WorldWideScience

Sample records for beat world hunger

  1. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-02

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent.

  2. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  3. World Hunger: Teaching about World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of world hunger in the classroom. Controversial questions and map skills for students are discussed as well as activities for home economics and science classes. A list of resource materials is included. (AM)

  4. World Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Activities help high school students become aware of the extent of world hunger and the place of population control in the fight against hunger. The materials offer the student background information and a variety of viewpoints. The aim of each activity is to increase the student's own informed decision making. (CS)

  5. Mapping World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Lucille W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)

  6. Hunger: The World's Oldest Sorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1985-01-01

    No human problem is older than starvation. Authorities agree that poverty and unequal distribution of resources are the basic causes of hunger. The hungry are ignored by the world because they have no political power and even less economic strength. How to build a world without hunger is discussed. (RM)

  7. World Food/Hunger Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kimberley A.

    This curriculum guide is designed to encourage responsible university course development as well as extracurricular activities centered around the world food/hunger problem. Multidisciplinary and global values clarification approaches are basic to the curriculum. Part I of the guide discusses the role of universities in combatting world hunger and…

  8. The Problem of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    The major hunger problem today is chronic undernutrition, the primary cause of which is poverty. Hunger can be alleviated through food supplements, nutrition programs, and disaster relief. It can be eliminated by redistributing existing wealth and producing enough food and through equitable economic growth and a world food security system. (CS)

  9. Confronting World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…

  10. World Hunger: Learning to Meet the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Carrol; Regan, Patrick

    This elementary and secondary level world hunger curriculum guide is designed both to educate teachers and students in the basics of world hunger, and to guide them in organizing student groups to take action that will combat hunger. A background information section is presented in part 1, which describes who and where the hungry are, what it is…

  11. World Hunger: Ten Myths. Fourth Edition, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph

    Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…

  12. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  13. Teaching About World Hunger. No. 5419.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This secondary-level resource unit surveys hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and the interdependent factors affecting world food supplies. The main part of the unit is divided into four sections which examine the historical and geographical, economic and political, health and nutritional, and environmental and ecological factors…

  14. Tackling World Hunger in an Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, Caroline S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)

  15. World Hunger: What Children Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Teachers can help students understand why world hunger exists and explore ways to eliminate it. Activities based on the Food First Curriculum developed by the Institute for Food and Development Policy are discussed, and suggestions are made to help children get beyond the well-meaning hype of various fundraising efforts. (MT)

  16. Overcoming World Hunger: The Challenge Ahead. Report of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger. An Abridged Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Commission on World Hunger, Washington, DC.

    This U.S. presidential commission report outlines specific recommendations for eliminating world hunger in the 1980's. Following a summarization of world hunger problems, the report addresses specific ways to deal with world hunger. Short-term goals include taking immediate action to ensure that poor people are not hungry, assuring that infants…

  17. A Practical Problem Approach to World Hunger: Universities Fighting World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the profession's history, family and consumer sciences professionals have worked to consider what should be done about various social issues affecting individuals, families, and communities across the world. Hunger is a global issue pertaining to the right to life, human survival, sustainable communities, and promotion of healthy…

  18. Hunger in Our World: A Social Studies Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1984-01-01

    Describes activities of a unit on world hunger which include presenting a lexicon, topic overview, and guest speakers; reading topically related novels; creating scrapbooks; discussing pertinent quotations; exploring government role in ameliorating hunger; and completing final papers or projects. Resource materials are listed, including pertinent…

  19. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  20. Causes of Hunger: Hunger 1995. Fifth Annual Report on the State of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc J., Ed.

    This comprehensive report shows how hunger is interrelated with other social ills, including powerlessness, violence, poverty, environmental destruction, and discrimination. More than a billion people are too poor to afford an adequate diet and other essential of life such as health care, housing, sanitation, safe water, and education. In the…

  1. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  2. Hunger: The World Food Crisis. An NSTA Environmental Materials Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathryn Mervine

    This document provides a materials guide containing annotated bibliographies of literature for teachers and students, a film guide, and a curriculum materials guide for educational sources relating to hunger, food, and the world food crisis. Materials span the range from pre-school to grade 12. (SL)

  3. What Catholic Schools Can Do about World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The main contribution that Catholic schools can make towards the elimination of world hunger is to help their students understand the problem and then motivate them to assist as best they can once they are out of school. The basic cause of the problem is poverty. The ultimate solution is production of food in the food-deficit nations, or where…

  4. [Can gene technology in agriculture prevent hunger in the world?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goewie, E A

    2002-03-01

    The world population grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is an agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of poverty. This problem will not be solved by gene technology based agricultural production. This article explains the basic principles of mainstream and organic farming. Literature shows that the production potentials of both kinds of farming are, by far most, not yet exhausted. Gene technology is therefore unnecessary.

  5. A world without hunger : organic or GM crops?

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Azadi, Hossein; D'Haese, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that the world population will increase to 9.2 billion by 2050; supplying the growing population with food will require a significant increase in agricultural production. A number of agricultural and ecological scientists believe that a large-scale shift to organic farming (OF) would not only increase the world's food supply, but might be the only way to eradicate hunger sustainably. Nevertheless, OF has recently come under new scrutiny, not just from critics who fear th...

  6. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger; La ciencia nuclear al servicio de la seguridad alimentaria. Segun el OIEA, una tecnica de fitomejoramiento puede ayudar a acabar con el hambre en el mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-02

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent.

  7. Food and Population: A Global Concern [and] The Paradoxes of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    1984-01-01

    Student and teacher materials are provided for a secondary unit on world hunger. The student materials are contained in a module entitled "Food and Population: A Global Concern," distributed with the newsletter "Interchange." The teacher materials are contained in the issue of the newsletter itself, subtitled "The Paradoxes of World Hunger." A…

  8. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS – A SOLUTION TO WORLD HUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity and become eco-contaminants, and can, especially in the long terms, negatively affect the human health. Authors think that patenting of living organisms by the multinational companies is unacceptable and unfair from the bioethical perspective, not only because they tend to hold monopolies in production and trade of GM plants, but also because of their efforts to gain domination over the very life. Finally, analyses made by many scientists show that the thesis that "Gene Revolution" will resolve the problem of hunger in the world was not justified in the previous decade.

  9. Norman Borlaug and a Hunger-Free World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    His life and work will be eternal sources of inspira- tion and lead us to ... farm productivity, poverty and hunger. ... wheat productivity in Mexico, followed by India and Pakistan. In .... total transformation in the possibility of achieving a balance.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  11. World Hunger: A Challenge to American Policy. Headline Series No. 252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linowitz, Sol M.

    This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…

  12. Food First Resource Guide: Documentation on the Roots of World Hunger and Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.

    This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…

  13. World Hunger: Asking the Right Questions. And! The First Food Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan; Christie, Mari Ely

    1983-01-01

    The key to understanding world hunger is to realize the distribution of power between those who control economic circumstances and those who, through no fault of their own, are unable to continue traditional practices that provided food. Educators can help students understand the forces that influence food distribution. (MLF)

  14. Food for thought in a world of hunger and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.

    1990-01-01

    The numerous benefits and safety of food irradiation are emphasized in this article. Canada is the world's largest supplier of industrial irradiators. Some 25 irradiators used to irradiate food have been supplied by Nordion. A full-scale pilot plant operates at Institut Armand Frappier in Laval, Quebec, and another food irradiation research facility has been established by Agriculture Canada at Ste. Hyacinthe. AECL conducts research on food irradiation at its Whiteshell Laboratories. AECL is also developing industrial electron accelerators that could be used to irradiate food

  15. OCTOBER 16, WORLD FOOD DAY: MAKING INDIA FREE FROM HUNGER

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Amrit Patel

    2016-01-01

    Every year some parts of India witness droughts and floods directly impacting on food output. India experienced two drought years [July2014-June15 & 2015-16] impacting on low food output followed by 2016-17, a year of severe floods. As 36th World Food Day (WFD) will be observed on 16th October, 2016 India can size and capitalize this opportunity to redouble its efforts in creating awareness among all stakeholders by mounting a massive campaign to improve crop productivity per unit area and re...

  16. Is gene technology in agriculture able to prevent hunger in the world?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The worldpopulation grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is ar agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of

  17. Computer Assisted Comprehension of Distant Worlds: Understanding Hunger Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)

  18. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  19. Why is there so much hunger in a world of plenty? What can we do about it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustice, Ronald F.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce world hunger and prevent a global food crisis must take a multi-pronged approach. We must expand the Green Revolution to regions of the world most affected by famine such as sub-Saharan Africa and we must improve the distribution infrastructure in developing countries so that farmers can get their products to market. Routine use of food irradiation must be an essential component of that overall strategy. Irradiation is a powerful tool that will protect public health by reducing or eliminating harmful bacteria in meat, poultry and produce but food irradiation will also save millions of pounds of valuable food by slowing the spoilage process and extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables

  20. Finger-to-beat coordination skill of non-dancers, street dancers, and the world champion of a street-dance competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito eMiura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory-motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory-motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition. Under the extend-on-the-beat condition, both the dancers and non-dancers showed a spontaneous transition from the extend-on-the-beat to the flex-on-the-beat or to a phase wandering pattern. However, the critical frequency at which the transition occurred was significantly higher in the dancers (3.3 Hz than in the non-dancers (2.6 Hz. Under the flex-on-the-beat condition, the dancers were able to maintain their coordination pattern more stably at high beat rates compared to the non-dancers. Furthermore, the world champion matched the timing of movement peak velocity to the beat across the different beat rates. This may give a sense of unity between the movement and the beat for the audience because the peak velocity of the rhythmic movement works as a temporal cue for the audiovisual synchrony perception. These results suggest that the skills of accomplished dancers lie in their small finger movements and that the sensorimotor learning of street dance is characterized by a stabilization of the coordination patterns, including the inhibition of an unintentional transition to other coordination patterns.

  1. Chrysostom on hunger and famine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Stander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom’s time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom’s statements on this issue are studied, but our concern is only involuntary hunger, whilst voluntary forms of self-denial are being excluded. An attempt is made to define a social construct of poverty and hunger in Chrysostom’s world.

  2. Handling hunger strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Hunger strikes are being used increasingly and not only by those with a political point to make. Whereas in the past, hunger strikes in the United Kingdom seemed mainly to be started by terrorist prisoners for political purposes, the most recent was begun by a Tamil convicted of murder, to protest his innocence. In the later stages of his strike, before calling it off, he was looked after at the Hammersmith Hospital. So it is not only prison doctors who need to know how to handle a hunger strike. The following guidelines, adopted by the 43rd World Medical Assembly in Malta in November 1991, are therefore a timely reminder of the doctor's duties during a hunger strike.

  3. Agricultural biodiversity, nutrition, and health: making a difference to hunger and nutrition in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Emile A; Smith, Ifeyironwa Francisca; Johns, Timothy; Cherfas, Jeremy; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2006-06-01

    In spite of the strides made globally in reducing hunger, the problems of micronutrient deficiencies and coexisting obesity and related cardiovascular and degenerative diseases constitute a formidable challenge for the future. Attempts to reverse this trend with single-nutrient intervention strategies have met with limited success, resulting in renewed calls for food-based approaches. The deployment of agricultural biodiversity is an approach that entails greater use of local biodiversity to ensure dietary diversity. To outline a new strategy proposed by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) that employs agricultural biodiversity as the primary resource for food security and health. The authors carried out a meta-analysis to review and assemble existing information on the nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods based on a diverse set of case studies and food composition and nutritional analysis studies. The methods highlight particular examples of foods where analysis of nutrient and non-nutrient composition reveals important traits to address the growing problems of malnutrition associated with the rise of chronic diseases. Finally, the authors analyze social, economic, and cultural changes that undermine the healthful components of traditional diets. Based on this multidisciplinary and comparative approach, the authors suggest a holistic food-based approach that combines research to assess and document nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods, investigating options in which nutritionally valuable traditional foods can contribute to better livelihoods, and ways that awareness and promotional campaigns can identify healthful components of traditional diets that fit the needs of urban and market-oriented consumers. There is an urgent need for agricultural research centers, national agricultural research systems, universities, and community-based organizations to work together under a shared policy framework

  4. Chrysostom on hunger and famine

    OpenAIRE

    Hennie Stander

    2011-01-01

    This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom’s time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom’s statements on this issue are studied, but our concern is only involuntary hunger, whilst voluntary forms of self-denial are being excluded. An attempt is made to define a social construct of poverty and ...

  5. Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Hunger and Malnutrition KidsHealth / For Parents / Hunger and Malnutrition What's in ... to meet their needs. What Are Hunger and Malnutrition? Everyone feels hungry at times. Hunger is the ...

  6. Hunger in the World

    CERN Multimedia

    Ziegler,J; Vitori,J; De Baer,E

    1975-01-01

    3 exposés sont présentés par: Jean Ziegler, conseiller national et professeur de sociologie à l'université de Genève, qui dira entre autre que les riches deviennent toujours plus riches et les pauvres toujours plus pauvres...(et qu'en est-il en 2006???) Edmond Kaeser, fondateur de Terre des Hommes qui depuis 43 ans consacre son temps aux pauvres et Jacques Vitori, membre permanent de la confédération mondiale du travail. La projection d'un film tourné au Bangladesch en hiver 1974 après une très grande famine, sera commenté par Erika de Baer qui a passé plusieurs semaines au Bangladesch peu après le film.

  7. The Peace Paradigm [And] Housing and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order: Shaping a Moral Vision. The Whole Earth Papers, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, Fall, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, James; And Others

    This document is comprised of four papers which explore issues related to world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "The Peace Paradigm," explores recent changes in social and political…

  8. Statistics Hacks Tips & Tools for Measuring the World and Beating the Odds

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Want to calculate the probability that an event will happen? Be able to spot fake data? Prove beyond doubt whether one thing causes another? Or learn to be a better gambler? You can do that and much more with 75 practical and fun hacks packed into Statistics Hacks. These cool tips, tricks, and mind-boggling solutions from the world of statistics, measurement, and research methods will not only amaze and entertain you, but will give you an advantage in several real-world situations-including business.

  9. World Beat: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, John R.

    1996-05-01

    Chinese astronomers are still picking up the pieces from the Cultural Revolution, not to mention Tiananmen Square. Can they maintain their enthusiasm during the upheavals the next decade is likely to bring?

  10. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  11. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  12. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  13. Beat Dreams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Two of the founding members of the Beat Generation of the 1950s wrote dream books with almost identical titles: Jack Kerouac's Book of Dreams (1961) and William Burroughs' My Education: A Book of Dreams (1995). This paper queries the function of such dream books, both from a perspective of seeing...... dream writing as a confessional genre, and from the perspective of didacticism implicit in sharing one's dream life with one's readers. What role does memory, politics, fantasies and reality play in communicating with and via dreams?...

  14. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.

  15. Hunger and Population. Facts for Action #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James

    The relationship between world hunger and world population is explored in this document for high school global education classes. Reasons for the high birth rates in developing nations are suggested, e.g., a poor family has many children because children are an inexpensive work force, provide extra income, and care for parents in old age. The…

  16. Chrysostom on hunger and famine | Stander | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom's time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom's statements on this issue are ...

  17. Exploding the Hunger Myths. A High School Curriculum. A Food First Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sonja

    This book of teaching activities is designed to address the issue of hunger and develop a sense of activism and hope among students. It encourages students to discover some of the causes and misconceptions about world hunger. The book contains eight lessons with numerous activities to allow students to study hunger and develop a broader…

  18. Mobilizing University Resources Against Hunger and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David E.

    There are four central issues in mobilizing the resources of American universities to contribute more effectively to alleviating world hunger and malnutrition: (1) To what extent should universities' motivation be original, and to what extent related to government support?; (2) What needs to be done, beyond additional food production?; (3) What…

  19. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. Food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever reason, hunger is the immediate ph...

  20. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  1. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  2. Children Hungering for Justice: Curriculum on Hunger and Children's Rights, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Carla

    This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…

  3. Children Hungering for Justice: Curriculum on Hunger and Children's Rights, Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Carla

    This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…

  4. Children Hungering for Justice: Curriculum on Hunger and Children's Rights, Grades K-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kaaren St. Armour

    This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…

  5. Finding Solutions to Hunger: Kids Can Make a Difference. A Sourcebook for Middle and Upper School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Stephanie

    This manual engages young people in the task of helping save their less fortunate peers from hunger and starvation. The activities give students the knowledge to take action on the causes of hunger and their capacity to change the world. Global hunger, caused by the economic and social forces that result in a billion people going to bed hungry on…

  6. "The Hunger Games" and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…

  7. [Ghrelin: beyond hunger regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke García, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Man ingests food to mitigate hunger (mediated by physiological and biochemical signals), satisfy appetite (subjective sensation) and because of psychosocial reasons. Satiation biomarkers (stop feeding) are gastric distention and hormones (CCK, GLP-1) and satiety biomarkers (induce feeding) are food-induced thermogenesis, body temperature, glycaemia and also hormones (insulin, leptin and ghrelin). Oxidative metabolism/body composition, tryptophan/serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines are also implicated on hunger physiology. At the present time, ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic with potential on hunger/body weight regulation. It is a neuropeptide (endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue) recently isolated from the oxyntic mucosa and synthesized mainly in the stomach. Its blood concentration depends on diet, hyperglucemia and adiposity/leptin. It is secreted 1-2 hours preprandially and its concentration decreases drastically during the postprandium. Ghrelin acts on the lateral hypothalamus and theoretically inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and antagonizes leptin. Ghrelin physiologically increases food intake and stimulates adipogenesis, gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and has other hormonal and cardiovascular functions. Ghrelin blood concentration is reduced in massive obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, hypogonadism, ageing, short bowel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; and increased in primary or secondary anorexia, starvation, chronic liver disease and celiac disease. Cerebral and peritoneal ghrelin administration (rats) and systemic administration (rats and healthy volunteers, cancer patients or patients on peritoneal dialysis) promotes food consumption and increases adiposity, of utmost importance in the treatment of patients with anorexia.

  8. HUNGER & FOODS: an issue of international politics.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo Ferreira, Maria Eulália do

    2015-01-01

    Hunger, poverty and environmental degradation are not only national but international issues. Thus, they could be solved or at least be minimized through greater international cooperation. However, international cooperation is not automatic, even with awareness of these serious problems shared by significant portion of the world population. Furthermore, the interdependence that is being built between the states is asymmetric. Core States, in addition to obtaining more political and economic g...

  9. Association between sleep stages and hunger scores in 36 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, R; Pina, P; Rubin, D; Erichsen, D

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing health challenge. Recent studies show that children with late bedtime and late awakening are more obese independent of total sleep time. In adolescents and adults, a delayed sleep phase has been associated with higher caloric intake. Furthermore, an adult study showed a positive correlation between REM sleep and energy balance. This relationship has not been demonstrated in children. However, it may be important as a delayed sleep phase would increase the proportion of REM sleep. This study investigated the relationship between hunger score and sleep physiology in a paediatric population. Thirty-six patients referred for a polysomnogram for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea were enrolled in the study. Sleep stages were recorded as part of the polysomnogram. Hunger scores were obtained using a visual analogue scale. Mean age was 9.6 ± 3.5 years. Mean hunger scores were 2.07 ± 2.78. Hunger scores were positively correlated with percentage of total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (r = 0.438, P hunger score (r = -0.360, P hunger scores. These findings suggest that delayed bedtime, which increases the proportion of REM sleep and decreases the proportion of SWS, results in higher hunger levels in children. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Communism and Hunger: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    From the Guest Editors

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, researchers have made significant progress in studying the great political famines of the twentieth century. As a result of increased access to formerly closed archives and the collective efforts of the international scholarly community, we now have a rather accurate picture of the causes, dynamics, demographic impact, and consequences of the pan-Soviet famines of 1931-33, the Ukrainian Holodomor, the Kazakh great hunger, and the terrible famine of 1959-61 in China produced by the Great Leap Forward...

  11. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in…

  12. Alliances in "The Hunger Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…

  13. Hunger, escaping excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G; Halweil, B

    2000-01-01

    According to the WHO, in spite of decades of global food surpluses, half of humanity, in both rich and poor nations, is still malnourished. Malnutrition has become a significant impediment to development in rich and poor countries, alike. At the individual level, both hunger and poor eating habits reduce a person's physical fitness, increase susceptibility to illness, and shorten lifespan. In addition, children deprived of adequate nutrients during development can suffer from permanently reduced mental capacity. At the national level, poor eating hampers educational performance, curtails economic productivity, increases the burden on health care, and reduces well-being. Confronting this epidemic of poor eating will have widespread benefits, but the myths and misconceptions permeating humanity¿s understanding of malnutrition should be addressed first. It is noted that the major cause of hunger is poverty, not scarcity of food; it is the lack of access to the goods and services essential for a healthy life. On the other hand, for those who have access to plenty of food, dietary intake includes meat, dairy products, and highly processed items loaded with fat and sugar. This leads to the problem of obesity, a condition that increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and shortens lifespan. In view of this, efforts to improve nutrition should focus on poverty eradication, health education, agricultural change, and policy change towards promotion of good nutrition.

  14. Binaural beat salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz – all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. PMID:22326292

  15. Binaural beat salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz - all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Collective Hunger in the Vision of Amartya Sen as One of the Impeditive Factors of Sustainable Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Torres Roberti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at collective hunger in the vision of Amartya Sen as one of the impeding factors of Sustainable Human Development. In the economist's view, collective hunger goes beyond chronic hunger, involves a sudden outbreak of deprivation for a portion of the population. To eliminate hunger in the modern world, it is crucial to understand the cause of collective hunger in a broad way, and not just because of some mechanical imbalance between food and population. By illustrating the deprivation of liberty, child labor is included as one of the impediments to sustainable human development.

  17. On binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, W

    1985-01-01

    Binaural beats have been investigated in normal volunteers using high-stable synthesizers. There are considerable differences between the subjective rhythm heard and the difference of the two frequencies, indicating that this dissimilarity must be caused centrally.

  18. When I Was Hungry. A Hunger Course for High School Students. [Student Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread for the World Educational Fund, Washington, DC.

    This student packet contains readings and exercises for examining the problem of world hunger. Materials, which are suitable for use by high school students, are presented from a Christian perspective. Twelve chapters cover justice and the right to food; causes of hunger (poverty, land use, the international economy, the arms race, resource abuse,…

  19. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chrysostom on hunger and famine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-09-13

    . Hunger affects not only the physical body of the starving individual, ... He paints a picture wherein the market place is empty of wares and the ... economic thinking that goods are limited (cf. ..... do not themselves avoid luxury.

  1. Why Is There Hunger in Africa? Nature Pleads "Not Guilty." A Curriculum Unit for Science and Social Studies Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Jane; Commins, Stephen

    This unit uses six activities to examine questions of world hunger as seen in an African context and the related policy issues. Each activity allows students to explore a case study demonstrating a factor that affects hunger and grapple with some of the challenges facing policymakers today. Students should come to understand the nature of hunger,…

  2. Hungers that Need Feeding: On the Normativity of Mindful Nourishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Else

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on participant observation in a 'mindful weight loss' course offered in the Netherlands, this paper explores the normative register through which mindfulness techniques cast people in relation to concerns with overeating and body weight. The women seeking out mindfulness use eating to cope with troubles in their lives and are hindered by a preoccupation with the size of their bodies. Mindfulness coaches aim to help them let go of this 'struggle with eating' by posing as the central question: 'what do I really hunger after?' The self's hungers include 'belly hunger' but also stem from mouths, hearts, heads, noses and eyes. They cannot all be fed by food. The techniques detailed in this paper focus on recognizing and disentangling one's hungers; developing self-knowledge of and a sensitivity to what 'feeds' one's life; and the way one positions oneself in relation to oneself and the world. While introducing new norms, the course configures 'goods' and 'bads' in different ways altogether, shaping the worlds people come to inhabit through engaging in self-care. In particular, the hungering body is foregrounded as the medium through which life is lived. Taking a material semiotic approach, this paper makes an intervention by articulating the normative register of nourishment in contrast to normalization. Thus, it highlights anthropologists' potential strengthening of different ways of doing normativity.

  3. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  4. Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood pressure...

  5. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  6. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  7. Hunger and the Externalities of Dietary Preferences: Demand-Side Considerations of the Current Dietary Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Pseiridis

    2012-01-01

    World hunger and the latest increases in global food prices are mainly dealt with by measures aimed at boosting supply and allowing markets to function more effectively. Motivated by the persistence of world hunger, we do not intend to contribute to either theory or empirical analysis in economics; we rather aim to show that current research and policies are locked in a sort of scientific paradigm which takes as given our dietary preferences, which are in fact fundamental in creating resource...

  8. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  9. Development of indicators to assess hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimer, K L; Olson, C M; Campbell, C C

    1990-11-01

    Despite widespread concern about hunger in America, efforts to monitor and assess the extent of hunger have been hampered by lack of consensus on an appropriate meaning for the term hunger and by the lack of valid indicators to assess it. The first phase of the research used qualitative methods to derive a socially-appropriate definition of hunger. Thirty-two women in Upstate New York were interviewed regarding their experience with food problems and hunger. The interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results indicated that women had a narrow and a broad concept of hunger. The narrow concept focused on going without food for a specified period of time and the physical sensation of hunger. The broad one included two dimensions: household and individual hunger. Each had quantitative, qualitative, psychological, and social components. The second phase of the research used survey methodology to examine the validity and reliability of items designed to measure the conceptual definition of hunger. The survey was administered to 189 women in Upstate New York who participated in programs designed for low-income households or households in need of food. The second phase confirmed the conceptualization of hunger developed in the first phase. A subset of valid and reliable items that represented each of the major dimensions and components of hunger was identified as being useful for monitoring and assessing hunger.

  10. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in…

  11. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  12. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  13. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology, hunger and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Battaglin Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between epidemiology and food security implies in disclosing famine causes, the way it is distributed in the society and to which extent it affects the populations. Building up from that perspective, this paper attempts to understand the famine logic throughout the various transitions accomplished in the past decades: epidemiologic, demographic, risk, nutritional and development. The reflexes of the demographic transition that took place in Brazil in the XXth century are related to the population nutritional status standard changes, that is, they shifted from malnutrition high prevalence to a significant increase in obesity. However, the paradox of this situation is due to the fact that most risk factors that bring about diseases of the modern world come from the “excess”, while millions die around the globe because of “deprivation”. The food production alone does not ensure its equitable distribution among the various groups of the society. The access alone does not lead to quality. The choices are made individually, but life style options imply in a set of correlations that go from economy to culture. It means that this field has a collective basis and encompasses environment and development.

  15. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  16. Hunger, Discourse and the Policy Process: How do Conceptualizations of the Problem of ‘Hunger’ Affect its Measurement and Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Ian MacAuslan

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies ‘policy processes’ literature to constructions of hunger. Problem conceptualization and associated solutions are understood as shaped by discourse, rhetoric and interests. Two constructions of the problem of ‘hunger’ are analysed: hunger as lack of food, associated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and hunger as malnutrition, associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). While both conceptualizations agree h...

  17. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  18. A Working Library on Riots and Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Martin

    1969-01-01

    An economist's review of "Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam Books, 1968), "Hunger U.S.A." (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), and Hunger & Malnutrition in the U.S. "(Washington: U.S. GPO, 1968).

  19. Detection of heart beats in multimodal data: a robust beat-to-beat interval estimation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Brüser, Christoph; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-08-01

    The heart rate and its variability play a vital role in the continuous monitoring of patients, especially in the critical care unit. They are commonly derived automatically from the electrocardiogram as the interval between consecutive heart beat. While their identification by QRS-complexes is straightforward under ideal conditions, the exact localization can be a challenging task if the signal is severely contaminated with noise and artifacts. At the same time, other signals directly related to cardiac activity are often available. In this multi-sensor scenario, methods of multimodal sensor-fusion allow the exploitation of redundancies to increase the accuracy and robustness of beat detection.In this paper, an algorithm for the robust detection of heart beats in multimodal data is presented. Classic peak-detection is augmented by robust multi-channel, multimodal interval estimation to eliminate false detections and insert missing beats. This approach yielded a score of 90.70 and was thus ranked third place in the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014: Robust Detection of Heart Beats in Muthmodal Data follow-up analysis.In the future, the robust beat-to-beat interval estimator may directly be used for the automated processing of multimodal patient data for applications such as diagnosis support and intelligent alarming.

  20. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-03-03

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.

  1. Using music structure to improve beat tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2005-09-01

    Beats are an important feature of most music. Beats are used in music information retrieval systems for genre classification, similarity search, and segmentation. However, beats can be difficult to identify, especially in music audio. Traditional beat trackers attempt to (1) match predicted beats to observations of likely beats, and (2) maintain a fairly steady tempo. A third criterion can be added: when repetitions of musical passages occur, the beats in the first repetition should align with the beats in all other repetitions. This third criterion improves beat tracking performance significantly. Repetitions of musical passages are discovered in audio data by searching for similar sequences of chroma vectors. Beats are ``tracked'' by first locating a sequence of likely beats in the music audio using high frequency energy as an indicator of beat likelihood. This beat sequence is then extended by searching forward and backward for more matching beats, allowing slight variations in tempo, and using a relaxation algorithm to optimize the proposed beat locations with respect to the three criteria. Other high-level music features may offer further improvements in beat identification.

  2. Alleviating hidden hunger. Approaches that work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Mannar, V.; Iyengar, V.

    2003-01-01

    The world has come a long way in understanding the nature, magnitude and range of solutions to micronutrient malnutrition - often called 'hidden hunger'. The most sustainable solutions - that is those that are likely to be maintained in the long term - almost surely will include food-based approaches including diet diversity, food fortification and biofortification. Food fortification and biofortification could be some of the most cost-effective of all public health interventions and thus within the economic reach of even the world's poorest. In order to implement them in a sustainable manner, a combination of technical, operational, economic, behavioural and political factors need to be addressed. In some ways the technological issues are the easiest. Because of attention to research, we now have a variety of ways for both single and multiple micronutrients to reach the target population. We also know what is needed in order to ensure delivery systems. The key factor for continued success in reducing micronutrient malnutrition through fortification is a political commitment at the national and international level and creating effective public-private partnerships at the national level. The payoff for eliminating hidden hunger through nutrient fortification is enormous and few other public health interventions offer such a promising health, nutrition and economic success story. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in helping to meet the multifaceted challenges posed by nutritional disorders affecting the entire human life span (embryonic to elderly). Among the numerous applications available, isotopic techniques are uniquely well suited for targeting and tracking progress in food and nutrition development programmes (See box: How Nutrients are Tracked). These include: use of the stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) as a kind of gold standard in studies of their bioavailability from foods; trace element bioavailability and pool sizes for

  3. Consequence of climate mitigation on the risk of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-16

    Climate change and mitigation measures have three major impacts on food consumption and the risk of hunger: (1) changes in crop yields caused by climate change; (2) competition for land between food crops and energy crops driven by the use of bioenergy; and (3) costs associated with mitigation measures taken to meet an emissions reduction target that keeps the global average temperature increase to 2 °C. In this study, we combined a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop model (M-GAEZ), and we quantified the three impacts on risk of hunger through 2050 based on the uncertainty range associated with 12 climate models and one economic and demographic scenario. The strong mitigation measures aimed at attaining the 2 °C target reduce the negative effects of climate change on yields but have large negative impacts on the risk of hunger due to mitigation costs in the low-income countries. We also found that in a strongly carbon-constrained world, the change in food consumption resulting from mitigation measures depends more strongly on the change in incomes than the change in food prices.

  4. World Food Prospects for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses world hunger issues and the increasing world population. Sees continued imbalance between supply and demand. Points out Europe and the United States are dealing with surplus production, whereas developing nations continue to import needed food. Argues solving hunger problems requires eliminating poverty through development programs.…

  5. Justification of Wife Beating in Adolescents: Associated Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, Bethany; Hooley, Merrilyn; Mellor, David

    2018-04-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents who are exposed to social norms related to violence against women are more likely to experience or be perpetrators of intimate partner violence. This study evaluated factors hypothesized to be associated with acceptance of wife beating among 240 male and female adolescents aged 10-16 years participating in a World Vision program in Armenia. Acceptance of wife beating was associated with relational victimization, perceived social support, and parent and community boundaries and expectations, but was not associated with overt victimization or aggression. These findings highlight several areas that may be important for violence prevention research.

  6. The Cognition of Hunger and Eating Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Sibilia

    2010-01-01

    Hunger is a poorly defined cognition, assumed to motivate overeating, but there is no firm evidence that the intensity of a sense of hunger is related to overweight. Recent research has suggested instead that irregular eating habits, as deriving from dieting, emotional stressors or other causes may have a role in the weight gain of obese people. These "borderline eating behaviours" (or BEB), targeted in cognitive behavioural therapy of obesity, were found associated to the body mass index bot...

  7. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  8. Who's Involved with Hunger: An Organization Guide for Education and Advocacy. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Patricia L.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of organizations that battle world hunger, seek to educate the public about the problem, and/or provide advocacy services. Among the groups that are described are the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations, U.S. federal government agencies, U.S. congressional agencies, U.S.…

  9. When I Was Hungry. A Hunger Course for High School Students. Teacher's Manual [and] Action Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread for the World Educational Fund, Washington, DC.

    Designed to accompany a student activity packet on issues related to world hunger, this teacher's manual provides 12 units of study at the high school level. Materials are presented from a Christian perspective. The following topics are covered in separate chapters: introduction (justice and the right to food), the dimensions and scope of the…

  10. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  11. The role of food and nutrition system approaches in tackling hidden hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchi, Francesco; Fanzo, Jessica; Frison, Emile

    2011-02-01

    One of the World's greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as "hidden hunger", affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.

  12. Average beta-beating from random errors

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Franchi, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The impact of random errors on average β-beating is studied via analytical derivations and simulations. A systematic positive β-beating is expected from random errors quadratic with the sources or, equivalently, with the rms β-beating. However, random errors do not have a systematic effect on the tune.

  13. Hunger and thirst interact to regulate ingestive behavior in flies and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjine, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors. These mechanisms include peptide signals that modulate neural circuits for both thirst and hunger, neurons that regulate both food and water ingestion, and neurons that integrate sensory information about both food and water in the external world. These studies argue that a deeper understanding of hunger and thirst will require closer examination of how these two biological drives interact. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to acoustic beats and to binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat types, beat frequencies and base (carrier) frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude in response to acoustic than to binaural beats, to 250 than to 1000 Hz base frequency and to 3 Hz than to 6 Hz beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left temporal lobe areas. Differences between estimated sources of potentials to acoustic and binaural beats were not significant. The perceptions of binaural beats involve cortical activity that is not different than acoustic beats in distribution and in the effects of beat- and base frequency, indicating similar cortical processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. ... children in Malawi, we carried out this study to provide such information. .... due to the protection against hunger that children who are normally in ...

  16. Hunger, ethics and the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    The management of hunger has to look into the issues of availability, accessibility and adequacy of food supply. From an ethical perspective, this paper argues in favour of the right to food. But, for this to become viable, the state has to come up with an appropriate and effective bill on food and nutrition security, address the issue of inadequate provisioning of storage space by state agencies leading to rotting of food grains--a criminal waste when people are dying of hunger; and rely on local level institutions involving the community, that complement the administrative structure to identify the poor and reduce exclusion and inclusion errors.

  17. [Štampar's contemporary Josip Šilović: the founder of the Colonization fund for orphans from hunger-stricken Croatian areas and the Fund for orphans of Croatian emigrants during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agneza

    2015-11-01

    This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.

  18. Hunger in the U.S.--Developing Educational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Connie F.; And Others

    A pilot hunger awareness program was developed for fourth graders in a low-income elementary school. Objectives were to provide students with information that would increase their awareness of hunger in their communities by helping them identify signs of hunger, food pantries located within their school zip code area, and a resource person in…

  19. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  20. Hunger: conception of a social scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mara Dias Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of hunger as a phenomenon multidetermined by social and economical factors, emphasizing its features in the history of inequality and poverty. A major issue in this discussion is food as an essential human right and the necessity of knowing and interfering in people`s reality in order to acknowledge them as entitled to those rights.

  1. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  2. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  3. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and…

  4. Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzek, Ernst J; Sprangers, Niels; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van De Wetering, Ben J M

    2008-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life. A case-control study. The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak. Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947. Exposure to the whole hunger winter (treatment for an addictive disorder [OR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.64]. Stratification by sex shows that the odds of exposure during the first trimester was significantly higher only among men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation. First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world.

  5. Electrical brain responses to beat irregularities in two cases of beat deafness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathias, B.; Lidji, P.; Honing, H.; Palmer, C.; Peretz, I.

    2016-01-01

    Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to

  6. The Hunger Stones: a new source for more objective identification of historical droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Libor

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.

  7. A Subset of Serotonergic Neurons Evokes Hunger in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Kaun, Karla R; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Heberlein, Ulrike; Simpson, Julie H

    2015-09-21

    Hunger is a complex motivational state that drives multiple behaviors. The sensation of hunger is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One immediate response to hunger is increased food consumption. Hunger also modulates behaviors related to food seeking such as increased locomotion and enhanced sensory sensitivity in both insects and vertebrates. In addition, hunger can promote the expression of food-associated memory. Although progress is being made, how hunger is represented in the brain and how it coordinates these behavioral responses is not fully understood in any system. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify neurons encoding hunger. We found a small group of neurons that, when activated, induced a fed fly to eat as though it were starved, suggesting that these neurons are downstream of the metabolic regulation of hunger. Artificially activating these neurons also promotes appetitive memory performance in sated flies, indicating that these neurons are not simply feeding command neurons but likely play a more general role in encoding hunger. We determined that the neurons relevant for the feeding effect are serotonergic and project broadly within the brain, suggesting a possible mechanism for how various responses to hunger are coordinated. These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Second International Conference on Nutrition: Implications for Hidden Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition. Despite much progress in reducing hunger globally, 795 million people remain undernourished, over 2 billion people suffer from various micronutrient deficiencies, and an estimated 161 million children under 5 years of age are stunted, 99 million underweight, and 51 million wasted. Meanwhile, more than 600 million adults are obese. Global problems require global solutions. The ICN2 brought together national policy-makers from food, agriculture, health, education, social protection and other relevant sectors to address the complex problem of malnutrition through a multi-sectoral approach. Two outcome documents - the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action - were endorsed by participating governments at the Conference, committing world leaders to establishing national policies aimed at eradicating malnutrition in all its forms and transforming food systems to make nutritious diets available to all. The Rome Declaration on Nutrition is a political statement of 10 commitments for more effective and coordinated action to improve nutrition, while the Framework for Action is a voluntary technical guide of 60 recommendations for the implementation of the political commitments. This chapter provides information on the ICN2 and its outcomes as well as follow-up activities. Emphasis is placed on the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action, with special focus on hidden

  9. Addressing Hunger Issues Through Service Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Kershaw

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Government has set a goal of reducing the prevalence of food insecurity to 6% or less by 2010. To achieve this goal, education and action are necessary. Youth in Oregon were introduced to the issue through the role playing simulation, Are You Hungry Tonight? The simulation was utilized with youth, adult volunteers, and youth development staff. Participants indicated increased understanding of people with limited resources, including: Financial pressures, emotional stresses and frustrations they face; Difficulty of improving one’s situation; Difficult choices people make; Positive and negative impacts of community organizations. Simulation participants developed an understanding of hunger issues and empathy for people experiencing food insecurity. Participants were subsequently challenged to complete service learning projects that would help provide additional food resources for their communities. Providing education through the simulation set the stage for youth to participate fully in service learning projects to help alleviate hunger.

  10. On hunger and child mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2012-01-01

    Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements.

  11. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  12. Full tanks - empty plates. The price for agrian fuels. Hunger, expulsion, environmental destruction; Volle Tanks - leere Teller. Der Preis fuer Agrokraftstoffe. Hunger, Vertreibung, Umweltzerstoerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hees, W.; Mueller, O.; Schueth, M. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    With the cereals, which is needed in order to fill a 100-Liter-tank of a jeep, one person can be nourished one year. Whether it ethically is justified to convert food into fuel, is one of the questions, which is discussed in the book under consideration. The agro fuels forced by the European Community and the U.S.A. have given rise to a gold-digger spirit in the agrarian industry. This also is applied to the Third World, where presently plantations of gigantic extent develop. The consequences are disastrous: loss of biodiversity, heating up of the world climate and hunger.

  13. Feeling the beat: premotor and striatal interactions in musicians and non-musicians during beat perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A.; Rowe, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the underlying neurobiology of rhythm and beat perception, despite its universal cultural importance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study rhythm perception in musicians and non-musicians. Three conditions varied in the degree to which external reinforcement versus internal generation of the beat was required. The ‘Volume’ condition strongly externally marked the beat with volume changes, the ‘Duration’ condition marked the beat with weaker accents arising from duration changes, and the ‘Unaccented’ condition required the beat to be entirely internally generated. In all conditions, beat rhythms compared to nonbeat control rhythms revealed putamen activity. The presence of a beat was also associated with greater connectivity between the putamen and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor cortex (PMC) and auditory cortex. In contrast, the type of accent within the beat conditions modulated the coupling between premotor and auditory cortex, with greater modulation for musicians than non-musicians. Importantly, the putamen's response to beat conditions was not due to differences in temporal complexity between the three rhythm conditions. We propose that a cortico-subcortical network including the putamen, SMA, and PMC is engaged for the analysis of temporal sequences and prediction or generation of putative beats, especially under conditions that may require internal generation of the beat. The importance of this system for auditory-motor interaction and development of precisely timed movement is suggested here by its facilitation in musicians. PMID:19515922

  14. Dichotic beats of mistuned consonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M P

    1997-10-01

    The beats of mistuned consonances (BMCs) result from the presentation of two sinusoids at frequencies slightly mistuned from a ratio of small integers. Several studies have suggested that the source of dichotic BMCs is an interaction within a binaural critical band. In one case the mechanism has been explained as an aural harmonic of the low-frequency tone (f1) creating binaural beats with the high-frequency tone (f2). The other explanation involves a binaural cross correlation between the excitation pattern of f1 and the contralateral f2--occurring within the binaural critical band centered at f2. This study examined the detection of dichotic BMCs for the octave and fifth. In one experiment with the octave, narrow-band noise centered at f2 was presented to one ear along with f1. The other ear was presented with f2. The noise was used to prevent interactions in the binaural critical band centered at f2. Dichotic BMCs were still detected under these conditions, suggesting that binaural interaction within a critical band does not explain the effect. Localization effects were also observed under this masking condition for phase reversals of tuned dichotic octave stimuli. These findings suggest a new theory of dichotic BMCs as a between-channel phase effect. The modified weighted-image model of localization [Stern and Trahiotis, in Auditory Physiology and Perception, edited by Y. Cazals, L. Demany, and K. Horner (Pergamon, Oxford, 1992), pp. 547-554] was used to provide an explanation of the between-channel mechanism.

  15. Globalization and World Hunger: The Role of FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodelin, Geraldene B.

    2006-01-01

    Inasmuch as social deficiencies breed malcontent, it is not difficult to understand the resulting dissonance in physical, social, emotional, and relational well-being not only between individuals but also within and between communities and groups and between nations. The proverbial "haves" and "have-nots" continue to be…

  16. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS – A SOLUTION TO WORLD HUNGER?

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Kaluđerović; Jovana Potpara

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity ...

  17. World Hunger: Famine in Africa. Sample Lessons, Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Eileen; And Others

    This model social studies lesson includes a simulated interview with a relief worker describing the famine conditions in Ethiopia. A map of Africa and pictures of famine victims are included. The objectives of the lesson are to have students describe the situation in Ethiopia, analyze the causes, and evaluate solutions to the famine. In the model…

  18. Food donation : an initiative to mitigate hunger in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia, Gonzalo; Mejia Argueta, Christopher; Rangel, Vivian; García-Díaz, César; Montoya, Carlos; Agudelo, I. (Isabel)

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of food are either lost or wasted while millions of people suffer from malnutrition. A plausible initiative are the food banks in which large retail chains and potentially other organizations can donate food. This food is collected and delivered by food banks to people

  19. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain responses associated with consciousness of breathlessness (air hunger)

    OpenAIRE

    Liotti, Mario; Brannan, Stephen; Egan, Gary; Shade, Robert; Madden, Lisa; Abplanalp, Bart; Robillard, Rachel; Lancaster, Jack; Zamarripa, Frank E.; Fox, Peter T.; Denton, Derek

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO2 was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO2- was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The s...

  1. Electrical Brain Responses to Beat Irregularities in Two Cases of Beat Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Lidji, Pascale; Honing, Henkjan; Palmer, Caroline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu—but not Marjorie—compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception. PMID:26941591

  2. Electrical brain responses to beat irregularities in two cases of beat deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 event-related potential (ERP components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu – but not Marjorie – compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception.

  3. Eating with our eyes: From visual hunger to digital satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles; Okajima, Katsunori; Cheok, Adrian David; Petit, Olivia; Michel, Charles

    2016-12-01

    One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Quantity, quality, harmony and adaption: the guiding principles of a society without hunger in Josué de Castro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eronides da Silva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the links between the biological and social spheres established by Josué de Castro in his studies of alimentation. First it looks at how the author introduced modem dietary principles at the same time that hunger and malnutrition were unveiled in parts of Brazil, aiming at the configuration of a national alimentation policy. Second, at it examines how he expanded the debate, giving visibility to the dynamics of states and the political direction of a world that was being dismantled in which hunger and alimentation were an intrinsic part of the spatial distribution of power. In the postwar scenario the dietary principles of quantity, quality, harmony and adequacy were transposed as the guiding principles for a society without hunger at the global scale.

  5. Hunger: its impact on children's health and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Linda; Wehler, Cheryl; Perloff, Jennifer; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Sagor, Linda; Gundersen, Craig

    2002-10-01

    Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year--1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out

  6. The Hunger Games : Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Tracy T.L.; Kroese, Floor M.; Fennis, Bob M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless,

  7. The Faces of Hunger: The Educational Impact of Hunger on Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph John; Matsuura, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' living in poverty and academic underachievement challenges schools across the nation. Poverty is particularly prevalent among children with disabilities. One detrimental condition of poverty that directly affects student development and academic achievement is food insecurity and hunger. With the increasing…

  8. Everybody Eats: Using Hunger Banquets to Teach about Issues of Global Hunger and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah A.; Harris, Whitney M.; Fondren, Kristi M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiential and active learning exercises can benefit students in sociology courses, particularly, courses in which issues of inequality are central. In this paper, we describe using hunger banquets-an active learning exercise where participants are randomly stratified into three global classes and receive food based upon their class position-to…

  9. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. PMID:23825928

  10. Wealth geography, environment and hunger: small critic contribution to the current agrarian/agricultural model of the natural resources usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.

  11. Beating Depression …Help Is Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Beating Depression …Help Is Available Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... treatments are available from your physician. Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  12. Binaural beats and frequency-coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, W; Köhler, W

    1986-01-01

    Binaural beats were studied before and during a situation of temporary threshold shift, and no frequency shift could be found. In contrast, subjective binaural frequency comparison revealed a distinct shift. These findings demonstrate the two known modes of perception.

  13. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  14. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 David Lovell-Smith,2 Timothy Kenealy,3 Riccardo Bianchi4 1Unit of Preventive Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH, has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG. These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition. Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern. IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. Keywords: energy intake, hunger, energy balance, food intake regulation, prevention, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, risks

  15. Beat characteristics and beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seock-Hyun; Lee, Chi-Wook; Lee, Jang-Moo

    2005-03-01

    King Seong-deok Divine Bell is the second oldest bell in Korea. The bell is considered to have the best sound quality among Korean bells. The beat phenomenon is one of the most important characteristics for the sound of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell. In this study, the relationships between the modal parameters and the peculiar beat phenomena of the bell are investigated. It is theoretically proved from the beat characteristics that the sound might indeed be heard differently depending on the listening positions. The beat map method is introduced to visualize the beat distribution properties. It is shown that the beat maps can be drawn with a theoretical model based on the modal data of the bell. Using the beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell, it is investigated why clear and unclear beats, large and small amplitudes of the vibrations are repeated periodically along the circumference of the bell. Furthermore, the effect of the striking position on the beat distribution property is examined systematically.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize ...

  17. Alleviating poverty and hunger in Nigeria: Lessons from the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is facing serious poverty and hunger despite her enormous resources. Recent statistics reveal that poverty and hunger are increasing despite successive governments and non–governmental organizations alleviation programmes. Unless, these twin problems are tacked urgently, they are likely to undermine the ...

  18. Intervals of confidence: Uncertain accounts of global hunger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Global health policy experts tend to organize hunger through scales of ‘the individual’, ‘the community’ and ‘the global’. This organization configures hunger as a discrete, measurable object to be scaled up or down with mathematical certainty. This article offers a counter to this approach, using

  19. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Global sustainable food governance and hunger: traps and tragedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the global problem of hunger. It submits that many developing countries are caught in a hunger, poverty and population trap and with the increasing divergence in income between rich and poor countries, the chances that these countries will be able to come out of these

  1. Hunger-Driven Motivational State Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C Joseph; Li, Chia; Webber, Emily; Tsaousidou, Eva; Xue, Stephen Y; Brüning, Jens C; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-10-05

    Behavioral choice is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and is central to goal-oriented behavior. Hypothalamic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons are critical regulators of appetite. Hungry animals, bombarded by multiple sensory stimuli, are known to modify their behavior during times of caloric need, rapidly adapting to a consistently changing environment. Utilizing ARC AgRP neurons as an entry point, we analyzed the hierarchical position of hunger related to rival drive states. Employing a battery of behavioral assays, we found that hunger significantly increases its capacity to suppress competing motivational systems, such as thirst, anxiety-related behavior, innate fear, and social interactions, often only when food is accessible. Furthermore, real-time monitoring of ARC AgRP activity revealed time-locked responses to conspecific investigation in addition to food presentation, further establishing that, even at the level of ARC AgRP neurons, choices are remarkably flexible computations, integrating internal state, external factors, and anticipated yield. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Hunger and Satiety Gauge Reward Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Michael Cassidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the neurocircuits and hormones known to underlie the sensations of hunger and satiety also substantially alter the activity of the dopaminergic reward system. Much interest lies in the ways that hunger, satiety, and reward tie together, as the epidemic of obesity seems tied to the recent development and mass availability of highly palatable foods. In this review, we will first discuss the basic neurocircuitry of the midbrain and basal forebrain reward system. We will elaborate how several important mediators of hunger—the agouti-related protein neurons of the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, and ghrelin—enhance the sensitivity of the dopaminergic reward system. Then, we will elaborate how mediators of satiety—the nucleus tractus solitarius, pro-opiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus, and its peripheral hormonal influences such as leptin—reduce the reward system sensitivity. We hope to provide a template by which future research may identify the ways in which highly rewarding foods bypass this balanced system to produce excessive food consumption.

  3. The global hidden hunger indices and maps: an advocacy tool for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Rah, Jee Hyun; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Roos, Franz F; Kraemer, Klaus; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world's stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions.

  4. Motilin-induced gastric contractions signal hunger in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Deloose, E; Ang, D; Scarpellini, E; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I

    2016-02-01

    Hunger is controlled by the brain, which receives input from signals of the GI tract (GIT). During fasting, GIT displays a cyclical motor pattern, the migrating motor complex (MMC), regulated by motilin. To study the relationship between hunger and MMC phases (I-III), focusing on spontaneous and pharmacologically induced phase III and the correlation with plasma motilin and ghrelin levels. The role of phase III was also studied in the return of hunger after a meal in healthy individuals and in patients with loss of appetite. In fasting healthy volunteers, mean hunger ratings during a gastric (62.5±7.5) but not a duodenal (40.4±5.4) phase III were higher (phunger scores from 29.2±7 to 61.7±8. The somatostatin analogue octreotide induced a premature intestinal phase III without a rise in hunger scores. Hunger ratings significantly correlated (β=0.05; p=0.01) with motilin plasma levels, and this relationship was lost after erythromycin administration. Motilin, but not ghrelin administration, induced a premature gastric phase III and a rise in hunger scores. In contrast to octreotide, postprandial administration of erythromycin induced a premature gastric phase III accompanied by an early rise in hunger ratings. In patients with unexplained loss of appetite, gastric phase III was absent and hunger ratings were lower. Motilin-induced gastric phase III is a hunger signal from GIT in man. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger nonverbally and then indicate hunger verbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed.

  6. Combating hidden hunger: the role of international agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmiya, Nita; Schultink, Werner

    2003-12-01

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing

  7. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  8. The impact of binaural beats on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Susan A; Bolders, Anne; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale-mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S) and an affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs). Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBRs were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  9. Proarrhythmic electrical remodelling is associated with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Oros, Avram; Schoenmakers, Marieke

    2007-01-01

    Acquired long-QT syndrome in combination with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation duration (BVR) is associated with lethal torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) in dogs with remodelled heart after atrioventricular block (AVB). We evaluated the relative contributions of bradycardi...

  10. World Food Day Curriculum, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Janet

    Hunger and malnutrition lead to the deaths of 13-18 million people a year; 75 percent of these victims are children. World Food Day was created to focus attention on the world's food and farm problems and to encourage the world's people to become directly involved in the solution of these problems. It is sponsored jointly by the United Nations…

  11. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631

  12. High beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in atrial fibrillation compared to sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Joakim; Gille, Adam; Ljungman, Petter; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Östergren, Jan; Witt, Nils

    2018-02-07

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not entirely explained by thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms for this association are largely unknown. Similarly, high blood pressure (BP) increases the risk for cardiovascular events. Despite this the interplay between AF and BP is insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with AF in comparison to a control group of patients with sinus rhythm. We studied 33 patients - 21 in atrial fibrillation and 12 in sinus rhythm - undergoing routine coronary angiography. Invasive blood pressure was recorded at three locations: radial artery, brachial artery and ascending aorta. Blood pressure variability, defined as average beat-to-beat blood pressure difference, was calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at each site. We observed a significant difference (p blood pressure variability between the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups at all locations. Systolic blood pressure variability roughly doubled in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (4.9 and 2.4 mmHg respectively). Diastolic beat-to-beat blood pressure variability was approximately 6 times as high in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (7.5 and 1.2 mmHg respectively). No significant difference in blood pressure variability was seen between measurement locations. Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation was substantially higher than in patients with sinus rhythm. Hemodynamic effects of this beat-to-beat variation in blood pressure may negatively affect vascular structure and function, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  13. [Hunger-driven modulation in brain functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    \\All organisms must obtain nutrition in order to survive and produce their progeny. In the natural environment, however, adequate nutrition or food is not always available. Thus, all organisms are equipped with mechanisms by which their nutritional condition alters their internal activities. In animals, the loss of nutritional intake (fasting) alters not only metabolism, but also behavior in a manner dependent on hormones such as insulin, glucagon, leptin, and ghrelin. As a result, animals are able to maintain their blood sugar level, and are motivated to crave food upon fasting. Moreover, our recent study revealed a novel role of hunger, which facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation, and its molecular mechanism in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Here, we review the overall effect of fasting, and how fasting affects brain function. I then introduce our finding in which mild fasting facilitates LTM formation, and discuss its biological significance.

  14. The Global Hidden Hunger Indices and Maps: An Advocacy Tool for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Rah, Jee Hyun; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Roos, Franz F.; Kraemer, Klaus; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world’s stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions. PMID:23776712

  15. Acoustical sensing of cardiomyocyte cluster beating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tymchenko, Nina; Kunze, Angelika [Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Dahlenborg, Kerstin [Cellectis, 413 46 Göteborg (Sweden); Svedhem, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.svedhem@chalmers.se [Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Steel, Daniella [Cellectis, 413 46 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •An example of the application of QCM-D to live cell studies. •Detection of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte cluster beating. •Clusters were studied in a thin liquid film and in a large liquid volume. •The QCM-D beating profile provides an individual fingerprint of the hPS-CMCs. -- Abstract: Spontaneously beating human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes clusters (CMCs) represent an excellent in vitro tool for studies of human cardiomyocyte function and for pharmacological cardiac safety assessment. Such testing typically requires highly trained operators, precision plating, or large cell quantities, and there is a demand for real-time, label-free monitoring of small cell quantities, especially rare cells and tissue-like structures. Array formats based on sensing of electrical or optical properties of cells are being developed and in use by the pharmaceutical industry. A potential alternative to these techniques is represented by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, which is an acoustic surface sensitive technique that measures changes in mass and viscoelastic properties close to the sensor surface (from nm to μm). There is an increasing number of studies where QCM-D has successfully been applied to monitor properties of cells and cellular processes. In the present study, we show that spontaneous beating of CMCs on QCM-D sensors can be clearly detected, both in the frequency and the dissipation signals. Beating rates in the range of 66–168 bpm for CMCs were detected and confirmed by simultaneous light microscopy. The QCM-D beating profile was found to provide individual fingerprints of the hPS-CMCs. The presented results point towards acoustical assays for evaluation cardiotoxicity.

  16. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones. The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies. Uncontrolled pilot study. Eight healthy adults participated in the study. Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days. Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements. Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.

  17. The Year of the Rat ends - time to fight hunger!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Singleton, Grant R; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as climatic extremes, use of crops for biofuels, reduced growth in yields which lag behind population growth, reduced world stocks and lack of sufficient investment in maintaining the irrigation infrastructure. For the undernourished this is problematic as they are most vulnerable to the rise in food prices. Very often, agricultural experts focus on an increase in agricultural production to reduce food prices. It is postulated in this article that almost 280 million undernourished could additionally benefit if more attention were paid to reducing pre- and post-harvest losses by rodents. Moreover, rodent-borne diseases would decrease, diseases that can be catastrophic to the livelihoods of the poorest of the poor. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  19. A binaural beat constructed from a noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The binaural beat has been used for over one hundred years as a stimulus for generating the percept of motion. Classically the beat consists of a pure tone at one ear (e.g. 500 Hz) and the same pure tone at the other ear but shifted upwards or downwards in frequency (e.g., 501 Hz). An experiment and binaural computational analysis are reported which demonstrate that a more powerful motion percept can be obtained by applying the concept of the frequency shift to a noise, via an upwards or downwards shift in the frequency of the Fourier components of its spectrum. PMID:21218863

  20. A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to acoustic beats and to binaural beats

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, H; Starr, A; Michalewski, HJ; Dimitrijevic, A; Bleich, N; Mittelman, N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source cur...

  1. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Hunger in Virginia : Extension's response ability : a resource guide

    OpenAIRE

    Taper, L. Janette

    1987-01-01

    Provides information to educate Extension professionals on the issue of hunger and malnutrition in Virginia. This guide will allow Extension professionals to conduct nutrition education programs in low income communities to help them improve their diets.

  3. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  4. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  5. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    OpenAIRE

    Paravano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13). Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social ...

  6. Analyzing the Acoustic Beat with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Hirth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this column, we have previously presented various examples of how physical relationships can be examined by analyzing acoustic signals using smartphones or tablet PCs. In this example, we will be exploring the acoustic phenomenon of small beats, which is produced by the overlapping of two tones with a low difference in frequency ?f. The…

  7. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  8. A Good Suit Beats a Good Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Niccolo Machiavelli, this column offers beleaguered school executives advice on looking good, dressing well, losing weight, beating the proper enemy, and saying nothing. Administrators who follow these simple rules should have an easier life, jealous colleagues, well-tended gardens, and respectful board members. (MLH)

  9. Beat the Instructor: An Introductory Forecasting Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Brent R.; Eliasson, Janice B.

    2013-01-01

    This teaching brief describes a 30-minute game where student groups compete in-class in an introductory time-series forecasting exercise. The students are challenged to "beat the instructor" who competes using forecasting techniques that will be subsequently taught. All forecasts are graphed prior to revealing the randomly generated…

  10. Hunger enhances consistent economic choices in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-24

    Hunger and thirst are fundamental biological processes that drive consumption behavior in humans and non-human animals. While the existing literature in neuroscience suggests that these satiety states change how consumable rewards are represented in the brain, it remains unclear as to how they change animal choice behavior and the underlying economic preferences. Here, I used combined techniques from experimental economics, psychology, and neuroscience to measure food preferences of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), a recently developed primate model for neuroscience. Hunger states of animals were manipulated by scheduling feeding intervals, resulting in three different conditions: sated, non-sated, and hungry. During these hunger states, animals performed pairwise choices of food items, which included all possible pairwise combinations of five different food items except for same-food pairs. Results showed that hunger enhanced economic rationality, evident as a decrease of transitivity violations (item A was preferred to item B, and B to C, but C was preferred to A). Further analysis demonstrated that hungry monkeys chose more-preferred items over less-preferred items in a more deterministic manner, while the individual food preferences appeared to remain stable across hunger states. These results suggest that hunger enhances consistent choice behavior and shifts animals towards efficient outcome maximization.

  11. Model for the heart beat-to-beat time series during meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, A.; Diambra, L.; Malta, C. P.

    2003-09-01

    We present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a pacemaker, that simulates the membrane potential of the sinoatrial node, modulated by a periodic input signal plus correlated noise that simulates the respiratory input. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce in the phase space the trajectory of experimental heart beat-to-beat interval data. The data sets were recorded during meditation practices of the Chi and Kundalini Yoga techniques. Our study indicates that in the first case the respiratory signal has the shape of a smoothed square wave, and in the second case it has the shape of a smoothed triangular wave.

  12. Relationship between age and location of the apex beat among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of apex beat is an integral part of routine cardiovascular system examination in clinical practice. However, there is paucity of ... Apex beat location in the intercostal space was determined and distance of apex beat from the midline, midclavicular line and nipple lines were measured. The measured distances were ...

  13. Rhythmic regularity revisited : Is beat induction indeed pre-attentive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.; Honing, H.; Cambouropoulos, E.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    When listening to musical rhythm, regularity in time is often perceived in the form of a beat or pulse. External rhythmic events can give rise to the perception of a beat, through a process known as beat induction. In addition, internal processes, like long-term memory, working memory and automatic

  14. Model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat time interval series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Alberto; Diambra, Luis; Malta, C. P.

    2005-09-01

    In this study we present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a set of differential equations used to simulate the membrane potential of a single rabbit sinoatrial node cell, excited with a periodic input signal with added correlated noise. This signal, which simulates the input from the autonomous nervous system to the sinoatrial node, was included in the pacemaker equations as a modulation of the iNaK current pump and the potassium current iK. We focus at modeling the heart beat-to-beat time interval series from normal subjects during meditation of the Kundalini Yoga and Chi techniques. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that while the embedding of pre-meditation and control cases have a roughly circular shape, it acquires a polygonal shape during meditation, triangular for the Kundalini Yoga data and quadrangular in the case of Chi data. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce the trajectory of the experimental data in the phase space. The embedding of the Chi data could be reproduced using a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a square wave. In the case of Kundalini Yoga data, the embedding was reproduced with a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a triangular wave having a rising branch of longer duration than the decreasing branch. Our study provides an estimation of the respiratory signal using only the heart beat-to-beat time interval series.

  15. Acute hunger modifies responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire hunger and disinhibition, but not restraint, scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri

    2017-03-01

    It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The World Food Conference--A Frustrating First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald W.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the positive results of the World Food Conference and the world awareness (aroused by the conference) which is the first step in the solution of world hunger. Some of the positive results are the establishment of the World Food Council, establishment of grain reserves, and a worldwide system of food information. (BR)

  17. Hyper-homeostatic learning of anticipatory hunger in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Booth, David A; Thibault, Louise

    2007-11-23

    Anticipatory hunger is a learnt increase in intake of food having a flavour or texture that predicts a long fast. This learning was studied in rats trained on a single food or a choice between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods, presented for 1.5 h after 3 h without maintenance food at the start of the dark phase. Eight training cycles provided a pseudo-random sequence of 3 h and 10 h post-prandial fasts with a day on maintenance food between each training fast. The measure of anticipatory hunger is the difference over one 4-day cycle between the intake of test food having an odour predictive of the longer fast (TL) and intake of food with an odour cuing to the shorter fast (TS). Previous experiments showed that conditioning of preference for the odour before the shorter fast competes with learning to avoid hunger during the longer fast (anticipatory hunger), generating a cubic or quartic contrast. TL minus TS showed a strong cubic trend over 8 training cycles with both single and choice meals. There was a switch from preference for the short-fast odour at cycle 2 (TL-TS=-0.86 g) to a peak of anticipatory hunger at cycle 6 (TL-TS=1.57 g). We conclude that anticipatory hunger is learnt when a choice is given between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods as well as on a single food. In addition, since anticipatory hunger extinguishes itself, such learning improves on negative-feedback homeostasis with a feed-forward "hyper-homeostatic" mechanism.

  18. Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z

    2014-01-01

    Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p hunger state.

  20. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chaieb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and gamma (40 Hz beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  1. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz), alpha (10 Hz) and gamma (40 Hz) beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  2. Loucuras da fome Hunger and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Maria de Vargas Rebello

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com base em uma reportagem publicada recentemente sobre a tríade seca/fome/doença mental, cuja idéia central é a de que a miséria decorrente possa estar provocando distúrbios comportamentais na população nordestina atingida, buscamos refletir sobre o que essa suposta 'loucura' poderia estar representando para esse grupo de pessoas. Procuramos fazer uma leitura que envolvesse várias disciplinas e que ultrapassasse as explicações meramente causais, levando em conta que os transtornos relatados teriam significação a partir da articulação de elementos cognitivos, afetivos e experienciais, calcados nas relações sociais e culturais dos indivíduos. Nessa perspectiva, o discurso vai assumindo outras interpretações, mostrando que a enfermidade é um processo singular de construção.Based on a recently-published article on the triad of drought, hunger, and mental illness, in which the main idea is that destitution may be leading to behavioral disorders in the drought-plagued population of the Brazilian Northeast, we reflect on what this so-called "madness" may represent for this group of people. We attempt to analyze the issue from various disciplinary perspectives, going beyond merely causal explanations and taking into account that the reported disorders entail meanings following the articulation of cognitive, affective, and experiential elements founded on the social and cultural relations of individuals. From this point of view, the respective discourse assumes other interpretations, showing that illness is a singular process of construction.

  3. Modeling of Nonlinear Beat Signals of TAE's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Berk, Herbert; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin

    2012-03-01

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod reveal Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) together with signals at various beat frequencies, including those at twice the mode frequency. The beat frequencies are sidebands driven by quadratic nonlinear terms in the MHD equations. These nonlinear sidebands have not yet been quantified by any existing codes. We extend the AEGIS code to capture nonlinear effects by treating the nonlinear terms as a driving source in the linear MHD solver. Our goal is to compute the spatial structure of the sidebands for realistic geometry and q-profile, which can be directly compared with experiment in order to interpret the phase contrast imaging diagnostic measurements and to enable the quantitative determination of the Alfven wave amplitude in the plasma core

  4. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Susan A. Reedijk; Susan A. Reedijk; Anne eBolders; Anne eBolders; Bernhard eHommel; Bernhard eHommel

    2013-01-01

    Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through st...

  5. Brain responses associated with consciousness of breathlessness (air hunger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, M; Brannan, S; Egan, G; Shade, R; Madden, L; Abplanalp, B; Robillard, R; Lancaster, J; Zamarripa, F E; Fox, P T; Denton, D

    2001-02-13

    Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO(2) was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO(2-) was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The statistical contrast between the two conditions delineated a distributed network of primarily limbic/paralimbic brain regions, including multiple foci in dorsal anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, insula/claustrum, amygdala/periamygdala, lingual and middle temporal gyrus, hypothalamus, pulvinar, and midbrain. This pattern of activations was confirmed by a correlational analysis with breathlessness ratings. The commonality of regions of mesencephalon, diencephalon and limbic/paralimbic areas involved in primal emotions engendered by the basic vegetative systems including hunger for air, thirst, hunger, pain, micturition, and sleep, is discussed with particular reference to the cingulate gyrus. A theory that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness came from primal emotions engendered by immediate threat to the existence of the organism is discussed along with an alternative hypothesis by Edelman that primary awareness emerged with processes of ongoing perceptual categorization giving rise to a scene [Edelman, G. M. (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (Penguin, London)].

  6. Neural correlates of appetite and hunger-related evaluative judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Piech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available How much we desire a meal depends on both the constituent foods and how hungry we are, though not every meal becomes more desirable with increasing hunger. The brain therefore needs to be able to integrate hunger and meal properties to compute the correct incentive value of a meal. The present study investigated the functional role of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex in mediating hunger and dish attractiveness. Furthermore, it explored neural responses to dish descriptions particularly susceptible to value-increase following fasting. We instructed participants to rate how much they wanted food menu items while they were either hungry or sated, and compared the rating differences in these states. Our results point to the representation of food value in the amygdala, and to an integration of attractiveness with hunger level in the orbitofrontal cortex. Dishes particularly desirable during hunger activated the thalamus and the insula. Our results specify the functions of evaluative structures in the context of food attractiveness, and point to a complex neural representation of dish qualities which contribute to state-dependent value.

  7. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Hunger Contribute to Socioeconomic Gradients in Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients. I review multiple lines of evidence showing that hunger produces strong increases in these outcomes. I also review the literatures on food insufficiency and food insecurity to show that, within affluent societies, the poor experience a substantial burden of hunger, despite obtaining sufficient or excess calories on average. This leads to the distinctive prediction that hunger is an important mediator of the relationships between socioeconomic variables and the behavioral/psychological outcomes. This approach has a number of far-reaching implications, not least that some behavioral and psychological differences between social groups, though persistent under current economic arrangements, are potentially highly reversible with changes to the distribution of financial resources and food. PMID:28344567

  9. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  10. [Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovay, Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.

  11. Beat-to-beat left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation: radionuclide assessment with the computerized nuclear probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Lachman, A.B.; Zaret, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    There is wide beat-to-beat variability in cycle length and left ventricular performance in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, left ventricular ejection fraction and relative left ventricular volumes were evaluated on a beat-to-beat basis with the computerized nuclear probe, an instrument with sufficiently high sensitivity to allow continuous evaluation of the radionuclide time-activity curve. Of 18 patients with atrial fibrillation, 5 had mitral stenosis, 6 had mitral regurgitation, and 7 had coronary artery disease. Fifty consecutive beats were analyzed in each patient. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction ranged from 17 to 51%. There was substantial beat-to-beat variation in cycle length and left ventricular ejection fraction in all patients, including those with marked left ventricular dysfunction. In 14 patients who also underwent multiple gated cardiac blood pool imaging, there was an excellent correlation between mean ejection fraction derived from the nuclear probe and gated ejection fraction obtained by gamma camera imaging (r . 0.90). Based on beat-to-beat analysis, left ventricular function was dependent on relative end-diastolic volume and multiple preceding cycle lengths, but not preceding end-systolic volumes. This study demonstrates that a single value for left ventricular ejection fraction does not adequately characterize left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, both the mean beat-to-beat and the gated ejection fraction may underestimate left ventricular performance at rest in such patients

  12. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  13. The ontogeny of salt hunger in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, M

    1999-05-01

    Salt hunger is the behaviour of an animal suffering sodium deficiency. It is characterised by an increased motivation to seek and ingest sodium, and the ability to distinguish between sodium and other salts. Here I review the development of salt hunger in the rat. Salt hunger develops rapidly between birth and weaning. It can first be demonstrated 72 h postnatally when an intracerebroventricular injection of renin elicits greater swallowing of NaCl solution than water and greater mouthing of solid fragments of NaCl than of an artificial sweetener. However, sodium deficit per se cannot arouse the hunger at this age, and first elicits increased intake of NaCl only at 12 days-of-age. The next landmark is at 17 days-of-age when the hormonal synergy of aldosterone and central angiotensin II first elicits salt hunger, as it does in the adult. The specificity of the hunger for the sodium ion also develops postnatally: the 72 h-old sodium-hungry neonate does not distinguish between NaCl and other mono- and di-valent chloride salts but, increasingly during development, the sodium hungry pup distinguishes salts and by weaning age NaCl is clearly preferred to other salts almost as it is in adults. Early development may also be a sensitive period for determining lifelong preferences, and indeed, acute perinatal sodium depletion induces a lifelong enhancement of salt intake. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a behaviour develops precociously and how, when the behaviour becomes important at weaning, the rat pup is competent to meet its sodium requirements, and may be adapted to anticipate sodium deficit.

  14. Hunger, taste, and normative cues in predictions about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; McGuirk, Lucy C; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Normative eating cues (portion size, social factors) have a powerful impact on people's food intake, but people often fail to acknowledge the influence of these cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of internal (hunger) or sensory (taste) cues. This study examined whether the same biases apply when making predictions about how much food a person would eat. Participants (n = 364) read a series of vignettes describing an eating scenario and predicted how much food the target person would eat in each situation. Some scenarios consisted of a single eating cue (hunger, taste, or a normative cue) that would be expected to increase intake (e.g., high hunger) or decrease intake (e.g., a companion who eats very little). Other scenarios combined two cues that were in conflict with one another (e.g., high hunger + a companion who eats very little). In the cue-conflict scenarios involving an inhibitory internal/sensory cue (e.g., low hunger) with an augmenting normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats a lot), participants predicted a low level of food intake, suggesting a bias toward the internal/sensory cue. For scenarios involving an augmenting internal/sensory cue (e.g., high hunger) and an inhibitory normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats very little), participants predicted an intermediate level of food intake, suggesting that they were influenced by both the internal/sensory and normative cue. Overall, predictions about food intake tend to reflect a general bias toward internal/sensory cues, but also include normative cues when those cues are inhibitory. If people are systematically biased toward internal, sensory, and inhibitory cues, then they may underestimate how much food they or other people will eat in many situations, particularly when normative cues promoting eating are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [FORCE-FEEDING OR LIFE-SAVING? - DEALING WITH HUNGER STRIKES IN ISRAEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil; Glick, Shimon; Offer-Stark, Irit; Steinberg, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    Force feeding of fasting hunger-striking prisoners is the subject of considerable controversy in Israel and elsewhere, posing a direct conflict between two basic ethical values: that of human life and respect for autonomy. The Israel Medical Association, as well as the World Medical Association, has taken the position that force feeding of such prisoners is an act of torture and is therefore unethical. However this paper presents an opposing view, which recently became the law in Israel, that, whereas the rights of prisoners to decree a hunger strike as a form of protest should be respected, if the prolongation of the strike reaches a stage of clear and present danger to the life and health of a prisoner, the saving of the prisoner's life must take precedence over considerations of autonomy. The paper present the steps that should be taken, including extensive and empathic efforts to persuade the prisoner to end his/her fast; gaining the approval of a hospital's ethics committee; and gaining the approval of a district court judge; the feeding is to be carried out in the most humane and sensitive manner as befitting a lifesaving procedure for any patient. This position is consistent with Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Israel's Patient Rights Law, Israel's "Do not stand idly by your fellow man's blood" Law, with several Israeli court decisions and in keeping with the dominant Israeli culture. Finally, instructions for physicians who object to such measures are discussed, ascertaining the freedom of conscience as well as preserving the life of the hunger-strikers.

  16. M. Paryz on Gavin Jones’s American Hungers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Jones. American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008. 20/21 Series. ISBN: 978-0-691-12753-8.American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945 by Gavin Jones is an insightful study of the ways of representing poverty in selected works by Herman Melville, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, James Agee, and Richard Wright.  The choice of authors for discussion perhaps suggests a limited scope...

  17. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  18. Beat-to-beat heart rate estimation fusing multimodal video and sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Gao, Hanno; Brüser, Christoph; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-08-01

    Coverage and accuracy of unobtrusively measured biosignals are generally relatively low compared to clinical modalities. This can be improved by exploiting redundancies in multiple channels with methods of sensor fusion. In this paper, we demonstrate that two modalities, skin color variation and head motion, can be extracted from the video stream recorded with a webcam. Using a Bayesian approach, these signals are fused with a ballistocardiographic signal obtained from the seat of a chair with a mean absolute beat-to-beat estimation error below 25 milliseconds and an average coverage above 90% compared to an ECG reference.

  19. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

  20. 77 FR 37869 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National Hunger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and... Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before August 24, 2012. ADDRESSES... Magee, Program Analyst, at 703-305-2657. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Hunger Clearinghouse...

  1. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'shunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  3. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  4. Elastohydrodynamic synchronization of adjacent beating flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Lauga, Eric; Pesci, Adriana I.; Proctor, Michael R. E.

    2016-11-01

    It is now well established that nearby beating pairs of eukaryotic flagella or cilia typically synchronize in phase. A substantial body of evidence supports the hypothesis that hydrodynamic coupling between the active filaments, combined with waveform compliance, provides a robust mechanism for synchrony. This elastohydrodynamic mechanism has been incorporated into bead-spring models in which the beating flagella are represented by microspheres tethered by radial springs as they are driven about orbits by internal forces. While these low-dimensional models reproduce the phenomenon of synchrony, their parameters are not readily relatable to those of the filaments they represent. More realistic models, which reflect the underlying elasticity of the axonemes and the active force generation, take the form of fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). While computational studies have shown the occurrence of synchrony, the effects of hydrodynamic coupling between nearby filaments governed by such continuum models have been examined theoretically only in the regime of interflagellar distances d large compared to flagellar length L . Yet in many biological situations d /L ≪1 . Here we present an asymptotic analysis of the hydrodynamic coupling between two extended filaments in the regime d /L ≪1 and find that the form of the coupling is independent of the microscopic details of the internal forces that govern the motion of the individual filaments. The analysis is analogous to that yielding the localized induction approximation for vortex filament motion, extended to the case of mutual induction. In order to understand how the elastohydrodynamic coupling mechanism leads to synchrony of extended objects, we introduce a heuristic model of flagellar beating. The model takes the form of a single fourth-order nonlinear PDE whose form is derived from symmetry considerations, the physics of elasticity, and the overdamped nature of the dynamics. Analytical

  5. ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE: Acceleration by plasma beat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment by a multi-disciplinary team including laser, plasma, accelerator and particle detector specialists at the École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, has confirmed the principle of particle acceleration by the 'beating' of laser waves. The first accelerated electrons were detected in May 1994, just after the apparatus had been completely assembled, during the subsequent set of experiments in July, and again in January. In the continual quest for new acceleration methods, such ideas had been proposed for several decades, but it was only about ten years ago that experimental verification of these effects began. In existing accelerators using radiofrequency cavities the electric field is limited to some hundred megavolts per metre, beyond which breakdowns occur. The joint use of power lasers and plasmas, however, should make it possible to generate fields very much greater than a GV/m. The light wave fulfils the same purpose as radiofrequency and the material medium required to couple the electromagnetic energy to the particle beam is provided by the plasma which - already fully ionized - is not destroyed by a breakdown. In the wave-beating method, proposed in 1979 by Dawson and Tajima, two laser waves of adjacent frequencies are transmitted and produce 'beats'. If the frequency of these is equal to the natural oscillation frequency of the plasma electrons, there is resonant energy transfer. The resultant longitudinal electric field is propagated at slightly below the speed of light and may be used to accelerate particles injected into the plasma in the right phase

  6. Record low β beating in the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tomás

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The LHC is currently operating with a proton energy of 4 TeV and β^{*} functions at the ATLAS and CMS interaction points of 0.6 m. This is close to the design value at 7 TeV (β^{*}=0.55  m and represented a challenge for various aspects of the machine operation. In particular, a huge effort was put into the optics commissioning and an unprecedented peak β beating of around 7% was achieved in a high energy hadron collider.

  7. Beats on the Table: Beat Writing in the Chicago Review and Big Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van der Bent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Kleine literaire tijdschriften, zogenaamde little magazines, hebben een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de doorbraak, in de loop van de jaren vijftig, van de Amerikaanse Beat Generation. Aangezien grotere uitgeverijen en de gevestigde tijdschriften lange tijd terugschrokken voor de zowel inhoudelijk als formeel van de norm afwijkende uitingen van de Beats, verscheen hun werk aanvankelijk vooral in kleinere tijdschriften als de twee waaraan in dit artikel aandacht wordt besteed: de Chicago Review en Big Table. Aan de hand van een beschrijving van de inhoud van deze twee tijdschriften wordt geprobeerd duidelijk te maken hoe het werk van de Beat Generation zich in deze tijdschriften gaandeweg een eigen plaats verwierf. Speciale aandacht wordt besteed aan de rol van de redacteuren Irving Rosenthal en Paul Carroll; door zijn uitgekiende strategie om voor het omstreden werk van Beat-auteur William S. Burroughs geleidelijk een steeds grotere plaats in te ruimen, bepaalde vooral Rosenthal het veranderende karakter van de Chicago Review. De veranderingen bij dat tijdschrift verliepen niet zonder slag of stoot en waren voor de eigenaar ervan, de University of Chicago, op een gegeven moment aanleiding om de Chicago Review aan censuur te onderwerpen. Ook deze censuur en de reactie erop, de oprichting van Big Table, worden in het artikel belicht.

  8. Oxidative shift in tissue redox potential increases beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P

    2015-07-01

    Profound changes in tissue redox potential occur in the heart under conditions of oxidative stress frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Since beat-to-beat variability (short term variability, SV) of action potential duration (APD) is a good indicator of arrhythmia incidence, the aim of this work was to study the influence of redox changes on SV in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using a conventional microelectrode technique. The redox potential was shifted toward a reduced state using a reductive cocktail (containing dithiothreitol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) while oxidative changes were initiated by superfusion with H2O2. Redox effects were evaluated as changes in "relative SV" determined by comparing SV changes with the concomitant APD changes. Exposure of myocytes to the reductive cocktail decreased SV significantly without any detectable effect on APD. Application of H2O2 increased both SV and APD, but the enhancement of SV was the greater, so relative SV increased. Longer exposure to H2O2 resulted in the development of early afterdepolarizations accompanied by tremendously increased SV. Pretreatment with the reductive cocktail prevented both elevation in relative SV and the development of afterdepolarizations. The results suggest that the increased beat-to-beat variability during an oxidative stress contributes to the generation of cardiac arrhythmias.

  9. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  10. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  11. Reducing Hunger-Associated Symptoms: The Midmorning Nutrition Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Nancy M.; Tucker, Joanne; Reynosa, Brenda; Glaser, Dale

    2006-01-01

    This study measured the effectiveness of a 9 a.m. nutrition break after it had been implemented for 1 academic year at an inner-city high school. Effectiveness was measured by student participation rates, student and teacher evaluations of hunger-associated symptoms experienced by students, and teacher evaluations of the effects on the learning…

  12. The Year of the Rat ends: time to fight hunger!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Leirs, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as

  13. Who's Involved with Hunger: An Organization Guide. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Linda, Ed.

    U.S. organizations interested in and involved with hunger issues and actions are described in this annotated listing. There are four major sections: (1) non-government organizations; (2) regional agencies; (3) government organizations, including United Nations and multilateral agencies, U.S. Congress, and federal government agencies; and (4)…

  14. Hunger of Memory: The Metamorphosis of a Disadvantaged Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Hunger of Memory," a 1981 book by Richard Rodriguez. Contrasts demands by university students that they be taught by minority faculty members with Rodriguez's awareness that cultural differences between instructors and disadvantaged students are an important factor in enabling such students to join the educational elite in…

  15. Review of The Last Hunger Season | Zarembka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of The Last Hunger Season. D Zarembka. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  16. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  17. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As well, hunger and malnutrition are on the increase worldwide, as the ... community-supported agriculture and cooperation between urban and rural populations. ... la conférence d'une journée intitulée The Global Need for Formal Child Care.

  18. Food variety, dietary diversity and perceived hunger among lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food variety, dietary diversity and perceived hunger among lactating women (0-6 ... Vitamin A rich vegetables/fruits (6.6%) and dairy products (1.7%) had the ... from culturally acceptable and affordable foods to increase dietary diversity of ...

  19. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  20. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R

    1998-01-01

    When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

  1. How AI turned the chess world upside down

    KAUST Repository

    Polgar, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Man vs. Machine! In 1977 an IBM supercomputer 'Deep Blue' beat the reigning World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in a 6 game chess match played under tournament conditions. This was the first time a machine beat a human at chess. It symbolized

  2. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  3. New Approaches to the World Food Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, L. E.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses some possible solutions to the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the world. Suggested new approaches include (1) new cereal food products, (2) water plants as food sources, and (3) the use of microorganisms as a source of high protein materials. (LC)

  4. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Burgoyne, J Ashley; Odijk, Daan; Honing, Henkjan; Grahn, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are "missing" on the beat, the beat is more difficult to find. However, it is unclear whether accents occurring off the beat alter beat perception similarly to missing accents on the beat. Moreover, no one has examined whether intensity accents influence beat perception more or less strongly than temporal accents, nor how musical expertise affects sensitivity to each type of accent. In two experiments, we obtained ratings of difficulty in finding the beat in rhythms with either temporal or intensity accents, and which varied in the number of accents on the beat as well as the number of accents off the beat. In both experiments, the occurrence of accents on the beat facilitated beat detection more in musical experts than in musical novices. In addition, the number of accents on the beat affected beat finding more in rhythms with temporal accents than in rhythms with intensity accents. The effect of accents off the beat was much weaker than the effect of accents on the beat and appeared to depend on musical expertise, as well as on the number of accents on the beat: when many accents on the beat are missing, beat perception is quite difficult, and adding accents off the beat may not reduce beat perception further. Overall, the different types of accents were processed qualitatively differently, depending on musical expertise. Therefore, these findings indicate the importance of designing ecologically valid stimuli when testing beat perception in musical novices, who may need different types of accent information than musical experts to be able to find a beat. Furthermore, our findings stress the importance of carefully designing rhythms for social and clinical applications of beat perception, as not

  5. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas

  6. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap semiconductor (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas. (author). 7 refs

  7. Experimental Observation of Chaotic Beats in Oscillators Sharing Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Asir, M.; Jeevarekha, A.; Philominathan, P.

    This paper deals with the generation of chaotic beats in a system of two forced dissipative LCR oscillators sharing a nonlinear element. The presence of two external periodic excitations and a common nonlinear element in the chosen system enables the facile generation of chaotic beats. Thus rendered chaotic beats were characterized in both time domain and phase space. Lyapunov exponents and envelope of the beats were computed to diagnose the chaotic nature of the signals. The role of common nonlinearity on the complexity of the generated beats is discussed. Real-time experimental hardware implementation has also been done to confirm the subsistence of the phenomenon, for the first time. Extensive Multisim simulations were carried out to understand, a bit more about the shrinkage and revivals of state variables in phase space.

  8. Beating Social Democracy on Its Own Turf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    -right parties to flourish in contexts where welfare issues have a natural salience as in the case of universal welfare states. In contrast, Scandinavian universal welfare states ought to benefit social democracy when it comes to issue voting on welfare issues. It is argued in this article that centre......-right parties can beat social democrats by credibly converging to its social democratic opponent on issues of universal welfare. Issue ownership voting to the benefit of centre-right parties will then be strongest among voters perceiving the centre-right to have converged to social democracy and perceiving...... the centre-right as issue-owner. Using Danish National Election Studies, 1998–2007, the article shows that the Danish Liberal Party outperformed the Social Democrats on traditional welfare issues among those voters perceiving the Liberals to be ideologically close to the social democrats. The findings help...

  9. Beat wave current drive experiment on DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.

    1991-03-01

    Several improvements have been made to the beat wave experiment this year. We are now able to vary the magnetic field over a much larger range, the plasma density is more uniform, and the electron temperature is significantly higher than last year (making it easier to couple energy from the electrostatic wave into the electron distribution). We have found evidence that at higher magnetic fields, ω ce /ω pe > 1, that numerous electrostatic modes are excited. This may be due to the fact that for a bounded plasma, ω pe is allowed (for small wave numbers). Although we are still not sure why the rvec k matching criteria (rvec k 0 = rvec k 1 + rvec k e ) is not more restrictive. A 35 GHz microwave scattering diagnostic has been designed, built, and tested in order to make a less perturbing measure of the electrostatic wave

  10. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  11. Increased Short-Term Beat-To-Beat Variability of QT Interval in Patients with Acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Andrea; Csajbók, Éva; Czékus, Csilla; Gavallér, Henriette; Magony, Sándor; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Várkonyi, Tamás T.; Nemes, Attila; Baczkó, István; Forster, Tamás; Wittmann, Tibor; Papp, Julius Gy.; Varró, András; Lengyel, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, including ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for increased mortality in patients with acromegaly. Acromegaly may cause repolarization abnormalities such as QT prolongation and impairment of repolarization reserve enhancing liability to arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term beat-to-beat QT variability in patients with acromegaly. Thirty acromegalic patients (23 women and 7 men, mean age±SD: 55.7±10.4 years) were compared with age- and sex-matched volunteers (mean age 51.3±7.6 years). Cardiac repolarization parameters including frequency corrected QT interval, PQ and QRS intervals, duration of terminal part of T waves (Tpeak-Tend) and short-term variability of QT interval were evaluated. All acromegalic patients and controls underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Autonomic function was assessed by means of five standard cardiovascular reflex tests. Comparison of the two groups revealed no significant differences in the conventional ECG parameters of repolarization (QT: 401.1±30.6 ms vs 389.3±16.5 ms, corrected QT interval: 430.1±18.6 ms vs 425.6±17.3 ms, QT dispersion: 38.2±13.2 ms vs 36.6±10.2 ms; acromegaly vs control, respectively). However, short-term beat-to-beat QT variability was significantly increased in acromegalic patients (4.23±1.03 ms vs 3.02±0.80, Pacromegaly in spite of unchanged conventional parameters of ventricular repolarization. This enhanced temporal QT variability may be an early indicator of increased liability to arrhythmia. PMID:25915951

  12. The impact of beat-to-beat variability in optimising the acute hemodynamic response in cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Niederer

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The beat-to-beat variation in AHR is significant in the context of CRT cut off values. A LOS optimisation offers a novel index to identify the optimal pacing site that accounts for both the mean and variation of the baseline measurement and pacing protocol.

  13. Beating time: How ensemble musicians' cueing gestures communicate beat position and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2018-01-01

    Ensemble musicians typically exchange visual cues to coordinate piece entrances. "Cueing-in" gestures indicate when to begin playing and at what tempo. This study investigated how timing information is encoded in musicians' cueing-in gestures. Gesture acceleration patterns were expected to indicate beat position, while gesture periodicity, duration, and peak gesture velocity were expected to indicate tempo. Same-instrument ensembles (e.g., piano-piano) were expected to synchronize more successfully than mixed-instrument ensembles (e.g., piano-violin). Duos performed short passages as their head and (for violinists) bowing hand movements were tracked with accelerometers and Kinect sensors. Performers alternated between leader/follower roles; leaders heard a tempo via headphones and cued their partner in nonverbally. Violin duos synchronized more successfully than either piano duos or piano-violin duos, possibly because violinists were more experienced in ensemble playing than pianists. Peak acceleration indicated beat position in leaders' head-nodding gestures. Gesture duration and periodicity in leaders' head and bowing hand gestures indicated tempo. The results show that the spatio-temporal characteristics of cueing-in gestures guide beat perception, enabling synchronization with visual gestures that follow a range of spatial trajectories.

  14. HEART: an automated beat-to-beat cardiovascular analysis package using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, M J Mark J; Perreault, Bill; Ewert, D L Daniel L; Koenig, S C Steven C

    2004-07-01

    A computer program is described for beat-to-beat analysis of cardiovascular parameters from high-fidelity pressure and flow waveforms. The Hemodynamic Estimation and Analysis Research Tool (HEART) is a post-processing analysis software package developed in Matlab that enables scientists and clinicians to document, load, view, calibrate, and analyze experimental data that have been digitally saved in ascii or binary format. Analysis routines include traditional hemodynamic parameter estimates as well as more sophisticated analyses such as lumped arterial model parameter estimation and vascular impedance frequency spectra. Cardiovascular parameter values of all analyzed beats can be viewed and statistically analyzed. An attractive feature of the HEART program is the ability to analyze data with visual quality assurance throughout the process, thus establishing a framework toward which Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) compliance can be obtained. Additionally, the development of HEART on the Matlab platform provides users with the flexibility to adapt or create study specific analysis files according to their specific needs. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security.

  16. Prognostic Significance of Blood Pressure Variability on Beat-to-Beat Monitoring After Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair J S; Mazzucco, Sara; Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    Visit-to-visit and day-to-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events but only reflect 1 form of BPV. Beat-to-beat BPV can be rapidly assessed and might also be predictive. In consecutive patients within 6 weeks of transient ischemic attack or nondisabling stroke (Oxford Vascular Study), BPV (coefficient of variation) was measured beat-to-beat for 5 minutes (Finometer), day-to-day for 1 week on home monitoring (3 readings, 3× daily), and on awake ambulatory BP monitoring. BPV after 1-month standard treatment was related (Cox proportional hazards) to recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events for 2 to 5 years, adjusted for mean systolic BP. Among 520 patients, 26 had inadequate beat-to-beat recordings, and 22 patients were in atrial fibrillation. Four hundred five patients had all forms of monitoring. Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events independently of mean systolic BP (hazard ratio per group SD, stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.91]; P =0.005; cardiovascular events: 1.41 [1.08-1.83]; P =0.01), including after adjustment for age and sex (stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.92]; P =0.005) and all risk factors (1.40 [1.00-1.94]; P =0.047). Day-to-day BPV was less strongly associated with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29 [0.97-1.71]; P =0.08) but similarly with cardiovascular events (1.41 [1.09-1.83]; P =0.009). BPV on awake ambulatory BP monitoring was nonpredictive (stroke: 0.89 [0.59-1.35]; P =0.59; cardiovascular events: 1.08 [0.77-1.52]; P =0.65). Despite a weak correlation ( r =0.119; P =0.02), beat-to-beat BPV was associated with risk of recurrent stroke independently of day-to-day BPV (1.41 [1.05-1.90]; P =0.02). Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events, independently of mean systolic BP and risk factors but short-term BPV on ambulatory BP monitoring did not. Beat-to-beat BPV may be a useful additional marker of cardiovascular risk. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  18. Effect of Acute Exercise on Hunger in Healthy Woman

    OpenAIRE

    OLCUCU, Burcin; VATANSEVER, Serife; TIRYAKI-SONMEZ, Gul; BURKAN ONER, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control) in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance). In the control trial, sub...

  19. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential regulation of metabolic parameters by energy deficit and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitka, Tamás; Tuza, Sebestyén; Varga, Balázs; Horváth, Csilla; Kovács, Péter

    2015-10-01

    Hypocaloric diet decreases both energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory exchange rate (RER), affecting the efficacy of dieting inversely. Energy deficit and hunger may be modulated separately both in human and animal studies by drug treatment or food restriction. Thus it is important to separate the effects of energy deficit and hunger on EE and RER. Three parallel and analogous experiments were performed using three pharmacologically distinct anorectic drugs: rimonabant, sibutramine and tramadol. Metabolic parameters of vehicle- and drug-treated and pair-fed diet-induced obese mice from the three experiments underwent common statistical analysis to identify effects independent of the mechanisms of action. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) test of tramadol was also performed to examine its anti-obesity efficacy. RER was decreased similarly by drug treatments and paired feeding throughout the experiment irrespective of the cause of reduced food intake. Contrarily, during the passive phase, EE was decreased more by paired feeding than by both vehicle and drug treatment irrespective of the drug used. In the active phase, EE was influenced by the pharmacological mechanisms of action. Tramadol decreased body weight in the DIO test. Our results suggest that RER is mainly affected by the actual state of energy balance; conversely, EE is rather influenced by hunger. Therefore, pharmacological medications that decrease hunger may enhance the efficacy of a hypocaloric diet by maintaining metabolic rate. Furthermore, our results yield the proposal that effects of anorectic drugs on EE and RER should be determined compared to vehicle and pair-fed groups, respectively, in animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy hunger has not been satisfied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartburg, L. von

    2003-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made by the Royal Dutch/Shell Group on the way world energy requirements could possibly develop in the future. Two scenarios presented by the study - 'Dynamics as usual' and 'The Spirit of the Coming Age' - are discussed. They tackle the questions of how long fossil energy reserves will last and which new energy resources will replace them. The role of natural gas as a way of bridging the gap between oil and renewables is discussed, as is global energy consumption, which is permanently increasing. According to Shell, renewable forms of energy are catching up, but, in the next twenty years, can only compete with oil, gas and coal when their costs are reduced or when new quality attributes are discovered or new applications are developed

  2. Hidden hunger or knowledge hunger? Nutritional knowledge, diet diversity and micronutrient intake in Rwanda: The case of Vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Okello, Julius J.; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan; Shikuku, Kelvin M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of hidden hunger has emerged as one of the major development issues alongside food security. This problem highlights the likelihood of households having access to inadequate amount of key micronutrients in a diet despite having access to adequate quantities of food. , This paper uses a recent detailed household consumption data to investigate households’ nutritional knowledge, the diversity of diets consumed, and the micronutrient uptake, focusing specifically on Vitamin A. The st...

  3. Measuring and characterizing beat phenomena with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M.; Pereyra, C. J.; Gau, D. L.; Laguarda, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, smartphones are in everyone’s life. Apart from being excellent tools for work and communication, they can also be used to perform several measurements of simple physical magnitudes, serving as a mobile and inexpensive laboratory, ideal for use physics lectures in high schools or universities. In this article, we use a smartphone to analyse the acoustic beat phenomena by using a simple experimental setup, which can complement lessons in the classroom. The beats were created by the superposition of the waves generated by two tuning forks, with their natural frequencies previously characterized using different applications. After the characterization, we recorded the beats and analysed the oscillations in time and frequency.

  4. "'Jackin’ for Beats'": DJing for Citation Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Craig

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A challenge in teaching English composition is helping students envision plagiarism as “borrowing” – showing love to author(s and/or text(s that further their argument(s, versus “stealing” – biting someone’s style and words. Alastair Pennycook (1996 and Sarah Wakefield (2006 have contributed pieces to the elaborate plagiarism/citation puzzle, while Houston Baker situated the hip-hop DJ in seminal text Black Studies, Rap and the Academy (1993. Merging these moments introduces critical questions: Did Diddy invent “the remix” or become the illest beat-biter ever? How did DJ/Producers Pete Rock and Large Professor pay homage to previous musical genres to further hip-hop remix production without just taking 4-8 bar samples, copying sources and claiming unethical ownership? And how can this discussion provide students a window into citation conversations? This article will remix these “texts” to introduce the idea of DJ Rhetoric to discuss plagiarism. Through the lens of the hip-hop DJ in writing classrooms, one can foster an appreciation of the difference between “love and theft” in student citation. This article will couple examples from hip-hop music/culture while simultaneously remixing interviews from various hip-hop DJ/producers to help answer these difficult questions.

  5. Speed of light demonstration using Doppler beat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Bilbao, Luis

    2018-05-01

    From an apparatus previously designed for measuring the Doppler shift using a rotating mirror, an improved, versatile version was developed for speed of light demonstrations in a classroom or a teaching laboratory. By adding a second detector and adequate beam-splitter and mirrors, three different configurations are easily assembled. One configuration is used for time-of-flight measurements between a near and a far detector, allowing one to measure the speed of light provided that the path length between detectors is known. Another variation is the interferometric method obtained by superposing the far and near signals in such a way that a minimum of the combined signal is obtained when the time delay makes the signals arrive out of phase by π radians. Finally, the standard Doppler configuration allows the measurement of the frequency beat as a function of the rotation frequency. The main advantages of the apparatus are (a) the experimental setup is simple and completely accessible to undergraduate students, (b) the light is visible, students can see the rays, which, with the use of appropriate screens, can be blocked at any point along their paths, (c) the experiment can take place entirely within the teaching laboratory or demonstration room (using the interferometric method, the shortest distance to the far mirror was as small as 0.5 m), and (d) different configurations can be built, including some economical setups within the budget of teaching laboratories.

  6. Increased hunger and speed of eating in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyper, Arnold H; Kopfer, Kim; Huang, Wei-Min; Re'em, Yochai

    2014-05-01

    This quality improvement program examined self-reported hunger, over-eating, and eating speed in obese and normal-weight children and adolescents prior to an interventional component. Food frequency questionnaires were presented to 127 obese and 42 normal-weight patients, and perceived hunger, food intake and eating speed were rated. Obese patients reported significantly greater hunger than normal-weight patients (62.2% vs. 21.4%, pHunger and speed of eating were also highly associated (phunger and eating speed were highly prevalent in these obese pediatric patients and may reflect abnormalities of satiety and satiation.

  7. [Regeneration of the ciliary beat of human ciliated cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Koidl, B; Pelzmann, B

    1991-10-01

    The influence of an isotonic, alkaline saline solution (diluted "Emser Sole" or brine from the spa of Bad Ems) on the ciliary beat of isolated cultured human ciliated cells of the upper respiratory tract was investigated. The ciliary beat was observed via an inverted phase contrast microscope (Zeiss Axiomat IDPC) and measured microphotometrically under physiological conditions and after the damaging influence of 1% propanal solution. Under physiological conditions the saline solution had a positive, although statistically not significant influence on the frequency of the ciliary beat. After damage of the cultivated cells by 1% propanal solution, the saline solution had a significant better influence on the regeneration of the cultured cells than a physiological sodium chloride solution. It is concluded that diluted brine from Bad Ems has a positive effect on the ciliary beat of the respiratory epithelium and accelerates its regeneration after damage by viral and bacterial infections, surgery or inhaled noxae.

  8. Keep the Beat Recipes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Beat Recipes: Deliciously Healthy Dinners. The new cookbook features 75 simple and delicious recipes influenced by ... nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/heart/Dinners_Cookbook_508-compliant.pdf . Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 ...

  9. Does training with beat gestures favour children's narrative discourse abilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà Giménez, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    There is consensus evidence that gestures and prosody are important precursors of children’s early language abilities and development. Previous literature has investigated the beneficial role of beat gestures in the recall of information by preschoolers (Igualada, Esteve-Gibert, & Prieto, under review; Austin & Sweller, 2014). However, to our knowledge, little is known about whether the use of beat gestures can promote children’s later linguistic abilities and specifically whether training wi...

  10. Beat gestures and prosodic prominence: impact on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kushch, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that gestures are beneficial for language learning. This doctoral thesis centers on the effects of beat gestures– i.e., hand and arm gestures that are typically associated with prosodically prominent positions in speech - on such processes. Little is known about how the two central properties of beat gestures, namely how they mark both information focus and rhythmic positions in speech, can be beneficial for learning either a first or a second language. The main go...

  11. Beat frequency ultrasonic microsphere contrast agent detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system for and method of detecting and measuring concentrations of an ultrasonically-reflective microsphere contrast agent involving detecting non-linear sum and difference beat frequencies produced by the microspheres when two impinging signals with non-identical frequencies are combined by mixing. These beat frequencies can be used for a variety of applications such as detecting the presence of and measuring the flow rates of biological fluids and industrial liquids, including determining the concentration level of microspheres in the myocardium.

  12. Beat gestures help preschoolers recall and comprehend discourse information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes-Coromina, Judith; Vilà-Giménez, Ingrid; Kushch, Olga; Borràs-Comes, Joan; Prieto, Pilar

    2018-08-01

    Although the positive effects of iconic gestures on word recall and comprehension by children have been clearly established, less is known about the benefits of beat gestures (rhythmic hand/arm movements produced together with prominent prosody). This study investigated (a) whether beat gestures combined with prosodic information help children recall contrastively focused words as well as information related to those words in a child-directed discourse (Experiment 1) and (b) whether the presence of beat gestures helps children comprehend a narrative discourse (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 51 4-year-olds were exposed to a total of three short stories with contrastive words presented in three conditions, namely with prominence in both speech and gesture, prominence in speech only, and nonprominent speech. Results of a recall task showed that (a) children remembered more words when exposed to prominence in both speech and gesture than in either of the other two conditions and that (b) children were more likely to remember information related to those words when the words were associated with beat gestures. In Experiment 2, 55 5- and 6-year-olds were presented with six narratives with target items either produced with prosodic prominence but no beat gestures or produced with both prosodic prominence and beat gestures. Results of a comprehension task demonstrated that stories told with beat gestures were comprehended better by children. Together, these results constitute evidence that beat gestures help preschoolers not only to recall discourse information but also to comprehend it. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A quantitative electroencephalographic study of meditation and binaural beat entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.

  14. Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P

    2005-03-01

    Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.

  15. Deep learning based beat event detection in action movie franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, N.; Khan, U. A.; Martínez-del-Amor, M. A.; Sparenberg, H.

    2018-04-01

    Automatic understanding and interpretation of movies can be used in a variety of ways to semantically manage the massive volumes of movies data. "Action Movie Franchises" dataset is a collection of twenty Hollywood action movies from five famous franchises with ground truth annotations at shot and beat level of each movie. In this dataset, the annotations are provided for eleven semantic beat categories. In this work, we propose a deep learning based method to classify shots and beat-events on this dataset. The training dataset for each of the eleven beat categories is developed and then a Convolution Neural Network is trained. After finding the shot boundaries, key frames are extracted for each shot and then three classification labels are assigned to each key frame. The classification labels for each of the key frames in a particular shot are then used to assign a unique label to each shot. A simple sliding window based method is then used to group adjacent shots having the same label in order to find a particular beat event. The results of beat event classification are presented based on criteria of precision, recall, and F-measure. The results are compared with the existing technique and significant improvements are recorded.

  16. Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Santed, Miguel A; Reales, José M

    2017-12-08

    The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beats yielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.

  17. Beat-to-beat assessment of left ventricular ejection in atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjelloun, H; Brochier, M; Itti, R; Philippe, L; Lorgeron, J M

    1983-05-01

    Beat-to-beat left ventricular ejection was evaluated in a group of 20 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation using a computerized single probe detector. The reference group consisted of 10 patients with sinus rhythm. For each patient 30 successive cardiac cycles were analyzed and the relative variations of four parameters were assessed: R-R interval, diastolic and systolic time intervals, and ejection amplitude, corresponding to the left ventricular stroke volume. The mean variations were respectively 3.4%, 10.4%, 8.4%, and 11.8% in patients with sinus rhythm, and 21.9%, 37.9%, 10.6% and 30.5% in patients with artrial fibrillation. This demonstrates that changes in ejection are mainly related to the duration of the filling phase, with nearly constant systolic times. Correlations between R-R intervals and systolic ejection amplitudes were highly significant (P<0.001) in patients with atrial fibrillation in 85% of cases. This information complements the average ejection fraction obtained from multiple cycle superimposition.

  18. Beat-to-beat assessment of left ventricular ejection in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjelloun, H.; Brochier, M.; Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beat-to-beat left ventricular ejection was evaluated in a group of 20 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation using a computerized single probe detector. The reference group consisted of 10 patients with sinus rhythm. For each patient 30 successive cardiac cycles were analyzed and the relative variations of four parameters were assessed: R-R interval, diastolic and systolic time intervals, and ejection amplitude, corresponding to the left ventricular stroke volume. The mean variations were respectively 3.4%, 10.4%, 8.4%, and 11.8% in patients with sinus rhythm, and 21.9%, 37.9%, 10.6% and 30.5% in patients with artrial fibrillation. This demonstrates that changes in ejection are mainly related to the duration of the filling phase, with nearly constant systolic times. Correlations between R-R intervals and systolic ejection amplitudes were highly significant (P<0.001) in patients with atrial fibrillation in 85% of cases. This information complements the average ejection fraction obtained from multiple cycle superimposition. (orig.)

  19. Beat-to-beat evaluation of left ventricular ejection in cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional multi-gated cardiac blood pool studies suffer from two kinds of superimpositions: the spatial overlapping of various heart chambers and the temporal superimposition of a large number of cardiac cycles. The first problem can be partially solved by first pass techniques or by emission tomography. For the second one, which is specially critical arrhythmias, the single probe device (''nuclear stethoscope'') represents an original solution. Patients with normal cardiac rythm and patients presenting various kinds of cardiac rythm alterations were examined using a commercial ''nuclear stethoscope''. Some characteristic results achieved in these cases, were presented. For blood pool labeling, 20 mCi of 99mTc albumin was injected. The single probe detector was then positioned over the left ventricular area. The beat-to-beat left ventricular activity curve was then recorded for several minutes on paper in the same time as the E.C.G. signal. In cases with irregular cardiac rythm, the multigated techniques yield an average value of left ventricular ejection. Due to the relatively constant duration of systole, the superimposition of cycles may be valid during contration: differences mainly appear during diastole. But, as it could be demonstrated using the ''nuclear stethoscope'', individual cycles can show a large variability of ejection and average ejection fraction is only a very partial aspect of the real cardiac function

  20. Electrocardiogram: his bundle potentials can be recorded noninvasively beat by beat on surface electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaopin; Liu, Renguang; Chang, Qinghua; Xu, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Dianzhu

    2017-03-15

    The micro waveform of His bundle potential can't be recorded beat-to-beat on surface electrocardiogram yet. We have found that the micro-wavelets before QRS complex may be related to atrioventricular conduction system potentials. This study is to explore the possibility of His bundle potential can be noninvasively recorded on surface electrocardiogram. We randomized 65 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia (exclude overt Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) to receive "conventional electrocardiogram" and "new electrocardiogram" before the procedure. His bundle electrogram was collected during the procedure. Comparative analysis of PA s (PA interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram), AH s (AH interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) and HV s (HV interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) interval recorded on surface "new electrocardiogram" and PA, AH, HV interval recorded on His bundle electrogram was investigated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between groups in HV s interval (49.63 ± 6.19 ms) and HV interval (49.35 ± 6.49 ms). Results of correlational analysis found that HV S interval was significantly positively associated with HV interval (r = 0.929; P electrocardiogram. Noninvasive His bundle potential tracing might represent a new method for locating the site of atrioventricular block and identifying the origin of a wide QRS complex.

  1. Beat-to-beat variability of cardiac action potential duration: underlying mechanism and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nánási, Péter P; Magyar, János; Varró, András; Ördög, Balázs

    2017-10-01

    Beat-to-beat variability of cardiac action potential duration (short-term variability, SV) is a common feature of various cardiac preparations, including the human heart. Although it is believed to be one of the best arrhythmia predictors, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood at present. The magnitude of SV is basically determined by the intensity of cell-to-cell coupling in multicellular preparations and by the duration of the action potential (APD). To compensate for the APD-dependent nature of SV, the concept of relative SV (RSV) has been introduced by normalizing the changes of SV to the concomitant changes in APD. RSV is reduced by I Ca , I Kr , and I Ks while increased by I Na , suggesting that ion currents involved in the negative feedback regulation of APD tend to keep RSV at a low level. RSV is also influenced by intracellular calcium concentration and tissue redox potential. The clinical implications of APD variability is discussed in detail.

  2. Beat-to-beat variability of QT intervals is increased in patients with drug-induced long-QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinterseer, Martin; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Beckmann, Britt-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) occur by definition in the setting of prolonged QT intervals. Animal models of drug induced Long-QT syndrome (dLQTS) have shown higher predictive value for proarrhythmia with beat-to-beat variability of repolarization duration (BVR) when compared with QT inte...... intervals. Here, we evaluate variability of QT intervals in patients with a history of drug-induced long QT syndrome (dLQTS) and TdP in absence of a mutation in any of the major LQTS genes.......Torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) occur by definition in the setting of prolonged QT intervals. Animal models of drug induced Long-QT syndrome (dLQTS) have shown higher predictive value for proarrhythmia with beat-to-beat variability of repolarization duration (BVR) when compared with QT...

  3. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enjoying food with eyes: Visual hunger concept on gastronomy lovers

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, Monika Pretty; Irwansyah, Mr

    2017-01-01

    Food can be “enjoyed” visually. Current technology makes human can “enjoy” the visualization of food without restrictions of time and place. People easily on “enjoy” food by just noticing to its pictures in social media. In many previous studies show that food pictures in media attract people. One of the concepts is visual hunger that describes an individual’s exposure to food images result their natural urge to notice food images and subsequent array from neural, behavioral and physiological...

  5. Adaptive control with self-tuning for non-invasive beat-by-beat blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, we have successfully carried out the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the root of finger, superficial temporal and radial artery based on the volume-compensation technique with reasonable accuracy. The present study concerns with improvement of control method for this beat-by-beat BP measurement. The measurement system mainly consists of a partial pressurization cuff with a pair of LED and photo-diode for the detection of arterial blood volume, and a digital self-tuning control method. Using healthy subjects, the performance and accuracy of this system were evaluated through comparison experiments with the system using a conventional empirically tuned PID controller. The significant differences of BP measured in finger artery were not showed in systolic (SBP), p=0.52, and diastolic BP (DBP), p=0.35. With the advantage of the adaptive control with self-tuning method, which can tune the control parameters without disturbing the control system, the application area of the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement method will be broadened.

  6. GODAN Local Farming Challenge 2017 - Encourage Geo-Innovation Solutions for Zero Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suchith; Hogan, Patrick; Brovelli, Maria; Schaap, Ben; Musker, Ruthie; Laperrière, André

    2017-04-01

    The initial ideas for Open Geospatial Science [1] were presented nearly a decade ago. They build upon the proposition of Open science which argues that scientific knowledge develops more rapidly and productively if openly shared (as early as is practical in the discovery process). The key ingredients that make Open Geospatial Science possible are enshrined in Open Principles, i.e.: open source geospatial software, open data, open standards, open educational resources, and open access to research publications. OpenCitySmart[2] is an initiative of Geo for All [3] that aims to develop a suite of tools for city-related infrastructure management (utilities, traffic, services, etc.). Its purpose will be to continually refine and add functionality that not only streamlines operational efficiency but also considers the need for sustainability and quality of urban life. OpenCitySmart employs Open solutions to build richer tools that empower organisations and individuals to utilizespatial and non-spatial data alike. This will create opportunities for innovation both globally and locally. As the population of cities grow, the concern of food security will shift from rural to urban areas. Currently, nearly 800 million people struggle with debilitating hunger and malnutrition and can be found in every corner of the globe. That's one in every nine people, with the majority being women and children. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) [4] supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable to deal with the urgent challenge of ensuring world food security. A core principle behind GODAN is that a solution to Zero Hunger lies within existing, but often unavailable, agriculture and nutrition data. Through an online survey, GODAN found that the most needed data type across its 430+ partner network was geospatial data. Through the GODAN Europa Challenge we want to bring together

  7. LEFT-VENTRICULAR BEAT-TO-BEAT PERFORMANCE IN ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION - CONTRIBUTION OF FRANK-STARLING MECHANISM AFTER SHORT RATHER THAN LONG RR INTERVALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOSSELINK, ATM; BLANKSMA, PK; CRIJNS, HJGM; VANGELDER, IC; DEKAM, PJ; HILLEGE, HL; NIEMEIJER, MG; LIE, KI; MEIJLER, FL

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to evaluate control mechanisms of the varying left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation. Background. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by a randomly irregular ventricular response, resulting in continuous variation in left ventricular beat-to-beat

  8. Left ventricular beat-to-beat performance in atrial fibrillation: Contribution of Frank-Starling mechanism after short rather than long intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, A.T.M.; Blanksma, P.K.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.; Gelder, I.C. van; Kam, P.J. de; Hillege, H.L.; Niemeijer, M.G.; Lie, K.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate control mechanisms of the varying left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by a randomly irregular ventricular response, resulting in continuous variation in left ventricular beat-to-beat mechanical behavior and

  9. Hunger and Food Insecurity in the Fifty States: 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.; Choi, Eunyoung

    Noting that the persistence of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is an issue of pressing social and public health concern, this study examined the magnitude and severity of hunger and food insecurity in U.S. households in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data were obtained from the August 1998, April 1999, and…

  10. Always gamble on an empty stomach : Hunger is associated with advantageous decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Adriaanse, Marieke; Evers, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater

  11. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1989. A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    This document comprises a report on the status of hunger and homelessness during 1989 in 27 major American cities. A survey was used to gather the following information: (1) demand for emergency food and shelter assistance and the capacity to meet the demand; (2) causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the affected populations;…

  12. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

  13. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

  14. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

  15. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…

  16. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  17. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge…

  19. Dynamics of Gut-Brain Communication Underlying Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Lisa R; Chen, Yiming; Ahn, Jamie S; Lin, Yen-Chu; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2017-10-11

    Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state. We show that three gastrointestinal signals-serotonin, CCK, and PYY-are necessary or sufficient for these effects. In contrast, the hormone leptin has no acute effect on dynamics of these circuits or their sensory regulation but instead induces a slow modulation that develops over hours and is required for inhibition of feeding. These findings reveal how layers of visceral signals operating on distinct timescales converge on hypothalamic feeding circuits to generate a central representation of energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives of volunteers in emergency feeding programs on hunger, its causes, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Miriam S; Olson, Christine M

    2002-01-01

    To understand the social beliefs of volunteers in emergency feeding programs (EFPs) regarding hunger and whether volunteer experiences broadened understanding of hunger. An interpretivist paradigm and qualitative methods were used. Seventeen volunteers were recruited and interviewed from three EFPs. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Volunteering in EFPs increased volunteers' awareness of the prevalence of hunger in their communities. More involved volunteers had a greater understanding of the life situations of the hungry. The volunteers felt that increasing self-sufficiency and private responses were appropriate solutions to hunger. The volunteers' attitudes and social beliefs were similar to those of the general public. Interventions that facilitate interaction between volunteers and clients, promote reflection on volunteer experiences, and provide alternative viewpoints on poverty are needed to broaden volunteers' understanding of hunger and food insecurity.

  1. The World of Organic Agriculture (Session at the BIOFACH 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)

  2. 77 FR 30294 - Award of a Single Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC AGENCY: Office of...) announces the award of a single source cooperative agreement to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC to support a Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow. C.F.D.A. Number: 93.647. Statutory Authority...

  3. Witnesses to hunger: participation through photovoice to ensure the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.

  4. Time course of air hunger mirrors the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P

    2004-12-01

    Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.

  5. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  6. Some nonlinear processes relevant to the beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Mori, W.B.

    1985-03-01

    The beat wave accelerator depends on the generation of a large amplitude plasma wave with a phase velocity close to the velocity of light c. The plasma wave (ωsub(p), ksub(p)) is generated by beating colinear laser beams (ω 1 , k 1 ) and (ω 2 ,k 2 ) with ωsub(p) = ω 1 -ω 2 , ksub(p) = k 1 -k 2 . Since the process involves both large amplitude transverse and longitudinal waves, various nonlinear instabilities associated with either wave may occur. The object of the article is to discuss some of the processes that may compete with the beat wave generation listing their threshold and growth rate. (author)

  7. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1990-01-01

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  8. Human sperm steer with second harmonics of the flagellar beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2017-11-10

    Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.

  9. A model-based Bayesian framework for ECG beat segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, O; Shamsollahi, M B

    2009-01-01

    The study of electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform amplitudes, timings and patterns has been the subject of intense research, for it provides a deep insight into the diagnostic features of the heart's functionality. In some recent works, a Bayesian filtering paradigm has been proposed for denoising and compression of ECG signals. In this paper, it is shown that this framework may be effectively used for ECG beat segmentation and extraction of fiducial points. Analytic expressions for the determination of points and intervals are derived and evaluated on various real ECG signals. Simulation results show that the method can contribute to and enhance the clinical ECG beat segmentation performance

  10. [Physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2006-11-01

    To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pintermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.

  11. Faith Fictions: "The Word between This World and God"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tran, Mai-Anh

    2009-01-01

    The search for religious truth and depth in "fiction" invites a conceptualization of life and fictional narratives as "faith fictions"--narrative accounts of human experiences and the human condition that bridge this world and God. This article juxtaposes "Mother Crocodile", "Hunger", and "Lost in Translation" to highlight the ways in which they,…

  12. World Food Day: Curriculum, Grades 8-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David

    Over one billion of the world's people are chronically hungry. For them, life is a hunger cycle characterized by vulnerability to disease, stunted physical and mental development, reduced energy and motivation, and low work productivity. This curriculum guide is designed to channel student awareness and concern into effective action. The…

  13. Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.

  14. Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott

    2013-08-15

    Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage. Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3). A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power. Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. World food and nutrition: the scientific and technological base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, S

    1980-07-04

    Alleviation of world hunger and poverty will require the accelerated development and application in each low-income country of a broad spectrum of technologies based on advances in the biological, social, and physical sciences. They will range from improved cropping systems for farmers or small labor-intensive enterprises (small and beautiful) to nationwide transportation and communications systems, power grids, and other distribution and marketing capabilities (big and beautiful). Concerted action through a combination of commodity production campaigns, area development efforts, and overhaul of outdated national agencies offers the best prospect for overcoming both hunger and poverty.

  16. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  17. “There is hunger in my community”: a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world – 32% of adults are currently living with HIV — and many Swazis are chronically food insecure — in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Results Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants’ lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access “healthy” foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Conclusions Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for ‘healthy foods’ and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways

  18. "There is hunger in my community": a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin

    2014-01-25

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability

  19. Energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Batha, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator. The properties of the electromagnetic cascade and the corresponding plasma-wave evolution are well understood within the framework of an approximate analytic model. Based on this model, idealized laser-plasma coupling efficiencies of the order of 10% do not seem unreasonable. 28 refs

  20. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  1. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour.

  2. Subdividing the beat: auditory and motor contributions to synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    THE CURRENT STUDY EXAMINED HOW AUDITORY AND kinematic information influenced pianists' ability to synchronize musical sequences with a metronome. Pianists performed melodies in which quarter-note beats were subdivided by intervening eighth notes that resulted from auditory information (heard tones),

  3. Analysis of fluid flow around a beating artificial cilium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Vilfan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological cilia are found on surfaces of some microorganisms and on surfaces of many eukaryotic cells where they interact with the surrounding fluid. The periodic beating of the cilia is asymmetric, resulting in directed swimming of unicellular organisms or in generation of a fluid flow above a ciliated surface in multicellular ones. Following the biological example, externally driven artificial cilia have recently been successfully implemented as micropumps and mixers. However, biomimetic systems are useful not only in microfluidic applications, but can also serve as model systems for the study of fundamental hydrodynamic phenomena in biological samples. To gain insight into the basic principles governing propulsion and fluid pumping on a micron level, we investigated hydrodynamics around one beating artificial cilium. The cilium was composed of superparamagnetic particles and driven along a tilted cone by a varying external magnetic field. Nonmagnetic tracer particles were used for monitoring the fluid flow generated by the cilium. The average flow velocity in the pumping direction was obtained as a function of different parameters, such as the rotation frequency, the asymmetry of the beat pattern, and the cilium length. We also calculated the velocity field around the beating cilium by using the analytical far-field expansion. The measured average flow velocity and the theoretical prediction show an excellent agreement.

  4. Beat-wave accelerator studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The study carried out in 1982-83 at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to examine how one might use the beat-wave principle to construct a useful high energy accelerator is reviewed, and comments are made on later developments. A number of problems are evident to which solutions cannot at present be foreseen. (author)

  5. Intimate partner abuse: wife beating among civil servants in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands ... Consuming alcohol and growing up in an environment where parents fight publicly ... There is an urgent need for education of the women on their rights, ...

  6. Robust electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification using discrete wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, Fayyaz-ul-Amir Afsar; Arif, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust technique for the classification of six types of heartbeats through an electrocardiogram (ECG). Features extracted from the QRS complex of the ECG using a wavelet transform along with the instantaneous RR-interval are used for beat classification. The wavelet transform utilized for feature extraction in this paper can also be employed for QRS delineation, leading to reduction in overall system complexity as no separate feature extraction stage would be required in the practical implementation of the system. Only 11 features are used for beat classification with the classification accuracy of ∼99.5% through a KNN classifier. Another main advantage of this method is its robustness to noise, which is illustrated in this paper through experimental results. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for feature reduction, which reduces the number of features from 11 to 6 while retaining the high beat classification accuracy. Due to reduction in computational complexity (using six features, the time required is ∼4 ms per beat), a simple classifier and noise robustness (at 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio, accuracy is 95%), this method offers substantial advantages over previous techniques for implementation in a practical ECG analyzer

  7. Using Science and Much More to Beat the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The Beat the Flood challenge involves designing and building a model flood-proof home, which is then tested in "flood" conditions. It is set on the fictitious Watu Island. The children form teams, with each team member being assigned a responsibility for the duration of the task--team leader, chief recorder, and resource manager. This…

  8. Asynchronous beating of cilia enhances particle capture rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Many aquatic micro-organisms use beating cilia to generate feeding currents and capture particles in surrounding fluids. One of the capture strategies is to ``catch up'' with particles when a cilium is beating towards the overall flow direction (effective stroke) and intercept particles on the downstream side of the cilium. Here, we developed a 3D computational model of a cilia band with prescribed motion in a viscous fluid and calculated the trajectories of the particles with different sizes in the fluid. We found an optimal particle diameter that maximizes the capture rate. The flow field and particle motion indicate that the low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the laminar flow in the neighbor of the cilia, whereas larger particles have to move above the cilia tips to get advected downstream which decreases their capture rate. We then analyzed the effect of beating coordination between neighboring cilia on the capture rate. Interestingly, we found that asynchrony of the beating of the cilia can enhance the relative motion between a cilium and the particles near it and hence increase the capture rate.

  9. An empirical investigation of attitudes towards wife-beating among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the exception of Uganda, women working for pay were more likely to justify wife-beating than non-working women were. The results indicate that dominant social and cultural norms create images of \\"ideal\\" women among both men and women that include definition and widespread acceptance of gender roles as well ...

  10. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  11. Midbrain adaptation may set the stage for the perception of musical beat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The ability to spontaneously feel a beat in music is a phenomenon widely believed to be unique to humans. Though beat perception involves the coordinated engagement of sensory, motor and cognitive processes in humans, the contribution of low-level auditory processing to the activation of these networks in a beat-specific manner is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence from a rodent model that midbrain preprocessing of sounds may already be shaping where the beat is ultimately felt. For the tested set of musical rhythms, on-beat sounds on average evoked higher firing rates than off-beat sounds, and this difference was a defining feature of the set of beat interpretations most commonly perceived by human listeners over others. Basic firing rate adaptation provided a sufficient explanation for these results. Our findings suggest that midbrain adaptation, by encoding the temporal context of sounds, creates points of neural emphasis that may influence the perceptual emergence of a beat. PMID:29118141

  12. Binaural Beat: A Failure to Enhance EEG Power and Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran López-Caballero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs, preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively. In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR. For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.

  13. Binaural Beat: A Failure to Enhance EEG Power and Emotional Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caballero, Fran; Escera, Carles

    2017-01-01

    When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG) bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma) were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs), preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively). In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR). For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.

  14. Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2012-03-01

    Beat-wave generation of very low frequency (VLF) waves by two HF heaters in the ionosphere is formulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The heater-induced differential thermal pressure force and ponderomotive force, which dominate separately in the D and F regions of the ionosphere, drive an electron current for the VLF emission. A comparison, applying appropriate ionospheric parameters shows that the ponderomotive force dominates in beat-wave generation of VLF waves. Three experiments, one in the nighttime in the absence of D and E layers and two in the daytime in the presence of D and E layers, were performed. X mode HF heaters of slightly different frequencies were transmitted at CW full power. VLF waves at 10 frequencies ranging from 3.5 to 21.5 kHz were generated. The frequency dependencies of the daytime and nighttime radiation intensities are quite similar, but the nighttime radiation is much stronger than the daytime one at the same radiation frequency. The intensity ratio is as large as 9 dB at 11.5 kHz. An experiment directly comparing VLF waves generated by the beat-wave approach and by the amplitude modulation (AM) approach was also conducted. The results rule out the likely contribution of the AM mechanism acting on the electrojet and indicate that beat-wave in the VLF range prefers to be generated in the F region of the ionosphere through the ponderomotive nonlinearity, consistent with the theory. In the nighttime experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the HF heaters, suggesting a likely setting for effective beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  15. The development of hunger and fullness during a laboratory meal in patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Francine; Zimmerli, Ellen J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Kissileff, Harry R.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to test the hypothesis that, compared to similarly obese participants without BED, individuals with BED have a disturbance in the development of fullness and reduction of hunger during the course of a standard meal of large size. Method Thirteen patients with BED and 14 obese control participants consumed 975 grams of a milkshake. Participants received no information about how much they had eaten or how much of the meal remained to be consumed. Participants were interrupted after every 75 g consumed to rate hunger and fullness. Results Final fullness ratings were higher in patients with BED, but there were no differences in mean duration or mean rate of eating, or in changes in subjective ratings of hunger and fullness per gram of food. Conclusion The current study reports the surprising finding of no difference in reports of hunger and fullness between patients with BED and obese controls. PMID:18803172

  16. All I saw was the cake. Hunger effects on attentional capture by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piech, Richard M; Pastorino, Michael T; Zald, David H

    2010-06-01

    While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. Participants were asked to detect targets which appeared in a rapid visual stream after different types of task irrelevant distractors. We observed that food stimuli acquired increased power to capture attention and prevent target detection when participants were hungry. This occurred despite monetary incentives to perform well. Our findings suggest an attentional mechanism through which hunger heightens perception of food cues. As an objective behavioral marker of the attentional sensitivity to food cues, the emotional attentional blink paradigm may provide a useful technique for studying individual differences, and state manipulations in the sensitivity to food cues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment. (letter)

  19. Narratives of Food Insecurity in Tippecanoe County, Indiana: Economic Constraints in Local Meanings of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Hingson, LaReina; Anaele, Agaptus; Sen, Soumitro; Jones, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity and its most extreme form, hunger, have increased exponentially in the United States since 2006. This essay seeks to contribute to our understanding of hunger by attending to the context of the financial crisis as an organizing frame for understanding local meanings of hunger. Within a broader framework of the culture-centered approach (CCA) that works to identify and develop locally rooted solutions to food insecurity, we describe through locally grounded stories of food insecurity the financial climate where large percentages of U.S. households have been cast into poverty because of the crash of an unregulated economy. These local understandings of hunger in the context of the economy offer entry points for organizing a food-insecure coalition that seeks to address the stigma around food insecurity.

  20. Hunger in children in the United States: potential behavioral and emotional correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Murphy, J M; Little, M; Pagano, M; Wehler, C A; Regal, K; Jellinek, M S

    1998-01-01

    Results from a recent series of surveys from 9 states and the District of Columbia by the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) provide an estimate that 4 million American children experience prolonged periodic food insufficiency and hunger each year, 8% of the children under the age of 12 in this country. The same studies show that an additional 10 million children are at risk for hunger. The current study examined the relationship between hunger as defined by the CCHIP measure (food insufficiency attributable to constrained resources) and variables reflecting the psychosocial functioning of low-income, school-aged children. The study group included 328 parents and children from a CCHIP study of families with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years living in the city of Pittsburgh and the surrounding Allegheny County. A two-stage area probability sampling design with standard cluster techniques was used. All parents whose child was between the ages of 6 and 12 years at the time of interview were asked to complete a Pediatric Symptom Checklist, a brief parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's emotional and behavioral symptoms. Hunger status was defined by parent responses to the standard 8 food-insufficiency questions from the CCHIP survey that are used to classify households and children as "hungry," "at-risk for hunger," or "not hungry." In an area probability sample of low-income families, those defined as hungry on the CCHIP measure were significantly more likely to have clinical levels of psychosocial dysfunction on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist than children defined as at-risk for hunger or not hungry. Analysis of individual items and factor scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist showed that virtually all behavioral, emotional, and academic problems were more prevalent in hungry children, but that aggression and anxiety had the strongest degree of association with experiences of hunger. Children from families that

  1. Non-model-based correction of respiratory motion using beat-to-beat 3D spiral fat-selective imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Jennifer; Gatehouse, Peter D; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Firmin, David N

    2007-09-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retrospective beat-to-beat correction of respiratory motion, without the need for a respiratory motion model. A high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spiral black-blood scan of the right coronary artery (RCA) of six healthy volunteers was acquired over 160 cardiac cycles without respiratory gating. One spiral interleaf was acquired per cardiac cycle, prior to each of which a complete low-resolution fat-selective 3D spiral dataset was acquired. The respiratory motion (3D translation) on each cardiac cycle was determined by cross-correlating a region of interest (ROI) in the fat around the artery in the low-resolution datasets with that on a reference end-expiratory dataset. The measured translations were used to correct the raw data of the high-resolution spiral interleaves. Beat-to-beat correction provided consistently good results, with the image quality being better than that obtained with a fixed superior-inferior tracking factor of 0.6 and better than (N = 5) or equal to (N = 1) that achieved using a subject-specific retrospective 3D translation motion model. Non-model-based correction of respiratory motion using 3D spiral fat-selective imaging is feasible, and in this small group of volunteers produced better-quality images than a subject-specific retrospective 3D translation motion model. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.; Burgoyne, J.A.; Odijk, D.; Honing, H.; Grahn, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat,

  3. Counting, scoring and classifying hunger to allocate resources targeted to solve the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Gallegos, Ana; Trueba Jainaga, Jose Ignacio; Tarancon Juanas, Monica

    2011-01-01

    A proper allocation of resources targeted to solve hunger is essential to optimize the efficacy of actions and maximize results. This requires an adequate measurement and formulation of the problem as, paraphrasing Einstein, the formulation of a problem is essential to reach a solution. Different measurement methods have been designed to count, score, classify and compare hunger at local level and to allow comparisons between different places. However, the alternative methods produce sig...

  4. Hunger bekämpfen! Aber wie? Drei Thesen aus wirtschaftsethischer Sicht

    OpenAIRE

    Pies, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Dieser Artikel formuliert drei Thesen zur globalen Ernährungssicherheit: (1) Hunger ist ein moralisches Problem mit wirtschaftlichen und letztlich politischen Ursachen. (2) Kleinbauern verdienen Hilfe und Solidarität. Aber nicht deshalb, weil sie Kleinbauern, sondern weil sie Menschen sind, deren Menschenwürde und deren Menschenrecht durch Hunger und Armut verletzt wird. Folglich muss man ihnen helfen, unabhängig davon, womit sie ihren Lebensunterhalt bestreiten. (3) Die Kampagne gegen die Ag...

  5. Coping with child hunger in Canada: have household strategies changed over a decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Bartoo, Aaron C; Pow, Jody; Potestio, Melissa L

    2012-11-05

    To determine if household coping strategies for child hunger in Canada have changed over a decade (1996-2007). We applied t-tests to data derived from Cycle 2 (1996-1997; n=8165) and Cycle 7 (2006-2007; n=15,961) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to determine changes in household coping strategies for child hunger. Data were restricted to households with children aged 2-9 years, allowing for cross-sectional analysis of two independent samples. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds of reporting child hunger for socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of using different coping strategies. The national prevalence of child hunger fell from 1.5% in 1997 to 0.7% in 2007 (phunger (increased child age and household size, lack of home ownership, low household income, lone-parent status, family dysfunction) and hunger frequency (regular versus occasional) were similar in both NLSCY cycles. Utilization of food banks and other community resources as a method of coping with child hunger remained static despite an increase in national food banks/affiliated agencies in Canada (2,141 in 1998 to 3,540 in 2007). In contrast, there was an increased reliance on reducing household food variety, an internal coping mechanism, to manage child hunger (17.6% Cycle 2 to 35.1% Cycle 7; p=0.03). Community outreach programs between 1997 and 2007 had little impact on coping strategies utilized by households facing child hunger. Our results indicate that current initiatives fail to reach these families.

  6. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P hunger peaks (P hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. U.S. Ethanol Demand and World Hunger: Is There Any Connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Na; Colson, Greg; Wetzstein, Michael

    2015-01-01

    U.S. ethanol expansion objectives are to improve both energy security and the environmental. However, this expansion has raised issues concerning its detrimental impacts on the price volatility of developing countries’ agricultural commodities. These concerns are addressed by empirically investigating the relations among U.S. ethanol and corn markets with developing countries’ corn prices. Results indicate that U.S. ethanol demand impacts on developing countries’ corn prices vary by country. ...

  9. Geoscience research helps rice farmers mitigate climate change and world hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Rice is a globally important crop - it comprises 30% of total human caloric consumption - and will be an important crop in the face of expanding population growth. Unfortunately, it is often grown in flooded paddies whose swampy conditions allow microbes to produce the strong greenhouse gas, methane. Over 10% of anthropogenic methane emission to the atmosphere are attributed to rice cultivation. Fortunately, a water-saving irrigation method known as Alternate Wetting and Drying can reduce methane emissions by periodically drying the soil. In our experiments, the method has no effect on rice harvest yields. In our research with rice farmers in Arkansas, we work to evaluate the amount of methane reductions on different fields with this irrigation practice. This research aims to expand the scientific basis for carbon emission reductions programs that enable farmers to be paid for implementing this practice. There are still gaps in our knowledge about how much methane is produced and under what conditions. Our research involves the continuous detection of field methane emissions and correlates then to changes in environmental conditions like the height and temperature of paddy water. Understanding these relationships may help more farmers qualify for credits in the growing carbon emission reductions programs. Because many farmers are already collecting information about their irrigation practices to reduce water applications, we aim to help them re-use this data to more quickly qualify for carbon emissions reductions payments.

  10. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  11. Beat-to-beat systolic time-interval measurement from heart sounds and ECG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, R P; Carvalho, P; Couceiro, R; Henriques, J; Antunes, M; Quintal, I; Muehlsteff, J

    2012-01-01

    Systolic time intervals are highly correlated to fundamental cardiac functions. Several studies have shown that these measurements have significant diagnostic and prognostic value in heart failure condition and are adequate for long-term patient follow-up and disease management. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using heart sound (HS) to accurately measure the opening and closing moments of the aortic heart valve. These moments are crucial to define the main systolic timings of the heart cycle, i.e. pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). We introduce an algorithm for automatic extraction of PEP and LVET using HS and electrocardiogram. PEP is estimated with a Bayesian approach using the signal's instantaneous amplitude and patient-specific time intervals between atrio-ventricular valve closure and aortic valve opening. As for LVET, since the aortic valve closure corresponds to the start of the S2 HS component, we base LVET estimation on the detection of the S2 onset. A comparative assessment of the main systolic time intervals is performed using synchronous signal acquisitions of the current gold standard in cardiac time-interval measurement, i.e. echocardiography, and HS. The algorithms were evaluated on a healthy population, as well as on a group of subjects with different cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the healthy group, from a set of 942 heartbeats, the proposed algorithm achieved 7.66 ± 5.92 ms absolute PEP estimation error. For LVET, the absolute estimation error was 11.39 ± 8.98 ms. For the CVD population, 404 beats were used, leading to 11.86 ± 8.30 and 17.51 ± 17.21 ms absolute PEP and LVET errors, respectively. The results achieved in this study suggest that HS can be used to accurately estimate LVET and PEP. (paper)

  12. Objective Physiological Measurements but Not Subjective Reports Moderate the Effect of Hunger on Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shuster, Anastasia; Sela, Tal; Levy, Dino J.

    2018-01-01

    Hunger is a powerful driver of human behavior, and is therefore of great interest to the study of psychology, economics, and consumer behavior. Assessing hunger levels in experiments is often biased, when using self-report methods, or complex, when using blood tests. We propose a novel way of objectively measuring subjects’ levels of hunger by identifying levels of alpha-amylase (AA) enzyme in their saliva samples. We used this measure to uncover the effect of hunger on different types of choice behaviors. We found that hunger increases risk-seeking behavior in a lottery-choice task, modifies levels of vindictiveness in a social decision-making task, but does not have a detectible effect on economic inconsistency in a budget-set choice task. Importantly, these findings were moderated by AA levels and not by self-report measures. We demonstrate the effects hunger has on choice behavior and the problematic nature of subjective measures of physiological states, and propose to use reliable and valid biologically based methods to overcome these problems. PMID:29875715

  13. The relationship between hunger and mental health outcomes among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.

  14. Factors associated with child hunger among food insecure households in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Ahshanul; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-02-16

    Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children's health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6-59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43-2.45); p hunger. Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.

  15. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.

  16. The interactive effect of hunger and impulsivity on food intake and purchase in a virtual supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, C; Guerrieri, R; Havermans, R C; Roefs, A; Jansen, A

    2009-08-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that impulsivity, obesity and food intake are related; obese people are more impulsive than lean people and impulsive people eat more than less impulsive people. The relation between impulsivity and food intake might be state dependent; hunger motivates food seeking behaviour and food consumption, especially of high caloric food. Difficulties to overrule automatic behavioural tendencies might make impulsive people more susceptible to the effects of hunger on food selection. Therefore, they are expected to increase their intake more than low impulsive people when feeling hungry. STUDY 1: Fifty-seven female participants were randomly assigned to a hunger or sated condition. Response inhibition (a measure of impulsivity) and food intake were measured. Results show that impulsive participants ate significantly more, but only when feeling hungry. STUDY 2: Ninety-four undergraduate students participated. Hunger, response inhibition and the purchase of food in a virtual supermarket were measured. The same interaction was found: impulsive participants bought most calories, especially from snack food, but only when feeling hungry. Hunger and impulsivity interact in their influence on consumption. These data suggest that reducing hunger during calorie restricting diets is important for successful weight loss, particularly for the impulsive dieters.

  17. "Geografia da Fome": da lógica regional à universalidade "The Geography of Hunger": from regional logic to universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Geografia da Fome revela a associação harmoniosa da capacidade de argumentar com a segurança científica, um novo modo de pensar e de agir frente à realidade alimentar e nutricional e também uma abordagem pioneira no dimensionamento da fome coletiva como um fenômeno geograficamente universal. Admitiu, com base nas especificidades regionais, que as contribuições parciais poderiam compor um mapeamento caracterizador da universalidade do problema, permitindo construir uma imagem diferente do Brasil e do mundo, possibilitando a estruturação de um plano universal de combate à fome, abrindo novos caminhos para aqueles que buscam a correção de desequilíbrios regionais e a eliminação do subdesenvolvimento. Nesse livro-manifesto, Josué de Castro reinterpretou o papel da geografia clássica, incorporando uma das dimensões explicativas mais importantes, que é a da análise política, para desvendar a significação e conseqüências do desenvolvimento espacial desigual. A releitura de Geografia da Fome mostra que seus delineamentos conceituais e propositivos continuam vivos e constituem instrumentos indispensáveis para repensar criticamente a realidade brasileira e, em particular, a nordestina. Geografia da Fome, no seu cinqüentenário, torna-se um livro atual pela sua mensagem estimuladora e perturbadora.The Geography of Hunger, now the target of reflective reading 50 years after it was first published, shows the author' elegant combination of argumentative skill and scientific confidence. Josué de Castro's provocative focus is both a new way of thinking and acting towards the food and nutritional situation in Brazil and a pioneering approach to the issue of collective hunger as a geographically universal phenomenon. Based on regional specificities, the book admits that partial contributions may help establish a characteristic map of the problem's universal nature, thus helping build a different image of Brazil and the world and

  18. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  19. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Ercument [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey)]. E-mail: drercument@yahoo.com; Cakir, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Asil, Talip [Department of Neurology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE.

  20. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, Ercument; Cakir, Bilge; Asil, Talip

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE

  1. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Beauchene

    Full Text Available Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  2. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  3. Nonlinear beat excitation of low frequency wave in degenerate plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Zahid; Shahid, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Shahbaz, A.

    2018-03-01

    The beat phenomenon due to the coupling of two signals at slightly different frequencies that generates the low frequency signal is studied. The linear dispersive properties of the pump and sideband are analyzed. The modified nonlinear dispersion relation through the field coupling of linear modes against the beat frequency is derived in the homogeneous quantum dusty magnetoplasmas. The dispersion relation is used to derive the modified growth rate of three wave parametric instability. Moreover, significant quantum effects of electrons through the exchange-correlation potential, the Bohm potential, and the Fermi pressure evolved in macroscopic three wave interaction are presented. The analytical results are interpreted graphically describing the significance of the work. The applications of this study are pointed out at the end of introduction.

  4. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  5. First Beta-Beating Measurement in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; Kain, V; Morita, A; Tomás, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J

    2009-01-01

    This note reports on the first LHC beta-beating and coupling measurements. Thanks to an excellent functioning of the BPM system and the related software, injection oscillations were recorded for the first 90 turns at all BPMs of Beam 2. Three different algorithms are used to measure the optics parameters from the BPM data. All algorithms show consistent measurements but feature different accuracy. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach shows a high resolution despite the limited number of turns. The vertical beta-beating is observed to be about a factor of two larger than in the horizontal plane. This asymetry is partly due to sextupoles misalignments but also suggests the possible existance of focusing errors at defocussing locations. Rather large coupling is observed since no skew quadrupole was excited at the time of the data acquisition. We also report a list of suspected malfunctioning BPMs identified through various analyses.

  6. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood-states. Here we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation. We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to auditory beat stimulation and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural and binaural beat frequencies in cognition and mood-states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of auditory beat stimulation.

  7. Measuring of beat up force on weaving machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile material (warp is stressed cyclically at a relative high frequency during the weaving process. Therefore, the special measuring device for analysis of beat up force in the textile material during the weaving process, has been devised in the Weaving Laboratory of the TUL. This paper includes a description of this measuring device. The experimental part includes measurements results for various materials (PES and VS and various warp thread densities of the produced fabric.

  8. Moving to the Beat and Singing are Linked in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008) has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (“vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis”). This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here, we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate) than less accurate and less precise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism. PMID:26733370

  9. Beliefs About Wife Beating Among Social Work Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2017-07-01

    Based on an integrative framework, this study addresses the beliefs that a group of social work students from Taiwan had about wife beating. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by 790 students (76.5% female, 23.5% male) spanning all 4 years of undergraduate studies. The results show that male students exhibited a greater tendency than their female counterparts to justify wife beating and to hold battered women responsible for violence against them. This tendency was also found among students who held traditional attitudes toward women, students who held patriarchal expectations of marriage, and students who had witnessed interparental violence in childhood. In addition, male students and students with traditional attitudes toward women exhibited the strongest tendency to believe that wives benefit from beating. Conversely, female students expressed more willingness than their male counterparts to help battered women, as did students who held liberal attitudes toward women and students who held egalitarian expectations of marriage. Furthermore, female students and those with liberal attitudes toward women tended to hold violent husbands responsible for their behavior, and to express support for punishing violent husbands. This article concludes with a discussion of the study's limitations and the results' implications for future research on the topic.

  10. Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, B K; Esen, A; Büyükerkmen, B; Kilinç, A; Menziletoglu, D

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves are presented one to each ear at a steady intensity and frequency. We evaluated their effectiveness in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Sixty patients (30 in each group) who were to have impacted third molars removed were studied (experimental group: 20 women and 10 men, mean (range) age 24 (18-35) years, and control group: 22 women and 8 men, mean (range) age 28 (15-47) years). All patients were fully informed about the operation preoperatively, and their anxiety recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The local anaesthetic was given and the patients waited for 10minutes, during which those in the experimental group were asked to listen to binaural beats through stereo earphones (200Hz for the left ear and 209.3Hz for the right ear). No special treatment was given to the control group. In both groups anxiety was then recorded again, and the tooth removed in the usual way. The paired t test and t test were used to assess the significance of differences between groups. The degree of anxiety in the control group was unchanged after the second measurement (p=0.625), while that in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety (p=0.001). We conclude that binaural beats may be useful in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal trends in hedonic hunger after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Christopher C; Benoit, Stephen C; Peugh, James L; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Inge, Thomas H; Zeller, Meg H

    2014-01-01

    Initial outcome studies have reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is safe and efficacious for adolescents with extreme obesity. Although rapid weight loss is seen initially, data also show that modest weight regain typically occurs as early as the second postoperative year. The contribution of various psychological factors, including hedonic hunger, to postoperative weight regain has not previously been studied in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the variability in hedonic hunger and body mass index (BMI) over the initial 2-year period of weight loss and modest weight regain in adolescent RYGB recipients. A total of 16 adolescents completed the Power of Food Scale before surgery and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Height and weight were measured at each time point, from which BMI was calculated. Nonlinear trends were observed for time on both overall hedonic hunger and hedonic hunger specifically related to food available in the adolescent's environment. The BMI reduction during the first 18 months postoperatively was paralleled by reduction in hedonic hunger; increases in hedonic hunger also paralleled the modest BMI increase at 24 months. In growth analysis, significant power gains are available to models using 4 or more points of data. However, only large effect sizes that are>.85 were detectable with a sample of 16 patients. These data provide preliminary evidence that hedonic hunger is in need of further study in adolescent patients receiving RYGB both preoperatively and postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The time-varying association between perceived stress and hunger within and between days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Shiyko, Mariya; Keller, Stefan; Dunton, Genevieve; Schembre, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Examine the association between perceived stress and hunger continuously over a week in free-living individuals. Forty five young adults (70% women, 30% overweight/obese) ages 18 to 24 years (Mean = 20.7, SD = 1.5), with BMI between 17.4 and 36.3 kg/m(2) (Mean = 23.6, SD = 4.0) provided between 513 and 577 concurrent ratings of perceived stress and hunger for 7 days via hourly, text messaging assessments and real-time eating records. Time-varying effect modeling was used to explore whether the within-day fluctuations in stress are related to perceived hunger assessed on a momentary basis. A generally positive stress-hunger relationship was confirmed, but we found that the strength of the relationship was not linear. Rather, the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and hunger changed throughout the day such that only during specific time intervals were stress and hunger significantly related. Specifically, the strength of the positive association peaked during late afternoon hours on weekdays (β = 0.31, p hunger associations that peak in the afternoon or evening hours. While we are unable to infer causality from these analyses, our findings provide empirical evidence for a potentially high-risk time of day for stress-induced eating. Replication of these findings in larger, more diverse samples will aid with the design and implementation of real-time intervention studies aimed at reducing stress-eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sudden cardiac death in dogs with remodeled hearts is associated with larger beat-to-beat variability of repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Truin, Michiel; van Opstal, Jurren M

    2005-01-01

    Increased proarrhythmia in dogs with chronic AV block (AVB) has been explained by ventricular remodeling causing a decrease in repolarization reserve. Beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) has been suggested to reflect repolarization reserve, in which high variability represents...... diminished reserve and larger propensity for repolarization-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. A subset of chronic AVB dogs (10%) suffers sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the assumption that repolarization defects constitute a potentially lethal proarrhythmic substrate, we hypothesized that BVR in SCD dogs...... are larger than in matched control chronic AVB dogs. From a population of 200 chronic AVB dogs, initially two groups were chosen retrospectively: 8 dogs that died suddenly (SCD) and 8 control dogs. Control dogs had a longer lifespan after AVB (10 to 18 weeks) than SCD dogs (5 to 10 weeks). All dogs had...

  16. Noninvasive beat-to-beat finger arterial pressure monitoring during orthostasis : a comprehensive review of normal and abnormal responses at different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, V K; Finucane, C; Harms, M P M; Nolan, H; Freeman, R L; Westerhof, B. E.; Kenny, R A; Ter Maaten, J C; Wieling, W

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 30years, noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) monitoring has provided great insight into cardiovascular autonomic regulation during standing. Although traditional sphygmomanometric measurement of BP may be sufficient for detection of sustained orthostatic hypotension, it fails

  17. Study on the Relationship among Parents' Cognition on China Anti-Domestic Violence, Attitude of Beating Children and Frequency of Beating Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at analyzing the correlation between parents' awareness of anti-domestic violence in China, attitude and frequency of beating children. According to the literature analysis, this paper sets children's parents' anti-domestic violence cognition and attitude of beating children as independent variable, and the frequency of beating…

  18. Eating in the absence of hunger in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Taylor A; Johnston, Carol S; Lee, Chong D; Garza, Andrea M

    2015-09-01

    Nearly one-third of college students are overweight or obese. Disinhibited eating, a phenomenon defined as the lack of self-restraint over food consumption prompted by emotional or external factors, is prevalent among college students and may be a target for intervention in this population. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is a form of disinhibited eating that has been studied extensively in children and adolescents, but there is little investigation of EAH among college students. In this research, a validated measure for assessing continual and beginning EAH in children and adolescents was modified and assessed in a free-living college population (n = 457; 84% F; 24.5 ± 7.6 years; 23.4 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)). Nine subscales grouped into three latent factors (emotion, external, and physical) accounted for 68% of the variance in continual EAH, and a separate set of nine subscales grouped into the same latent factors accounted for 71% of the variance in beginning EAH (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82 for continual EAH and 0.81 for beginning EAH). Female sex and sedentary behavior were significantly related to continual EAH, relationships driven by scores for the emotion factor, and to beginning EAH, relationships driven by scores for the physical factor. BMI was weakly related to the emotion factor (p = 0.06) for continuing EAH only. The observation that a sedentary lifestyle was associated to EAH (both continuing and beginning EAH) in a college population is a novel finding and reveals a possible strategy to moderate EAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How AI turned the chess world upside down

    KAUST Repository

    Polgar, Susan

    2018-01-22

    Man vs. Machine! In 1977 an IBM supercomputer \\'Deep Blue\\' beat the reigning World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in a 6 game chess match played under tournament conditions. This was the first time a machine beat a human at chess. It symbolized the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the potential for great good (and great harm) from machines that have aspects of human intelligence. During this lecture Susan Polgar, a pioneer for Women in Chess, will share her remarkable story as well as how technology has changed the world of chess.

  20. The implications of starvation induced psychological changes for the ethical treatment of hunger strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, D M T

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate existing ethical guidelines for the treatment of hunger strikers in light of findings on psychological changes that accompany the cessation of food intake. Electronic databases were searched for (a) editorials and ethical proclamations on hunger strikers and their treatment; (b) studies of voluntary and involuntary starvation, and (c) legal cases pertaining to hunger striking. Additional studies were gathered in a snowball fashion from the published material cited in these databases. Material was included if it (a) provided ethical or legal guidelines; (b) shed light on psychological changes accompanying starvation, or (c) illustrated the practice of hunger striking. Authors' observations, opinions, and conclusions were noted. Although the heterogeneous nature of the sources precluded statistical analysis, starvation appears to be accompanied by marked psychological changes. Some changes clearly impair competence, in which case physicians are advised to follow advance directives obtained early in the hunger strike. More problematic are increases in impulsivity and aggressivity, changes which, while not impairing competence, enhance the likelihood that patients will starve themselves to death.

  1. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  2. Impulsivity and overeating in children in the absence and presence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn

    2015-10-01

    Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  4. Neural Entrainment and Sensorimotor Synchronization to the Beat in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln J. Colling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al., 2015 in an attempt to disentangle neural sensory and motor contributions to behavioral beat synchronization in children with dyslexia. Children tapped with both their left and right hands to every second beat of a metronome pulse delivered at 2.4 Hz, or listened passively to the beat. Analyses of preferred phase in EEG showed that the children with dyslexia had a significantly different preferred phase compared to control children in all conditions. Regarding SS-EPs, the groups differed significantly for the passive Auditory listening condition at 2.4 Hz, and showed a trend toward a difference in the Right hand tapping condition at 3.6 Hz (sensorimotor integration measure. The data suggest that neural rhythmic entrainment is atypical in children with dyslexia for both an auditory beat and during sensorimotor coupling (tapping. The data are relevant to a growing literature suggesting that rhythm-based interventions may help language processing in children with developmental disorders of language learning.

  5. Prostanoid Receptors Involved in Regulation of the Beating Rate of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechiche, Hakima; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Robinet, Arnaud; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Devillier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although prostanoids are known to be involved in regulation of the spontaneous beating rate of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the various subtypes of prostanoid receptors have not been investigated in detail. In our experiments, prostaglandin (PG)F2α and prostanoid FP receptor agonists (fluprostenol, latanoprost and cloprostenol) produced a decrease in the beating rate. Two prostanoid IP receptor agonists (iloprost and beraprost) induced first a marked drop in the beating rate and then definitive abrogation of beating. In contrast, the prostanoid DP receptor agonists (PGD2 and BW245C) and TP receptor agonists (U-46619) produced increases in the beating rate. Sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1 and EP3 receptor agonist) induced marked increases in the beating rate, which were suppressed by SC-19220 (a selective prostanoid EP1 antagonist). Butaprost (a selective prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist), misoprostol (a prostanoid EP2 and EP3 receptor agonist), 11-deoxy-PGE1 (a prostanoid EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor agonist) did not alter the beating rate. Our results strongly suggest that prostanoid EP1 receptors are involved in positive regulation of the beating rate. Prostanoid EP1 receptor expression was confirmed by western blotting with a selective antibody. Hence, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express both prostanoid IP and FP receptors (which negatively regulate the spontaneous beating rate) and prostanoid TP, DP1 and EP1 receptors (which positively regulate the spontaneous beating rate). PMID:22984630

  6. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  7. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  8. [Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.

  9. Food insecurity and hunger: A review of the effects on children's health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Janice; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity and hunger are significant problems in Canada, with millions of Canadians experiencing some level of food insecurity. The purpose of the present article is to review what is currently known about the effects of food insecurity and hunger on children. Longitudinal studies in Canada indicate that hunger is related to poor health outcomes, including a higher risk of depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents, and chronic conditions, particularly asthma. In addition, nutrient deficiencies, such as iron deficiency, are known to impair learning and cause decreased productivity in school-age children, and maternal depressive disorders. School-based nutrition programs and innovations, such as subsidized food (apples, cheese, soy nuts, carrots and broccoli), are an essential immediate need, but long-term solutions lie in adequate incomes for families.

  10. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  11. Antiretroviral Therapy and Nutrition in Southern Africa: Citizenship and the Grammar of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    How might we understand and respond to the new forms of hunger that arise with the massive rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV in southern Africa? Rather than 'merely' a technical problem of measurement, medicine or infrastructure, I suggest that a philosophical question arises concerning the relationship between the experience of hunger, the utterances that communicate that experience, and the bodily regimes of well-being and ill-being indexed by such utterances. Taking the gut as a particular kind of mediator of experience, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to open up a set of questions on acknowledgment and avoidance. The central question concerns the divergent concepts of 'grammar' that confront the relationship between hunger and ART.

  12. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...... levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive...

  13. Beat map drawing method for large oriental bell based on operational deflection shape method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joong Hyeok; Kim, Seock Hyun [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Seok [TB Tires Development 1 Team, R and D Center, Kumho Tire, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oriental bells produce a peculiar sound in the form of beats, which are periodic repetitions of strong and weak sounds. A beating sound with a proper period gives the illusion of the bell being alive and breathing. To produce a good beating sound, appropriate modal parameters are required for beat tuning after casting the bell. Conventionally, modal parameters were extracted using frequency response functions of the excitation and response signals. However, a large oriental bell is usually struck by a heavy wooden hammer and hence, only the response signal can be measured. In this study, we extract the modal parameters using the response signal only and employ the data to predict the beat properties of the bell sound. Finally, the validity of the predicted beat properties is experimentally verified for a large oriental bell.

  14. The time-course of cortico-limbic neural responses to air hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (∼ 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak 40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between mother to child calories served and maternal perception of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M

    2016-06-01

    Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Factors associated with child hunger among food insecure households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ahshanul Haque

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children’s health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Methods Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6–59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Results Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43–2.45; p < 0.001], severely food insecure households [OR: 10.5 (1.43–76.6; p < 0.05], households having women with no education [OR: 1.56 (1.27–1.92; p < 0.05], poorest asset quintile [OR: 1.50 (1.11–2.15; p < 0.05] and the amount of rice consumed per household per week [OR: 0.94 (0.92–0.96; p < 0.001] were found to be significantly and independently associated with child hunger. Conclusions Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.

  17. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  18. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. © The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hunger does not motivate reward in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L; McClure, Samuel M; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-04-01

    Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 women remitted from AN (RAN group; to reduce the confounding effects of starvation) with 17 healthy comparison women (CW group). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Interactions of Group (RAN, CW) × Visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for the CW group, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in the RAN group. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for the RAN group compared with the CW group. Women remitted from AN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to the motivational drive of hunger may explain the ability of individuals with AN to restrict food when emaciated. Difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-08

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hunger at Home: A Higher Education Service Learning Course of Appraisal and Action in Community Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Service learning and civic engagement are playing an increasingly larger role in higher education. Unity College's Hunger at Home course could serve as a model for service learning in disciplines such as nutrition, sociology, and food and agriculture. The class worked with local partners to get a better understanding of hunger in the area, recent…

  3. Gaussian-state entanglement in a quantum beat laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.

  4. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour. Tradisionele Afrikane is nog altyd daarvoor bekend dat hulle die instelling van die huwelik respekteer. Verbasend genoeg is vroueslanery egter ’n ou gevestigde gebruik wat vandag algemeen onder Afrikane voorkom. Die mate waartoe diepgewortelde gebruike soos vroueslanery as ’n manier om gesag af te dwing en orde in die huis te handhaaf, gekonfronteer sal moet word met wat as goeie praktyk beskou word vanuit die gesigspunt van die reg, die gemeenskap en pastorale versorgers, is dus ’n belangrike navorsingsvraag. Baie vroue dra fisiese en emosionele littekens wat deur hulle eggenote veroorsaak is. Alhoewel daar baie vorme van vrouemishandeling in familiesituasies voorkom, fokus hierdie artikel veral op vroueslanery wat om tradisionele en verwante redes beoefen word. Hierdie navorsing probeer vasstel of die redes vir

  5. MHD simulation of a beat frequency heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milroy, R.D.; Capjack, C.E.; James, C.R.; McMullin, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    The heating of a plasma in a solenoid, with a beat frequency harmonic which is excited at a frequency near to that of a Langmuir mode in a plasma, is examined. It is shown that at high temperatures the heating rate is very insensitive to changes in plasma density. The amount of energy that can be coupled to a plasma in a solenoid with this heating scheme is investigated by using a one-dimensional computer code which incorporates an exact solution of the relevant MHD equations. The absorption of energy from a high powered laser is shown to be significantly enhanced with this process. (author)

  6. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  7. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  8. Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E

    1979-11-02

    The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.

  9. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, hav...

  10. Perceived hunger mediates the relationship between attachment anxiety and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I

    2013-08-01

    Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L

    2013-02-01

    Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. [Hunger strike and forced feeding: a historical look at medical practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Huber-Giseke, Tina; Getaz, Laurent; Kramer-Gauchat, Marie-Claire; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2010-12-01

    Hunger strike is not a disease but a common situation in prisons. This article takes a historical look at medical practices in connection with the forced feeding of hunger strikers. We now know the fate of the strikers who were subjected to forced feeding. Depending on the context and the political situation in the country, the fate of these people, mostly political prisoners, is described as humiliating and abominable frequently ending in death or irreparable consequences. Particularly difficult for health professionals, this act raises clinical, ethical and legal questions and refers to the fundamental principles of medicine.

  13. Foraging behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua ) influenced by prey density and hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1995-01-01

    activity, prey selectivity, and hunger in a variable prey environment. Gadus morhua eggs were collected in March 1992 and 1993 from the Kattegat area, Denmark, fertilised and incubated in the laboratory. After hatching, the larvae were transferred to rearing tanks of 172 litres. The behaviour of larvae (6...... their prey size selectivity. Behavioural response was to a large degree determined by the level of hunger, represented by the number of newly ingested prey in the gut. The findings show that cod larvae have a flexible response to changes in feeding conditions and imply that larvae can grow and survive even...

  14. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  15. Becoming stronger by becoming weaker: the hunger strike as a mode of doing politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Carl Sebastian; Danyi, Endre

    2018-01-01

    immigrants, we aim to achieve three things. First, we foreground physical bodies as political entities caught up in multiple modes of doing politics. Second, we show how such modes relate to one another, reinforcing citizenship, activism and party politics as specific performances of agency associated...... with liberal democracy. Finally, we argue that the Brussels hunger strike also challenges these performances by failing to meet certain expectations about what it is to be political/act politically. As the European refugee crisis is generating louder and louder voices, hunger strikes sensitise us to modes...

  16. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  17. Enhanced timing abilities in percussionists generalize to rhythms without a musical beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played), continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously), and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second). The meters of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals). In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists' superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  18. Enhanced Timing Abilities in Percussionists Generalize to Rhythms Without a Musical Beat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played, continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously, and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second. The metres of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals. In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists’ superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  19. Links of adolescent- and parent-reported eating in the absence of hunger with observed eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A; Courville, Amber B; Field, Sara E; Matheson, Brittany E; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2013-06-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically was assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There were no validated self-report measures of EAH. The relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents' measured intake in the absence of hunger was examined. Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children's EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Parents' reports of children's EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents' observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  20. Effect of Cilia Beat Frequency on Mucociliary Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedaghat M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The airway surface liquid (ASL, which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. Objective: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem. Methods: Hybrid finite difference-lattice Boltzmann-method (FB-LBM has been used to solve the momentum equations and to simulate cilia forces, and also the PCLmucus interface more accurately, immersed boundary method (IBM has been employed. The main contribution of the current study is to use an Oldroyd-B model as the constitutive equation of mucus. Results: Our results show that increasing CBF and decreasing mucus viscosity ratio have great effects on mucus flow, but the effect of viscosity ratio is more significant. The results also illustrate that the relation between cilia beat frequency and mean mucus velocity is almost linear and it has similar behavior at different values of viscosity ratio. Conclusion: Numerical investigation based on hybrid IB-FD-LBM has been used to study the effect of CBF at various mounts of mucus viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary clearance. The results showed that the effect of viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary transport process is more significant compared with CBF.

  1. PEP-II Beta Beat Fixes with MIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y

    2004-01-01

    We first find a virtual accelerator for the HER or the LER through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs as well as all BPM gains and BPM cross-plane couplings by an SVD-enhanced Least-squares fitting of the quantities derivable from a complete set of orbits. These quantities are the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the tilt angles and axis ratios of the coupling eigen ellipses. They are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a high-resolution model-independent analysis (MIA). Once the virtual accelerator is found, we select a limited number of key quadrupoles, for example, the linear trombone quadrupoles and the global skews, for Least-square fitting of their strengths to minimize the beta beat while keeping other optics characters unchanged if not improved. We then dial in these limited number of quadrupole strength changes to the real accelerator (HER or LER) to achieve a better-performance PEP-II. Noticeable achievement by this MIA technique has been that MIA has helped PEP-II achieve its breaking record peak luminosity of 6.5 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 in 2003 by bringing the LER working tune to near half integer and simultaneously fixing the beta beat, which would, otherwise, be difficult without MIA because of the strong LER coupling effect

  2. Cardioscopic tricuspid valve repair in a beating ovine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind T; Lee, Lawrence S; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Bolman, Ralph M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2009-04-01

    Open heart surgery is commonly associated with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. The attendant risks of cardiopulmonary bypass may be prohibitive in high-risk patients. We present a novel endoscopic technique of performing tricuspid valve repair without cardiopulmonary bypass in a beating ovine heart. Six sheep underwent sternotomy and creation of a right heart shunt to eliminate right atrial and right ventricular blood for clear visualization. The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, and coronary sinus were cannulated, and the blood flow from these vessels was shunted into the pulmonary artery via a roller pump. The posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve was partially excised to create tricuspid regurgitation, which was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. A 7.0-mm fiberoptic videoscope was inserted into the right atrium to visualize the tricuspid valve. Under cardioscopic vision, an endoscopic needle driver was inserted into the right atrium, and a concentric stitch was placed along the posterior annulus to bicuspidize the tricuspid valve. Doppler echocardiography confirmed reduction of tricuspid regurgitation. All animals successfully underwent and tolerated the surgical procedure. The right heart shunt generated a bloodless field, facilitating cardioscopic tricuspid valve visualization. The endoscopic stitch resulted in annular plication and functional tricuspid valve bicuspidization, significantly reducing the degree of tricuspid regurgitation. Cardioscopy enables less invasive, beating-heart tricuspid valve surgery in an ovine model. This technique may be useful in performing right heart surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients.

  3. Analysis of the forces acting on beating cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangani, Ashok S; Vidyadharan, Jyothish; Foster, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Detailed analysis of the forces acting on a uniform-diameter beating cilium is carried out to determine the moment generated by the inter-doublet forces acting along the length of a cilium and the results are compared with the sliding-control theory according to which the moment is a function of the interdoublet sliding. In the central part of the cilium the inter-doublet forces are found to be proportional to the inter-doublet sliding. However, in spite of the uniformity of the diameter of the cilium, the proportionality constant, known as the dynamic stiffness, is not constant along its entire length. Significant variations are observed in the regions both near the tip of the cilium and proximal to the cell body. In the tip region the magnitude of the dynamic stiffness is found to decrease. This decrease is probably due to decrease in the number density of the molecular motors in that region and in the number of doublet microtubules. The behavior in the proximal region, on the other hand, does not appear to be well described by the sliding control theory. Our analysis therefore suggests that the dynamics of ciliary beating cannot be adequately described by a simple sliding-control theory with constant dynamic stiffness. Our analysis suggests that the cilium is differentiated into a basal region optimized for the creation of a wave and a central region optimized to support a traveling wave that provides the thrust for the cell. (paper)

  4. Efficient heart beat detection using embedded system electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Oh, Sechang; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    The present day bio-technical field concentrates on developing various types of innovative ambulatory and wearable devices to monitor several bio-physical, physio-pathological, bio-electrical and bio-potential factors to assess a human body's health condition without intruding quotidian activities. One of the most important aspects of this evolving technology is monitoring heart beat rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) from which many other subsidiary results can be derived. Conventionally, the devices and systems consumes a lot of power since the acquired signals are always processed on the receiver end. Because of this back end processing, the unprocessed raw data is transmitted resulting in usage of more power, memory and processing time. This paper proposes an innovative technique where the acquired signals are processed by a microcontroller in the front end of the module and just the processed signal is then transmitted wirelessly to the display unit. Therefore, power consumption is considerably reduced and clearer data analysis is performed within the module. This also avoids the need for the user to be educated about usage of the device and signal/system analysis, since only the number of heart beats will displayed at the user end. Additionally, the proposed concept also eradicates the other disadvantages like obtrusiveness, high power consumption and size. To demonstrate the above said factors, a commercial controller board was used to extend the monitoring method by using the saved ECG data from a computer.

  5. Unraveling the nature of coherent beatings in chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostál, Jakub [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Mančal, Tomáš; Pšenčík, Jakub [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Vácha, František [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Zigmantas, Donatas, E-mail: donatas.zigmantas@chemphys.lu.se [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-03-21

    Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy at 80 K was used to study chlorosomes isolated from green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. Two distinct processes in the evolution of the 2D spectrum are observed. The first being exciton diffusion, seen in the change of the spectral shape occurring on a 100-fs timescale, and the second being vibrational coherences, realized through coherent beatings with frequencies of 91 and 145 cm{sup −1} that are dephased during the first 1.2 ps. The distribution of the oscillation amplitude in the 2D spectra is independent of the evolution of the 2D spectral shape. This implies that the diffusion energy transfer process does not transfer coherences within the chlorosome. Remarkably, the oscillatory pattern observed in the negative regions of the 2D spectrum (dominated by the excited state absorption) is a mirror image of the oscillations found in the positive part (originating from the stimulated emission and ground state bleach). This observation is surprising since it is expected that coherences in the electronic ground and excited states are generated with the same probability and the latter dephase faster in the presence of fast diffusion. Moreover, the relative amplitude of coherent beatings is rather high compared to non-oscillatory signal despite the reported low values of the Huang-Rhys factors. The origin of these effects is discussed in terms of the vibronic and Herzberg-Teller couplings.

  6. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  7. Bread for the World Membership Survey and Analysis Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William H.; And Others

    This survey was conducted in 1984 of current and former members of Bread for the World (BFW) in order to further understanding of the characteristics, attitudes, level of participation, and needs of people involved with hunger issues and the needs of hungry people. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,296 current and 738 former members. This final…

  8. Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Ann-Katrin; Höhne, Marlene; Axmacher, Nikolai; Chaieb, Leila; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory stimulation with monaural or binaural auditory beats (i.e. sine waves with nearby frequencies presented either to both ears or to each ear separately) represents a non-invasive approach to influence electrical brain activity. It is still unclear exactly which brain sites are affected by beat stimulation. In particular, an impact of beat stimulation on mediotemporal brain areas could possibly provide new options for memory enhancement or seizure control. Therefore, we examined how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by auditory stimulation with beat frequencies corresponding to dominant EEG rhythms based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients. Monaural and binaural beat stimuli with beat frequencies of 5, 10, 40 and 80 Hz and non-superposed control signals were administered with low amplitudes (60 dB SPL) and for short durations (5 s). EEG power was intracranially recorded from mediotemporal, temporo-basal and temporo-lateral and surface sites. Evoked and total EEG power and phase synchronization during beat vs. control stimulation were compared by the use of Bonferroni-corrected non-parametric label-permutation tests. We found that power and phase synchronization were significantly modulated by beat stimulation not only at temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and surface sites, but also at mediotemporal sites. Generally, more significant decreases than increases were observed. The most prominent power increases were seen after stimulation with monaural 40-Hz beats. The most pronounced power and synchronization decreases resulted from stimulation with monaural 5-Hz and binaural 80-Hz beats. Our results suggest that beat stimulation offers a non-invasive approach for the modulation of intracranial EEG characteristics. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Professional Networks among Rural School Food Service Directors Implementing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…

  10. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dwelling in Possibilities: Our Students' Spectacular Hunger for Life Makes Them Radically Vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how today's student generation has a spectacular hunger for life and more life. They want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to multiply possibilities. The author…

  12. [Evolution and follow-up of hunger strikers: experience from an interregional hospital secured unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F; Sudre, E; Porte, A; Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2011-11-01

    A hunger strike is a voluntary fast, performed to protest publicly against an issue deemed unfair. In the case of French prisoners, hospitalization in an interregional hospital secured units (UHSI) may be necessary. A retrospective epidemiological study based on one UHSI medical records was performed on the period of May, 2006 to December, 2008, and focused on symptoms, outcomes and ethical problems encountered. Seven men and one woman with a mean age of 32.6 years were hospitalized in an UHSI, with nine episodes of hunger strike of a median duration of 57 days. Clinical symptoms began after two weeks of voluntary deprivation in the form of dizziness, weakness, muscle pain and headache. Laboratory tests showed hypoglycemia (hunger strikes. All hunger strikes were respected by medical staff, and treatment was based upon surveillance of symptoms, vitamin B and sweetened drinks administration and explanations of the clinical hazards on a daily basis. The special problem encountered in the medical management of these strikers was to convince them to accept treatments in order to avoid a coercive life-saving treatment as requested by French law. Copyright © 2011 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Hunger and Thirst: Issues in measurement and prediction of eating and drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between hunger and eating and between thirst and drinking are generally weak. This stems, in part, from limitations in the measurement of these sensations which generally rely on temporal, motivational, metabolic and/or self-reported descriptive indices. Each is critically reviewed. Also problematic is the fact that the deterministic depletion-repletion concept of ingestive behavior fails to account for influences of a multitude of contravening cognitive, social, sensory and logistical factors. Although hunger and thirst serve some parallel purposes, sharp distinctions are also present with health implications. Of particular note are the observations that thirst ratings are higher and more stable over the day compared to hunger and thirst may be more motivating to drink than hunger is to eat. Coupling these observations with evidence that beverages have limited satiety value, they pose particular challenges and opportunities. Beverages can facilitate the delivery of nutrients to those desiring or requiring them, but also to those where they are not desired or required. The benefits and risks are a function of their use rather than their inherent properties. PMID:20060847

  14. National Student Campaign Against Hunger and Homelessness, 1995 Fall Organizing Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Julie

    This guide is intended to organize education, service, and action events in conjunction with National Hunger and Homelessness Week, November 13-17, 1995. The guide presents a calendar of events, program tips, recruitment tips, an overview of the program, project ideas for fund-raising and service, awareness activities, fact sheets, and resources…

  15. Alleged Death Threats, a Hunger Strike, and a Department at Risk Over a Tenure Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…

  16. Effects of hunger state on food-related brain responses across the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L

    2016-01-01

    Thesis aims The studies conducted in this thesis were part of the Full4Health project. The aims of the Full4Health project were to assess the differences in the brain responses to food presentation and food choice and how these responses are modulated by hunger and gut signals in lean and obese

  17. The physiological and neuroendocrine correlates of hunger in the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J.J.; Lindholm, C.; Batakis, P.; Busscher, M.; Altimiras, J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate food intake is critical to survival. The hypothalamus is central to this regulation, integrating peripheral signals of energy availability. Although our understanding of hunger in rodents is advanced, an equivalent understanding in birds is lacking. In particular, the

  18. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  19. Insects, Food, and Hunger: The Paradox of Plenty for U.S. Entomology, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between invention/innovation in pest control practices, food supply, and hunger in the United States from 1920-1970. Includes discussions of the nature, development, and use of insecticides, control of specific pests, and public arguments over the safety of residues leading to search for nonchemical methods of control.…

  20. The Continuing Growth of Hunger, Homelessness, and Poverty in America's Cities: 1987. A 26-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Lilia M.; Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    This survey assesses the status of hunger, homelessness, and poverty in cities in the United States during 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of the homeless and the poor had increased and was expected to continue to increase; (2) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter assistance had increased and was…

  1. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1988. A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    In 1988 officials in 27 major cities were surveyed on the following topics: (1) ability to meet demand for emergency food assistance and shelter; (2) causes and demographics of hunger and homelessness; (3) status of low-income housing; and (4) outlook for 1989. Summary findings included the following: (1) demand for emergency food assistance…

  2. THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON FOOD INTAKE AND HUNGER: RELATIONSHIP WITH ACYLATED GHRELIN AND LEPTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever-Ozen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05. The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05 interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management

  3. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Planning-in-Action: An Innovative Approach to Human Development. The Hunger Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Development Journal, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The Hunger Project in India used a strategic planning-in-action approach that involved (1) reaching a common understanding; (2) creating a strategic intent; (3) choosing social indicators; (4) identifying strategic objectives; (5) empowering leadership; (6) identifying immediate action steps; and (7) sustaining the action. (SK)

  5. Individual Variation in Hunger, Energy Intake, and Ghrelin Responses to Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James A; Deighton, Kevin; Broom, David R; Wasse, Lucy K; Douglas, Jessica A; Burns, Stephen F; Cordery, Philip A; Petherick, Emily S; Batterham, Rachel L; Goltz, Fernanda R; Thackray, Alice E; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.

  6. Translation of proper names in the novel «Hunger games» by S. Collins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalesova N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the aim of the article is to study the methods used when translating proper names in the fantasy novel «Hunger games» by S. Collins. It was found out that the most popular ones are transcription, translation with the use of the traditional variant and semantic translation.

  7. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.

  8. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  9. Putting a Face on Hunger: A Community-Academic Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…

  10. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  11. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drosophila mushroom bodies integrate hunger and satiety signals to control innate food-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chang-Hui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Lin, Chen-Han; Yang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Suewei

    2018-03-16

    The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses. These controls are mediated by six types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs). By manipulating these DANs, we could inhibit food-seeking behavior in hungry flies or promote food seeking in fed flies. Finally, we show that the DANs potentially receive multiple inputs of hunger and satiety signals. This work demonstrates an information-rich central circuit in the fly brain that controls hunger-driven food-seeking behavior. © 2018, Tsao et al.

  13. Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, E

    1983-01-01

    The World Bank, the most important so-called development assistance agency, annually dispenses billions of dollars to Third World governments, ostensibly to "develop" their economics through a variety of loan projects. But even a superficial analysis reveals that the Bank is the perfect mechanism to help (i.e., subsidize) the large transnational corporations from the industrial countries to expand their industrial, commercial, and financial activities in the Third World, at the expense of the latter and particularly at the expense of the rural and urban proletariat. This article discusses Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, in which she analyzes the Bank's role in the Third World and sets forth the major reasons why poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, as well as unemployment, and all the adverse social phenomena associated with them, are on the increase.

  14. A review of global progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 1 Hunger Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzo, Jessica C; Pronyk, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    The hunger component of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) aims to reduce the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by half between 1990 and 2015. In low- and middle-income countries, progress has been mixed, with approximately 925 million people hungry and 125 million and 195 million children underweight and stunted, respectively. To assess global progress on the hunger component of MDG1 and evaluate the success of interventions and country programs in reducing undernutrition. We review global progress on the hunger component of MDG1, examining experience from 40 community-based programs as well as national efforts to move interventions to scale drawn from the published and gray literature, alongside personal interviews with representatives of governments and development agencies. Based on this review, most strategies being implemented and scaled are focusing on treatment of malnutrition and rooted within the health sector. While critical, these programs generally address disease-related effects and emphasize the immediate determinants of undernutrition. Other major strategies to tackle undernutrition rely on the production of staple grains within the agriculture sector. These programs address hunger, as opposed to improving the quality of diets within communities. Strategies that adopt multisectoral programming as crucial to address longer-term determinants of undernutrition, such as poverty, gender equality, and functioning food and health systems, remain underdeveloped and under-researched. This review suggests that accelerating progress toward the MDG1 targets is less about the development of novel innovations and new technologies and more about putting what is already known into practice. Success will hinge on linking clear policies with effective delivery systems in working towards an evidence-based and contextually relevant multisectoral package of interventions that can rapidly be taken to scale.

  15. Hunger and Food Insecurity among Patients in an Urban Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, James R; Westgard, Bjorn; Olives, Travis D; Patel, Roma; Biros, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) over 3 consecutive years. This was a cross-sectional study of patients presenting to the ED at Hennepin County Medical Center, and urban, Level I trauma center. We prospectively screened adult (age >18) patients presenting to the ED during randomized daily 8-hour periods between June 1 and August 31, 2007 and 2008, and randomized every-other-day periods between June 1 and August 31, 2009. We excluded patients with high acuity complaints, altered mental status, prisoners, those who did not speak Spanish or English, or those considered to be vulnerable. Consenting participants completed a brief demographic survey. The main outcome measures included age, gender, ethnicity, employment, housing status, insurance, access to food, and having to make choices between buying food and buying medicine. All responses were self reported. 26,211 patients presented during the study; 15,732 (60%) were eligible, 8,044 (51%) were enrolled, and 7,852 (98%) were included in the analysis. The rate of patients reporting hunger significantly increased over the 3-year period [20.3% in 2007, 27.8% in 2008, and 38.3% in 2009 (pfood and medicine also increased [20.0% in 2007, 18.5% in 2008, and 22.6% in 2009 (p=0.006)]. A significant proportion of our ED patients experience food insecurity and hunger. Hunger and food insecurity have become more prevalent among patients seen in this urban county ED over the past 3 years. Emergency physicians should be aware of the increasing number of patients who must choose between obtaining food and their prescribed medications, and should consider the contribution of hunger and food insecurity to the development of health conditions for which ED treatment is sought.

  16. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O 2peak )) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O 2peak ). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O 2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Clinical tube weaning supported by hunger provocation in fully-tube-fed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartdorff, Caroline M; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Stok-Akerboom, Anita M; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Engels, Michelle A H; Kindermann, Angelika

    2015-04-01

    Children with congenital malformations, mental retardation, and complex early medical history frequently have feeding problems. Although tube feeding is effective in providing the necessary energy and nutrients, it decreases the child's motivation to eat and may lead to oral aversion. In this study, we sought to confirm our previous results, showing that a multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program may lead to quick resumption of oral feeding. In a crossover study, 22 children of 9 to 24 months of age who were fully dependent on tube feeding were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A, intervention group (2-week multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program); and group B, control group (4-week outpatient treatment by the same multidisciplinary team). Patients failing one treatment were reassigned to the other treatment group. Primary outcome measures were at least 75% orally fed at the conclusion of the intervention and fully orally fed and gaining weight 6 months after the intervention. In group A, 9/11 patients were successfully weaned from tube feeding (2 failures: 1 developed ulcerative colitis, 1 drop-out). In group B, only 1 patient was weaned successfully; 10/11 were reassigned to the clinical hunger provocation program, all being weaned successfully. Six months after the intervention, 1 patient had to resume tube feeding. In total, in the control group, 1/11 (9%) was weaned successfully as compared with 18/21 (86%) in the hunger provocation group (P hunger provocation is an effective short-term intervention for weaning young children from tube feeding.

  18. Keeping the Beat: A Large Sample Study of Bouncing and Clapping to Music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Tranchant

    Full Text Available The vast majority of humans move in time with a musical beat. This behaviour has been mostly studied through finger-tapping synchronization. Here, we evaluate naturalistic synchronization responses to music-bouncing and clapping-in 100 university students. Their ability to match the period of their bounces and claps to those of a metronome and musical clips varying in beat saliency was assessed. In general, clapping was better synchronized with the beat than bouncing, suggesting that the choice of a specific movement type is an important factor to consider in the study of sensorimotor synchronization processes. Performance improved as a function of beat saliency, indicating that beat abstraction plays a significant role in synchronization. Fourteen percent of the population exhibited marked difficulties with matching the beat. Yet, at a group level, poor synchronizers showed similar sensitivity to movement type and beat saliency as normal synchronizers. These results suggest the presence of quantitative rather than qualitative variations when losing the beat.

  19. Keeping the Beat: A Large Sample Study of Bouncing and Clapping to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Pauline; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of humans move in time with a musical beat. This behaviour has been mostly studied through finger-tapping synchronization. Here, we evaluate naturalistic synchronization responses to music–bouncing and clapping–in 100 university students. Their ability to match the period of their bounces and claps to those of a metronome and musical clips varying in beat saliency was assessed. In general, clapping was better synchronized with the beat than bouncing, suggesting that the choice of a specific movement type is an important factor to consider in the study of sensorimotor synchronization processes. Performance improved as a function of beat saliency, indicating that beat abstraction plays a significant role in synchronization. Fourteen percent of the population exhibited marked difficulties with matching the beat. Yet, at a group level, poor synchronizers showed similar sensitivity to movement type and beat saliency as normal synchronizers. These results suggest the presence of quantitative rather than qualitative variations when losing the beat. PMID:27471854

  20. Direct Visualization of Mechanical Beats by Means of an Oscillating Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Marcos H.; Salinas, Isabel; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Castro-Palacio, Juan C.

    2017-10-01

    The resonance phenomenon is widely known in physics courses. Qualitatively speaking, resonance takes place in a driven oscillating system whenever the frequency approaches the natural frequency, resulting in maximal oscillatory amplitude. Very closely related to resonance is the phenomenon of mechanical beating, which occurs when the driving and natural frequencies of the system are slightly different. The frequency of the beat is just the difference of the natural and driving frequencies. Beats are very familiar in acoustic systems. There are several works in this journal on visualizing the beats in acoustic systems. For instance, the microphone and the speaker of two mobile devices were used in previous work to analyze the acoustic beats produced by two signals of close frequencies. The formation of beats can also be visualized in mechanical systems, such as a mass-spring system or a double-driven string. Here, the mechanical beats in a smartphone-spring system are directly visualized in a simple way. The frequency of the beats is measured by means of the acceleration sensor of a smartphone, which hangs from a spring attached to a mechanical driver. This laboratory experiment is suitable for both high school and first-year university physics courses.

  1. The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…

  2. Midbrain adaptation may set the stage for the perception of musical beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Vani G; Harper, Nicol S; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A; Lesica, Nicholas A; Schnupp, Jan W H

    2017-11-15

    The ability to spontaneously feel a beat in music is a phenomenon widely believed to be unique to humans. Though beat perception involves the coordinated engagement of sensory, motor and cognitive processes in humans, the contribution of low-level auditory processing to the activation of these networks in a beat-specific manner is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence from a rodent model that midbrain preprocessing of sounds may already be shaping where the beat is ultimately felt. For the tested set of musical rhythms, on-beat sounds on average evoked higher firing rates than off-beat sounds, and this difference was a defining feature of the set of beat interpretations most commonly perceived by human listeners over others. Basic firing rate adaptation provided a sufficient explanation for these results. Our findings suggest that midbrain adaptation, by encoding the temporal context of sounds, creates points of neural emphasis that may influence the perceptual emergence of a beat. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur L Bouwer

    Full Text Available The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN, an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing.

  4. Peak misdetection in heart-beat-based security : Characterization and tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    The Inter-Pulse-Interval (IPI) of heart beats has previously been suggested for security in mobile health (mHealth) applications. In IPI-based security, secure communication is facilitated through a security key derived from the time difference between heart beats. However, there currently exists no

  5. Beat-wave laser accelerators, further comment including note on the 'Surfatron' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The paper deals with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) study of the beat-wave particle accelerator, intended for high energy physics. Three factors; the build-up of beat-wave, the surfatron concept and the self-focusing effects are considered in the context of the RAL study. (U.K.)

  6. The pervasive effect of youth self-report of hunger on depression over 6 years of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Patten, Scott B

    2017-05-01

    We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors. Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4-6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004-2009, cycles 6-8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time. Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

  7. Beat-by-beat analysis of cardiac output and blood pressure responses to short-term barostimulation in different body positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schütze, Harald; Stegemann, J.

    Rapid quantification of the human baro-reflex control of heart rate has been achieved on a beat-by-beat basis using a neck-chamber with quick ECG-triggered pressure changes. Referring to recent findings on heart rate and stroke volume, the present study uses this technique to compare cardiac output as well as blood pressure changes in supine and upright position to investigate feedback effects and to confirm postural reflex modifications not revealed by RR-interval changes. A suction profile starting at +40 mmHg and running 7 steps of pressure decrease down to -65 mmHg was examined in 0° and 90° tilting position while beat-by-beat recordings were done of heart rate, stroke volume (impedance-cardiography) and blood pressure (Finapres tm) (n=16). The percentual heart rate decrease failed to be significantly different between positions. A suction-induced stroke volume increase led to a cardiac output almost maintained when supine and significantly increased when upright. A decrease in all blood pressure values was found during suction, except for systolic values in upright position which increased. Conclusively, (a) it is confirmed that different inotropy accounts for the seen gravitational effect on the cardiac output not represented by heart rate; (b) identical suction levels in different positions lead to different stimuli at the carotid receptor. This interference has to be considered in microgravity studies by beat-by-beat measurement of cardiac output and blood pressure.

  8. Landsat plays a key role in reducing hunger on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-08-24

    The United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs predicts 9.7 billion people will sit down every day to the global dinner table by 2050. If this prediction is correct, the world is going to need more crops, more livestock, and more efficient agricultural practices.

  9. Influences of rolling method on deformation force in cold roll-beating forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongxiang; Cui, Fengkui; Liang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan

    2018-03-01

    In process, the research object, the gear rack was selected to study the influence law of rolling method on the deformation force. By the mean of the cold roll forming finite element simulation, the variation regularity of radial and tangential deformation was analysed under different rolling methods. The variation of deformation force of the complete forming racks and the single roll during the steady state under different rolling modes was analyzed. The results show: when upbeating and down beating, radial single point average force is similar, the tangential single point average force gap is bigger, the gap of tangential single point average force is relatively large. Add itionally, the tangential force at the time of direct beating is large, and the dire ction is opposite with down beating. With directly beating, deformation force loading fast and uninstall slow. Correspondingly, with down beating, deformat ion force loading slow and uninstall fast.

  10. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.

  11. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS.

  12. Ion channels and beating heart: the players and the music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft gentle music accompanies us throughout our lifetime; it is the music of our heart beating. Although at times it is questionable as to who serves as conductor of the orchestra, there is little doubt that our ion channels are the main players. Whenever one of them plays too loudly, too softly or simply off key, disharmony results, sometimes leading to total disruption of the rate and rhythm. Ion channels can disrupt the music of our heart by different mechanisms. Sometimes their function is correct, but their expression is altered by underlying cardiac diseases (i.e. heart failure; sometimes the defect is in their structure, because of an underlying genetic defect, and in this case a channelopathy is present.

  13. The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Major, F

    2007-01-01

    This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...

  14. MD 979: Beta-beating measurements on colliding beams

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves Jorge, Patrik; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Carlier, Felix Simon; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Fol, Elena; Langner, Andy Sven; Medina Medrano, Luis Eduardo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Valuch, Daniel; Wegscheider, Andreas; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The HL-LHC high brightness beams will give a large β-beating due to the head-on and long-range interactions since a beam-beam parameter of 0.01 per Interaction Point (IP) is expected. The β-heating induced by two head-on collision reaches 15%. A third IP, i.e. IP8, could bring the β-heating up to 24%. The aim of the Machine Development (MD) study was to test optics measurements with AC dipole and ADT on colliding beams at injection and to implement a correction of the β-heating due to to head-on collision in the two experiments IP1&5. Int his note, we summarize the first results of this test performed in the LHC.

  15. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  16. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant's accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  17. Increased Short-Term Beat-to-Beat QT Interval Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.

  18. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  19. The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota

    2015-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...

  20. Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Gibbons, Catherine; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi; Gabel, Kelsey; Finlayson, Graham; Varady, Krista A

    2016-12-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF; 25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with an ad libitum intake "feed day") is effective for weight loss. Whether or not ADF modulates hunger, fullness and gut peptides in a way that enhances dietary compliance and weight loss, remains unknown. Accordingly, this study examined the effect of ADF on postprandial appetite ratings and gut peptides. Obese subjects (n = 59) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol where food was provided on the fast day. Body weight decreased (P hunger by the end of the study. Furthermore, fullness and PYY increased (P hunger or ghrelin at any time point. These findings suggest that the absence of a compensatory increase in hunger in conjunction with an increase in sensations of fullness may contribute to the weight loss efficacy of an 8-week ADF regimen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of beat frequency on eye movements during free viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Emese; Knakker, Balázs; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Weiss, Béla

    2017-02-01

    External periodic stimuli entrain brain oscillations and affect perception and attention. It has been shown that background music can change oculomotor behavior and facilitate detection of visual objects occurring on the musical beat. However, whether musical beats in different tempi modulate information sampling differently during natural viewing remains to be explored. Here we addressed this question by investigating how listening to naturalistic drum grooves in two different tempi affects eye movements of participants viewing natural scenes on a computer screen. We found that the beat frequency of the drum grooves modulated the rate of eye movements: fixation durations were increased at the lower beat frequency (1.7Hz) as compared to the higher beat frequency (2.4Hz) and no music conditions. Correspondingly, estimated visual sampling frequency decreased as fixation durations increased with lower beat frequency. These results imply that slow musical beats can retard sampling of visual information during natural viewing by increasing fixation durations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of single cycle binaural beat duration on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.

  3. Free trade – a priority issue of G-20 summits after the world economy went into recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Alina-Petronela Haller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The world economy has been greatly affected by the current recession. All countries have suffered regardless of their level of development. Given that global problems require global solutions, world powers have met at summits of the G-20 forum, in order to determine the causes of the recession and adopt the most relevant measures to overcome the crisis and to correct other imbalances (e.g. environmental issues, hunger existing in the world.

  4. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Public private partnerships in global food governance: business engagement and legitimacy in the global fight against hunger and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaan , Christopher; Liese , Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article compares two transnational public?private partnerships against hunger and malnutrition, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and the International Alliance Against Hunger with regard to their degree of business involvement and their input and output legimacy. We examine the participation of stakeholders, the accountability and transparency of the decision-making process, and the perceived provision of a public good. We identify a link between business in...

  6. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Werner, Carola M; Knetemann, Myrthe; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-05-01

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels. To control for sequential learning of the order of the different sounds, we used temporally regular (isochronous) and jittered rhythmic sequences. The order of sounds was identical in both conditions, but only the regular condition allowed for the perception of a beat. Unexpected intensity decrements were introduced on the beat and offbeat. In the regular condition, both beat perception and sequential learning were expected to enhance detection of these deviants on the beat. In the jittered condition, only sequential learning was expected to affect processing of the deviants. ERP responses to deviants were larger on the beat than offbeat in both conditions. Importantly, this difference was larger in the regular condition than in the jittered condition, suggesting that beat perception influenced responses to rhythmic events in addition to sequential learning. The influence of beat perception was present both with and without attention directed at the rhythm. Moreover, beat perception as measured with ERPs correlated with musical abilities, but only when attention was directed at the stimuli. Our study shows that beat perception is possible when attention is not directed at a rhythm. In addition, our results suggest that attention may mediate the influence of musical abilities on beat

  7. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  8. Hidden hunger in South Asia: a review of recent trends and persistent challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kassandra L; Aguayo, Víctor M; Webb, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    'Hidden hunger' is a term used to describe human deficiencies of key vitamins and minerals, also known as micronutrients. While global in scale, the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is particularly high in South Asia despite recent successes in economic growth, agricultural output and health care. The present paper reviews the most recent evidence on patterns and trends of hidden hunger across the region, with a focus on the most significant deficiencies - iodine, Fe, vitamin A and Zn - and interprets these in terms of health and economic consequences. The challenge for South Asian policy makers is to invest in actions that can cost-effectively resolve chronic nutrient gaps facing millions of households. Appropriate solutions are available today, so governments should build on evidence-based successes that combine targeted health system delivery of quality services with carefully designed multisector actions that help promote healthier diets, reduce poverty and ensure social protection simultaneously.

  9. Does Short-Term Hunger Increase Trust and Trustworthiness in a High Trust Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Rantapuska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We build on the social heuristics hypothesis, the literature on the glucose model of self-control, and recent challenges on these hypotheses to investigate whether individuals exhibit a change in degree of trust and reciprocation after consumption of a meal. We induce short-term manipulation of hunger followed by the trust game and a decision on whether to leave personal belongings in an unlocked and unsupervised room. Our results are inconclusive. While, we report hungry individuals trusting and reciprocating more than those who have just consumed a meal in a high trust society, we fail to reject the null with small number of observations (N = 101 and experimental sessions (N = 8. In addition, we find no evidence of short-term hunger having an impact on charitable giving or decisions in public good game.

  10. Modified Qigong Breathing Exercise for Reducing the Sense of Hunger on an Empty Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Alexander P.; Wang, Zhixin; Marchenko, Elena V.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to determine whether a modified Qigong breathing exercise can reduce the sense of hunger and identify possible mechanisms. Methods. The results from the test group, which performed the exercise, are compared with the control group, which performed deep breathing. Intestinal pressure measurements, stomach pH monitoring, and participant surveys were used for assessment. Results. Stomach pH was increased by 3 (0.2) and intestinal pressure was reduced by 12 (0.5) mm Hg in the experimental group and did not change significantly in the control group. The study provides strong evidence that the exercise can significantly reduce, or even suppress the sense of hunger on an empty stomach. Conclusion. This breathing exercise provides comfort in different circumstances, such as lack of regular meals, limited volume or caloric diet, and even during temporary complete absence of food in therapeutic fasting. PMID:28497701

  11. Always gamble on an empty stomach: hunger is associated with advantageous decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Ridder

    Full Text Available Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater appetite made more advantageous choices in the Iowa Gambling Task compared to sated participants or participants with a smaller appetite. Study 3 revealed that hungry participants were better able to appreciate future big rewards in a delay discounting task; and that, in spite of their perception of increased rewarding value of both food and monetary objects, hungry participants were not more inclined to take risks to get the object of their desire. Together, these studies for the first time provide evidence that hot states improve decision making under uncertain conditions, challenging the conventional conception of the detrimental role of impulsivity in decision making.

  12. Always gamble on an empty stomach: hunger is associated with advantageous decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Adriaanse, Marieke; Evers, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater appetite made more advantageous choices in the Iowa Gambling Task compared to sated participants or participants with a smaller appetite. Study 3 revealed that hungry participants were better able to appreciate future big rewards in a delay discounting task; and that, in spite of their perception of increased rewarding value of both food and monetary objects, hungry participants were not more inclined to take risks to get the object of their desire. Together, these studies for the first time provide evidence that hot states improve decision making under uncertain conditions, challenging the conventional conception of the detrimental role of impulsivity in decision making.

  13. Branch-specific plasticity of a bifunctional dopamine circuit encodes protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qili; Tabuchi, Masashi; Liu, Sha; Kodama, Lay; Horiuchi, Wakako; Daniels, Jay; Chiu, Lucinda; Baldoni, Daniel; Wu, Mark N

    2017-05-05

    Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons. Protein starvation triggered branch-specific plastic changes in these dopaminergic neurons, thus enabling sustained protein consumption. These studies reveal a crucial circuit mechanism by which animals adjust their dietary strategy to maintain protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  15. Activating and relaxing music entrains the speed of beat synchronized walking

    OpenAIRE

    Leman, Marc; Moelants, Dirk; Varewyck, Matthias; Styns, Frederik; van Noorden, Leon; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a theory of embodied music cognition, we investigate whether music can entrain the speed of beat synchronized walking. If human walking is in synchrony with the beat and all musical stimuli have the same duration and the same tempo, then differences in walking speed can only be the result of music-induced differences in stride length, thus reflecting the vigor or physical strength of the movement. Participants walked in an open field in synchrony with the beat of 52 different musi...

  16. Quantum beat and entanglement of multi-qubits interacting with a common reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Arata; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Minami, Fujio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2006-01-01

    The qubits can be entangled when they interact with a common Ohmic reservoir. We analyze how the reservoir-induced entanglement of qubits can be observed as the beat signal in the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. The origin of this effect is the Lamb phase shift on the qubit array. We quantify the amount of the reservoir-induced entanglement and show how to experimentally evaluate it from the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. We discuss how the beat signal can be discriminated from the other kinds of beat signals. We also show that our analysis can be used to estimate the reservoir characteristics

  17. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  18. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charli Sargent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14 or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14. Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h. The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction.

  19. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2?years of life: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Janet; Hugh?Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these ...

  20. Communicating Hunger and Satiation in the First Two Years of Life: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, JE; Hugh-Jones, S; Caton, S; Vereijken, C; Weenen, H; Hetherington, M

    2016-01-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A ...