue-Li; YANG Ming-Hao; GU Hua-Guang; REN Wei

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved cardiac myocytes can couple together and generate synchronous beatings in culture. We observed a synchronized early after-depolarization(EAD)-like rhythm in cultured cardiac myocytes and reproduced the experimental observation in a network mathematical model whose dynamics are close to a Hopf bifurcation. The mechanism for this EAD-like rhythm is attributed to noised-induced stochastic alternatings between the focus and the limit cycle. These results provide novel understandings for pathological heart rhythms like the early immature beatings.

  20. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    OpenAIRE

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat pe...

  1. Finding the beat: a neural perspective across humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Grahn, Jessica; Trainor, Laurel; Rohrmeier, Martin; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-03-19

    Humans possess an ability to perceive and synchronize movements to the beat in music ('beat perception and synchronization'), and recent neuroscientific data have offered new insights into this beat-finding capacity at multiple neural levels. Here, we review and compare behavioural and neural data on temporal and sequential processing during beat perception and entrainment tasks in macaques (including direct neural recording and local field potential (LFP)) and humans (including fMRI, EEG and MEG). These abilities rest upon a distributed set of circuits that include the motor cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical (mCBGT) circuit, where the supplementary motor cortex (SMA) and the putamen are critical cortical and subcortical nodes, respectively. In addition, a cortical loop between motor and auditory areas, connected through delta and beta oscillatory activity, is deeply involved in these behaviours, with motor regions providing the predictive timing needed for the perception of, and entrainment to, musical rhythms. The neural discharge rate and the LFP oscillatory activity in the gamma- and beta-bands in the putamen and SMA of monkeys are tuned to the duration of intervals produced during a beat synchronization-continuation task (SCT). Hence, the tempo during beat synchronization is represented by different interval-tuned cells that are activated depending on the produced interval. In addition, cells in these areas are tuned to the serial-order elements of the SCT. Thus, the underpinnings of beat synchronization are intrinsically linked to the dynamics of cell populations tuned for duration and serial order throughout the mCBGT. We suggest that a cross-species comparison of behaviours and the neural circuits supporting them sets the stage for a new generation of neurally grounded computational models for beat perception and synchronization. PMID:25646516

  2. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Ann eLeow; Taylor eParrott; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. On...

  3. Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lewis Z.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Hooker, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    The generalization of quasi-phase-matching using polarization beating and of multimode quasi-phase-matching (MMQPM) for the generation of high-order harmonics is explored, and a method for achieving polarization beating is proposed. If two (and in principle more) modes of a waveguide are excited, modulation of the intensity, phase, and/or polarization of the guided radiation will be achieved. By appropriately matching the period of this modulation to the coherence length, quasi-phase-matching...

  4. ECG Morphological Variability in Beat Space for Risk Stratification After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun; Syed, Zeeshan; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Morrow, David A; Guttag, John V.; Stultz, Collin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of patients who are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major challenge in clinical cardiology. We hypothesized that quantifying variability in electrocardiogram (ECG) morphology may improve risk stratification post‐ACS. Methods and Results: We developed a new metric to quantify beat‐to‐beat morphologic changes in the ECG: morphologic variability in beat space (MVB), and compared our metric to published ECG ...

  5. Spin-Dependent Beats Created by Irradiation of Microwave Field Through a Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagani, M. Bagheri; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    We study spin-dependent transport through a quantum dot with Zeeman split levels coupled to ferromagnetic leads and under influence of microwave irradiation. Current polarization, spin current, spin accumulation and tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed using nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and rate equations. Spin-dependent beats in spin resolved currents are observed. The effects of magnetic field, temperature and Coulomb interaction on these beats are studied.

  6. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz or Beta (16 Hz frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.

  7. Detection and removal of ventricular ectopic beats in atrial fibrillation recordings via principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic beats are early heart beats with remarkable large amplitude that provoke serious disturbances in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECG). These beats are very common in atrial fibrillation (AF) and are the source of important residua when the QRST is intended to be removed. Given that QRST cancellation is a binding step in the appropriate analysis of atrial activity (AA) in AF, a method for ventricular ectopic beats cancellation is proposed as a previous step to the application of any QRST removal technique. First, the method discriminates between normal and ectopic beats with an accuracy higher than 99% through QRS morphological characterization. Next, the most similar ectopic beats to the one under cancellation are clustered and serve to get their eigenvector matrix by principal component analysis. Finally, the highest variance eigenvector is used as cancellation template. The reduction ectopic rate (RER) has been defined to evaluate the method's performance by using templates generated with 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 ectopics. Optimal results were reached with the 5 most similar complexes, yielding a RER higher than 5.5. In addition, a decreasing RER trend was noticed as the number of considered ectopics for cancellation increased. As conclusion, given that ectopics presented a remarkable variability in their morphology, the proposed cancellation approach is a robust ectopic remover and can notably facilitate the later application of any QRST cancellation technique to extract the AA in the best conditions. PMID:22255385

  8. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  9. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  10. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  11. Mode beating and heterodyning of monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiyu

    Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive optical sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) because they do not require any feedback elements, do not have parts exposed to external ambient, and can operate in a traveling-wave mode. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, unidirectional traveling-wave operation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing applications. Ring lasers can also be used as ultrashort pulse generators using various mode-locking schemes and as active gyro components. However, the SRL is a very complicated dynamic system, which requires more investigations to understand the performance regarding details of the design and fabrication. As a part of NASA-supported project "Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Ring Laser Gyro for Space Applications", this dissertation research was focused on design and characterization of a novel monolithically integrated rotation sensor based on two large-size independent SRLs. Numerical modeling based on the beam propagation method (BPM) was used to design the fabrication parameters for the single-mode ridge-waveguide ring cavity and directional coupler waveguides. The mode internal coupling in single lateral-mode laser diodes with InGaAs/GaAs material system was investigated by optical experiments and numerical modeling. To gain the understanding of the SRL performance, optical and electrical characterization was performed on fabricated SRLs. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of optical and radio frequency (RF) beating spectra of longitudinal modes of ring lasers. RF measurements provide high accuracy in the diagnosis of laser oscillation parameters by purely electronic means, particularly in the measurement of the group index and its dependence on current and temperature. Theoretical analysis based on the effective index method provides good agreement between the experimental data and numerical calculations. Finally, optical heterodyning spectra

  12. Frequent ventricular premature beats increase blood pressure variability in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yu MIAO; Li-ping XU; Jian-guo LIU; He-hui XIE; Wen-jun YUAN; Ding-feng SU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia such as ventricular premature beats (VPB) is a contributing factor in the elevation of blood pressure variability (BPV). METHODS:Blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram were continuously recorded. The relation between VPB and BPV was observed under conscious state in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) rats one month after ligation of the left.coronary artery, and further verified under anesthetized state in rat model of ventricular arrhythmia produced by acute intravenous infusion of aconitine. RESULTS: MI rats exhibited a big difference in the count and pattern of VPB, and were divided into no VPB, occasional VPB, and frequent VPB groups. Among the three groups, there were no differences in BP, heart period (HP), and MI size. However, BPV was markedly higher in frequent not occasional VPB rats, and HP variability (HPV) was larger in both frequent and occasional VPB rats, when compared with no VPB rats. In the whole population of MI rats, BPV was positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP, HP and MI size. Infusion of aconitine had no effect on BP, HP, BPV, and HPV during the period without VPB.Frequent VPB after several minutes of aconitine infusion induced significant increase in BPV and HPV with no change in BP and HP. BPV was also positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP and HP. Hemodynamics in aconitine-evoked ventricular tachycardia was characterized as lower BP, higher BPV, and higher HPV.CONCLUSION: High BPV can be caused by frequent not occasional VPB in rats.

  13. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding. PMID:27489216

  14. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  15. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  16. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  17. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  18. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the stomach in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenina, O Yu; Kromin, A A

    2012-10-01

    Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in preliminary fed animals in the presence of the food is associated with successful food-procuring behavior, accompanied by regular generation of high-amplitude slow electrical waves by muscles of the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity in the form of unimodal distribution of slow wave periods typical of satiation state. Despite increased level of food motivation caused by stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, the additional food intake completely abolished the inhibitory effects of hunger motivation excitement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach of satiated rabbits. Changes in slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles in rabbits deprived of food over 24 h and offered food and associated food-procuring behavior during electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have a two-phase pattern. Despite food intake during phase I of electrical stimulation, the downstream inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of stomach abolishes the stimulating effect of food reinforcement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach. During phase II of electrical stimulation, the food reinforcement decreases inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature that paces maximal rhythm of slow electrical waves for muscles activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which is reflected by unimodal distribution of slow electrical wave periods. Our results indicated that the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles reflects convergent interactions of food motivation and reinforcement excitations on the dorsal vagal complex neurons in medulla oblongata.

  19. Extracting fetal heart beats from maternal abdominal recordings: selection of the optimal principal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a systematic comparison of different approaches to the automated selection of the principal components (PC) which optimise the detection of maternal and fetal heart beats from non-invasive maternal abdominal recordings. A public database of 75 4-channel non-invasive maternal abdominal recordings was used for training the algorithm. Four methods were developed and assessed to determine the optimal PC: (1) power spectral distribution, (2) root mean square, (3) sample entropy, and (4) QRS template. The sensitivity of the performance of the algorithm to large-amplitude noise removal (by wavelet de-noising) and maternal beat cancellation methods were also assessed. The accuracy of maternal and fetal beat detection was assessed against reference annotations and quantified using the detection accuracy score F1 [2*PPV*Se / (PPV + Se)], sensitivity (Se), and positive predictive value (PPV). The best performing implementation was assessed on a test dataset of 100 recordings and the agreement between the computed and the reference fetal heart rate (fHR) and fetal RR (fRR) time series quantified. The best performance for detecting maternal beats (F1 99.3%, Se 99.0%, PPV 99.7%) was obtained when using the QRS template method to select the optimal maternal PC and applying wavelet de-noising. The best performance for detecting fetal beats (F1 89.8%, Se 89.3%, PPV 90.5%) was obtained when the optimal fetal PC was selected using the sample entropy method and utilising a fixed-length time window for the cancellation of the maternal beats. The performance on the test dataset was 142.7 beats2/min2 for fHR and 19.9 ms for fRR, ranking respectively 14 and 17 (out of 29) when compared to the other algorithms presented at the Physionet Challenge 2013. (paper)

  20. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binagwaho Agnès

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1 to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  1. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-29

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  2. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about...

  3. Experiences of Latino Immigrant Families in North Carolina Help Explain Elevated Levels of Food Insecurity and Hunger1

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Shoaf, John I.; Tapia, Janeth; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Clark, Heather M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Household food insecurity is higher among minority households in the U.S., but few data exist on households of recent minority immigrants, in part because such households are difficult to sample. Four studies of a total of 317 Latino immigrant families were conducted in different regions and during different seasons in North Carolina. A Spanish translation of the 18-item U.S. Food Security Survey Module was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger. In 3 of the studies, a to...

  4. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP)

  5. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  6. 4D ultrasound and 3D MRI registration of beating heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize intra-cardiac surgery without cardio-pulmonary bypass, a medical imaging technique with both high image quality and data acquisition rate that is fast enough to follow heart beat movements is required. In this research, we proposed a method that utilized the image quality of MRI and the speed of ultrasound. We developed a 4D image reconstruction method using image registration of 3D MRI and 4D ultrasound images. The registration method consists of rigid registration between 3D MRI and 3D ultrasound with the same heart beat phase, and non-rigid registration between 3D ultrasound images from different heart beat phases. Non-rigid registration was performed with B-spline based registration using variable spring model. In phantom experiment using balloon phantom, registration accuracy was less than 2 mm for total heart volume variation range of 10%. We applied our registration method on 3D MRI and 4D ultrasound images of a volunteer's beating heart data and confirmed through visual observation that heart beat pattern was well reproduced. (orig.)

  7. Independent Control of the Static and Dynamic Components of the Chlamydomonas Flagellar Beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Veikko F; Sartori, Pablo; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon

    2016-04-25

    When the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii swims, it uses the breaststroke beat of its two flagella to pull itself forward [1]. The flagellar waveform can be decomposed into a static component, corresponding to an asymmetric time-averaged shape, and a dynamic component, corresponding to the time-varying wave [2]. Extreme lightening conditions photoshock the cell, converting the breaststroke beat into a symmetric sperm-like beat, which causes a reversal of the direction of swimming [3]. Waveform conversion is achieved by a reduction in magnitude of the static component, whereas the dynamic component remains unchanged [2]. The coupling between static and dynamic components, however, is poorly understood, and it is not known whether the static component requires the dynamic component or whether it can exist independently. We used isolated and reactivated axonemes [4] to investigate the relation between the two beat components. We discovered that, when reactivated in the presence of low ATP concentrations, axonemes displayed the static beat component in absence of the dynamic component. Furthermore, we found that the amplitudes of the two components depend on ATP in qualitatively different ways. These results show that the decomposition into static and dynamic components is not just a mathematical concept but that the two components can independently control different aspects of cell motility: the static component controls swimming direction, whereas the dynamic component provides propulsion. PMID:27040779

  8. 'Confessing out the soul to conform to the rhythm of thought': a reading of Allen Ginsberg’s Beat poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kruger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Much critical writing about the Beat Movement has focused on the strong interrelationship between the literary and social discourses within and around the movement. However, the study of Beat literature also necessitates an awareness of its position within the literary discourse of the twentieth century. Beat writing may be seen as standing in the unstable, shifting territory between two equally unstable, shifting literary movements: modernism and postmodernism. Beat poetry pits itself against high modernism and the New Critical tradition, draws upon some aspects of early avant-garde modernism, and simultaneously remoulds these aspects into what may be regarded as the beginnings of postmodernism in the USA. This article presents a reading of Allen Ginsberg’s Beat poetry against this literary-historical background. A brief general overview of some of the key characteristics of Beat poetry is given, followed by a discussion of a number of Beat poems, organised around some salient features of Ginsberg’s Beat poetry that may be linked to Beat poetry’s position in the transition from modernism to postmodernism.

  9. The antagonistic metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, does not influence gastric emptying and hunger sensations in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederic; Pedersen, Jan F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7-36)amide) is an intestinal hormone that is released in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and is believed to inhibit gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 may play a role in hunger and thirst...... regulation. In vivo, GLP-1 is rapidly (within minutes) converted into a metabolite, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, which has been shown to act as a GLP-1 receptor antagonist in vitro and in anaesthetized pigs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of infusion of GLP-1 (9-36)amide on hunger ratings...... and antral emptying of a meal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scale scoring during infusions of saline or GLP-1 (9...

  10. ‘Images of Globalisation: Paris 1889’. Review of Beat Wyss, Bilder von der Globalisierung. Die Weltausstellung von Paris 1889. Berlin: Insel Verlag, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyses the study of the Paris World’s Fair of 1889 by Beat Wyss. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of Wyss’s interpretation, but also examines it in the larger context of literature on world fairs. It argues that Wyss’s book exemplifies a common pattern in scholarly studies of world fairs during the nineteenth century, namely, a tendency to focus on their function as forms of cultural representation, i.e. their role in advancing specific notions of regional, national and imperial identity. The review does not dispute that this was a central aspect of the world fairs, but it also points towards the omissions in such studies. Not only were the world fairs founded as a means of promoting liberal ideas of free trade, they were also used to display the latest technologies in a wide array of activities, such as industrial manufacturing, forestry and farming. These subjects are almost never examined in any depth in the literature on world fairs, the result of a partial and limited approach to world fairs. The review argues that for all its strengths, Wyss’s book exemplifies this approach.

  11. Interactions between dyspnea and the brain processing of nociceptive stimuli:experimental air hunger attenuates laser-evoked brain potentials in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eDANGERS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea and pain share several characteristics and certain neural networks and interact with each other. Dyspnea-pain counter-irritation consists of attenuation of preexisting pain by intercurrent dyspnea and has been shown to have neurophysiological correlates in the form of inhibition of the nociceptive spinal reflex RIII and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs. Experimentally induced exertional dyspnea inhibits RIII and LEPs, while air hunger dyspnea does not inhibit RIII despite its documented analgesic effects. We hypothesized that air hunger may act centrally and inhibit LEPs. LEPs were obtained in 12 healthy volunteers (age: 21-29 during spontaneous breathing (FB, ventilator-controlled breathing (VC tailored to FB, after inducing air hunger by increasing the inspired fraction of carbon dioxide -FiCO2- (VCCO2, and during ventilator-controlled breathing recovery (VCR. VCCO2 induced intense dyspnea (visual analogue scale = 63% ± 6% of full scale, p<0.001 vs. VC, predominantly of the air hunger type. VC alone reduced the amplitude of the N2-P2 component of LEPs (∆ = 24.0% ± 21.1%, p<0.05, effect-size = 0.74 predominantly through a reduction in P2, and the amplitude of this inhibition was further reduced by inducting air hunger (∆ = 22.6% ± 17.9%, p<0.05, effect-size = 0.53, predominantly through a reduction in N2. Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs were not affected by VC or VCCO2, suggesting that the observed effects are specific to pain transmission. We conclude that air hunger interferes with the cortical mechanisms responsible for the cortical response to painful laser skin stimulation, which provides a neurophysiological substrate to the central nature of its otherwise documented analgesic effects.

  12. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Federal Food Programs--1973. Part 2--Hunger in 1973. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 4, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The "Hunger-1973" committee report, details the continuing hunger problem in the country. The report shows that the administration and participation of the Food Stamp and Surplus Food Program vary widely across the country. It shows that the benefits available under both programs are being severely restricted by the current food cost crisis in the…

  13. When snacks become meals: How hunger and environmental cues bias food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount of food they eat. In addition, we expect the effect of those cues on food intake to be strongest among those who are hungry. Methods One-hundred and twenty-two undergraduates (75 men, 47 women; mean BMI = 22.8, SD = 3.38 were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in which they were offered foods such as quesadillas and chicken wings in an environment that was associated with either meal cues (ceramic plates, glasses, silverware, and cloth napkins at a table, or snack cues (paper plates and napkins, plastic cups, and no utensils. After participants finished eating, they were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their hunger, satiety, perception of the foods, and included demographic and anthropometric questions. In addition, participants' total food intake was recorded. Results Participants who were in the presence of meal-related cues ate 27.9% more calories than those surrounded with snack cues (416 versus 532 calories. The amount participants ate was partially mediated by whether they perceived the eating occasion to be a meal or a snack. In addition, the effect of the environmental cues on intake was most pronounced among participants who were hungry. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that environmental and situational cues associated with an eating occasion could influence overall food intake. People were more likely to eat foods when they were associated with meal cues. Importantly, the present study reveals that the effect of these cues is uniquely intertwined with cognition and motivation. First, people were more likely to eat ambiguous foods when they perceived them as a meal rather than a

  14. Specific hunger- and satiety-induced tuning of guinea pig enteric nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Lina; Boesmans, Werend; Dondeyne, Marjan; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2012-09-01

    Although hunger and satiety are mainly centrally regulated, there is convincing evidence that also gastrointestinal motor activity and hormone fluctuations significantly contribute to appetite signalling. In this study, we investigated how motility and enteric nerve activity are set by fasting and feeding. By means of video-imaging, we tested whether peristaltic activity differs in ex vivo preparations from fasted and re-fed guinea pigs. Ca(2+) imaging was used to investigate whether the feeding state directly alters neuronal activity, either occurring spontaneously or evoked by (an)orexigenic signalling molecules. We found that pressure-induced (2 cmH(2)O) peristaltic activity occurs at a higher frequency in ileal segments from re-fed animals (re-fed versus fasted, 6.12 ± 0.22 vs. 4.84 ± 0.52 waves min(-1), P = 0.028), even in vitro hours after death. Myenteric neuronal responses were tuned to the feeding status, since neurons in tissues from re-fed animals remained hyper-responsive to high K(+)-evoked depolarization (P < 0.001) and anorexigenic molecules (P < 0.001), while being less responsive to orexigenic ghrelin (P = 0.013). This illustrates that the feeding status remains ‘imprinted' ex vivo. We were able to reproduce this feeding state-related memory in vitro and found humoral feeding state-related factors to be implicated. Although the molecular link with hyperactivity is not entirely elucidated yet, glucose-dependent pathways are clearly involved in tuning neuronal excitability. We conclude that a bistable memory system that tunes neuronal responses to fasting and re-feeding is present in the enteric nervous system, increasing responses to depolarization and anorexigenic molecules in the re-fed state, while decreasing responses to orexigenic ghrelin. Unlike the hypothalamus, where specific cell populations sensitive to either orexigenic or anorexigenic molecules exist, the enteric feeding state-related memory system is present at the functional level

  15. Beta beat correction and improvement in Indus-2 storage ring performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodicity restoration or the beta beat correction is an important step to enhance the operational performance of any storage ring in terms of the better injection efficiency and improved beam lifetime etc. A method of linear beam optics from closed orbit has been used for the beta beat correction in Indus-2 store ring, where 26 power supplies driving the 72 quadrupoles are used as a degree of freedoms. In this method, the measured response matrix is fitted to the theoretical orbit response matrix and deviations of the quadrupole strengths are determined. Correction of these deviation in strengths are applied in the operating machine through the power supplies driving the quadrupoles. We will discuss the method used for the beta beat correction in Indus-2 storage ring and will present the effects of the correction on the injection efficiency and beam lifetime. (author)

  16. Wavelet Entropy as a Measure of Ventricular Beat Suppression from the Electrocardiogram in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Langley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of quantifying the effectiveness of the suppression of ventricular activity from electrocardiograms (ECGs in atrial fibrillation is proposed. The temporal distribution of the energy of wavelet coefficients is quantified by wavelet entropy at each ventricular beat. More effective ventricular activity suppression yields increased entropies at scales dominated by the ventricular and atrial components of the ECG. Two studies are undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy of the method: first, using synthesised ECGs with controlled levels of residual ventricular activity, and second, using patient recordings with ventricular activity suppressed by an average beat template subtraction algorithm. In both cases wavelet entropy is shown to be a good measure of the effectiveness of ventricular beat suppression.

  17. Substrate stiffness-modulated registry phase correlations in cardiomyocytes map structural order to coherent beating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Majkut, S.; Discher, D. E.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments show that both striation, an indication of the structural registry in muscle fibres, as well as the contractile strains produced by beating cardiac muscle cells can be optimized by substrate stiffness. Here we show theoretically how the substrate rigidity dependence of the registry data can be mapped onto that of the strain measurements. We express the elasticity-mediated structural registry as a phase-order parameter using a statistical physics approach that takes the noise and disorder inherent in biological systems into account. By assuming that structurally registered myofibrils also tend to beat in phase, we explain the observed dependence of both striation and strain measurements of cardiomyocytes on substrate stiffness in a unified manner. The agreement of our ideas with experiment suggests that the correlated beating of heart cells may be limited by the structural order of the myofibrils, which in turn is regulated by their elastic environment.

  18. Intra-beat Scaling Properties of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2008-02-01

    We applied detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to characterize the intra-beat scaling dynamics of electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings from the PhysioNet Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database. The main finding of this contribution is that, in such recordings involving different types of arrhythmias; the ECG waveform, besides showing a less-random intra-beat dynamics, becomes more regular during bigeminy, ventricular tachycardia (VT) or even atrial fibrillation (AFIB) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) despite the appearance of erratic traces. Thus, notwithstanding that these cardiac rhythm abnormalities are generally considered as irregular and some of them generated by random impulses or wavefronts, the intra-beat scaling properties suggest that regularity dominates the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias. Among other explanations, this may result from shorted or restricted -less complex- pathways of conduction of the electrical activity within the ventricles.

  19. Probing an Excited-State Atomic Transition Using Hyperfine Quantum Beat Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Christopher G; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to observe the dynamics of an excited-state transition in a room temperature atomic vapor using hyperfine quantum beats. Our experiment using cesium atoms consists of a pulsed excitation of the D2 transition, and continuous-wave driving of an excited-state transition from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state to the 7S$_{1/2}$ state. We observe quantum beats in the fluorescence from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state which are modified by the driving of the excited-state transition. The Fourier spectrum of the beat signal yields evidence of Autler-Townes splitting of the 6P$_{3/2}$, F = 5 hyperfine level and Rabi oscillations on the excited-state transition. A detailed model provides qualitative agreement with the data, giving insight to the physical processes involved.

  20. RULE BASED CLASSIFICATION OF ISCHEMIC ECG BEATS USING ANT-MINER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murugan,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia is the most common cardiac disease and is characterized by a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The accurate ischemic episode detection, where a sequence of cardiac beats is assessed, is based on the correct detection of ischemic beats. In this paper, a data mining approach, association rule based classification using Ant-Miner algorithm is proposed for automatic detection of ischemic ECG beats. The proposed work has two steps: initially the noise is removed and the features are extracted from the ECG signals. With these features, the Ant-Miner is applied to extract the rules. European Society of Cardiology ST-T database of ECGbeats is used to analyze the performance of our proposed method with the existing. The greater accuracy of the proposed method shows its high performance than the existing.

  1. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  2. On the Interaction of Two Beating Electrostatic Waves with Plasma Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the interaction of particles with two beating plasma waves. We follow the instructional article by Ott and Dum. According to them, the sum of wave actions during the interaction is constant, supposing the effect of trapped particles on the beat can be neglected. In the present paper, this problem is solved more generally, just for the case of trapped and also untrapped particles in the wave. Our study shows that the sum of wave actions is constant also in the case when the influence of the trapped particles on the amplitudes of two waves was considered. On the contrary this conclusion is not valid if it is supposed that two original waves are amplitude modulated e.g. by the influence of the interaction of the beat with particles.

  3. Effects of biological pre-treatment of pine chips on the beating performance of Kraft pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami IMAMOGLU; Celil ATIK

    2007-01-01

    The Calabrien pine (Pinus brutia ) wood chips prior to kraft pulping were biologically pre-treated with selected whiterot fungi ( Ceriporiopsis subvermispora ), which was recorded to be preferentially attacking the lignin component of the wood. The effects of this treatment on beating performance and physical strength of resultant papers were studied in detail. Bio-treated samples showed comparable and, in most cases, higher physico-mechanical properties than those obtained from untreated controls. Under the same beating conditions the bio-treated kraft pulp was noted to have the lower SR° indicating a lower degree of external fibrillation. The paper made from bio-treated kraft pulp has a higher density, tensile property, air permeability and swellability. Furthermore, remarkable energy savings up to 33 % were observed when beating bio-treated kraft pulp. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms taking place during bio-treatment and the modification processes of cell wall components.

  4. And May the Odds Be Always in Your Favour: What "The Hunger Games"-Trilogy Can Teach Us about Today's Marketing Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfeil, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Some consumer researchers suggested in the 1980s that fictional novels and artworks would tell us more about consumer behaviour, life and the human condition than scientific papers in our top-tier journals. Following in their tradition, this critical paper argues that “The Hunger Games”-trilogy provides a perfect mirror for The Publishing Games that haunt marketing academia in recent years. Just like the Hunger Games are the means by which the Capitol’s ruling elite subdues Panem’s wider popu...

  5. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina;

    2013-01-01

    over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests...... intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty...

  6. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Han

    Full Text Available Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group. The ad libitum (AL group (normal eating pattern and the food restriction (FR group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  7. Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Kroemer, Nils B; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Gitelman, Darren R; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2015-05-20

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA-hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling.

  8. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  9. Activating and relaxing music entrains the speed of beat synchronized walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Leman

    Full Text Available Inspired by a theory of embodied music cognition, we investigate whether music can entrain the speed of beat synchronized walking. If human walking is in synchrony with the beat and all musical stimuli have the same duration and the same tempo, then differences in walking speed can only be the result of music-induced differences in stride length, thus reflecting the vigor or physical strength of the movement. Participants walked in an open field in synchrony with the beat of 52 different musical stimuli all having a tempo of 130 beats per minute and a meter of 4 beats. The walking speed was measured as the walked distance during a time interval of 30 seconds. The results reveal that some music is 'activating' in the sense that it increases the speed, and some music is 'relaxing' in the sense that it decreases the speed, compared to the spontaneous walked speed in response to metronome stimuli. Participants are consistent in their observation of qualitative differences between the relaxing and activating musical stimuli. Using regression analysis, it was possible to set up a predictive model using only four sonic features that explain 60% of the variance. The sonic features capture variation in loudness and pitch patterns at periods of three, four and six beats, suggesting that expressive patterns in music are responsible for the effect. The mechanism may be attributed to an attentional shift, a subliminal audio-motor entrainment mechanism, or an arousal effect, but further study is needed to figure this out. Overall, the study supports the hypothesis that recurrent patterns of fluctuation affecting the binary meter strength of the music may entrain the vigor of the movement. The study opens up new perspectives for understanding the relationship between entrainment and expressiveness, with the possibility to develop applications that can be used in domains such as sports and physical rehabilitation.

  10. Activating and relaxing music entrains the speed of beat synchronized walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Marc; Moelants, Dirk; Varewyck, Matthias; Styns, Frederik; van Noorden, Leon; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a theory of embodied music cognition, we investigate whether music can entrain the speed of beat synchronized walking. If human walking is in synchrony with the beat and all musical stimuli have the same duration and the same tempo, then differences in walking speed can only be the result of music-induced differences in stride length, thus reflecting the vigor or physical strength of the movement. Participants walked in an open field in synchrony with the beat of 52 different musical stimuli all having a tempo of 130 beats per minute and a meter of 4 beats. The walking speed was measured as the walked distance during a time interval of 30 seconds. The results reveal that some music is 'activating' in the sense that it increases the speed, and some music is 'relaxing' in the sense that it decreases the speed, compared to the spontaneous walked speed in response to metronome stimuli. Participants are consistent in their observation of qualitative differences between the relaxing and activating musical stimuli. Using regression analysis, it was possible to set up a predictive model using only four sonic features that explain 60% of the variance. The sonic features capture variation in loudness and pitch patterns at periods of three, four and six beats, suggesting that expressive patterns in music are responsible for the effect. The mechanism may be attributed to an attentional shift, a subliminal audio-motor entrainment mechanism, or an arousal effect, but further study is needed to figure this out. Overall, the study supports the hypothesis that recurrent patterns of fluctuation affecting the binary meter strength of the music may entrain the vigor of the movement. The study opens up new perspectives for understanding the relationship between entrainment and expressiveness, with the possibility to develop applications that can be used in domains such as sports and physical rehabilitation.

  11. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Michael E; Alkhalaf, Ahmed M; Whalley, Ben

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences. PMID:23054177

  12. Cross-Cultural Influences on Rhythm Processing: Reproduction, Discrimination, and Beat Tapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to synchronize one’s movements to musical rhythms appears to be universal. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on the perception, production, and beat tapping of rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced both by the culture of the participant and by the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant’s ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than unfamiliar rhythms. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  13. Polarization-dependent loss characterization method based on optical frequency beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, T; Nobre, C S; Temporão, G P

    2016-03-10

    Characterization of the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) of optical components is fundamental for the reliable operation of fiber-optic communication systems. Here we present a method for determining the PDL of optical devices based on optical frequency beating and spectral analysis. Depending on the beat note between components of two orthogonally polarized probe signals modulated at different frequencies, the PDL value and its axis can be determined from a single sweep of an optical spectrum analyzer. Our proposal represents an alternative high-speed option for PDL characterization. PMID:26974770

  14. Terahertz generation by beating two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terahertz (THz) radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma is discussed theoretically. The critical angle between the two Langmuir waves and the critical wave-length (wave vector) of Langmuir waves for generating THz radiation are obtained analytically. Furthermore, the maximum radiation energy is obtained. We find that the critical angle, the critical wave-length, and the generated radiation energy strongly depend on plasma temperature and wave-length of the Langmuir waves. That is, the THz radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma can be controlled by adjusting the plasma temperature and the Langmuir wave-length

  15. Study of beat phenomenon on a pile-supported pipeline system subjected to wave loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xun; Huang Weiping; Li Huajun

    2007-01-01

    Classical beat phenomenon has been observed in most combined systems. The focus of this paper is to provide a better understanding of this phenomenon in an offshore pile-supported pipeline system. The beat phenomeon is caused by the coupling movement of the pipeline and its vertical pile support under certain conditions. It can induce excessive vibration and cause fatigue failure at pipe elbow. However, in some circumstances it does not exist. Numerical results in both frequency and time domains are presented to elucidate this phenomenon in a combined pipeline system. The conclusions of this paper could give constructive guidance to future design of simply supported pipeline systems.

  16. Odor detection in Manduca sexta is optimized when odor stimuli are pulsed at a frequency matching the wing beat during flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Daly

    Full Text Available Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit

  17. Estimation of beat-to-beat changes in stroke volume from arterial pressure: A comparison of two pressure wave analysis techniques during head- up tilt testing in young, healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, W.T.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Oosting, H.; Wesseling, K.H.; Lieshout, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare beat-to-beat changes in stroke volume (SV) estimated by two different pressure wave analysis techniques during orthostatic stress testing: pulse contour analysis and Modelflow, ie, simulation of a three-element model of aortic input impedance. Methods:

  18. Illusions, hunger and vices: smallholders, environmentalism and the green agrarian question in Chiapas' biofuel rush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Navarrete, A.

    2015-01-01

    Activists and environmentalists all over the world have been successful in framing biofuel crops as drivers of deforestation, land grabbing and rural indebtedness – effectively reversing earlier promotional pronouncements of biofuels as the answer to ecological problems. The counternarrative h

  19. Mnemonic Effect of Iconic Gesture and Beat Gesture in Adults and Children: Is Meaning in Gesture Important for Memory Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Chen-Hui, Colin Sim; Wei-Shan, Julie Low

    2012-01-01

    Abundant research has shown that encoding meaningful gesture, such as an iconic gesture, enhances memory. This paper asked whether gesture needs to carry meaning to improve memory recall by comparing the mnemonic effect of meaningful (i.e., iconic gestures) and nonmeaningful gestures (i.e., beat gestures). Beat gestures involve simple motoric…

  20. Walking to the beat of different drums: practical implications for the use of acoustic rhythms in gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Beek, Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Acoustic rhythms are frequently used in gait rehabilitation, with positive instantaneous and prolonged transfer effects on various gait characteristics. The gait modifying ability of acoustic rhythms depends on how well gait is tied to the beat, which can be assessed with measures of relative timing of auditory-motor coordination. We examined auditory-motor coordination in 20 healthy elderly individuals walking to metronome beats with pacing frequencies slower than, equal to, and faster than their preferred cadence. We found that more steps were required to adjust gait to the beat, the more the metronome rate deviated from the preferred cadence. Furthermore, participants anticipated the beat with their footfalls to various degrees, depending on the metronome rate; the faster the tempo, the smaller the phase advance or phase lead. Finally, the variability in the relative timing between footfalls and the beat was smaller for metronome rates closer to the preferred cadence, reflecting superior auditory-motor coordination. These observations have three practical implications. First, instantaneous effects of acoustic stimuli on gait characteristics may typically be underestimated given the considerable number of steps required to attune gait to the beat in combination with the usual short walkways. Second, a systematic phase lead of footfalls to the beat does not necessarily reflect a reduced ability to couple gait to the metronome. Third, the efficacy of acoustic rhythms to modify gait depends on metronome rate. Gait is coupled best to the beat for metronome rates near the preferred cadence.

  1. Distraction, not hunger, is associated with lower mood and lower perceived work performance on fast compared to non-fast days during intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Baker, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Using a repeated measures design, 16 females recorded hunger, distraction, mood and perceived work performance on two consecutive fast days, on two earlier and on two subsequent consecutive non-fast days, during intermittent fasting. Using regression analyses, low positive mood was associated with higher distraction (β = -0.38, p intermittent fasting-type regimes. PMID:26032787

  2. Identifying Factors that Influence State-Specific Hunger Rates in the U.S.: A Simple Analytic Method for Understanding a Persistent Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark Evan; Weber, Bruce; Bernell, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    An existing measure of food insecurity with hunger in the United States may serve as an effective indicator of quality of life. State level differences in that measure can reveal important differences in quality of life across places. In this study, we advocate and demonstrate two simple methods by which analysts can explore state-specific…

  3. The Backpack Food Program's Effects on U.S. Elementary Students' Hunger and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Meghan E.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BackPack Food Program's effectiveness in combating students' hunger over the weekends and school breaks, as well as analyze the program's effects on students' on-task behavior in the classroom. Additionally, this study examined program satisfaction from students,…

  4. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  5. Integrar sociedade e natureza na luta contra a fome no século XXI Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Abramovay

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do mundo contemporâneo exige um olhar naturalista do qual a obra de Josué de Castro é uma das mais importantes expressões: pensar de maneira articulada a vida social e a reprodução do ambiente natural em que se apóia - incluindo aí a natureza do próprio homem, seu corpo - é a pedra de toque do método geográfico praticado em Geografia da Fome. Esse método é importante não apenas para estudar aquelas regiões onde a fome se abate severamente sobre a vida da população, mas oferece uma importante chave de leitura dos problemas alimentares que se anunciam para o século XXI, quando a população mundial deverá ter um aumento de quase 50%. Os desafios produtivos dos próximos anos - que este artigo procura expor de maneira sumária - não poderão ser enfrentados com base nas técnicas que caracterizaram a Revolução Verde. Eles exigem uma compreensão refinada dos vínculos entre sistemas sociais e sistemas ecológicos, para a qual a obra de Josué de Castro é uma inspiração fundamental.Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years - and which this article discusses briefly - cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the

  6. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  7. Lung Transplantation from Nonheparinized Category III Non-Heart-Beating Donors. A Single-Centre Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel E.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Nijkamp, Danielle M.; Vermeyden, J. Wytse; van der Bij, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Background. Despite the increasing use of extended lung donors, the shortage of lung donors remains. Usage of non-heart-beating (NHB) lung donors contributes to fight this shortage. We describe our experience in 21 consecutive adult lung transplantations using nonheparinized category III NHB donors

  8. Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat at duck from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Menon, H.B.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Jog, P.D.; Almeida, A.M.

    Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat (infra gravity waves) has for the first time been computed as a function of frequency from different combinations of non-collinear 3-gauge arrays. Data at the 15-gauge polygonal array at 8 m depth at Duck...

  9. Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds...and Others Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. Some schools, however, "beat the odds" and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? Using the methodology of business guru Jim Collins…

  10. Should Individual Investors Use Technical Trading Rules to Attempt to Beat the Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Coe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite widespread academic acceptance of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, some stock traders still use technical trading rules in an attempt to beat the market. Approach: This study looked at four trading rules, namely, the arithmetic moving average, the relative strength index, a stochastic oscillator and its moving average. These trading rules compare the relationship of current prices to past price patterns to generate a signal when to buy and sell stocks. The trading rules were tested over the years 2000-2009, a period of time that exhibited bull and bear markets, to determine if traders could actively trade a stock and beat a passive investment strategy. Results: We tested the four trading rules against the 576 stocks that comprise the S&P 100, the NASDAQ 100 and the S&P Midcap 400. The results proved discouraging to that strategy, in that no one trading rule consistently beat the market. Conclusion/Recommendations: Since technical trading rules cannot be used to consistently beat a long-term buy and hold strategy, we recommend that investors first use fundamental analysis to select stocks and then apply a technical trading rule to enhance potential trading gains.

  11. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  12. The Patterns of Music: Young Children Learning Mathematics through Beat, Rhythm, and Melody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Geist, Eugene A.; Kuznik, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Research on music and music therapy suggests that math and music are related in the brain from very early in life. Musical elements such as steady beat, rhythm, melody, and tempo possess inherent mathematical principles such as spatial properties, sequencing, counting, patterning, and one-to-one correspondence. With new understanding about the…

  13. Effects of Movement, Tempo, and Gender on Steady Beat Performance of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paige

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to discover the effects of manual (hand) and pedal (foot) movements, tempo, and gender on steady beat accuracy. Participants (N = 119) consisted of male (n = 63) and female (n = 56) kindergarten students randomly divided into two groups, counterbalanced with regard to school, homeroom, and gender. Participants…

  14. Behind Beats and Rhymes: Working Class from a Hampton Roads Hip Hop Homeplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Aisha S.

    2009-01-01

    The film documentary titled "Hip Hop: beyond beats and rhymes" captures ongoing conversations among scholars, cultural critics, and hip hop insiders about the state of African Americans by interrogating distinct expressive forms associated with hip hop culture. Durham draws from two scenes to describe her memories as the researched underclass and…

  15. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion as Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Rouse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms—i.e., beat keeping—is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan’s performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced perturbations, altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan’s performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  16. Siim Nestor soovitab : Stereo ÖÖ. Mutant Disco. Beats from the Vault. Turbodisko / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Oma debüütalbumit "Migration" tutvustav ameerika diskor Alex Attias üritustel "Stereo ÖÖ" 19. mail Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Üritustest "Mutant Disco" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Privé ja Tartus 20. mail klubis Illusion, "Beats from the Vault" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Võit ja "Turbodisko" 20. mail Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  17. Social media as beat : tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd

    2011-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for news gathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. During the 2010 elections, 24 percent of British and 48 percent of Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visio

  18. Amplitude differences least squares method applied to temporal cardiac beat alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, R. O.; Laciar, E.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.

    2007-11-01

    High resolution averaged ECG is an important diagnostic technique in post-infarcted and/or chagasic patients with high risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT). It calls for precise determination of the synchronism point (fiducial point) in each beat to be averaged. Cross-correlation (CC) between each detected beat and a reference beat is, by and large, the standard alignment procedure. However, the fiducial point determination is not precise in records contaminated with high levels of noise. Herein, we propose an alignment procedure based on the least squares calculation of the amplitude differences (LSAD) between the ECG samples and a reference or template beat. Both techniques, CC and LSAD, were tested in high resolution ECG's corrupted with white noise and 50 Hz line interference of varying amplitudes (RMS range: 0-100μV). Results point out that LSDA produced a lower alignment error in all contaminated records while in those blurred by power line interference better results were found only within the 0-40 μV range. It is concluded that the proposed method represents a valid alignment alternative.

  19. Movement in Steady Beat: Learning on the Move, Ages 3-7. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.

    The ability to feel and maintain steady, rhythmic beat is important for children to develop in early childhood and will assist them in mastering concepts in language and literacy, mathematics, and other content areas as well as increase body coordination and related physical abilities. Designed as an activity supplement to High Scope movement and…

  20. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  1. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for newsgathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This article investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch ele

  2. Influence of microwaves on the beating rate of isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, K C; Chou, C K; Guy, A W

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that microwave exposure can decrease the beating rate of isolated rat hearts. These experiments were conducted at room temperature and with the hearts exposed to air. We observed arrhythmia frequently at room temperature, and the variation of heart beat was so large that it makes the results difficult to reproduce. Therefore, we employed a double-circulating system to provide perfusion through the coronary artery and around the outside of the heart to maintain the rat hearts at 37.7 degrees C. No arrhythmias were observed in our experiments, and the hearts were beating for at least 1 h. The effects of 16-Hz modulated 2,450-MHz pulsed microwaves (10 microseconds, 100 pps) on the beating rate of 50 isolated rat hearts were studied. Results showed no statistically significant changes of heart rate in exposed groups at SARs of 2 and 10 W/kg compared with the control group. The effect seen at 200 W/kg was shown to be similar to that resulting from heating the heart.

  3. Tagasiviitavad tõendid: teine pilk pilditeadusele / Beat Wyss ; intervjueerinud Ivar-Kristjan Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wyss, Beat, 1947-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuus Karlsruhe kunsti- ja disainiülikooli kunstiajaloo ja meediateooria professori Beat Wyssiga on teemaks Zürichis tema juhitav uurimisprojekt, mille keskmes on Venezia biennaal Ida-Euroopa riikide positsioonilt, tema EKA Kunstiteaduse Instituudi doktorantidele peetud seminar "Tagasiviitavad tõendid. Teine pilk pilditeadusele", tema kaasaegse kunsti universaalsed põhimõtted

  4. Laser-driven Beat-Wave Current Drive in Dense Plasmas with Demo on CTIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Horton, Robert; Hwang, David; Zhu, Ben; Evans, Russell; Hong, Sean; Hsu, Scott

    2010-11-01

    The ability to remotely generate plasma current in dense plasmas hanging freely in vacuum in voluminous amount without obstruction to diagnostics will greatly enhance our ability to study the physics of high energy density plasmas in strong magnetic fields. Plasma current can be generated through nonlinear beat-wave process by launching two intense electromagnetic waves into unmagnetized plasma. Beat-wave acceleration of electrons has been demonstrated in a low-density plasma using microwaves [1]. The proposed PLX experimental facility presently under construction at Los Alamos offers the opportunity to test the method at a density level scalable to the study of HED plasmas. For PLX beat-wave experiments, CO2 lasers will be used as pump waves due to their high power and tunability. For a typical PLX density ne=10^17cm-3, two CO2 lasers can be separately tuned to 9P(28) and 10P(20) to match the 2.84THz plasma frequency. The beat-wave demo experiment will be conducted on CTIX. The laser arrangement is being converted to two independent single lasers. Frequency-tuning methods, optics focusing system and diagnostics system will be discussed. The laser measurements and results of synchronization of two lasers will be presented, and scaling to PLX experiments will be given. [1] Rogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., PRL. v68 p3877 (1992).

  5. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms. PMID:27375418

  6. Quantum beats in forward scattering: subnanosecond studies with a mode-locked dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, H; Burggraf, H; Mlynek, J; Lange, W

    1981-06-01

    Time-resolved polarization spectroscopy of transient coherent superpositions of atomic substates is extended to the picosecond time scale by using a synchronously pumped mode-locked dye laser. As a first demonstration, hyperfine beats in the sodium D(1) and D(2), lines were resolved. The ground-state splitting could be determined with an accuracy of better than 10(-3).

  7. Quantum beats in forward scattering - Subnanosecond studies with a mode-locked dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, H.; Burggraf, H.; Mlynek, J.; Lange, W.

    1981-06-01

    Time-resolved polarization spectroscopy of transient coherent superpositions of atomic substates is extended to the picosecond time scale by using a synchronously pumped mode-locked dye laser. As a first demonstration, hyperfine beats in the sodium D1 and D2 lines were resolved. The ground-state splitting could be determined with an accuracy of better than 0.001.

  8. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  9. Lack of beat isochrony disrupts motor performance in a child drummer prodigy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have focused on coupling between perception and action (e.g., via finger tapping, and more generally on entrainment, in average musicians and non-musicians. Yet, little is known about the effects of entrainment on timing and movement kinematics in individuals exhibiting outstanding rhythmical abilities. In this study we examined the effect of beat isochrony on the performance of IF, a 7-year-old child drummer prodigy. IF displayed very early (at 3-4 years of age outstanding musical abilities, and exceptional sensorimotor synchronization. To assess whether temporal regularity of the underlying beat (i.e., isochrony during music playing affects IF’s performance we tested IF and a “control” group (i.e., children from music schools with 1-to1.5 years of percussion training in a motion capture study. Participants imitated a short 6-note isochronous metrical pattern (Strong-weak-weak-Strong-weak-weak on a percussion pad under four conditions. In the first condition the pattern was imitated repeatedly along with a metronome. In the second condition, the pattern was repeated but with a break in between repetitions, together with a metronome. In the third condition, similar breaks were introduced, but disrupting beat isochrony (i.e., with an irregular, though predictable, metronome. Finally, in the fourth condition break durations were random. IF exhibited higher temporal accuracy than controls with an isochronous metronome. However, his performance was much less accurate with disrupted beat isochrony. This was accompanied by overall differences between IF and controls in movement kinematics in terms of movement amplitude, and anticipation times. Enhanced performance in the presence of an isochronous beat, as opposed to lack of isochrony, suggests that motor entrainment may act as a marker of musical expertise early during development.

  10. Multi-component based cross correlation beat detection in electrocardiogram analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Frank J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first stage in computerised processing of the electrocardiogram is beat detection. This involves identifying all cardiac cycles and locating the position of the beginning and end of each of the identifiable waveform components. The accuracy at which beat detection is performed has significant impact on the overall classification performance, hence efforts are still being made to improve this process. Methods A new beat detection approach is proposed based on the fundamentals of cross correlation and compared with two benchmarking approaches of non-syntactic and cross correlation beat detection. The new approach can be considered to be a multi-component based variant of traditional cross correlation where each of the individual inter-wave components are sought in isolation as opposed to being sought in one complete process. Each of three techniques were compared based on their performance in detecting the P wave, QRS complex and T wave in addition to onset and offset markers for 3000 cardiac cycles. Results Results indicated that the approach of multi-component based cross correlation exceeded the performance of the two benchmarking techniques by firstly correctly detecting more cardiac cycles and secondly provided the most accurate marker insertion in 7 out of the 8 categories tested. Conclusion The main benefit of the multi-component based cross correlation algorithm is seen to be firstly its ability to successfully detect cardiac cycles and secondly the accurate insertion of the beat markers based on pre-defined values as opposed to performing individual gradient searches for wave onsets and offsets following fiducial point location.

  11. Ciliary beating recovery in deficient human airway epithelial cells after lentivirus ex vivo gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1 gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1-deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1-deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease.

  12. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  13. Local School Wellness Policy Implementation Under the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This final rule requires all local educational agencies that participate in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to meet expanded local school wellness policy requirements consistent with the requirements set forth in section 204 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. The final rule requires each local educational agency to establish minimum content requirements for the local school wellness policies, ensure stakeholder participation in the development and updates of such policies, and periodically assess and disclose to the public schools' compliance with the local school wellness policies. These regulations are expected to result in local school wellness policies that strengthen the ability of a local educational agency to create a school nutrition environment that promotes students' health, well-being, and ability to learn. In addition, these regulations will increase transparency for the public with regard to school wellness policies and contribute to integrity in the school nutrition program. PMID:27476196

  14. A Postcolonial Appraisal of Suzanne Collins’ The Hunger Games in the Light of Bhabha’s Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghaffarpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has tried to apply Bhabha's significant notions such as mimicry, ambivalence and stereotype to Suzanne Collins' The Hunger Games. Bhabha believes that in the interaction of the colonizer and the colonized both cultures are affected and neither culture can claim to have a pure and fixed status. In the process of interaction, the identity of both colonizer and the colonized undergoes serious changes. The colonizer stereotypes the colonized, regarding them as the inferior, thoughtless beings. The colonized seeing them in power internalize what they say, perceiving themselves as backward and the colonizer as superior, sophisticated beings. As they consider the colonizer as the sophisticated, powerful culture, they try to imitate them (this is actually what the colonizer wants which are not the exact copy but the parody of them, causing crack in the dominance of the colonizer. In this interaction, not only the colonized's identity but also the colonizer's alters. This is in fact what happens in Collins' The Hunger Games. The characters in the novel when encountering the colonizer's culture change their identity and become who they want them to be; however, the characters also through some resistance make the colonizer to follow what they assign for them. Moreover, during the course of the novel, the characters find an ambivalent character as a result of experiencing unhomeliness. This ambivalence makes them have a double consciousness, to be attracted toward the colonized culture and at the same time repulsed it.                             Keywords: Identity, Ambivalence, Mimicry, Stereotype, Unhomeliness

  15. Stochasticity intrinsic to coupled-clock mechanisms underlies beat-to-beat variability of spontaneous action potential firing in sinoatrial node pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Sirenko, Syevda; Okamoto, Yosuke; Guiriba, Toni-Rose; Ziman, Bruce D; Morrell, Christopher H; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the spontaneous action potential (AP) of isolated sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) is regulated by a system of stochastic mechanisms embodied within two clocks: ryanodine receptors of the "Ca(2+) clock" within the sarcoplasmic reticulum, spontaneously activate during diastole and discharge local Ca(2+) releases (LCRs) beneath the cell surface membrane; clock crosstalk occurs as LCRs activate an inward Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger current (INCX), which together with If and decay of K(+) channels prompts the "M clock," the ensemble of sarcolemmal-electrogenic molecules, to generate APs. Prolongation of the average LCR period accompanies prolongation of the average AP beating interval (BI). Moreover, the prolongation of the average AP BI accompanies increased AP BI variability. We hypothesized that both the average AP BI and AP BI variability are dependent upon stochasticity of clock mechanisms reported by the variability of LCR period. We perturbed the coupled-clock system by directly inhibiting the M clock by ivabradine (IVA) or the Ca(2+) clock by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). When either clock is perturbed by IVA (3, 10 and 30 μM), which has no direct effect on Ca(2+) cycling, or CPA (0.5 and 5 μM), which has no direct effect on the M clock ion channels, the clock system failed to achieve the basal AP BI and both AP BI and AP BI variability increased. The changes in average LCR period and its variability in response to perturbations of the coupled-clock system were correlated with changes in AP beating interval and AP beating interval variability. We conclude that the stochasticity within the coupled-clock system affects and is affected by the AP BI firing rate and rhythm via modulation of the effectiveness of clock coupling. PMID:25257916

  16. Effect of myocardial protection during beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jie; LI Xin-hua; YAN Zi-xing; LIU Ai-jun; ZHANG Wen-kai; YANG Li-na

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin-I (cTnl) is one of the three regulatory subunits of the cardiac troponin which has the high sensibility and specificity of responding to myocardial injury. Studies have demonstrated that cTnl is released into the blood stream within hours following acute myocardial reperfusion injury. The clinical utility of cTnl for the assessment of myocardial damage is that it is more specific than creatine kinase MB (CKMB). This study investigated cTnl as a sensitive marker of myocardial reperfusion injury and its clinical value on beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary incision. Methods From December 2002 threugh December 2004,100 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect (ASD+VSD), and tetralogy of Fallot were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=50) was operated on with a beating heart under extracorporeal circulation (ECC), and the control group (n=50) on an conventional arresting heart under ECC. The two groups both used a right sub-axillary incision. Blood samples from a central venous catheter (CVC) were collected before, at the end of aortic clamping, immediately after discontinue cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours after operation. The Abbott Axsym system with hol-automation fluorescent immunity analyzer was used for the quantitative determination of cTnl. cTnl was detected to investigate the effect of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and the clinical value of beating heart surgery with right sub-axillary incision. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups before operation. At the end of aortic clamping and thereafter, cTnl significantly increased in both groups, and reached the peak point at 6 hours after operation. At all the tested points, cTnl was significantly higher in the control group than the beating heart group (P <0.05), especially at 6 hours post operation (P <0.01). The

  17. Perceiving temporal regularity in music: the role of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in probing beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Bouwer, Fleur L; Háden, Gábor P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of how the perception of a regular beat in music can be studied in humans adults, human newborns, and nonhuman primates using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Next to a review of the recent literature on the perception of temporal regularity in music, we will discuss in how far ERPs, and especially the component called mismatch negativity (MMN), can be instrumental in probing beat perception. We conclude with a discussion on the pitfalls and prospects of using ERPs to probe the perception of a regular beat, in which we present possible constraints on stimulus design and discuss future perspectives.

  18. Strain fiber sensor based on beat frequency with chirped fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Haojie; Wen, Quan; Chen, Longfei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yufang; Yu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    We propose a strain fiber sensor that is interrogated via longitudinal mode beat frequency with a linear chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). Unlike conventional sensors, in the proposed sensor, the CFBG is used to convert wavelength changes into resonant cavity length changes. Further, the beat frequency stability of the fiber laser is fully utilized to significantly improve measurement accuracy. Consequently, because cavity changes account for 5.1% of the total cavity length, the measurement accuracy can be as large as 7.06×10-7 ɛ-i.e., approximately five times greater than the accuracy obtained by stretching the resonant cavity fiber. The maximum experimental strain error range is ±14.5 μɛ.

  19. Without it no music: beat induction as a fundamental musical trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan

    2012-04-01

    Beat induction (BI) is the cognitive skill that allows us to hear a regular pulse in music to which we can then synchronize. Perceiving this regularity in music allows us to dance and make music together. As such, it can be considered a fundamental musical trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origins of music. Furthermore, BI might be considered a spontaneously developing, domain-specific, and species-specific skill. Although both learning and perception/action coupling were shown to be relevant in its development, at least one study showed that the auditory system of a newborn is able to detect the periodicities induced by a varying rhythm. A related study with adults suggested that hierarchical representations for rhythms (meter induction) are formed automatically in the human auditory system. We will reconsider these empirical findings in the light of the question whether beat and meter induction are fundamental cognitive mechanisms.

  20. Pulsed Frequency Shifted Feedback Laser for Accurate Long Distance Measurements: Beat Order Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Pique, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance measurements (10 m - 1000 m) with an accuracy of 10-7 is a challenge for many applications. We show that it is achievable with Frequency Shifted Feedback (FSF) laser interferometry technique, provided that the determination of the radio frequency beat order be made without ambiguity and on a time scale compatible with atmospheric applications. Using the pulsed-FSF laser that we developed for laser guide star application, we propose and test, up to 240 m, a simple method for measuring the beat order in real time. The moving-comb and Yatsenko models are also discussed. The first of these models fails to interpret our long-distance interferometry results. We show that the accuracy of long-distance measurements depends primarily on the stabilization of the acoustic frequency of the modulator.

  1. Quantum beats in the polarization response of a dielectric to intense few-cycle laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Korbman, Michael; Yakovlev, Vladislav S

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization response of a dielectric to intense few-cycle laser pulses with a focus on interband tunnelling. Once charge carriers are created in an initially empty conduction band, they make a significant contribution to the polarization response. In particular, the coherent superposition of conduction- and valence-band states results in quantum beats. We investigate how the quantum-beat part of the polarization response is affected by excitation dynamics and the attosecond-scale motion of charge carriers in an intense laser field. We find that, with the onset of tunnelling and Bloch oscillations, the nonlinear polarization response becomes sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase of a laser pulse.

  2. Generation of the quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled state in quantum beat lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2013-12-01

    In this letter, a scheme is presented to obtain quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement via quantum beats in a four-level diamond configuration atomic system. When the top and the ground states are initially prepared in a coherent superposition, the four quantized fields coupling with four dipole-allowed transitions can be correlated with each other by using a strong microwave field to drive the dipole-forbidden transition. It is the combined effect of atomic coherence-controlled correlated-spontaneous emission and double quantum beats that results in the quadripartite GHZ-type entanglement. Our numerical results show that the quadripartite entanglement, which can be controlled effectively by varying the amplitude and phase of the microwave field, occurs in a very wide parameter range. In addition, using input-output theory, we find that the output quadripartite entanglement is robust against thermal fluctuations, which may be useful for long-distance quantum communications.

  3. Semisupervised ECG Ventricular Beat Classification With Novelty Detection Based on Switching Kalman Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Julien; Behar, Joachim; Sayadi, Omid; Nemati, Shamim; Johnson, Alistair E W; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-09-01

    Automatic processing and accurate diagnosis of pathological electrocardiogram (ECG) signals remains a challenge. As long-term ECG recordings continue to increase in prevalence, driven partly by the ease of remote monitoring technology usage, the need to automate ECG analysis continues to grow. In previous studies, a model-based ECG filtering approach to ECG data from healthy subjects has been applied to facilitate accurate online filtering and analysis of physiological signals. We propose an extension of this approach, which models not only normal and ventricular heartbeats, but also morphologies not previously encountered. A switching Kalman filter approach is introduced to enable the automatic selection of the most likely mode (beat type), while simultaneously filtering the signal using appropriate prior knowledge. Novelty detection is also made possible by incorporating a third mode for the detection of unknown (not previously observed) morphologies, and denoted as X-factor. This new approach is compared to state-of-the-art techniques for the ventricular heartbeat classification in the MIT-BIH arrhythmia and Incart databases. F1 scores of 98.3% and 99.5% were found on each database, respectively, which are superior to other published algorithms' results reported on the same databases. Only 3% of all the beats were discarded as X-factor, and the majority of these beats contained high levels of noise. The proposed technique demonstrates accurate beat classification in the presence of previously unseen (and unlearned) morphologies and noise, and provides an automated method for morphological analysis of arbitrary (unknown) ECG leads.

  4. Persistent Down-Beating Torsional Positional Nystagmus: Posterior Semicircular Canal Light Cupula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Akihide; Otsuka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy with rotatory positional vertigo and nausea, particularly when lying down, visited our clinic. Initially, we observed vertical/torsional (downward/leftward) nystagmus in the supine position, and it did not diminish. In the sitting position, nystagmus was not provoked. Neurological examinations were normal. We speculated that persistent torsional down-beating nystagmus was caused by the light cupula of the posterior semicircular canal. This case provides novel insights into the light cupula pathophysiology.

  5. Persistent Down-Beating Torsional Positional Nystagmus: Posterior Semicircular Canal Light Cupula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihide Ichimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy with rotatory positional vertigo and nausea, particularly when lying down, visited our clinic. Initially, we observed vertical/torsional (downward/leftward nystagmus in the supine position, and it did not diminish. In the sitting position, nystagmus was not provoked. Neurological examinations were normal. We speculated that persistent torsional down-beating nystagmus was caused by the light cupula of the posterior semicircular canal. This case provides novel insights into the light cupula pathophysiology.

  6. Real-Time Analysis of Beats in Music for Entertainment Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Der Lin; Ting-Tsao Wu; Yu-Ren Chen; Yen-Ting Lin; Wen-Hsiu Chen; Shih-Fan Wang; Jinghom Chakhap

    2012-01-01

    The dancing actions for entertainment robots are usually designed in advance and saved in a database according to the beats and rhythm of the given music. This research is devoted to developing a real-time algorithm that can detect the primary information of the music needed for the actions of entertainment robots. The computation of the proposed algorithm is very efficient and can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing by a digital signal controller. The digitized music signal is fi...

  7. CO2 Laser Beat-Wave Experiment in an Unmagnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Hwang, David; Horton, Robert; Hong, Sean; Evans, Russell

    2012-10-01

    The ability to remotely generate plasma current in dense plasmas is a basic yet important investigation in experimental plasma physics and fusion energy research. It is even more advantageous if the wave penetration is independent of the electron acceleration process. Plasma current can be generated through beat-wave mixing process by launching two intense electromagnetic waves (φ>>φpe) into plasma. The beat wave formation process can be efficient if the difference frequency of the two pump waves is matched to a local resonant frequency of the medium, i.e. in this case the local plasma frequency. Beat wave can accelerate plasma electrons via quasi-linear Landau process, which has been demonstrated in a low-density plasma using microwaves.footnotetextRogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., Phys. Rev. Lett. v68 p3877 (1992). The CO2 lasers provide the high tunability for the wave-particle interaction experiment at a variety of plasma densities with plasma frequency in THz range. Two sections of Lumonics TEA CO2 lasers have been modified to serve as the two pump wave sources with peak power over 100MW. The development of the tunable CO2 lasers, a high-density plasma target source and diagnostics system will be presented. The initial results of unbalanced beat-wave experiment using one high-power pulsed and one low-power CW CO2 lasers will be presented and discussed using the independent plasma source to control the φpe of the interaction region. This work is supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-10ER55083.

  8. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  9. Examining cross-database global training to evaluate five different methods for ventricular beat classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudácek, V; Georgoulas, G; Lhotská, L; Stylios, C; Petrík, M; Cepek, M

    2009-07-01

    The detection of ventricular beats in the holter recording is a task of great importance since it can direct clinicians toward the parts of the electrocardiogram record that might be crucial for determining the final diagnosis. Although there already exists a fair amount of research work dealing with ventricular beat detection in holter recordings, the vast majority uses a local training approach, which is highly disputable from the point of view of any practical-real-life-application. In this paper, we compare five well-known methods: a classical decision tree approach and its variant with fuzzy rules, a self-organizing map clustering method with template matching for classification, a back-propagation neural network and a support vector machine classifier, all examined using the same global cross-database approach for training and testing. For this task two databases were used-the MIT-BIH database and the AHA database. Both databases are required for testing any newly developed algorithms for holter beat classification that is going to be deployed in the EU market. According to cross-database global training, when the classifier is trained with the beats from the records of one database then the records from the other database are used for testing. The results of all the methods are compared and evaluated using the measures of sensitivity and specificity. The support vector machine classifier is the best classifier from the five we tested, achieving an average sensitivity of 87.20% and an average specificity of 91.57%, which outperforms nearly all the published algorithms when applied in the context of a similar global training approach. PMID:19525571

  10. Dual ipsilateral renal transplantation from a non-heart-beating donor.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Aftab A.; Navarro, Alex; Gok, Mohammad A.; Wilson, Colin H.; Asher, John; Wong, Yew Toh; Hua, Mi; Talbot, David

    2005-01-01

    A case is described where both kidneys from non-heart-beating (expanded criteria) donors were dual transplanted ipsilaterally. Although both kidneys passed viability tests on the Newcastle machine preservation system and biomarkers' evaluation, there were logistical issues where the cold ischaemic time was too protracted necessitating the transplantation of both kidneys into one recipient. The recipient had satisfactory outcome with the Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance of 72.47 (36.29 ml/...

  11. Examining cross-database global training to evaluate five different methods for ventricular beat classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of ventricular beats in the holter recording is a task of great importance since it can direct clinicians toward the parts of the electrocardiogram record that might be crucial for determining the final diagnosis. Although there already exists a fair amount of research work dealing with ventricular beat detection in holter recordings, the vast majority uses a local training approach, which is highly disputable from the point of view of any practical—real-life—application. In this paper, we compare five well-known methods: a classical decision tree approach and its variant with fuzzy rules, a self-organizing map clustering method with template matching for classification, a back-propagation neural network and a support vector machine classifier, all examined using the same global cross-database approach for training and testing. For this task two databases were used—the MIT–BIH database and the AHA database. Both databases are required for testing any newly developed algorithms for holter beat classification that is going to be deployed in the EU market. According to cross-database global training, when the classifier is trained with the beats from the records of one database then the records from the other database are used for testing. The results of all the methods are compared and evaluated using the measures of sensitivity and specificity. The support vector machine classifier is the best classifier from the five we tested, achieving an average sensitivity of 87.20% and an average specificity of 91.57%, which outperforms nearly all the published algorithms when applied in the context of a similar global training approach

  12. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  13. Nonlinear Spatial Landau Damping of Plasma Waves Beating at Plasma Angular Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments on pure electron plasmas characterize the nonlinear beat between two counter-propagating plasma waves, and the spatial Landau damping of the beat wave at the wave/rotation critical radius. The two plasma waves are (mθ = 1 ,kz = 1 , ω =ω* +/-ω1) , giving the beat wave with (mθ = 2 , ω = 2ω*) . The beat wave is resonant with the plasma rotation Ω (r) at radius r* where Ω (r*) =ω* . The net effect of this resonance is an energy exchange through wave-particle interaction between the two primary plasma waves and the background plasma rotation. Initial excitation of only one of the waves leads first to its fast sharing of energy with the other wave, and then followed by a slower combined decay of both waves. In contrast, initial excitation of both waves to (approximately) the same amplitude leads to three alternative scenarios: 1) both plasma waves may show the slow and synchronous decay evolution; 2) one of the waves may decay faster, with temporarily arrested decay of the other; 3) it may switch back and forth (seemingly randomly) between the first two types of evolution. Interestingly, wave/particle energy flow can be reversed when the plasma density profile is made to have a positive density gradient at r*. In this case, spontaneous excitation (instability) of both ω =ω* +/-ω1 plasma waves is observed. Supported by NSF/DoE Partnership Grants PHY-0903877 and DE-SC000245, and DOE/HEDLP Grant DE-SC0008693.

  14. Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using polarization beating in optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lewis Z.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Hooker, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    A scheme for quasi-phase-matching high-harmonic generation is proposed in which polarization beating within a hollow core birefringent waveguide modulates the generation of harmonics. The evolution of the polarization of a laser pulse propagating in a birefringent waveguide is calculated and is shown to periodically modulate the harmonic generation process. The optimum conditions for achieving quasi-phase-matching using this scheme are explored and the growth of the harmonic intensity as a fu...

  15. Semisupervised ECG Ventricular Beat Classification With Novelty Detection Based on Switching Kalman Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Julien; Behar, Joachim; Sayadi, Omid; Nemati, Shamim; Johnson, Alistair E W; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-09-01

    Automatic processing and accurate diagnosis of pathological electrocardiogram (ECG) signals remains a challenge. As long-term ECG recordings continue to increase in prevalence, driven partly by the ease of remote monitoring technology usage, the need to automate ECG analysis continues to grow. In previous studies, a model-based ECG filtering approach to ECG data from healthy subjects has been applied to facilitate accurate online filtering and analysis of physiological signals. We propose an extension of this approach, which models not only normal and ventricular heartbeats, but also morphologies not previously encountered. A switching Kalman filter approach is introduced to enable the automatic selection of the most likely mode (beat type), while simultaneously filtering the signal using appropriate prior knowledge. Novelty detection is also made possible by incorporating a third mode for the detection of unknown (not previously observed) morphologies, and denoted as X-factor. This new approach is compared to state-of-the-art techniques for the ventricular heartbeat classification in the MIT-BIH arrhythmia and Incart databases. F1 scores of 98.3% and 99.5% were found on each database, respectively, which are superior to other published algorithms' results reported on the same databases. Only 3% of all the beats were discarded as X-factor, and the majority of these beats contained high levels of noise. The proposed technique demonstrates accurate beat classification in the presence of previously unseen (and unlearned) morphologies and noise, and provides an automated method for morphological analysis of arbitrary (unknown) ECG leads. PMID:25680203

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beating cardiac tissues on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Cong; Zhu, Yujuan; Yu, Yue; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Feng, Ke; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-11-21

    There is a growing interest in using paper as a biomaterial scaffold for cell-based applications. In this study, we made the first attempt to fabricate a paper-based array for the culture, proliferation, and direct differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into functional beating cardiac tissues and create "a beating heart on paper." This array was simply constructed by binding a cured multi-well polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold with common, commercially available paper substrates. Three types of paper material (print paper, chromatography paper and nitrocellulose membrane) were tested for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human-derived iPSCs. We found that hiPSCs grew well on these paper substrates, presenting a three-dimensional (3D)-like morphology with a pluripotent property. The direct differentiation of human iPSCs into functional cardiac tissues on paper was also achieved using our modified differentiation approach. The cardiac tissue retained its functional activities on the coated print paper and chromatography paper with a beating frequency of 40-70 beats per min for up to three months. Interestingly, human iPSCs could be differentiated into retinal pigment epithelium on nitrocellulose membrane under the conditions of cardiac-specific induction, indicating the potential roles of material properties and mechanical cues that are involved in regulating stem cell differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that different grades of paper could offer great opportunities as bioactive, low-cost, and 3D in vitro platforms for stem cell-based high-throughput drug testing at the tissue/organ level and for tissue engineering applications.

  17. Phase-controlled entanglement in a quantum-beat laser: application to quantum lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2011-11-01

    We study entanglement generation and control in a quantum-beat laser coupled to a two-mode squeezed vacuum reservoir. We show that the generated entanglement is robust against cavity losses and environmental decoherence and can be controlled by tuning the phases of the microwave and the squeezed input fields. Moreover, we discuss two-photon correlations, absorption and implementations in quantum optical lithography.

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  19. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  20. ZumBeat: Evaluation of a Zumba Dance Intervention in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Rossmeissl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a major public health concern since it increases individuals’ risk of morbidity and mortality. A subgroup at particular risk is postmenopausal overweight women. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial health. Postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >94 cm who were not regularly physically active were asked to complete a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention with instructed and home-based self-training sessions. Before and after the intervention, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak was assessed on a treadmill; and body composition and several psychometric parameters (including quality of life, sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms were investigated. Of 17 women (median age: 54 years; median BMI: 30 kg/m2 enrolled in the study, 14 completed the study. There was no apparent change in VO2peak after the 12-week intervention period (average change score: −0.5 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval: −1.0, 0.1; but, quality of life had increased, and sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms had decreased. A 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention may not suffice to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal overweight women, but it increases women’s quality of life.

  1. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  2. A Quadratic Nonlinear Prediction-Based Heart Motion Model Following Control Algorithm in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Liang; Xiaofeng Meng

    2013-01-01

    Off‐pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery outperforms the traditional on‐pump surgery because the assisted robotic tools can cancel the relative motion between the beating heart and the robotic tools, which reduces post‐surgery complications for patients. The challenge for the robot assisted tool when tracking the beating heart is the abrupt change caused by the nonlinear nature of heart motion and high precision surgery requirements. A characteristic analysis of 3D heart motion data thro...

  3. Beats and expansion of two-component Bose–Einstein condensates in the Thomas–Fermi limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique feature of multi-component Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is the possibility of beating frequencies in collective oscillations. We analytically determine this beating frequency for the two-component BEC in one-dimension. We also show that the Thomas–Fermi approximation, where the quantum pressure is neglected, describes well the expansion of the two-component condensate released from an harmonic trap. (paper)

  4. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins.

  5. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. PMID:25479353

  6. A Buffett turns to farming in Africa: Warren's son Howard has quietly become a player in the fight against global hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Kilman, S.; Thurow, R.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Warren Buffet's fourth son, Howard Buffet is an unassuming Illinois soybean and corn farmer. However, he plays a behind the scenes role in the global war against hunger. With a small portion of his father's fortune he spends much of the year traveling through Africa. Mr. Buffett is looking for ways to help African farmers increase their harvests without increasing their costs, thus his interest in developing plants that resist disease and drought.

  7. The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Albertsson, Per-Åke

    2015-09-01

    On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:26115760

  8. Nutrients and behaviour: research strategies for the investigation of taste characteristics, food preferences, hunger sensations and eating patterns in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    Although, as described elsewhere in this report, the consumption of particular nutrients can modify behaviors that are not directly related to eating, it seems highly likely that the main function of nutrient-induced changes in neurotransmitter synthesis is to provide the brain with information about what has been eaten, which the brain can then utilize in deciding what to eat next. This chapter summarizes research strategies and techniques which have been used to assess the effects of drugs and diseases on appetite and food consumption, and which might also be useful in exploring the effects of particular nutrients. Crude measures of total food intake and of global hunger ratings are probably too insensitive to reveal the subtle effects of many nutrients. Some alternative procedures allow the assessment of particular aspects of feeding behaviour, (e.g. food or nutrient choice), and of the relationships between such behaviour and the individual's metabolic and physiological state, sensory functions, taste hedonics, and affective response to foods. PMID:6764938

  9. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH.

  10. The Use of Green Leaf Membranes to Promote Appetite Control, Suppress Hedonic Hunger and Loose Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Albertsson, Per-Åke

    2015-09-01

    On-going research aims at answering the question, which satiety signal is the most potent or which combination of satiety signals is the most potent to stop eating. There is also an aim at finding certain food items or food additives that could be used to specifically reduce food intake therapeutically. Therapeutic attempts to normalize body weight and glycaemia with single agents alone have generally been disappointing. The success of bariatric surgery illustrates the rationale of using several hormones to treat obesity and type-2-diabetes. We have found that certain components from green leaves, the thylakoids, when given orally have a similar rationale in inducing the release of several gut hormones at the same time. In this way satiety is promoted and hunger suppressed, leading to loss of body weight and body fat. The mechanism is a reduced rate of intestinal lipid hydrolysis, allowing the lipolytic products to reach the distal intestine and release satiety hormones. The thylakoids also regulate glucose uptake in the intestine and influences microbiota composition in the intestine in a prebiotic direction. Using thylakoids is a novel strategy for treatment and prevention of obesity.

  11. Fome, desnutrição e cidadania: inclusão social e direitos humanos Hunger, malnutrition and citizenship: social inclusion and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Luiz Schieck Valente

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise crítica do debate atual no Brasil sobre os conceitos de fome e desnutrição e das suas implicações para o processo de elaboração de políticas públicas no país. Fome e desnutrição são eventos relacionados, mas de natureza distinta. Os riscos da redução da fome às suas dimensões estritamente biológicas ou econômicas, para fins de mensuração, são discutidos em relação ao possível impacto sobre a promoção e realização do Direito Humano à Alimentação. Propõe-se o fortalecimento da ótica dos Direitos Humanos na discussão sobre o tema no Brasil. Esta abordagem colabora para uma conceituação mais abrangente e integrada de fome e desnutrição. Ao mesmo tempo, define titularidades, papéis e obrigações do Estado e de diferentes atores sociais que permitem a elaboração de políticas públicas cujas metas e desempenho possam ser monitorados mais facilmente pela sociedade civil. É feita uma breve análise da política de combate à fome do novo governo federal e sugestões são apresentadas para debate.The paper develops analysis of the ongoing debate in Brazil on the concepts of hunger and malnutrition and of its implications for the elaboration of Public Policies in the country. Hunger and malnutrition are related events, but of distinct nature. The risks of reducing hunger to its strictly biological or economic dimensions, for measurement purposes, are discussed in relation to the possible impact on the promotion and realization of the Human Right to Food. The strengthening of the Human Rights based approach to the theme in Brazil is proposed as it allows for a more encompassing and integrated concept of hunger and malnutrition. The paper also discusses the entitlements and roles of different social actors and right related state obligations, which allow for the elaboration of public policies with goals and performance that can be easily monitored by civil society. A brief analysis of the

  12. Flag beat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype of a sonic toy for pre-scholar kids. The device, which is a modified version of a football ratchet, is based on the spinning gesture and it allows to experience four different types of auditory feedback. These algorithms let a kid play with music...... rhythm, generate a continuous sound feedback and control the pitch of a piece of music. An evaluation test of the device has been performed with fourteen kids in a kindergarten. Results and observations showed that kids preferred the algorithms based on the exploration of the music rhythm and on pitch...

  13. Skipped Beats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the atria (upper chambers), it is called a premature atrial contraction (PAC). If it arises from the ventricles (lower chambers), it is called premature ventricular contraction (PVC). In most cases, neither is ...

  14. Robust algorithm to locate heart beats from multiple physiological waveforms by individual signal detector voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Loriano; Scully, Christopher G; Vicente, Jose; Johannesen, Lars; Strauss, David G

    2015-08-01

    Alarm fatigue is a top medical device hazard in patient monitoring that could be reduced by merging physiological information from multiple sensors, minimizing the impact of a single sensor failing. We developed a heart beat detection algorithm that utilizes multi-modal physiological signals (e.g. electrocardiogram, blood pressure, stroke volume, photoplethysmogram and electro-encephalogram) by merging the heart beats obtained from signal-specific detectors. We used the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 training set to develop the algorithm, and we refined it with a mix of signals from the multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care (MIMIC II) database and artificially disrupted waveforms. The algorithm had an average sensitivity of 95.67% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 92.28% when applied to the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 200 record training set. On a refined dataset obtained by removing 5 records with arrhythmias and inconsistent reference annotations we obtained an average sensitivity of 97.43% and PPV of 94.17%. Algorithm performance was assessed with the Physionet Challenge 2014 test set that consisted of 200 records (each up to 10 min length) containing multiple physiological signals and reference annotations verified by the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014 organizers. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 92.74% and PPV of 87.37% computed over all annotated beats, and a record average sensitivity of 91.08%, PPV of 86.96% and an overall score (average of all 4 measures) of 89.53%. Our algorithm is an example of a data fusion approach that can improve patient monitoring and reduce false alarms by reducing the effect of individual signal failures. PMID:26218439

  15. Ion Acceleration by Beating Electrostatic Waves: Theory, Experiments and Relevance to Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Edgar

    2007-10-01

    After a brief overview of electrodeless plasma propulsion concepts, we will focus on a recently discovered ion acceleration mechanism, which appears to occur naturally in Earth's ionosphere, holds promise as an effective means to energize ions for applications in thermonuclear fusion and electrodeless space plasma propulsion. Unlike previously known mechanisms for energizing plasmas with electrostatic (ES) waves, and which accelerate only ions whose initial velocities are above a certain threshold (close to the wave's phase velocity), the new acceleration mechanism, involving pairs of beating ES waves, is non-resonant and can accelerate ions with arbitrarily small initial velocities, thus offering a more effective way to couple energy to plasmas. We will discuss the fundamentals of the nonlinear dynamics of a single magnetized ion interacting with a pair of beating ES waves and show that there exist necessary and sufficient conditions for the phenomenon to occur. We will see how these fundamental conditions are derived by analyzing the motion's Hamiltonian using a second-order perturbation technique in conjunction with Lie transformations. The analysis shows that when the Hamiltonian lies outside the energy barrier defined by the location of the elliptic and hyperbolic critical points of the motion, the electric field of the beating waves can accelerate ions regularly from low initial velocities, then stochastically, to high energies. We will then illustrate real plasma effects using Monte Carlo numerical simulation and discuss the recent results from a dedicated experiment in my lab in which laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of ion energies have provided the first laboratory observation of this acceleration mechanism. The talk will conclude with a few ideas on how the fundamental insight can be applied to develop novel plasma propulsion concepts.

  16. Tuning the conductivity and inner structure of electrospun fibers to promote cardiomyocyte elongation and synchronous beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Xu, Guisen; Wei, Jiaojun; Zhang, Zhibin; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    The key to addressing the challenges facing cardiac tissue engineering is the integration of physical, chemical, and electrical cues into scaffolds. Aligned and conductive scaffolds have been fabricated as synthetic microenvironments to improve the function of cardiomyocytes. However, up to now, the influence of conductive capability and inner structure of fibrous scaffolds have not been determined on the cardiomyocyte morphologies and beating patterns. In the current study, highly aligned fibers were fabricated with loaded up to 6% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modulate the electrical conductivity, while blend and coaxial electrospinning were utilized to create a bulk distribution of CNTs in fiber matrices and a spatial embedment in fiber cores, respectively. Conductive networks were formed in the fibrous scaffolds after the inoculation of over 3% CNTs, and the increase in the conductivity could maintain the cell viabilities, induce the cell elongation, enhance the production of sarcomeric α-actinin and troponin I, and promote the synchronous beating of cardiomyocytes. Although the conductivity of blend fibers is slightly higher than that of coaxial fibers with the same CNT loadings, the lower exposures to CNTs resulted in higher cell viability, elongation, extracellular matrix secretion and beating rates for cardiomyocytes on coaxial fibers. Taken altogether, core-sheath fibers with loaded 5% of CNTs in the fiber cores facilitated the cardiomyocyte growth with a production of organized contractile proteins and a pulsation frequency close to that of the atrium. It is suggested that electrospun scaffolds that couple conductivity and fibrous structure considerations may provide optimal stimuli to foster cell morphology and functions for myocardial regeneration or establishment of in vitro cardiomyocyte culture platform for drug screening.

  17. Cavity length dependence of mode beating in passively Q-switched Nd-solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameroski, Nathan D.; Wanke, Michael; Bossert, David

    2013-03-01

    The temporal intensity profile of pulse(s) from passively Q-switched and passively Q-switched mode locked (QSML) solid-state lasers is known to be dependent on cavity length. In this work, the pulse width, modulation depth, and beat frequencies of a Nd:Cr:GSGG laser using a Cr+4:YAG passive Q-switch are investigated as function cavity length. Measured temporal widths are linearly correlated with cavity length but generally 3-5 ns larger than theoretical predictions. Some cavity lengths exhibit pulse profiles with no modulation while other lengths exhibit complete amplitude modulation. The observed beat frequencies at certain cavity lengths cannot be accounted for with passively QSML models in which the pulse train repetition rate is τRT-1, τRT= round-trip time. They can be explained, however, by including coupled cavity mode-locking effects. A theoretical model developed for a two section coupled cavity semiconductor laser is adapted to a solid-state laser to interpret measured beat frequencies. We also numerically evaluate the temporal criterion required to achieve temporally smooth Q-switched pulses, versus cavity length and pump rate. We show that in flash lamp pumped systems, the difference in buildup time between longitudinal modes is largely dependent on the pump rate. In applications where short pulse delay is important, the pumping rate may limit the ability to achieve temporally smooth pulses in passively Q-switched lasers. Simulations support trends in experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODS FOR BONE MARROW HARVESTING FROM NON-HEART BEATING DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Hubutija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of different methods for bone marrow (BM harvesting from non-heart beating donors taking into account the number and the quality of collected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Materials and methods. The study was performed on 43 non-heart beating donors. For BM harvesting two bone marrow aspiration needles were installed in each iliac bone. The needles were installed in one bone connected to closed system, combined with surgical suction and volumetric pump. BM aspiration was performed using different values for vacuum and combining with perfusion solution into the bone. The volume, the number of nucleated cells (NC, HSC and cell viability were evaluated in the obtained samples. Results. Compared with the standard mode the usage of vacuum 0.6–0.7 atm increased the collection of NC by 65.6%, HSC 87%, and did not reduce their viability. Using a vacuum of 0.9 atm reduced the amount of collected HSC and damaged cells. While using combined aspiration and perfusion of BM HSC were prepared at more than 86.2%, but the viability of the cells was lower than under the standard aspiration. Having coherently performed a standard aspiration and aspiration with perfusion from one iliac bone 407.2 ± 46.7 ml BM, 8.0 ± 0.8 × 109  NC and 194.2 ± 20.8 × 106  HSC were harvested. The proportion of viable cells was not less than 75.2 ± 3.2%. Conclusion. Method of BM harvesting implying coherently performing aspiration and aspiration-perfusion with the usage of vacuum 0.6–0.7 atm allows to prepare more progenitor cells without losing their quality. As a result, from one non-heart beating donor different types of progenitor cells can be collected in the amount sufficient for systemic infusion in adult patient.

  19. Metachronal beating of cilia under the influence of Casson fluid and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Khan, Zafar Hayat

    2015-03-01

    Metachronal beating of cilia under the influence of Casson fluid and magnetic field is considered. The model for cilia literature is modelled for the first time. The governing coupled equations are constructed under long wavelength and low Reynold's number approximation. Exact solutions are evaluated for stream function and pressure gradient. The important results in this study are the variation of the Hartmann number M, Casson fluid parameter ζ. The velocity field increases due to the increase in Hartmann number M near the channel walls while velocity field decreases at the center of the channel. Comparative study is also made for Casson fluid with Newtonian fluid.

  20. Myocardial revascularization using on-pump beating heart among patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isleem Ismail

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives On-pump beating heart technique for myocardial revascularization has been used successfully among both low and high risk patients. Its application among low ejection fraction patients is limited. The aim of our study is to evaluate this technique among patients with low ejection fraction and to compare results with off-pump bypass technique. Methods This retrospective study includes 137 patients with ejection fraction below 0.35 who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. 39 patients underwent myocardial revascularization using on-pump beating heart (ONCAB/BH, while 98 patients had off-pump beating heart (OPCAB. Different preoperative, operative and postoperative variables were evaluated among both groups. Results Patients profiles and risk factors were similar among both groups, except for the number of patients undergoing redo CABG which was significantly higher among ONCAB/BH (13% vs 3%; p = 0.025. Ejection fraction (EF varied from 10-34%. The mean EF for patients who underwent ONCAB/BH was 28 ± 6 in comparison to 26 ± 5 for OPCAB patients (P = 0.093. Predicted risk for surgery according to EuroSCORE was similar among both groups (P = 0.443. The number of grafts performed per patient was significantly more among patients who underwent ONCAB/BH (2.2 ± 0.7 Vs 1.7 ± 0.7; P = 0.002. Completeness of revascularization was significantly greater in the ONCAB/BH patients (72% Vs 46%, P = 0.015. The incidence of hospital mortality and combined major morbidity was more among ONCAB/BH in comparison to OPCAB, but the difference was not significant. However, the incidence of blood loss, ventricular arrythmias, inotropic support, ICU, hospital stay and blood transfusion were significantly greater among patients who underwent ONCAB/BH. Conclusions On-pump beating heart technique can be used in myocardial revascularization among patients with left ventricular dysfunction. The technique was found to be associated with better