The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent
Discusses the teaching of world hunger in the classroom. Controversial questions and map skills for students are discussed as well as activities for home economics and science classes. A list of resource materials is included. (AM)
Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.
Activities help high school students become aware of the extent of world hunger and the place of population control in the fight against hunger. The materials offer the student background information and a variety of viewpoints. The aim of each activity is to increase the student's own informed decision making. (CS)
Van Vliet, Lucille W.
Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)
Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark
No human problem is older than starvation. Authorities agree that poverty and unequal distribution of resources are the basic causes of hunger. The hungry are ignored by the world because they have no political power and even less economic strength. How to build a world without hunger is discussed. (RM)
Bobo, Kimberley A.
This curriculum guide is designed to encourage responsible university course development as well as extracurricular activities centered around the world food/hunger problem. Multidisciplinary and global values clarification approaches are basic to the curriculum. Part I of the guide discusses the role of universities in combatting world hunger and…
Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.
The major hunger problem today is chronic undernutrition, the primary cause of which is poverty. Hunger can be alleviated through food supplements, nutrition programs, and disaster relief. It can be eliminated by redistributing existing wealth and producing enough food and through equitable economic growth and a world food security system. (CS)
The idea that food should be a universally accepted human right has been the focus of worldwide attention aimed primarily at increasing production at the national level and on reducing price fluctuations in world markets. However, the problem of individual human needs must be simultaneously addressed. The largest number of hungry people live in…
Joy, Carrol; Regan, Patrick
This elementary and secondary level world hunger curriculum guide is designed both to educate teachers and students in the basics of world hunger, and to guide them in organizing student groups to take action that will combat hunger. A background information section is presented in part 1, which describes who and where the hungry are, what it is…
Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph
Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…
Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.
Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
This secondary-level resource unit surveys hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and the interdependent factors affecting world food supplies. The main part of the unit is divided into four sections which examine the historical and geographical, economic and political, health and nutritional, and environmental and ecological factors…
Donnan, Caroline S.
Describes a program, developed in a small Vermont elementary school, that centered on world hunger and global awareness by involving students in helping stop food waste during lunch. Community members and businesses pledged money as an incentive for stopping waste, and the money raised went to UNICEF. (MD)
Teachers can help students understand why world hunger exists and explore ways to eliminate it. Activities based on the Food First Curriculum developed by the Institute for Food and Development Policy are discussed, and suggestions are made to help children get beyond the well-meaning hype of various fundraising efforts. (MT)
Presidential Commission on World Hunger, Washington, DC.
This U.S. presidential commission report outlines specific recommendations for eliminating world hunger in the 1980's. Following a summarization of world hunger problems, the report addresses specific ways to deal with world hunger. Short-term goals include taking immediate action to ensure that poor people are not hungry, assuring that infants…
Throughout the profession's history, family and consumer sciences professionals have worked to consider what should be done about various social issues affecting individuals, families, and communities across the world. Hunger is a global issue pertaining to the right to life, human survival, sustainable communities, and promotion of healthy…
Describes activities of a unit on world hunger which include presenting a lexicon, topic overview, and guest speakers; reading topically related novels; creating scrapbooks; discussing pertinent quotations; exploring government role in ameliorating hunger; and completing final papers or projects. Resource materials are listed, including pertinent…
Woito, Robert, Ed.
This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…
Cohen, Marc J., Ed.
This comprehensive report shows how hunger is interrelated with other social ills, including powerlessness, violence, poverty, environmental destruction, and discrimination. More than a billion people are too poor to afford an adequate diet and other essential of life such as health care, housing, sanitation, safe water, and education. In the…
Rosset, Peter M.
Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…
Byron, William J.
The main contribution that Catholic schools can make towards the elimination of world hunger is to help their students understand the problem and then motivate them to assist as best they can once they are out of school. The basic cause of the problem is poverty. The ultimate solution is production of food in the food-deficit nations, or where…
Fowler, Kathryn Mervine
This document provides a materials guide containing annotated bibliographies of literature for teachers and students, a film guide, and a curriculum materials guide for educational sources relating to hunger, food, and the world food crisis. Materials span the range from pre-school to grade 12. (SL)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Norman Borlaug and a Hunger-Free World. M S Swaminathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 109-115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0109-0115 ...
Goewie, E A
The world population grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is an agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of poverty. This problem will not be solved by gene technology based agricultural production. This article explains the basic principles of mainstream and organic farming. Literature shows that the production potentials of both kinds of farming are, by far most, not yet exhausted. Gene technology is therefore unnecessary.
Murphy, Elaine M.
Student and teacher materials are provided for a secondary unit on world hunger. The student materials are contained in a module entitled "Food and Population: A Global Concern," distributed with the newsletter "Interchange." The teacher materials are contained in the issue of the newsletter itself, subtitled "The Paradoxes of World Hunger." A…
Full Text Available In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity and become eco-contaminants, and can, especially in the long terms, negatively affect the human health. Authors think that patenting of living organisms by the multinational companies is unacceptable and unfair from the bioethical perspective, not only because they tend to hold monopolies in production and trade of GM plants, but also because of their efforts to gain domination over the very life. Finally, analyses made by many scientists show that the thesis that "Gene Revolution" will resolve the problem of hunger in the world was not justified in the previous decade.
during the early 1930s gave him a first-hand view of the ills of low farm productivity, poverty and hunger. After completing his PhD degree in plant pathology at the University of Minnesota in 1942, he joined the Rockefeller Foundation's agricultural programme in Mexico, which led to the birth of the International Maize and.
Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat
Linowitz, Sol M.
This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…
Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.
This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…
George, Susan; Christie, Mari Ely
The key to understanding world hunger is to realize the distribution of power between those who control economic circumstances and those who, through no fault of their own, are unable to continue traditional practices that provided food. Educators can help students understand the forces that influence food distribution. (MLF)
Brown, Lester R.
Examines the relationship between population growth and world agricultural production. The reasons that crop yields are decreasing, ineffective remedies, and the future demands of food and food prices are discussed. (AM)
This article discusses the November 1996 World Food Summit in Rome, women's role as food producers, overconsumption, and justification for a world conference focus. The Summit was planned by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and is to focus on how to provide people with food security and how to keep pace with growing needs without causing environmental damage. The Summit takes place during a time when 841 million of the world population are chronically undernourished, of which 200 million are children. Millions more suffer from contaminated food and water, micronutrient deficiencies, and blindness due to lack of vitamin A. Agricultural production in 88 countries is deficient. These countries cannot produce enough food to feed their populations an adequate diet and cannot afford to import needed food. These countries include China, India, and most of sub-Saharan Africa. World grain stocks have dropped to low levels, export prices for cereals have risen, and the world fish harvest has leveled off. Over the next 50 years the world must raise food for about 4 billion more people with a limited supply of land and uneven water resources. African countries must increase food production by 300%, Latin America by 80%, Asia by 69%, and North America by 30%. The former strategy of increasing yields with fertilizers is no longer effective and there is no other alternative. In developing countries women are the main producers of food for the family. Future policies must recognize women's role in food production. Poverty would decrease and food supplies increase if poor women were given access to credit and technical advice, education and health care, and a place in the center of the world agenda for increasing food productivity. The global food system is inequitably concentrated among few, and the food trade is increasingly controlled by multinationals. Overconsumption is as serious a problem as overpopulation.
The numerous benefits and safety of food irradiation are emphasized in this article. Canada is the world's largest supplier of industrial irradiators. Some 25 irradiators used to irradiate food have been supplied by Nordion. A full-scale pilot plant operates at Institut Armand Frappier in Laval, Quebec, and another food irradiation research facility has been established by Agriculture Canada at Ste. Hyacinthe. AECL conducts research on food irradiation at its Whiteshell Laboratories. AECL is also developing industrial electron accelerators that could be used to irradiate food
Dr. Amrit Patel
Every year some parts of India witness droughts and floods directly impacting on food output. India experienced two drought years [July2014-June15 & 2015-16] impacting on low food output followed by 2016-17, a year of severe floods. As 36th World Food Day (WFD) will be observed on 16th October, 2016 India can size and capitalize this opportunity to redouble its efforts in creating awareness among all stakeholders by mounting a massive campaign to improve crop productivity per unit area and re...
The worldpopulation grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is ar agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of
Moseley, William G.
Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)
American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.
A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…
Eustice, Ronald F.
Efforts to reduce world hunger and prevent a global food crisis must take a multi-pronged approach. We must expand the Green Revolution to regions of the world most affected by famine such as sub-Saharan Africa and we must improve the distribution infrastructure in developing countries so that farmers can get their products to market. Routine use of food irradiation must be an essential component of that overall strategy. Irradiation is a powerful tool that will protect public health by reducing or eliminating harmful bacteria in meat, poultry and produce but food irradiation will also save millions of pounds of valuable food by slowing the spoilage process and extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables
Bollini, P; Reich, M R
During the 1980s, Italy expanded its development assistance, soon becoming the fifth largest donor. Italian development cooperation directed much effort to alleviate hunger, malnutrition and their health consequences. This paper provides an evaluation of Italy's fight against world hunger considering the political environment in which the policy was conceived and implemented, the organizational structure behind the policy, and the available quantitative indicators of outcome. The analysis shows how powerful humanitarian drives, supported by inchoate thinking about development problems and priorities, and by institutional and technical confusion, gave rise to development programs below accepted standards. Poor financial planning and the absence of proper mechanisms for project appraisal facilitated the capture of some programs by domestic political and commercial interests. In 1992, Italian magistrates began investigations into the extent of corruption in development assistance; preliminary reports documented widespread waste and ineffectiveness in major aid projects. Substantial changes in organization and priorities are needed in order to control past practices of corruption, improve the effectiveness of projects, and redirect Italian aid towards development goals.
Full Text Available The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory-motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory-motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition. Under the extend-on-the-beat condition, both the dancers and non-dancers showed a spontaneous transition from the extend-on-the-beat to the flex-on-the-beat or to a phase wandering pattern. However, the critical frequency at which the transition occurred was significantly higher in the dancers (3.3 Hz than in the non-dancers (2.6 Hz. Under the flex-on-the-beat condition, the dancers were able to maintain their coordination pattern more stably at high beat rates compared to the non-dancers. Furthermore, the world champion matched the timing of movement peak velocity to the beat across the different beat rates. This may give a sense of unity between the movement and the beat for the audience because the peak velocity of the rhythmic movement works as a temporal cue for the audiovisual synchrony perception. These results suggest that the skills of accomplished dancers lie in their small finger movements and that the sensorimotor learning of street dance is characterized by a stabilization of the coordination patterns, including the inhibition of an unintentional transition to other coordination patterns.
Miura, Akito; Fujii, Shinya; Okano, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka
The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory-motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory-motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition. Under the extend-on-the-beat condition, both the dancers and non-dancers showed a spontaneous transition from the extend-on-the-beat to the flex-on-the-beat or to a phase wandering pattern. However, the critical frequency at which the transition occurred was significantly higher in the dancers (3.3 Hz) than in the non-dancers (2.6 Hz). Under the flex-on-the-beat condition, the dancers were able to maintain their coordination pattern more stably at high beat rates compared to the non-dancers. Furthermore, the world champion matched the timing of movement peak velocity to the beat across the different beat rates. This may give a sense of unity between the movement and the beat for the audience because the peak velocity of the rhythmic movement works as a temporal cue for the audiovisual synchrony perception. These results suggest that the skills of accomplished dancers lie in their small finger movements and that the sensorimotor learning of street dance is characterized by a stabilization of the coordination patterns, including the inhibition of an unintentional transition to other coordination patterns.
The UN-Habitat State of the World's Cities Report (SWCR) aims to improve global awareness of urban issues by presenting state-of-the-art data and analysis on living conditions in the world's cities. The 2010/2011 edition will be launched at the World Urban Forum in Brazil, March 2010. IDRC and its international network of ...
Full Text Available This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom’s time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom’s statements on this issue are studied, but our concern is only involuntary hunger, whilst voluntary forms of self-denial are being excluded. An attempt is made to define a social construct of poverty and hunger in Chrysostom’s world.
Frison, Emile A; Smith, Ifeyironwa Francisca; Johns, Timothy; Cherfas, Jeremy; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B
In spite of the strides made globally in reducing hunger, the problems of micronutrient deficiencies and coexisting obesity and related cardiovascular and degenerative diseases constitute a formidable challenge for the future. Attempts to reverse this trend with single-nutrient intervention strategies have met with limited success, resulting in renewed calls for food-based approaches. The deployment of agricultural biodiversity is an approach that entails greater use of local biodiversity to ensure dietary diversity. To outline a new strategy proposed by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) that employs agricultural biodiversity as the primary resource for food security and health. The authors carried out a meta-analysis to review and assemble existing information on the nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods based on a diverse set of case studies and food composition and nutritional analysis studies. The methods highlight particular examples of foods where analysis of nutrient and non-nutrient composition reveals important traits to address the growing problems of malnutrition associated with the rise of chronic diseases. Finally, the authors analyze social, economic, and cultural changes that undermine the healthful components of traditional diets. Based on this multidisciplinary and comparative approach, the authors suggest a holistic food-based approach that combines research to assess and document nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods, investigating options in which nutritionally valuable traditional foods can contribute to better livelihoods, and ways that awareness and promotional campaigns can identify healthful components of traditional diets that fit the needs of urban and market-oriented consumers. There is an urgent need for agricultural research centers, national agricultural research systems, universities, and community-based organizations to work together under a shared policy framework
This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom’s time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom’s statements on this issue are studied, but our concern is only involuntary hunger, whilst voluntary forms of self-denial are being excluded. An attempt is made to define a social construct of poverty and ...
Want to calculate the probability that an event will happen? Be able to spot fake data? Prove beyond doubt whether one thing causes another? Or learn to be a better gambler? You can do that and much more with 75 practical and fun hacks packed into Statistics Hacks. These cool tips, tricks, and mind-boggling solutions from the world of statistics, measurement, and research methods will not only amaze and entertain you, but will give you an advantage in several real-world situations-including business.
Ziegler,J; Vitori,J; De Baer,E
3 exposés sont présentés par: Jean Ziegler, conseiller national et professeur de sociologie à l'université de Genève, qui dira entre autre que les riches deviennent toujours plus riches et les pauvres toujours plus pauvres...(et qu'en est-il en 2006???) Edmond Kaeser, fondateur de Terre des Hommes qui depuis 43 ans consacre son temps aux pauvres et Jacques Vitori, membre permanent de la confédération mondiale du travail. La projection d'un film tourné au Bangladesch en hiver 1974 après une très grande famine, sera commenté par Erika de Baer qui a passé plusieurs semaines au Bangladesch peu après le film.
Baines, James; And Others
This document is comprised of four papers which explore issues related to world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "The Peace Paradigm," explores recent changes in social and political…
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Hunger and Malnutrition KidsHealth / For Parents / Hunger and Malnutrition What's in ... to meet their needs. What Are Hunger and Malnutrition? Everyone feels hungry at times. Hunger is the ...
Percy, John R.
Chinese astronomers are still picking up the pieces from the Cultural Revolution, not to mention Tiananmen Square. Can they maintain their enthusiasm during the upheavals the next decade is likely to bring?
Two of the founding members of the Beat Generation of the 1950s wrote dream books with almost identical titles: Jack Kerouac's Book of Dreams (1961) and William Burroughs' My Education: A Book of Dreams (1995). This paper queries the function of such dream books, both from a perspective of seeing...... dream writing as a confessional genre, and from the perspective of didacticism implicit in sharing one's dream life with one's readers. What role does memory, politics, fantasies and reality play in communicating with and via dreams?...
Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai
Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.
new strains of rice and wheat are discussed), another to the population explosion (which causes food problems), and the final one summarizing the...problem including overpopulation , adequacy of the food supply, hunger in all its aspects, and the multilateral approaches suggested.
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong. PMID:8597690
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.
The relationship between world hunger and world population is explored in this document for high school global education classes. Reasons for the high birth rates in developing nations are suggested, e.g., a poor family has many children because children are an inexpensive work force, provide extra income, and care for parents in old age. The…
This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom's time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom's statements on this issue are ...
This book of teaching activities is designed to address the issue of hunger and develop a sense of activism and hope among students. It encourages students to discover some of the causes and misconceptions about world hunger. The book contains eight lessons with numerous activities to allow students to study hunger and develop a broader…
... organization World Hunger Year (WHY) of New York, NY. Section 26(d) was amended by section 112 of Public Law...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and... Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before August 24, 2012. ADDRESSES...
Bell, David E.
There are four central issues in mobilizing the resources of American universities to contribute more effectively to alleviating world hunger and malnutrition: (1) To what extent should universities' motivation be original, and to what extent related to government support?; (2) What needs to be done, beyond additional food production?; (3) What…
Schwartz, Richard H.
Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)
Full Text Available This paper examines the specific cultural landscape of the liminal locale of bohemia during the specific historical moment of the Beat Generation (1950–1965 to examine how the elements of the outlaw figure were transformed by the Beat writers to fend off the Eisenhower-era containment culture.
van Berkum, Carla
This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…
van Berkum, Carla
This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…
Gray, Kaaren St. Armour
This curriculum is designed to introduce students to the issues of world hunger and children's rights. The curriculum includes more than enough material for two hour-long lessons. Each lesson can stand on its own; however, the interrelated nature of the topics lends itself to presenting both parts of the packet. If time is limited, suggestions are…
This manual engages young people in the task of helping save their less fortunate peers from hunger and starvation. The activities give students the knowledge to take action on the causes of hunger and their capacity to change the world. Global hunger, caused by the economic and social forces that result in a billion people going to bed hungry on…
Educational Horizons, 2013
Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…
Grose, John H; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W
Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz - all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J
We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982
Carmo Ferreira, Maria Eulália do
Hunger, poverty and environmental degradation are not only national but international issues. Thus, they could be solved or at least be minimized through greater international cooperation. However, international cooperation is not automatic, even with awareness of these serious problems shared by significant portion of the world population. Furthermore, the interdependence that is being built between the states is asymmetric. Core States, in addition to obtaining more political and economic g...
Binaural beats have been investigated in normal volunteers using high-stable synthesizers. There are considerable differences between the subjective rhythm heard and the difference of the two frequencies, indicating that this dissimilarity must be caused centrally.
Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.
The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in…
This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood pressure...
Eduardo Torres Roberti
Full Text Available The study aims at collective hunger in the vision of Amartya Sen as one of the impeding factors of Sustainable Human Development. In the economist's view, collective hunger goes beyond chronic hunger, involves a sudden outbreak of deprivation for a portion of the population. To eliminate hunger in the modern world, it is crucial to understand the cause of collective hunger in a broad way, and not just because of some mechanical imbalance between food and population. By illustrating the deprivation of liberty, child labor is included as one of the impediments to sustainable human development.
Bread for the World Educational Fund, Washington, DC.
This student packet contains readings and exercises for examining the problem of world hunger. Materials, which are suitable for use by high school students, are presented from a Christian perspective. Twelve chapters cover justice and the right to food; causes of hunger (poverty, land use, the international economy, the arms race, resource abuse,…
Jenkins, J. Craig; Scanlan, Stephen J.; Peterson, Lindsey
Discussions of world hunger have focused on economic growth and international food aid, assuming that food supply is the critical issue. The authors show that food access rooted in social stratification and military power is the central problem. Synthesizing the entitlement and military famine approaches to hunger, the authors examine the effects…
An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boston, Jane; Commins, Stephen
This unit uses six activities to examine questions of world hunger as seen in an African context and the related policy issues. Each activity allows students to explore a case study demonstrating a factor that affects hunger and grapple with some of the challenges facing policymakers today. Students should come to understand the nature of hunger,…
Drawing on participant observation in a 'mindful weight loss' course offered in the Netherlands, this paper explores the normative register through which mindfulness techniques cast people in relation to concerns with overeating and body weight. The women seeking out mindfulness use eating to cope with troubles in their lives and are hindered by a preoccupation with the size of their bodies. Mindfulness coaches aim to help them let go of this 'struggle with eating' by posing as the central question: 'what do I really hunger after?' The self's hungers include 'belly hunger' but also stem from mouths, hearts, heads, noses and eyes. They cannot all be fed by food. The techniques detailed in this paper focus on recognizing and disentangling one's hungers; developing self-knowledge of and a sensitivity to what 'feeds' one's life; and the way one positions oneself in relation to oneself and the world. While introducing new norms, the course configures 'goods' and 'bads' in different ways altogether, shaping the worlds people come to inhabit through engaging in self-care. In particular, the hungering body is foregrounded as the medium through which life is lived. Taking a material semiotic approach, this paper makes an intervention by articulating the normative register of nourishment in contrast to normalization. Thus, it highlights anthropologists' potential strengthening of different ways of doing normativity.
Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan
There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.
The first section of this workbook gives data on hunger and malnutrition in the United States, and outlines immediate community and national action needed to meet the emergency and provide against its recurrence. The second section discusses problems of world food supply, spreading technology, the population explosion, and the handling of…
Recent global trends have inflated food prices, exacerbating household hunger, poverty and inequality. The paper relies on methodological approaches sourced from international databases like the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and the World Bank. The author takes cognisance of the fact that both institutions advance ...
In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.
White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria
Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…
World hunger and the latest increases in global food prices are mainly dealt with by measures aimed at boosting supply and allowing markets to function more effectively. Motivated by the persistence of world hunger, we do not intend to contribute to either theory or empirical analysis in economics; we rather aim to show that current research and policies are locked in a sort of scientific paradigm which takes as given our dietary preferences, which are in fact fundamental in creating resource...
Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele
When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in…
Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U
In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid.
Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce
In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…
Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E
Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.
Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.
Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Beats are an important feature of most music. Beats are used in music information retrieval systems for genre classification, similarity search, and segmentation. However, beats can be difficult to identify, especially in music audio. Traditional beat trackers attempt to (1) match predicted beats to observations of likely beats, and (2) maintain a fairly steady tempo. A third criterion can be added: when repetitions of musical passages occur, the beats in the first repetition should align with the beats in all other repetitions. This third criterion improves beat tracking performance significantly. Repetitions of musical passages are discovered in audio data by searching for similar sequences of chroma vectors. Beats are ``tracked'' by first locating a sequence of likely beats in the music audio using high frequency energy as an indicator of beat likelihood. This beat sequence is then extended by searching forward and backward for more matching beats, allowing slight variations in tempo, and using a relaxation algorithm to optimize the proposed beat locations with respect to the three criteria. Other high-level music features may offer further improvements in beat identification.
Paulo H. Battaglin Machado
Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between epidemiology and food security implies in disclosing famine causes, the way it is distributed in the society and to which extent it affects the populations. Building up from that perspective, this paper attempts to understand the famine logic throughout the various transitions accomplished in the past decades: epidemiologic, demographic, risk, nutritional and development. The reflexes of the demographic transition that took place in Brazil in the XXth century are related to the population nutritional status standard changes, that is, they shifted from malnutrition high prevalence to a significant increase in obesity. However, the paradox of this situation is due to the fact that most risk factors that bring about diseases of the modern world come from the “excess”, while millions die around the globe because of “deprivation”. The food production alone does not ensure its equitable distribution among the various groups of the society. The access alone does not lead to quality. The choices are made individually, but life style options imply in a set of correlations that go from economy to culture. It means that this field has a collective basis and encompasses environment and development.
Klaver, M.; Nubé, M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.
Two hunger-related indicators are used for tracking progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, with one of the targets being to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 as compared to 1990. The prevalence of people
Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others
Millions of children are hungry in America, and it is clearly time to make childhood hunger a national priority. To document the need, a comprehensive study of hunger among low-income families was developed by the Connecticut Association for Human Services. National replication of the study, the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project…
This paper applies ‘policy processes’ literature to constructions of hunger. Problem conceptualization and associated solutions are understood as shaped by discourse, rhetoric and interests. Two constructions of the problem of ‘hunger’ are analysed: hunger as lack of food, associated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and hunger as malnutrition, associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). While both conceptualizations agree h...
Leanne C. Findlay
Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.
HIDALGO MORATAL, Moisés
In this paper we analyse the causes behind the recent food crises (2008, 2011) through the study of the evolution of neo-liberal globalisation and the current world crisis. We seek the causes of hunger in factors such as the growing inequalities in income and the evolution of prices in world agricultural markets. We also analyse certain methods for measuring under-nourishment, with the aim of selecting those that we consider most coherent in order to to achieve this end, by making a number of...
McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G
Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.
Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S
Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.
Kennedy, E.; Mannar, V.; Iyengar, V.
The world has come a long way in understanding the nature, magnitude and range of solutions to micronutrient malnutrition - often called 'hidden hunger'. The most sustainable solutions - that is those that are likely to be maintained in the long term - almost surely will include food-based approaches including diet diversity, food fortification and biofortification. Food fortification and biofortification could be some of the most cost-effective of all public health interventions and thus within the economic reach of even the world's poorest. In order to implement them in a sustainable manner, a combination of technical, operational, economic, behavioural and political factors need to be addressed. In some ways the technological issues are the easiest. Because of attention to research, we now have a variety of ways for both single and multiple micronutrients to reach the target population. We also know what is needed in order to ensure delivery systems. The key factor for continued success in reducing micronutrient malnutrition through fortification is a political commitment at the national and international level and creating effective public-private partnerships at the national level. The payoff for eliminating hidden hunger through nutrient fortification is enormous and few other public health interventions offer such a promising health, nutrition and economic success story. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in helping to meet the multifaceted challenges posed by nutritional disorders affecting the entire human life span (embryonic to elderly). Among the numerous applications available, isotopic techniques are uniquely well suited for targeting and tracking progress in food and nutrition development programmes (See box: How Nutrients are Tracked). These include: use of the stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) as a kind of gold standard in studies of their bioavailability from foods; trace element bioavailability and pool sizes for
Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko
Climate change and mitigation measures have three major impacts on food consumption and the risk of hunger: (1) changes in crop yields caused by climate change; (2) competition for land between food crops and energy crops driven by the use of bioenergy; and (3) costs associated with mitigation measures taken to meet an emissions reduction target that keeps the global average temperature increase to 2 °C. In this study, we combined a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop model (M-GAEZ), and we quantified the three impacts on risk of hunger through 2050 based on the uncertainty range associated with 12 climate models and one economic and demographic scenario. The strong mitigation measures aimed at attaining the 2 °C target reduce the negative effects of climate change on yields but have large negative impacts on the risk of hunger due to mitigation costs in the low-income countries. We also found that in a strongly carbon-constrained world, the change in food consumption resulting from mitigation measures depends more strongly on the change in incomes than the change in food prices.
Stein, T. S.; Dishman, L. G.
Describes a ripple tank demonstration that displays interference patterns responsible for producing beats and provides photographs of computer simulations of various beat interference patterns. Includes programs for the computer simulation and equations of constructive interference paths in beat interference patterns. (Author/SK)
Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Franchi, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
The impact of random errors on average β-beating is studied via analytical derivations and simulations. A systematic positive β-beating is expected from random errors quadratic with the sources or, equivalently, with the rms β-beating. However, random errors do not have a systematic eﬀect on the tune.
Jensen, Berit T; Larroude, Charlotte E; Rasmussen, Lars P
measurements is still unsettled. The aims of the present study were: (1) to describe the reproducibility of beat-to-beat QT dynamics with respect to intrasubject, between-subject, and between-observer variability and (2) to describe the normal range, circadian variation, and heart rate dependence of QT...... dynamics. METHODS: Ambulatory Holter recordings were performed three times on 20 healthy volunteers and were analyzed by two experienced cardiologists. Slope and intercept of the QT/RR regression, the variability of QT and R-R intervals expressed as the standard deviation, and the relation between QT...... and RR variability expressed as a variability ratio were measured among other QT dynamics. RESULTS: The reproducibility of all QT dynamics was good. All QT dynamics showed circadian variation when calculated on an hourly basis. The day/night variation in slope could be explained by the differences...
Hartmann, Henrik; Ziegler, Waldemar; Kolle, Olaf; Trumbore, Susan
Drought-induced tree mortality results from an interaction of several mechanisms. Plant water and carbon relations are interdependent and assessments of their individual contributions are difficult. Because drought always affects both plant hydration and carbon assimilation, it is challenging to disentangle their concomitant effects on carbon balance and carbon translocation. Here, we report results of a manipulation experiment specifically designed to separate drought effects on carbon and water relations from those on carbon translocation. In a glasshouse experiment, we manipulated the carbon balance of Norway spruce saplings exposed to either drought or carbon starvation (CO2 withdrawal), or both treatments, and compared the dynamics of carbon exchange, allocation and storage in different tissues. Drought killed trees much faster than did carbon starvation. Storage C pools were not depleted at death for droughted trees as they were for starved, well-watered trees. Hence drought has a significant detrimental effect on a plant's ability to utilize stored carbon. Unless they can be transported to where they are needed, sufficient carbon reserves alone will not assure survival of a drought except under specific conditions, such as moderate drought, or in species that maintain plant water relations required for carbon re-mobilization. © 2013 No claim to original German goverment works New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi
The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat types, beat frequencies and base (carrier) frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude in response to acoustic than to binaural beats, to 250 than to 1000 Hz base frequency and to 3 Hz than to 6 Hz beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left temporal lobe areas. Differences between estimated sources of potentials to acoustic and binaural beats were not significant. The perceptions of binaural beats involve cortical activity that is not different than acoustic beats in distribution and in the effects of beat- and base frequency, indicating similar cortical processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hunger is a poorly defined cognition, assumed to motivate overeating, but there is no firm evidence that the intensity of a sense of hunger is related to overweight. Recent research has suggested instead that irregular eating habits, as deriving from dieting, emotional stressors or other causes may have a role in the weight gain of obese people. These "borderline eating behaviours" (or BEB), targeted in cognitive behavioural therapy of obesity, were found associated to the body mass index bot...
Kutzner, Patricia L.
This document presents an annotated bibliography of organizations that battle world hunger, seek to educate the public about the problem, and/or provide advocacy services. Among the groups that are described are the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations, U.S. federal government agencies, U.S. congressional agencies, U.S.…
Simmons, Amber M.
This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…
Bread for the World Educational Fund, Washington, DC.
Designed to accompany a student activity packet on issues related to world hunger, this teacher's manual provides 12 units of study at the high school level. Materials are presented from a Christian perspective. The following topics are covered in separate chapters: introduction (justice and the right to food), the dimensions and scope of the…
Burchi, Francesco; Fanzo, Jessica; Frison, Emile
One of the World's greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as "hidden hunger", affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors. These mechanisms include peptide signals that modulate neural circuits for both thirst and hunger, neurons that regulate both food and water ingestion, and neurons that integrate sensory information about both food and water in the external world. These studies argue that a deeper understanding of hunger and thirst will require closer examination of how these two biological drives interact. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis
This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.
This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.
Mathias, B.; Lidji, P.; Honing, H.; Palmer, C.; Peretz, I.
Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to
Fayeulle, Stéphanie; Renou, Frédéric; Protais, Emmanuel; Hédouin, Valéry; Wartel, Guillaume; Yvin, Jean-Luc
Entering prison can feed pre-existent behavior of demands or generate them. Several means of expression are then used. Hunger strike is an average privileged act. It belongs to prison culture. Estimate how practitioners working in prison take care of the hunger strikers. The study, realised in 2008, was led with all the Units of Consultations and Ambulatory Care in France. It is a declarative investigation where a medical testimony by unit was asked. From 174 "maisons d'arrêt" and establishments for punishment in France, 95 answers were obtained. This situation was already seen by 98,8% of the doctors. The motives for hunger strike were mainly judicial for "maisons d'arrêt" (70,1%) and prison motives for detention centers (68,7%). Mainly, doctors opted for a neutral attitude (63% of the cases). The hunger strikes were mostly brief (less than a week in 85% of the cases). Only 5,5% of the doctors proposed written information concerning the risks incurred during a fast. A doctor in 4 approximately (23%) was already witness to complications due to fasting. The fact that a patient may refuse care makes the medical approach difficult. Faced with such a situation, 45% of the doctors privileged their duty of care, 28% respected the patient's wishes, and 27% did not pronounce. From a therapeutic point of view, the place of treatment using vitamins was rarely recognized (32,7%). Hunger strike is rarely severe, but it is rather frequent in prison so that every doctor working there will be confronted with it. The refeeding syndrome seems often ignored. The coverage of hunger strike is governed by the law, but ethical questions stay in the appreciation of every doctor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The management of hunger has to look into the issues of availability, accessibility and adequacy of food supply. From an ethical perspective, this paper argues in favour of the right to food. But, for this to become viable, the state has to come up with an appropriate and effective bill on food and nutrition security, address the issue of inadequate provisioning of storage space by state agencies leading to rotting of food grains--a criminal waste when people are dying of hunger; and rely on local level institutions involving the community, that complement the administrative structure to identify the poor and reduce exclusion and inclusion errors.
Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes of death in the world. Early diagnose of the symptoms depends on abnormality on heart beat pattern, known as Arrhythmia. A novel fuzzy neuro generalized learning vector quantization for automatic Arrhythmia heart beat classification is proposed. The algorithm is an extension from theGLVQ algorithm that employs a fuzzy logic concept as the discriminant function in order to develop a robust algorithmand improve the classification performance. The algorithm is testedagainst MIT-BIH arrhythmia database to measure theperformance. Based on the experiment result, FN-GLVQ is able to increase the accuracy of GLVQ by a soft margin. As we intend to build a device with automated Arrhythmia detection,FN-GLVQ is then implemented into Field Gate Programmable Array to prototype the system into a real device.
McMichael, Connie F.; And Others
A pilot hunger awareness program was developed for fourth graders in a low-income elementary school. Objectives were to provide students with information that would increase their awareness of hunger in their communities by helping them identify signs of hunger, food pantries located within their school zip code area, and a resource person in…
Martin, Shara E.
This biannual report examines hunger in Ohio, providing current data about hunger programs and direct information from those who use these programs. An introductory section defines hunger and food insecurity and discusses how they are measured. The second section highlights national trends (by household composition, by household income, and…
Convenience sampling was used in selecting 120 lactating women who volunteered and consented. The hunger scale was used for assessing domestic hunger and a 24 – hr recall (NFCS, 1999) was analysed for food variety and dietary diversity. Perceived hunger corresponded with narrow food variety and dietary ...
Full Text Available When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.
Feeney, M P
The beats of mistuned consonances (BMCs) result from the presentation of two sinusoids at frequencies slightly mistuned from a ratio of small integers. Several studies have suggested that the source of dichotic BMCs is an interaction within a binaural critical band. In one case the mechanism has been explained as an aural harmonic of the low-frequency tone (f1) creating binaural beats with the high-frequency tone (f2). The other explanation involves a binaural cross correlation between the excitation pattern of f1 and the contralateral f2--occurring within the binaural critical band centered at f2. This study examined the detection of dichotic BMCs for the octave and fifth. In one experiment with the octave, narrow-band noise centered at f2 was presented to one ear along with f1. The other ear was presented with f2. The noise was used to prevent interactions in the binaural critical band centered at f2. Dichotic BMCs were still detected under these conditions, suggesting that binaural interaction within a critical band does not explain the effect. Localization effects were also observed under this masking condition for phase reversals of tuned dichotic octave stimuli. These findings suggest a new theory of dichotic BMCs as a between-channel phase effect. The modified weighted-image model of localization [Stern and Trahiotis, in Auditory Physiology and Perception, edited by Y. Cazals, L. Demany, and K. Horner (Pergamon, Oxford, 1992), pp. 547-554] was used to provide an explanation of the between-channel mechanism.
Weinreb, Linda; Wehler, Cheryl; Perloff, Jennifer; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Sagor, Linda; Gundersen, Craig
Hunger, with its adverse consequences for children, continues to be an important national problem. Previous studies that document the deleterious effects of hunger among children cannot distinguish child from family hunger and do not take into account some critical environmental, maternal, and child variables that may influence child outcomes. This study examines the independent contribution of child hunger on children's physical and mental health and academic functioning, when controlling for a range of environmental, maternal, and child factors that have also been associated with poor outcomes among children. With the use of standardized tools, comprehensive demographic, psychosocial, and health data were collected in Worcester, Massachusetts, from homeless and low-income housed mothers and their children (180 preschool-aged children and 228 school-aged children). Mothers and children were part of a larger unmatched case-control study of homelessness among female-headed households. Hunger was measured by a set of 7 dichotomous items, each asking the mother whether she has or her children have experienced a particular aspect of hunger during the past year--1 concerns food insecurity for the entire family, 2 concern adult hunger, and 4 involve child hunger. The items, taken from the Childhood Hunger Identification Project measure, are summed to classify the family and divided into 3 categories: no hunger, adult or moderate child hunger, or severe child hunger (indicating multiple signs of child hunger). Outcome measures included children's chronic health condition count using questions adapted from the National Health Interview Survey, Child Health Supplement, and internalizing behavior problems and anxiety/depression, measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Additional covariates included demographic variables (ie, age, gender, ethnicity, housing status, number of moves, family size, income), low birth weight, child life events (ie, care and protection order, out
Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.
Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand
Full Text Available This paper examines how a popular series like Suzanne Collins’ The Hunger Games trilogy can motivate students to improve their language and literacy proficiency by extensive reading. Moving on from there, we argue a thoughtful and collaborative deep reading of The Hunger Games can broaden as well as change perspectives; for without being openly didactic, the series is sufficiently multilayered to provide meaningful booktalk in the classroom and to trigger engaged debate. Recognising that the degradation of non-human nature through human action has become a major theme in education, we argue that the intentionally interdisciplinary approach of ecocriticism towards a literary text can be a contribution to global issues education in the English as a Second Language (ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL classroom. We offer an ecocritical examination of The Hunger Games, not as an ideal or model reading, but rather aiming to promote ecopedagogy and further critical discussion and creative language activities in the secondary ESL/EFL classroom and student teacher seminar. To illustrate an ecocritical reading, we trace the classical literary tropes of apocalypse, pastoral and wilderness and reflect on the trilogy’s multilayered approach towards the relationship between the human and the non-human. Finally, we suggest how critical issues such as consumer manipulation, media and celebrity culture can well be discussed with reference to The Hunger Games trilogy.
Helena Mara Dias Pedro
Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of hunger as a phenomenon multidetermined by social and economical factors, emphasizing its features in the history of inequality and poverty. A major issue in this discussion is food as an essential human right and the necessity of knowing and interfering in people`s reality in order to acknowledge them as entitled to those rights.
Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…
Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.
This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and…
Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...
Dotsinsky, Ivan A; Stoyanov, Todor V
Detection of QRS complexes and other types of ventricular beats is a basic component of ECG analysis. Many algorithms have been proposed and used because of the waves' shape diversity. Detection in a single channel ECG is important for several applications, such as in defibrillators and specialized monitors. The developed heuristic algorithm for ventricular beat detection includes two main criteria. The first of them is based on steep edges and sharp peaks evaluation and classifies normal QRS complexes in real time. The second criterion identifies ectopic beats by occurrence of biphasic wave. It is modified to work with a delay of one RR interval in case of long RR intervals. Other algorithm branches classify already detected QRS complexes as ectopic beats if a set of wave parameters is encountered or the ratio of latest two RR intervals RRi-1/RRi is less than 1:2.5. The algorithm was tested with the AHA and MIT-BIH databases. A sensitivity of 99.04% and a specificity of 99.62% were obtained in detection of 542014 beats. The algorithm copes successfully with different complicated cases of single channel ventricular beat detection. It is aimed to simulate to some extent the experience of the cardiologist, rather than to rely on mathematical approaches adopted from the theory of signal analysis. The algorithm is open to improvement, especially in the part concerning the discrimination between normal QRS complexes and ectopic beats.
Mathias, Brian; Lidji, Pascale; Honing, Henkjan; Palmer, Caroline; Peretz, Isabelle
Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu—but not Marjorie—compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception. PMID:26941591
Full Text Available Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 event-related potential (ERP components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions in metrical patterns, and Marjorie showed a bias to identify irregular patterns as regular. ERP responses to beat omissions reveal an intact pre-attentive system for processing beat irregularities in cases of beat deafness, reflected in the MMN component, and provide partial support for abnormalities in later cognitive stages of beat processing, reflected in an unreliable P3b component exhibited by Mathieu – but not Marjorie – compared to control participants. P3 abnormalities observed in the current study resemble P3 abnormalities exhibited by individuals with pitch-based amusia, and are consistent with attention or auditory-motor coupling accounts of deficits in beat perception.
Fritze, W; Köhler, W
Binaural beats were studied before and during a situation of temporary threshold shift, and no frequency shift could be found. In contrast, subjective binaural frequency comparison revealed a distinct shift. These findings demonstrate the two known modes of perception.
This paper describes two experiments involving moving sources. The first one is a class activity for observing beats in a Doppler setup; the second one describes how to observe the transition from "subsonic" to "supersonic" waves in a ripple tank.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Beating Depression …Help Is Available Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... treatments are available from your physician. Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...
Kenny, Mary A; Silove, Derrick M; Steel, Zachary
The current practice of non-consensual medical treatment of hunger-striking asylum seekers in detention needs closer inquiry. An Australian Government regulation empowers the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) to authorise non-consensual medical treatment for a person in immigration detention if they are at risk of physical harm, but there are doubts about whether the regulation would withstand legal challenge. Authorisation by DIMIA does not compel medical practitioners to enforce treatment if such action is contrary to their "ethical, moral or religious convictions". The World Medical Association has established guidelines for doctors involved in managing people on hunger strikes. The Declaration of Tokyo (1975) and the Declaration of Malta (1991) both prohibit the use of non-consensual force-feeding of hunger strikers who are mentally competent. If called upon to treat hunger strikers, medical practitioners should be aware of their ethical and legal responsibilities, and that they should act independently of government or institutional interests.
Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.
The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition. Despite much progress in reducing hunger globally, 795 million people remain undernourished, over 2 billion people suffer from various micronutrient deficiencies, and an estimated 161 million children under 5 years of age are stunted, 99 million underweight, and 51 million wasted. Meanwhile, more than 600 million adults are obese. Global problems require global solutions. The ICN2 brought together national policy-makers from food, agriculture, health, education, social protection and other relevant sectors to address the complex problem of malnutrition through a multi-sectoral approach. Two outcome documents - the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action - were endorsed by participating governments at the Conference, committing world leaders to establishing national policies aimed at eradicating malnutrition in all its forms and transforming food systems to make nutritious diets available to all. The Rome Declaration on Nutrition is a political statement of 10 commitments for more effective and coordinated action to improve nutrition, while the Framework for Action is a voluntary technical guide of 60 recommendations for the implementation of the political commitments. This chapter provides information on the ICN2 and its outcomes as well as follow-up activities. Emphasis is placed on the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action, with special focus on hidden
Mendonca, J.T.; Galvao, R.M.O.
The beat-wave scheme for current drive is studied in the frame of plasma weak-turbulence theory. The value of the driven current is limited by a quasi-linear diffusion mechanism. The one-dimensional problem, corresponding to the resonant excitation of electron plasma oscillations by two beating electro-magnetic beams is discussed in detail. The results may be relevant to the continuous operation of tokamak discharges.
Kim, Seock-Hyun; Lee, Chi-Wook; Lee, Jang-Moo
King Seong-deok Divine Bell is the second oldest bell in Korea. The bell is considered to have the best sound quality among Korean bells. The beat phenomenon is one of the most important characteristics for the sound of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell. In this study, the relationships between the modal parameters and the peculiar beat phenomena of the bell are investigated. It is theoretically proved from the beat characteristics that the sound might indeed be heard differently depending on the listening positions. The beat map method is introduced to visualize the beat distribution properties. It is shown that the beat maps can be drawn with a theoretical model based on the modal data of the bell. Using the beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell, it is investigated why clear and unclear beats, large and small amplitudes of the vibrations are repeated periodically along the circumference of the bell. Furthermore, the effect of the striking position on the beat distribution property is examined systematically.
Hodelin, Geraldene B.
Inasmuch as social deficiencies breed malcontent, it is not difficult to understand the resulting dissonance in physical, social, emotional, and relational well-being not only between individuals but also within and between communities and groups and between nations. The proverbial "haves" and "have-nots" continue to be…
Željko Kaluđerović; Jovana Potpara
In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity ...
Neeson, Eileen; And Others
This model social studies lesson includes a simulated interview with a relief worker describing the famine conditions in Ethiopia. A map of Africa and pictures of famine victims are included. The objectives of the lesson are to have students describe the situation in Ethiopia, analyze the causes, and evaluate solutions to the famine. In the model…
Bryson, Reid A; Murray, Thomas J
... in the Mediterranean 1.4 A polar view showing one possible configuration of the westerlies 2.1 Mild and severe winters in western Europe, A.D. 950-1450 2.2 Patterns of the westerlies 3.1 July precipitation ...
in dwarfing genes lead to reduced sensitivity to the endogenous growth regulatory hormone gibberellins3,4. The semi-dominant mutant alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b confer different grades of dwarfism. Thus the regulation of gibberellins is an important pathway for reducing plant height. In addition to Borlaug, Orville.
El Nawawy, Amin S.
Discusses an overall educational program to train both specialists and the public in food science. Presents food statistics, and discusses the importance of food engineering and applied microbiology courses. (MLH)
Albin, Stephanie D; Kaun, Karla R; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Heberlein, Ulrike; Simpson, Julie H
Hunger is a complex motivational state that drives multiple behaviors. The sensation of hunger is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One immediate response to hunger is increased food consumption. Hunger also modulates behaviors related to food seeking such as increased locomotion and enhanced sensory sensitivity in both insects and vertebrates. In addition, hunger can promote the expression of food-associated memory. Although progress is being made, how hunger is represented in the brain and how it coordinates these behavioral responses is not fully understood in any system. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify neurons encoding hunger. We found a small group of neurons that, when activated, induced a fed fly to eat as though it were starved, suggesting that these neurons are downstream of the metabolic regulation of hunger. Artificially activating these neurons also promotes appetitive memory performance in sated flies, indicating that these neurons are not simply feeding command neurons but likely play a more general role in encoding hunger. We determined that the neurons relevant for the feeding effect are serotonergic and project broadly within the brain, suggesting a possible mechanism for how various responses to hunger are coordinated. These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The U.S. Government has set a goal of reducing the prevalence of food insecurity to 6% or less by 2010. To achieve this goal, education and action are necessary. Youth in Oregon were introduced to the issue through the role playing simulation, Are You Hungry Tonight? The simulation was utilized with youth, adult volunteers, and youth development staff. Participants indicated increased understanding of people with limited resources, including: Financial pressures, emotional stresses and frustrations they face; Difficulty of improving one’s situation; Difficult choices people make; Positive and negative impacts of community organizations. Simulation participants developed an understanding of hunger issues and empathy for people experiencing food insecurity. Participants were subsequently challenged to complete service learning projects that would help provide additional food resources for their communities. Providing education through the simulation set the stage for youth to participate fully in service learning projects to help alleviate hunger.
Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S
Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements.
Reedijk, Susan A; Bolders, Anne; Hommel, Bernhard
Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale-mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S) and an affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs). Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBRs were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.
Susan A. Reedijk
Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.
Liotti, Mario; Brannan, Stephen; Egan, Gary; Shade, Robert; Madden, Lisa; Abplanalp, Bart; Robillard, Rachel; Lancaster, Jack; Zamarripa, Frank E.; Fox, Peter T.; Denton, Derek
Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO2 was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO2- was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The s...
Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Oros, Avram; Schoenmakers, Marieke
Acquired long-QT syndrome in combination with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation duration (BVR) is associated with lethal torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) in dogs with remodelled heart after atrioventricular block (AVB). We evaluated the relative contributions of bradycardia...
HIDALGO MORATAL, Moisés
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the causes behind the recent food crises (2008, 2011 through the study of the evolution of neo-liberal globalisation and the current world crisis. We seek the causes of hunger in factors such as the growing inequalities in income and the evolution of prices in world agricultural markets. We also analyse certain methods for measuring under-nourishment, with the aim of selecting those that we consider most coherent in order to to achieve this end, by making a number of critical observations on the subject. In accordance with various widely proven theories, we hold that food crises occur as a consequence of structural lack of the right to access to food, and not as a result of a non existent food shortage. In this context, we examine the alternative possibilities currently offered by food sovereignty, a concept that originates in international social movements and which has been found in the daily life of various rural areas, and is, at the same time, consistent with several critical theories originating from the academic world
Spence, Charles; Okajima, Katsunori; Cheok, Adrian David; Petit, Olivia; Michel, Charles
One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olbers, Joakim; Gille, Adam; Ljungman, Petter; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Östergren, Jan; Witt, Nils
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not entirely explained by thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms for this association are largely unknown. Similarly, high blood pressure (BP) increases the risk for cardiovascular events. Despite this the interplay between AF and BP is insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with AF in comparison to a control group of patients with sinus rhythm. We studied 33 patients - 21 in atrial fibrillation and 12 in sinus rhythm - undergoing routine coronary angiography. Invasive blood pressure was recorded at three locations: radial artery, brachial artery and ascending aorta. Blood pressure variability, defined as average beat-to-beat blood pressure difference, was calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at each site. We observed a significant difference (p blood pressure variability between the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups at all locations. Systolic blood pressure variability roughly doubled in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (4.9 and 2.4 mmHg respectively). Diastolic beat-to-beat blood pressure variability was approximately 6 times as high in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (7.5 and 1.2 mmHg respectively). No significant difference in blood pressure variability was seen between measurement locations. Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation was substantially higher than in patients with sinus rhythm. Hemodynamic effects of this beat-to-beat variation in blood pressure may negatively affect vascular structure and function, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Lima, Eronides da Silva
This article analyzes the links between the biological and social spheres established by Josué de Castro in his studies of alimentation. First it looks at how the author introduced modem dietary principles at the same time that hunger and malnutrition were unveiled in parts of Brazil, aiming at the configuration of a national alimentation policy. Second, at it examines how he expanded the debate, giving visibility to the dynamics of states and the political direction of a world that was being dismantled in which hunger and alimentation were an intrinsic part of the spatial distribution of power. In the postwar scenario the dietary principles of quantity, quality, harmony and adequacy were transposed as the guiding principles for a society without hunger at the global scale.
Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves
Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.
Cheung, Tracy T.L.; Kroese, Floor M.; Fennis, Bob M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.
The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless,
Fujii, Mary Lavender
Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)
Harris, Deborah A.; Harris, Whitney M.; Fondren, Kristi M.
Experiential and active learning exercises can benefit students in sociology courses, particularly, courses in which issues of inequality are central. In this paper, we describe using hunger banquets-an active learning exercise where participants are randomly stratified into three global classes and receive food based upon their class position-to…
Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph John; Matsuura, Miki
The relationship between students' living in poverty and academic underachievement challenges schools across the nation. Poverty is particularly prevalent among children with disabilities. One detrimental condition of poverty that directly affects student development and academic achievement is food insecurity and hunger. With the increasing…
Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo
A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. PMID:23825928
Tymchenko, Nina; Kunze, Angelika; Dahlenborg, Kerstin; Svedhem, Sofia; Steel, Daniella
Highlights: •An example of the application of QCM-D to live cell studies. •Detection of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte cluster beating. •Clusters were studied in a thin liquid film and in a large liquid volume. •The QCM-D beating profile provides an individual fingerprint of the hPS-CMCs. -- Abstract: Spontaneously beating human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes clusters (CMCs) represent an excellent in vitro tool for studies of human cardiomyocyte function and for pharmacological cardiac safety assessment. Such testing typically requires highly trained operators, precision plating, or large cell quantities, and there is a demand for real-time, label-free monitoring of small cell quantities, especially rare cells and tissue-like structures. Array formats based on sensing of electrical or optical properties of cells are being developed and in use by the pharmaceutical industry. A potential alternative to these techniques is represented by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, which is an acoustic surface sensitive technique that measures changes in mass and viscoelastic properties close to the sensor surface (from nm to μm). There is an increasing number of studies where QCM-D has successfully been applied to monitor properties of cells and cellular processes. In the present study, we show that spontaneous beating of CMCs on QCM-D sensors can be clearly detected, both in the frequency and the dissipation signals. Beating rates in the range of 66–168 bpm for CMCs were detected and confirmed by simultaneous light microscopy. The QCM-D beating profile was found to provide individual fingerprints of the hPS-CMCs. The presented results point towards acoustical assays for evaluation cardiotoxicity
Tymchenko, Nina; Kunze, Angelika [Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Dahlenborg, Kerstin [Cellectis, 413 46 Göteborg (Sweden); Svedhem, Sofia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Steel, Daniella [Cellectis, 413 46 Göteborg (Sweden)
Highlights: •An example of the application of QCM-D to live cell studies. •Detection of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte cluster beating. •Clusters were studied in a thin liquid film and in a large liquid volume. •The QCM-D beating profile provides an individual fingerprint of the hPS-CMCs. -- Abstract: Spontaneously beating human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes clusters (CMCs) represent an excellent in vitro tool for studies of human cardiomyocyte function and for pharmacological cardiac safety assessment. Such testing typically requires highly trained operators, precision plating, or large cell quantities, and there is a demand for real-time, label-free monitoring of small cell quantities, especially rare cells and tissue-like structures. Array formats based on sensing of electrical or optical properties of cells are being developed and in use by the pharmaceutical industry. A potential alternative to these techniques is represented by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, which is an acoustic surface sensitive technique that measures changes in mass and viscoelastic properties close to the sensor surface (from nm to μm). There is an increasing number of studies where QCM-D has successfully been applied to monitor properties of cells and cellular processes. In the present study, we show that spontaneous beating of CMCs on QCM-D sensors can be clearly detected, both in the frequency and the dissipation signals. Beating rates in the range of 66–168 bpm for CMCs were detected and confirmed by simultaneous light microscopy. The QCM-D beating profile was found to provide individual fingerprints of the hPS-CMCs. The presented results point towards acoustical assays for evaluation cardiotoxicity.
Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather
Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones. The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies. Uncontrolled pilot study. Eight healthy adults participated in the study. Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days. Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements. Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.
Julie C Ruel-Bergeron
Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.
Hunger and malnutrition lead to the deaths of 13-18 million people a year; 75 percent of these victims are children. World Food Day was created to focus attention on the world's food and farm problems and to encourage the world's people to become directly involved in the solution of these problems. It is sponsored jointly by the United Nations…
For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Book cover For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Editor(s): ... Luc J.A. Mougeot is Senior Program Specialist at the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. Dr Mougeot leads IDRC 's program in urban agriculture: Cities ...
Background: Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize ...
Global health policy experts tend to organize hunger through scales of ‘the individual’, ‘the community’ and ‘the global’. This organization configures hunger as a discrete, measurable object to be scaled up or down with mathematical certainty. This article offers a counter to this approach, using
van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M
An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; McIntyre, Lynn; Potestio, Melissa L
To examine the effects of hunger, an extreme manifestation of food insecurity, on subsequent health outcomes using data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Longitudinal survey, 1994-2004/2005. Canada. A total of 5809 children aged 10 to 15 years and 3333 youth aged 16 to 21 years. Longitudinal survey data spanning a 10-year period were analyzed using logistic regression. Measures of hunger from NLSCY cycles 1 through 5 were used to differentiate participants who were ever hungry from those who were never hungry. A 3-level variable was created to assess the effect of repeated episodes of hunger. Covariates included participants' age, sex, baseline health, and household sociodemographic characteristics. Stratified models were used to examine the relation between hunger and health among boys and girls separately. The NLCSY cycle 6 outcomes included poor general health, chronic health conditions, and asthma. Among children, both ever being hungry and multiple episodes of hunger were associated with poorer general health but not with chronic conditions or asthma. Higher odds of chronic conditions and of asthma were observed among youth who experienced multiple episodes of hunger compared with those who were never hungry. Associations between hunger and poorer health outcomes persisted among girls in stratified analyses. Children and youth who experience hunger are more likely to have poorer health, and repeated exposure appears to be particularly toxic. Our findings point to the relevance of food insecurity in childhood as a marker of vulnerability, with implications for clinical practice and advocacy.
van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M
Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and
Venner, Sandra H.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Seavey, Dorie
America today is haunted by the paradox of hunger and food insecurity amidst unprecedented prosperity. Despite a record economic expansion, millions of American households struggle to find sufficient resources to feed family members. Focusing on families with children, this report presents current evidence on hunger and food insecurity, identifies…
The objective of this study was to find out whether it was HIV/AIDS or hunger pinning down patients at Katolo location in Nyando Division, Nyanza in Western Kenya. Was it hunger or HIV/AIDS influencing the low quality of life in the region? In a number of households visited, patients suspected to have been suffering from ...
conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi- squared test and logistic regression.
Muthayya, Sumithra; Rah, Jee Hyun; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Roos, Franz F; Kraemer, Klaus; Black, Robert E
The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world's stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions.
Pratt, H; Starr, A; Michalewski, HJ; Dimitrijevic, A; Bleich, N; Mittelman, N
The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source cur...
Ryan Michael Cassidy
Full Text Available Many of the neurocircuits and hormones known to underlie the sensations of hunger and satiety also substantially alter the activity of the dopaminergic reward system. Much interest lies in the ways that hunger, satiety, and reward tie together, as the epidemic of obesity seems tied to the recent development and mass availability of highly palatable foods. In this review, we will first discuss the basic neurocircuitry of the midbrain and basal forebrain reward system. We will elaborate how several important mediators of hunger—the agouti-related protein neurons of the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, and ghrelin—enhance the sensitivity of the dopaminergic reward system. Then, we will elaborate how mediators of satiety—the nucleus tractus solitarius, pro-opiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus, and its peripheral hormonal influences such as leptin—reduce the reward system sensitivity. We hope to provide a template by which future research may identify the ways in which highly rewarding foods bypass this balanced system to produce excessive food consumption.
Tack, J; Deloose, E; Ang, D; Scarpellini, E; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I
Hunger is controlled by the brain, which receives input from signals of the GI tract (GIT). During fasting, GIT displays a cyclical motor pattern, the migrating motor complex (MMC), regulated by motilin. To study the relationship between hunger and MMC phases (I-III), focusing on spontaneous and pharmacologically induced phase III and the correlation with plasma motilin and ghrelin levels. The role of phase III was also studied in the return of hunger after a meal in healthy individuals and in patients with loss of appetite. In fasting healthy volunteers, mean hunger ratings during a gastric (62.5±7.5) but not a duodenal (40.4±5.4) phase III were higher (phunger scores from 29.2±7 to 61.7±8. The somatostatin analogue octreotide induced a premature intestinal phase III without a rise in hunger scores. Hunger ratings significantly correlated (β=0.05; p=0.01) with motilin plasma levels, and this relationship was lost after erythromycin administration. Motilin, but not ghrelin administration, induced a premature gastric phase III and a rise in hunger scores. In contrast to octreotide, postprandial administration of erythromycin induced a premature gastric phase III accompanied by an early rise in hunger ratings. In patients with unexplained loss of appetite, gastric phase III was absent and hunger ratings were lower. Motilin-induced gastric phase III is a hunger signal from GIT in man. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Many questions in the field of accelerator physics, plasma physics and laser technology need to be addressed if a useful accelerator based on the beat-wave principle is to be constructed. Many of these must be considered together rather than sequentially. An attempt has been made to set out a number of the more important questions in a logical manner. (orig.)
Tymchenko, Nina; Kunze, Angelika; Dahlenborg, Kerstin; Svedhem, Sofia; Steel, Daniella
Spontaneously beating human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes clusters (CMCs) represent an excellent in vitro tool for studies of human cardiomyocyte function and for pharmacological cardiac safety assessment. Such testing typically requires highly trained operators, precision plating, or large cell quantities, and there is a demand for real-time, label-free monitoring of small cell quantities, especially rare cells and tissue-like structures. Array formats based on sensing of electrical or optical properties of cells are being developed and in use by the pharmaceutical industry. A potential alternative to these techniques is represented by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, which is an acoustic surface sensitive technique that measures changes in mass and viscoelastic properties close to the sensor surface (from nm to μm). There is an increasing number of studies where QCM-D has successfully been applied to monitor properties of cells and cellular processes. In the present study, we show that spontaneous beating of CMCs on QCM-D sensors can be clearly detected, both in the frequency and the dissipation signals. Beating rates in the range of 66-168 bpm for CMCs were detected and confirmed by simultaneous light microscopy. The QCM-D beating profile was found to provide individual fingerprints of the hPS-CMCs. The presented results point towards acoustical assays for evaluation cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.
To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the
Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E
We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger nonverbally and then indicate hunger verbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed.
Dalmiya, Nita; Schultink, Werner
The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing
Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C.; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen
Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to ...
Location of apex beat is an integral part of routine cardiovascular system examination in clinical practice. However, there is paucity of ... Apex beat location in the intercostal space was determined and distance of apex beat from the midline, midclavicular line and nipple lines were measured. The measured distances were ...
Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus
Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631
McCutcheon, N B; Tennissen, A M
A previous study of short-term (average of 31 days) Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) patients indicated that they experienced hunger even though they received adequate calories for energy balance. A prolonged suppression of hunger was noted when lipid was added to the total nutrient intake. Recent experiments with intravenous infusion of lipids in normal volunteers have failed to show appetite suppression beyond that expected from caloric regulation. The goal of our study was to collect information regarding hunger and appetitive experiences associated with intravenous alimentation of healthy, long-term, home TPN patients. Our results from questionnaire returns of 29 respondents showed hunger to be generally low during most of the day. Those patients taking small amounts of food orally typically reported moderate hunger before eating. There was no evidence of any significant difference between hunger reports given on days when lipid was infused vs. days when lipid was omitted. Aversive sensations were frequently associated with lipid infusion but not with nonlipid nutrient infusion. Hunger in TPN patients is discussed in terms of expectancy and hedonic factors as contrasted with physiological need.
Lénárd, L; Karádi, Z
While food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, eating is a highly motivated and reinforced behavior that induces feelings of gratification and pleasure. The chemical senses (taste and odor) and their evaluation are essential to these functions. Brainstem and limbic glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons receiving neurochemical information from the periphery and from the local brain milieu are important controlling hunger motivation, and brain gut peptides have a modulatory role on this function. The hypothalamic and limbic forebrain areas are responsible for evaluation of reward quality and related emotions. They are innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLDS) and majority of GM neurons are also influenced by dopamine. Via dopamine release, the MLDS plays an essential role in rewarding-reinforcing processes of feeding and addiction. The GM network and the MLDS in the limbic system represent essential elements in the neural substrate of motivation.
Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru
\\All organisms must obtain nutrition in order to survive and produce their progeny. In the natural environment, however, adequate nutrition or food is not always available. Thus, all organisms are equipped with mechanisms by which their nutritional condition alters their internal activities. In animals, the loss of nutritional intake (fasting) alters not only metabolism, but also behavior in a manner dependent on hormones such as insulin, glucagon, leptin, and ghrelin. As a result, animals are able to maintain their blood sugar level, and are motivated to crave food upon fasting. Moreover, our recent study revealed a novel role of hunger, which facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation, and its molecular mechanism in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Here, we review the overall effect of fasting, and how fasting affects brain function. I then introduce our finding in which mild fasting facilitates LTM formation, and discuss its biological significance.
... generation at home and abroad--a goal that, while ambitious, is within sight. Through the President's... goal. We can beat this disease. On World AIDS Day, in memory of those no longer with us and in...
Muthayya, Sumithra; Rah, Jee Hyun; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Roos, Franz F.; Kraemer, Klaus; Black, Robert E.
The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world’s stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions. PMID:23776712
Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Singleton, Grant R; Leirs, Herwig
This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as climatic extremes, use of crops for biofuels, reduced growth in yields which lag behind population growth, reduced world stocks and lack of sufficient investment in maintaining the irrigation infrastructure. For the undernourished this is problematic as they are most vulnerable to the rise in food prices. Very often, agricultural experts focus on an increase in agricultural production to reduce food prices. It is postulated in this article that almost 280 million undernourished could additionally benefit if more attention were paid to reducing pre- and post-harvest losses by rodents. Moreover, rodent-borne diseases would decrease, diseases that can be catastrophic to the livelihoods of the poorest of the poor. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.
Full Text Available Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and gamma (40 Hz beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.
Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen
Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz), alpha (10 Hz) and gamma (40 Hz) beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.
Reedijk, Susan A.; Bolders, Anne; Hommel, Bernhard
Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through st...
Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi
To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.
Thomas, Gerald W.
Discusses the positive results of the World Food Conference and the world awareness (aroused by the conference) which is the first step in the solution of world hunger. Some of the positive results are the establishment of the World Food Council, establishment of grain reserves, and a worldwide system of food information. (BR)
Romo, Matthew L
Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.
Shingirai S. Mugambiwa
Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.
Shingirai S. Mugambiwa
Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.
Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos
Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Taper, L. Janette
Provides information to educate Extension professionals on the issue of hunger and malnutrition in Virginia. This guide will allow Extension professionals to conduct nutrition education programs in low income communities to help them improve their diets.
Fuhrman, Joel; Sarter, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Acocella, Steve
People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health as well as weight loss. Because our
Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides
The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13). Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social ...
Glaser Dale; Sarter Barbara; Fuhrman Joel; Acocella Steve
Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrie...
Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Singleton, Grant R; Leirs, Herwig
This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons...... such as climatic extremes, use of crops for biofuels, reduced growth in yields which lag behind population growth, reduced world stocks and lack of sufficient investment in maintaining the irrigation infrastructure. For the undernourished this is problematic as they are most vulnerable to the rise in food prices...
Xiong, Li; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li; Lin, Wenhua; Chen, Xiangyan; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Soo, Yannie Oi Yan; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing
External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method used to augment cerebral perfusion in ischemic stroke. However, the response of beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with ischemic stroke during ECP remains unknown. Forty-eight patients with unilateral ischemic stroke at the subacute stage and 14 healthy controls were recruited. Beat-to-beat heart rate before, during, and after ECP was monitored. The frequency components of HRV were calculated using power spectral analysis. Very low frequency (VLF; <.04 Hz), low frequency (LF; .04-.15 Hz), high frequency (HF; .15-.40 Hz), total power spectral density (TP; <.40 Hz), and LF/HF ratio were calculated. In stroke patients, although there were no statistical differences in all of the HRV components, the HRV at VLF showed a trend of increase during ECP compared with baseline in the left-sided stroke patients (P = .083). After ECP, the HRV at LF and TP remained higher than baseline in the right-sided stroke patients (LF, 209.4 versus 117.9, P = .050; TP, 1275.6 versus 390.2, P = .017, respectively). Besides, the HRV at TP also increased after ECP compared with baseline in the left-sided stroke patients (563.0 versus 298.3, P = .029). Irrespective of the side of the ischemia, patients showed an increased beat-to-beat HRV after ECP. Additionally, sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac modulations were increased after ECP in patients after right-sided subacute stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri
It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul
Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study was to de......Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study...... was to determine the appropriate threshold levels of maximum acceptable deviation of RR intervals in equine ECG analysis, and to evaluate a novel two-step timing algorithm by quantifying the frequency of arrhythmias in a cohort of healthy adult endurance horses. Results: Beat-to-beat variation differed......, range 1–24). Conclusions: Beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm varies according to HR, and threshold levels in equine ECG analysis should be adjusted accordingly. Standardization of the analysis criteria will enable comparisons of studies and follow-up examinations of patients. A small number...
Full Text Available Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT, a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: 1 music tapping test (MTT, 2 beat saliency test (BST, 3 beat interval test (BIT, and 4 beat finding and interval test (BFIT. MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual’s ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.
Miller, Elizabeth; Wieneke, Kristin M; Murphy, J Michael; Desmond, Sheila; Schiff, Andrew; Canenguez, Katia M; Kleinman, Ronald E
Hunger is prevalent in low-income families. Community clinics offer an opportunity to identify families who experience hunger and to address hunger-related health problems. Parents of pediatric patients seen in an urban clinic completed a single question hunger screen. A subsample of parents participated in an interview. Patient and parental medical and mental health diagnoses were collected from medical records. Children from families reporting hunger were more likely than those from families not reporting hunger to be obese and to have more documented medical diagnoses. Parents reporting hunger were also more likely to have mental health problems noted and to describe poor health status. Hunger is associated with specific health problems among children and parents in a low-income community clinic. A simple screen to identify hungry families in clinics may assist in recognition of hunger's contribution to child and parental poor health and development of targeted interventions.
Çelebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. F.; Taciroglu, E.
The beating phenomenon observed in the recorded responses of a tall building in Japan and another in the U.S. are examined in this paper. Beating is a periodic vibrational behavior caused by distinctive coupling between translational and torsional modes that typically have close frequencies. Beating is prominent in the prolonged resonant responses of lightly damped structures. Resonances caused by site effects also contribute to accentuating the beating effect. Spectral analyses and system identification techniques are used herein to quantify the periods and amplitudes of the beating effects from the strong motion recordings of the two buildings. Quantification of beating effects is a first step towards determining remedial actions to improve resilient building performance to strong earthquake induced shaking.
Beate Wagner-Hasel est professeure à la faculté d’histoire de l’Université Leibnitz de Hanovre. Elle a fait des études d’histoire, de philologie allemande et de journalisme à Münster et Berlin (Université Libre et Université Technique). En 1980, elle a soutenu son doctorat en histoire ancienne à l’Université Technique de Berlin, en 1995 elle a passé son habilitation à l’Université Technique de Darmstadt. Elle a enseigné aux universités de Darmstadt, Kassel, Münster, Basel et Salzburg avant d’...
Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes; Dutta, Rishabh; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Mai, Martin
Modern earthquake source estimation studies increasingly use non-linear optimization strategies to estimate kinematic rupture parameters, often considering geodetic and seismic data jointly. However, the optimization process is complex and consists of several steps that need to be followed in the earthquake parameter estimation procedure. These include pre-describing or modeling the fault geometry, calculating the Green's Functions (often assuming a layered elastic half-space), and estimating the distributed final slip and possibly other kinematic source parameters. Recently, Bayesian inference has become popular for estimating posterior distributions of earthquake source model parameters given measured/estimated/assumed data and model uncertainties. For instance, some research groups consider uncertainties of the layered medium and propagate these to the source parameter uncertainties. Other groups make use of informative priors to reduce the model parameter space. In addition, innovative sampling algorithms have been developed that efficiently explore the often high-dimensional parameter spaces. Compared to earlier studies, these improvements have resulted in overall more robust source model parameter estimates that include uncertainties. However, the computational demands of these methods are high and estimation codes are rarely distributed along with the published results. Even if codes are made available, it is often difficult to assemble them into a single optimization framework as they are typically coded in different programing languages. Therefore, further progress and future applications of these methods/codes are hampered, while reproducibility and validation of results has become essentially impossible. In the spirit of providing open-access and modular codes to facilitate progress and reproducible research in earthquake source estimations, we undertook the effort of producing BEAT, a python package that comprises all the above-mentioned features in one
Jarvandi, Soghra; Booth, David A; Thibault, Louise
Anticipatory hunger is a learnt increase in intake of food having a flavour or texture that predicts a long fast. This learning was studied in rats trained on a single food or a choice between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods, presented for 1.5 h after 3 h without maintenance food at the start of the dark phase. Eight training cycles provided a pseudo-random sequence of 3 h and 10 h post-prandial fasts with a day on maintenance food between each training fast. The measure of anticipatory hunger is the difference over one 4-day cycle between the intake of test food having an odour predictive of the longer fast (TL) and intake of food with an odour cuing to the shorter fast (TS). Previous experiments showed that conditioning of preference for the odour before the shorter fast competes with learning to avoid hunger during the longer fast (anticipatory hunger), generating a cubic or quartic contrast. TL minus TS showed a strong cubic trend over 8 training cycles with both single and choice meals. There was a switch from preference for the short-fast odour at cycle 2 (TL-TS=-0.86 g) to a peak of anticipatory hunger at cycle 6 (TL-TS=1.57 g). We conclude that anticipatory hunger is learnt when a choice is given between protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich foods as well as on a single food. In addition, since anticipatory hunger extinguishes itself, such learning improves on negative-feedback homeostasis with a feed-forward "hyper-homeostatic" mechanism.
Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin
Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p hunger state.
Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z
Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P
Profound changes in tissue redox potential occur in the heart under conditions of oxidative stress frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Since beat-to-beat variability (short term variability, SV) of action potential duration (APD) is a good indicator of arrhythmia incidence, the aim of this work was to study the influence of redox changes on SV in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using a conventional microelectrode technique. The redox potential was shifted toward a reduced state using a reductive cocktail (containing dithiothreitol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) while oxidative changes were initiated by superfusion with H2O2. Redox effects were evaluated as changes in "relative SV" determined by comparing SV changes with the concomitant APD changes. Exposure of myocytes to the reductive cocktail decreased SV significantly without any detectable effect on APD. Application of H2O2 increased both SV and APD, but the enhancement of SV was the greater, so relative SV increased. Longer exposure to H2O2 resulted in the development of early afterdepolarizations accompanied by tremendously increased SV. Pretreatment with the reductive cocktail prevented both elevation in relative SV and the development of afterdepolarizations. The results suggest that the increased beat-to-beat variability during an oxidative stress contributes to the generation of cardiac arrhythmias.
Jaap van der Bent
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Kleine literaire tijdschriften, zogenaamde little magazines, hebben een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de doorbraak, in de loop van de jaren vijftig, van de Amerikaanse Beat Generation. Aangezien grotere uitgeverijen en de gevestigde tijdschriften lange tijd terugschrokken voor de zowel inhoudelijk als formeel van de norm afwijkende uitingen van de Beats, verscheen hun werk aanvankelijk vooral in kleinere tijdschriften als de twee waaraan in dit artikel aandacht wordt besteed: de Chicago Review en Big Table. Aan de hand van een beschrijving van de inhoud van deze twee tijdschriften wordt geprobeerd duidelijk te maken hoe het werk van de Beat Generation zich in deze tijdschriften gaandeweg een eigen plaats verwierf. Speciale aandacht wordt besteed aan de rol van de redacteuren Irving Rosenthal en Paul Carroll; door zijn uitgekiende strategie om voor het omstreden werk van Beat-auteur William S. Burroughs geleidelijk een steeds grotere plaats in te ruimen, bepaalde vooral Rosenthal het veranderende karakter van de Chicago Review. De veranderingen bij dat tijdschrift verliepen niet zonder slag of stoot en waren voor de eigenaar ervan, de University of Chicago, op een gegeven moment aanleiding om de Chicago Review aan censuur te onderwerpen. Ook deze censuur en de reactie erop, de oprichting van Big Table, worden in het artikel belicht.
Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R
When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.
Lêda Maria de Vargas Rebello
Full Text Available Com base em uma reportagem publicada recentemente sobre a tríade seca/fome/doença mental, cuja idéia central é a de que a miséria decorrente possa estar provocando distúrbios comportamentais na população nordestina atingida, buscamos refletir sobre o que essa suposta 'loucura' poderia estar representando para esse grupo de pessoas. Procuramos fazer uma leitura que envolvesse várias disciplinas e que ultrapassasse as explicações meramente causais, levando em conta que os transtornos relatados teriam significação a partir da articulação de elementos cognitivos, afetivos e experienciais, calcados nas relações sociais e culturais dos indivíduos. Nessa perspectiva, o discurso vai assumindo outras interpretações, mostrando que a enfermidade é um processo singular de construção.Based on a recently-published article on the triad of drought, hunger, and mental illness, in which the main idea is that destitution may be leading to behavioral disorders in the drought-plagued population of the Brazilian Northeast, we reflect on what this so-called "madness" may represent for this group of people. We attempt to analyze the issue from various disciplinary perspectives, going beyond merely causal explanations and taking into account that the reported disorders entail meanings following the articulation of cognitive, affective, and experiential elements founded on the social and cultural relations of individuals. From this point of view, the respective discourse assumes other interpretations, showing that illness is a singular process of construction.
This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.
Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.
Liotti, M; Brannan, S; Egan, G; Shade, R; Madden, L; Abplanalp, B; Robillard, R; Lancaster, J; Zamarripa, F E; Fox, P T; Denton, D
Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO(2) was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO(2-) was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The statistical contrast between the two conditions delineated a distributed network of primarily limbic/paralimbic brain regions, including multiple foci in dorsal anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, insula/claustrum, amygdala/periamygdala, lingual and middle temporal gyrus, hypothalamus, pulvinar, and midbrain. This pattern of activations was confirmed by a correlational analysis with breathlessness ratings. The commonality of regions of mesencephalon, diencephalon and limbic/paralimbic areas involved in primal emotions engendered by the basic vegetative systems including hunger for air, thirst, hunger, pain, micturition, and sleep, is discussed with particular reference to the cingulate gyrus. A theory that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness came from primal emotions engendered by immediate threat to the existence of the organism is discussed along with an alternative hypothesis by Edelman that primary awareness emerged with processes of ongoing perceptual categorization giving rise to a scene [Edelman, G. M. (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (Penguin, London)].
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance. In the control trial, subjects rested for 1,5 h. Ratings of subjective feelings of hunger was reported on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS at baseline (-20 and at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 mins after baseline. Repeated-measures, two factor ANOVA was used to examine differences between the four trials over time for hunger change. Between-trial differences at each time point were examined using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests when significant interactions were found. Two-way ANOVAs revealed significant trial (p=0.047 trial x time effects (p=0.041 and time (p=0.000 effects for hunger. Endurance+resistance exercise trial increases the feeling of hunger more than resistance exercises trial (p=0.021 and control trial (p=0.046. In conclusion, acute resistance+endurance exercise increases appetite in healthy woman.
Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients. I review multiple lines of evidence showing that hunger produces strong increases in these outcomes. I also review the literatures on food insufficiency and food insecurity to show that, within affluent societies, the poor experience a substantial burden of hunger, despite obtaining sufficient or excess calories on average. This leads to the distinctive prediction that hunger is an important mediator of the relationships between socioeconomic variables and the behavioral/psychological outcomes. This approach has a number of far-reaching implications, not least that some behavioral and psychological differences between social groups, though persistent under current economic arrangements, are potentially highly reversible with changes to the distribution of financial resources and food. PMID:28344567
Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Richard M Piech
Full Text Available How much we desire a meal depends on both the constituent foods and how hungry we are, though not every meal becomes more desirable with increasing hunger. The brain therefore needs to be able to integrate hunger and meal properties to compute the correct incentive value of a meal. The present study investigated the functional role of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex in mediating hunger and dish attractiveness. Furthermore, it explored neural responses to dish descriptions particularly susceptible to value-increase following fasting. We instructed participants to rate how much they wanted food menu items while they were either hungry or sated, and compared the rating differences in these states. Our results point to the representation of food value in the amygdala, and to an integration of attractiveness with hunger level in the orbitofrontal cortex. Dishes particularly desirable during hunger activated the thalamus and the insula. Our results specify the functions of evaluative structures in the context of food attractiveness, and point to a complex neural representation of dish qualities which contribute to state-dependent value.
Strauss, S A
The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.
von Braun, Joachim
Ending food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition is a pressing global ethical priority. Despite differences in food production systems, cultural values and economic conditions, hunger is not acceptable under any ethical principles. Yet, progress in combating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries has been discouraging, even as overall global prosperity has increased in past decades. A growing number of people are deprived of the fundamental right to food, which is essential for all other rights as well as for human existence itself. The food and nutrition crisis has deepened in recent years, as increased food price volatility and global recession affected the poor. In a strategic agenda, it will be necessary to promote pro-poor agricultural growth, reduce extreme market volatility and expand social protection and child nutrition action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A
The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.
Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Burgoyne, J. Ashley; Odijk, Daan; Honing, Henkjan; Grahn, Jessica A.
Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat, the beat is more difficult to find. However, it is unclear whether accents occurring off the beat alter beat perception similarly to missing accents on the beat. Moreover, no one has examined whether intensity accents influence beat perception more or less strongly than temporal accents, nor how musical expertise affects sensitivity to each type of accent. In two experiments, we obtained ratings of difficulty in finding the beat in rhythms with either temporal or intensity accents, and which varied in the number of accents on the beat as well as the number of accents off the beat. In both experiments, the occurrence of accents on the beat facilitated beat detection more in musical experts than in musical novices. In addition, the number of accents on the beat affected beat finding more in rhythms with temporal accents than in rhythms with intensity accents. The effect of accents off the beat was much weaker than the effect of accents on the beat and appeared to depend on musical expertise, as well as on the number of accents on the beat: when many accents on the beat are missing, beat perception is quite difficult, and adding accents off the beat may not reduce beat perception further. Overall, the different types of accents were processed qualitatively differently, depending on musical expertise. Therefore, these findings indicate the importance of designing ecologically valid stimuli when testing beat perception in musical novices, who may need different types of accent information than musical experts to be able to find a beat. Furthermore, our findings stress the importance of carefully designing rhythms for social and clinical applications of beat perception, as
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap semiconductor (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas. (author). 7 refs
Conway, Colleen; Marshall, Herbert; Hartz, Barry
This article offers instrumental directors at all levels some suggestions for the use of movement to facilitate "beat competency". We use the term beat competency to refer to a musician's ability to play with a consistent sense of pulse and balanced subdivision, as well as the eventual ability to bring that sense of pulse to reading…
Siegal, Gil; Glick, Shimon; Offer-Stark, Irit; Steinberg, Avraham
Force feeding of fasting hunger-striking prisoners is the subject of considerable controversy in Israel and elsewhere, posing a direct conflict between two basic ethical values: that of human life and respect for autonomy. The Israel Medical Association, as well as the World Medical Association, has taken the position that force feeding of such prisoners is an act of torture and is therefore unethical. However this paper presents an opposing view, which recently became the law in Israel, that, whereas the rights of prisoners to decree a hunger strike as a form of protest should be respected, if the prolongation of the strike reaches a stage of clear and present danger to the life and health of a prisoner, the saving of the prisoner's life must take precedence over considerations of autonomy. The paper present the steps that should be taken, including extensive and empathic efforts to persuade the prisoner to end his/her fast; gaining the approval of a hospital's ethics committee; and gaining the approval of a district court judge; the feeding is to be carried out in the most humane and sensitive manner as befitting a lifesaving procedure for any patient. This position is consistent with Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Israel's Patient Rights Law, Israel's "Do not stand idly by your fellow man's blood" Law, with several Israeli court decisions and in keeping with the dominant Israeli culture. Finally, instructions for physicians who object to such measures are discussed, ascertaining the freedom of conscience as well as preserving the life of the hunger-strikers.
Salt hunger is the behaviour of an animal suffering sodium deficiency. It is characterised by an increased motivation to seek and ingest sodium, and the ability to distinguish between sodium and other salts. Here I review the development of salt hunger in the rat. Salt hunger develops rapidly between birth and weaning. It can first be demonstrated 72 h postnatally when an intracerebroventricular injection of renin elicits greater swallowing of NaCl solution than water and greater mouthing of solid fragments of NaCl than of an artificial sweetener. However, sodium deficit per se cannot arouse the hunger at this age, and first elicits increased intake of NaCl only at 12 days-of-age. The next landmark is at 17 days-of-age when the hormonal synergy of aldosterone and central angiotensin II first elicits salt hunger, as it does in the adult. The specificity of the hunger for the sodium ion also develops postnatally: the 72 h-old sodium-hungry neonate does not distinguish between NaCl and other mono- and di-valent chloride salts but, increasingly during development, the sodium hungry pup distinguishes salts and by weaning age NaCl is clearly preferred to other salts almost as it is in adults. Early development may also be a sensitive period for determining lifelong preferences, and indeed, acute perinatal sodium depletion induces a lifelong enhancement of salt intake. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a behaviour develops precociously and how, when the behaviour becomes important at weaning, the rat pup is competent to meet its sodium requirements, and may be adapted to anticipate sodium deficit.
Lense, Miriam D; Dykens, Elisabeth M
Beat perception in music has been proposed to be a human universal that may have its origins in adaptive processes involving temporal entrainment such as social communication and interaction. We examined beat perception skills in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder. Musical interest and hypersociability are two prominent aspects of the WS phenotype although actual musical and social skills are variable. On a group level, beat and meter perception skills were poorer in WS than in age-matched peers though there was significant individual variability. Cognitive ability, sound processing style, and musical training predicted beat and meter perception performance in WS. Moreover, we found significant relationships between beat and meter perception and adaptive communication and socialization skills in WS. Results have implications for understanding the role of predictive timing in both music and social interactions in the general population, and suggest music as a promising avenue for addressing social communication difficulties in WS.
Paul Asir, M.; Jeevarekha, A.; Philominathan, P.
This paper deals with the generation of chaotic beats in a system of two forced dissipative LCR oscillators sharing a nonlinear element. The presence of two external periodic excitations and a common nonlinear element in the chosen system enables the facile generation of chaotic beats. Thus rendered chaotic beats were characterized in both time domain and phase space. Lyapunov exponents and envelope of the beats were computed to diagnose the chaotic nature of the signals. The role of common nonlinearity on the complexity of the generated beats is discussed. Real-time experimental hardware implementation has also been done to confirm the subsistence of the phenomenon, for the first time. Extensive Multisim simulations were carried out to understand, a bit more about the shrinkage and revivals of state variables in phase space.
Several improvements have been made to the beat wave experiment this year. We are now able to vary the magnetic field over a much larger range, the plasma density is more uniform, and the electron temperature is significantly higher than last year (making it easier to couple energy from the electrostatic wave into the electron distribution). We have found evidence that at higher magnetic fields, ω ce /ω pe > 1, that numerous electrostatic modes are excited. This may be due to the fact that for a bounded plasma, ω pe is allowed (for small wave numbers). Although we are still not sure why the rvec k matching criteria (rvec k 0 = rvec k 1 + rvec k e ) is not more restrictive. A 35 GHz microwave scattering diagnostic has been designed, built, and tested in order to make a less perturbing measure of the electrostatic wave
"Progress in combating hunger and undernutrition has been lagging for decades. Best practices to fight hunger and undernutrition have been available for a long while, but lack of political will among leaders and a lack of political power among the poor have hampered their implementation. Since indices have proven to be powerful tools for advocacy and are able to capture multifaceted phenomena, the Global Hunger Index (GHI) was developed to increase attention to the hunger problem and mobilize...
Valenzano, Joseph, Jr.
This article profiles Neil Cavuto, the host of "Your World with Neil Cavuto," who never seems to miss a beat as the poised and impeccably dressed TV journalist who delivers the latest business news, conducts guest interviews, and offers personal commentary. But this 47-year-old newsman has battled not only one, but two life-altering medical…
Albarwani, Sulayma; Munoz, M. Loretto; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Yahyaee, V. Saeed; Rizvi, Syed G.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Al-Anqoudi, Zahir M.; Bayoumi, Riad A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Snieder, Harold; Hassan, Mohammed O.
Objective: To estimate the heritability of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and beat-to-beat office BP and HR in an isolated, environmentally and genetically homogeneous Omani Arab population. Methods: Ambulatory BP measurements were recorded in 1,124 subjects with a mean age of 33.8
Conclusion: The beat-to-beat variation in AHR is significant in the context of CRT cut off values. A LOS optimisation offers a novel index to identify the optimal pacing site that accounts for both the mean and variation of the baseline measurement and pacing protocol.
Hinterseer, Martin; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Beckmann, Britt-Maria
Torsades de pointes arrhythmias (TdP) occur by definition in the setting of prolonged QT intervals. Animal models of drug induced Long-QT syndrome (dLQTS) have shown higher predictive value for proarrhythmia with beat-to-beat variability of repolarization duration (BVR) when compared with QT inte...
Lowe, Eugene T.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…
Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K
Binge eating has been associated with increased hunger, suggesting a role for impaired appetite regulation. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is ideally suited to examine whether hunger is a precipitant of binge eating but results from such studies have not been systematically reviewed. This study provides a meta-analysis of EMA studies that have examined hunger as an antecedent of binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced seven EMA studies with N = 180 participants. Meta-analyses were conducted to compare: (1) pre-binge eating hunger to average ratings of hunger, and (2) pre-binge eating hunger to hunger before regular eating. Across studies, hunger was significantly greater before binge eating compared with average hunger ratings, but was significantly lower before binge eating compared with before other eating episodes. Excessive hunger does not appear to be a precipitant of binge eating because higher levels of hunger are observed before regular eating episodes. However, lower hunger before food consumption may contribute to the experience of a particular eating episode as a binge. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R
Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'shunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Webb, Alastair J S; Mazzucco, Sara; Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M
Visit-to-visit and day-to-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events but only reflect 1 form of BPV. Beat-to-beat BPV can be rapidly assessed and might also be predictive. In consecutive patients within 6 weeks of transient ischemic attack or nondisabling stroke (Oxford Vascular Study), BPV (coefficient of variation) was measured beat-to-beat for 5 minutes (Finometer), day-to-day for 1 week on home monitoring (3 readings, 3× daily), and on awake ambulatory BP monitoring. BPV after 1-month standard treatment was related (Cox proportional hazards) to recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events for 2 to 5 years, adjusted for mean systolic BP. Among 520 patients, 26 had inadequate beat-to-beat recordings, and 22 patients were in atrial fibrillation. Four hundred five patients had all forms of monitoring. Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events independently of mean systolic BP (hazard ratio per group SD, stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.91]; P =0.005; cardiovascular events: 1.41 [1.08-1.83]; P =0.01), including after adjustment for age and sex (stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.92]; P =0.005) and all risk factors (1.40 [1.00-1.94]; P =0.047). Day-to-day BPV was less strongly associated with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29 [0.97-1.71]; P =0.08) but similarly with cardiovascular events (1.41 [1.09-1.83]; P =0.009). BPV on awake ambulatory BP monitoring was nonpredictive (stroke: 0.89 [0.59-1.35]; P =0.59; cardiovascular events: 1.08 [0.77-1.52]; P =0.65). Despite a weak correlation ( r =0.119; P =0.02), beat-to-beat BPV was associated with risk of recurrent stroke independently of day-to-day BPV (1.41 [1.05-1.90]; P =0.02). Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events, independently of mean systolic BP and risk factors but short-term BPV on ambulatory BP monitoring did not. Beat-to-beat BPV may be a useful additional marker of cardiovascular risk. © 2017 The Authors.
Brownell, L. E.
Discusses some possible solutions to the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the world. Suggested new approaches include (1) new cereal food products, (2) water plants as food sources, and (3) the use of microorganisms as a source of high protein materials. (LC)
Kindermann, Angelika; Kneepkens, Corneille Marie Francois; Stok, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth Maria; Engels, Michelle; Douwes, Adriaan Cornelis
OBJECTIVES: Pathological food refusal (PFR) is not rare in young children with chronic conditions requiring prolonged tube feeding. We investigated whether these children could be weaned from tube feeding with a multidisciplinary hunger provocation program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included
Curwood, Jen Scott
This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…
Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.
Worthington, Linda, Ed.
U.S. organizations interested in and involved with hunger issues and actions are described in this annotated listing. There are four major sections: (1) non-government organizations; (2) regional agencies; (3) government organizations, including United Nations and multilateral agencies, U.S. Congress, and federal government agencies; and (4)…
Reviews "Hunger of Memory," a 1981 book by Richard Rodriguez. Contrasts demands by university students that they be taught by minority faculty members with Rodriguez's awareness that cultural differences between instructors and disadvantaged students are an important factor in enabling such students to join the educational elite in…
Zero Hidden Hunger: From Nariño to Colombia. Did you know that in Nariño...? • Children under five have twice the nutritional deficiencies in zinc and iron than the rest of the country (ENSIN 2010). • The menus in government meal programmes include yellow potatoes twice a week and white potatoes three times a week.
Rijn, van I.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.
An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three
Unless, these twin problems are tacked urgently, they are likely to undermine the survival of Nigeria as a nation. In this regard Nigeria can learn from the experience of the United States of America, which has been able to reduce its poverty and hunger to a minimum level. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research Vol.
Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Rodriguez, Daniele
We refer to hospitalized convicted hunger strikers in Padua Hospital who decided to fast for specific reasons, often demanding, to be heard by the judge, to complain about the existing custodial situation or to claim unjust treatment. The medical ethics of hunger strikers are debated because the use of force feeding by physicians is widely condemned as unethical, but courts, in Italy, sometimes order to transfer the convicted person to hospital and oblige healthcare practitioners to perform forcible feeding. This can engender a profound insecurity for the physicians taking action on the one hand, while preventing patients from fully availing themselves of this principle of self-determination on the other. Physicians are mainly concerned about how to manage this situation and they may request ethical consultation. When it comes to managing hospitalized hunger strikers, the ethics consultant may be able to facilitate the relationship between physicians and hunger strikers, enhance the latter's trust in the former, ensuring that strikers are aware of the risks associated with their fasting, and helping them to arrive of their own free will at the right decision concerning their behavior and their demands.
Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica
The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…
Review of The Last Hunger Season. D Zarembka. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose
Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...
Keislar, Douglas Fleming
Three psychoacoustic experiments were conducted using musically experienced subjects. In the first two experiments, the interval tested was the perfect fifth F4-C5; in the final one it was the major third F4-A4. The beat rate was controlled by two different methods: (1) simply retuning the interval, and (2) frequency-shifting one partial of each pair of beating partials without changing the overall interval tuning. The second method introduces inharmonicity. In addition, two levels of beat amplitude were introduced by using either a complete spectrum of 16 equal-amplitude partials per note, or by deleting one partial from each pair of beating partials. The results of all three experiments indicate that, for these stimuli, beating does not contribute significantly to the percept of "out-of-tuneness," because it made no difference statistically whether the beat amplitude was maximal or minimal. By contrast, mistuning the interval was highly significant. For the fifths, frequency-shifting the appropriate partials had about as much effect on the perceived intonation as mistuning the interval. For thirds, this effect was weaker, presumably since there were fewer inharmonic partials and they were higher in the harmonic series. Subjects were less consistent in their judgments of thirds than of fifths, perhaps because the equal-tempered and just thirds differ noticeably, unlike fifths. Since it is unlikely that beats would be more audible in real musical situations than under these laboratory conditions, these results suggest that the perception of intonation in music is dependent on the actual interval tuning rather than the concomitant beat rate. If beating partials are unimportant vis-a-vis interval tuning, this strengthens the argument for a cultural basis for musical intonation and scales, as opposed to the acoustical basis set forth by Helmholtz and others.
Osorio, M.; Pereyra, C. J.; Gau, D. L.; Laguarda, A.
Nowadays, smartphones are in everyone’s life. Apart from being excellent tools for work and communication, they can also be used to perform several measurements of simple physical magnitudes, serving as a mobile and inexpensive laboratory, ideal for use physics lectures in high schools or universities. In this article, we use a smartphone to analyse the acoustic beat phenomena by using a simple experimental setup, which can complement lessons in the classroom. The beats were created by the superposition of the waves generated by two tuning forks, with their natural frequencies previously characterized using different applications. After the characterization, we recorded the beats and analysed the oscillations in time and frequency.
We describe a multipole expansion for the low-Reynolds-number fluid flows generated by a localized source embedded in a plane with a no-slip boundary condition. It contains 3 independent terms that fall quadratically with the distance and 6 terms that fall with the third power. Within this framework we discuss the flows induced by a beating cilium described in different ways: a small particle circling on an elliptical trajectory, a thin rod and a general ciliary beating pattern. We identify the flow modes present based on the symmetry properties of the ciliary beat.
Nakatani, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Zhou, J.; Greenberg, N. L.; Savage, R. M.; McCarthy, P. M.
OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of left ventricular (LV) unloading by an implantable ventricular assist device on LV diastolic filling. BACKGROUND: Although many investigators have reported reliable systemic and peripheral circulatory support with implantable LV assist devices, little is known about their effect on cardiac performance. METHODS: Peak velocities of early diastolic filling, late diastolic filling, late to early filling ratio, deceleration time of early filling, diastolic filling period and atrial filling fraction were measured by intraoperative transesophageal Doppler echocardiography before and after insertion of an LV assist device in eight patients. A numerical model was developed to simulate this situation. RESULTS: Before device insertion, all patients showed either a restrictive or a monophasic transmitral flow pattern. After device insertion, transmitral flow showed rapid beat to beat variation in each patient, from abnormal relaxation to restrictive patterns. However, when the average values obtained from 10 consecutive beats were considered, overall filling was significantly normalized from baseline, with early filling velocity falling from 87 +/- 31 to 64 +/- 26 cm/s (p assistance produced significant beat to beat variation in filling indexes, but overall a normalization of deceleration time as well as other variables. CONCLUSIONS: With LV assistance, transmitral flow showed rapidly varying patterns beat by beat in each patient, but overall diastolic filling tended to normalize with an increase of atrial contribution to the filling. Because of the variable nature of the transmitral flow pattern with the assist device, the timing of the device cycle must be considered when inferring diastolic function from transmitral flow pattern.
Full Text Available A challenge in teaching English composition is helping students envision plagiarism as “borrowing” – showing love to author(s and/or text(s that further their argument(s, versus “stealing” – biting someone’s style and words. Alastair Pennycook (1996 and Sarah Wakefield (2006 have contributed pieces to the elaborate plagiarism/citation puzzle, while Houston Baker situated the hip-hop DJ in seminal text Black Studies, Rap and the Academy (1993. Merging these moments introduces critical questions: Did Diddy invent “the remix” or become the illest beat-biter ever? How did DJ/Producers Pete Rock and Large Professor pay homage to previous musical genres to further hip-hop remix production without just taking 4-8 bar samples, copying sources and claiming unethical ownership? And how can this discussion provide students a window into citation conversations? This article will remix these “texts” to introduce the idea of DJ Rhetoric to discuss plagiarism. Through the lens of the hip-hop DJ in writing classrooms, one can foster an appreciation of the difference between “love and theft” in student citation. This article will couple examples from hip-hop music/culture while simultaneously remixing interviews from various hip-hop DJ/producers to help answer these difficult questions.
Filos, Dimitrios; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Tachmatzidis, Dimitris; Vassilikos, Vassilios; Maglaveras, Nicos
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The initiation and the perpetuation of AF is linked with phenomena of atrial remodeling, referring to the modification of the electrical and structural characteristics of the atrium. P-wave morphology analysis can reveal information regarding the propagation of the electrical activity on the atrial substrate. The purpose of this study is to investigate patterns on the P-wave morphology that may occur in patients with Paroxysmal AF (PAF) and which can be the basis for distinguishing between PAF and healthy subjects. Vectorcardiographic signals in the three orthogonal axes (X, Y and Z), of 3-5 min duration, were analyzed during SR. In total 29 PAF patients and 34 healthy volunteers were included in the analysis. These data were divided into two distinct datasets, one for the training and one for the testing of the proposed approach. The method is based on the identification of the dominant and the secondary P-wave morphology by combining adaptive k-means clustering of morphologies and a beat-to-beat cross correlation technique. The P-waves of the dominant morphology were further analyzed using wavelet transform whereas time domain characteristics were also extracted. Following a feature selection step, a SVM classifier was trained, for the discrimination of the PAF patients from the healthy subjects, while its accuracy was tested using the independent testing dataset. In the cohort study, in both groups, the majority of the P-waves matched a main and a secondary morphology, while other morphologies were also present. The percentage of P-waves which simultaneously matched the main morphology in all three leads was lower in PAF patients (90.4 ± 7.8%) than in healthy subjects (95.5 ± 3.4%, p= 0.019). Three optimal scale bands were found and wavelet parameters were extracted which presented statistically significant differences between the two groups. Classification between the two groups was
Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P
Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.
Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A
The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.
Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes
FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.
Full Text Available Common mullein weed (Verbascum thapsus has a large number of synonyms and old local “nick names” which connect the plant with mycobacteria. A strong history of medicinal use has been uncovered for the treatment of tuberculosis, tubercular skin disease, leprosy, and mycobacterial disease in animals. Here, we examine problems encountered in treating such diseases today, the historical and scientific links between mullein and pathogenic bacteria, and the possibility that this common weed could harbour the answer to beating one of the world's biggest infectious killers.
Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Santed, Miguel A; Reales, José M
The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beats yielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.
Nánási, Péter P; Magyar, János; Varró, András; Ördög, Balázs
Beat-to-beat variability of cardiac action potential duration (short-term variability, SV) is a common feature of various cardiac preparations, including the human heart. Although it is believed to be one of the best arrhythmia predictors, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood at present. The magnitude of SV is basically determined by the intensity of cell-to-cell coupling in multicellular preparations and by the duration of the action potential (APD). To compensate for the APD-dependent nature of SV, the concept of relative SV (RSV) has been introduced by normalizing the changes of SV to the concomitant changes in APD. RSV is reduced by I Ca , I Kr , and I Ks while increased by I Na , suggesting that ion currents involved in the negative feedback regulation of APD tend to keep RSV at a low level. RSV is also influenced by intracellular calcium concentration and tissue redox potential. The clinical implications of APD variability is discussed in detail.
Wang, Gaopin; Liu, Renguang; Chang, Qinghua; Xu, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Dianzhu
The micro waveform of His bundle potential can't be recorded beat-to-beat on surface electrocardiogram yet. We have found that the micro-wavelets before QRS complex may be related to atrioventricular conduction system potentials. This study is to explore the possibility of His bundle potential can be noninvasively recorded on surface electrocardiogram. We randomized 65 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia (exclude overt Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) to receive "conventional electrocardiogram" and "new electrocardiogram" before the procedure. His bundle electrogram was collected during the procedure. Comparative analysis of PA s (PA interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram), AH s (AH interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) and HV s (HV interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) interval recorded on surface "new electrocardiogram" and PA, AH, HV interval recorded on His bundle electrogram was investigated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between groups in HV s interval (49.63 ± 6.19 ms) and HV interval (49.35 ± 6.49 ms). Results of correlational analysis found that HV S interval was significantly positively associated with HV interval (r = 0.929; P electrocardiogram. Noninvasive His bundle potential tracing might represent a new method for locating the site of atrioventricular block and identifying the origin of a wide QRS complex.
with a social reality characterised by an abundance of food, feelings of hunger or fullness may relate to several social and normative arenas. This thesis investigates eating by venturing into an ethnographic exploration of the eater, and the range of sense-making practices with which eating connects. It poses......, the thesis offers insights into both the obvious differences and the perhaps less-obvious similarities between the norms and values related to eating practices, as observed among three very different groups of Danes: namely, gastric-bypass patients; young military recruits; and the performers and guests...... at a food performance theatre. Methodological and theoretically the thesis proposes a combination of a phenomenological account of eating, hunger and fullness with basic tenets from Actor-Network Theory to analyse the specific social and material circumstances that construct or enact those experiences...
the question: how might we understand the multidimensionality of eating when eating is considered to be an inherently embodied and embedded practice situated in various social and normative arenas of everyday life? Based on an anthropological fieldwork conducted in Denmark over a period of two years...... with a social reality characterised by an abundance of food, feelings of hunger or fullness may relate to several social and normative arenas. This thesis investigates eating by venturing into an ethnographic exploration of the eater, and the range of sense-making practices with which eating connects. It poses...... at a food performance theatre. Methodological and theoretically the thesis proposes a combination of a phenomenological account of eating, hunger and fullness with basic tenets from Actor-Network Theory to analyse the specific social and material circumstances that construct or enact those experiences...
van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina
Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.
OLCUCU, Burcin; VATANSEVER, Serife; TIRYAKI-SONMEZ, Gul; BURKAN ONER, Seda
This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control) in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance). In the control trial, sub...
As well, hunger and malnutrition are on the increase worldwide, as the global food system fails to satisfy the growing demand of the urban consumer. ... Le 11 août 2017, des chercheurs et des praticiens se sont réunis à Montréal dans le cadre de la conférence d'une journée intitulée The Global Need for Formal Child Care.
Kitka, Tamás; Tuza, Sebestyén; Varga, Balázs; Horváth, Csilla; Kovács, Péter
Hypocaloric diet decreases both energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory exchange rate (RER), affecting the efficacy of dieting inversely. Energy deficit and hunger may be modulated separately both in human and animal studies by drug treatment or food restriction. Thus it is important to separate the effects of energy deficit and hunger on EE and RER. Three parallel and analogous experiments were performed using three pharmacologically distinct anorectic drugs: rimonabant, sibutramine and tramadol. Metabolic parameters of vehicle- and drug-treated and pair-fed diet-induced obese mice from the three experiments underwent common statistical analysis to identify effects independent of the mechanisms of action. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) test of tramadol was also performed to examine its anti-obesity efficacy. RER was decreased similarly by drug treatments and paired feeding throughout the experiment irrespective of the cause of reduced food intake. Contrarily, during the passive phase, EE was decreased more by paired feeding than by both vehicle and drug treatment irrespective of the drug used. In the active phase, EE was influenced by the pharmacological mechanisms of action. Tramadol decreased body weight in the DIO test. Our results suggest that RER is mainly affected by the actual state of energy balance; conversely, EE is rather influenced by hunger. Therefore, pharmacological medications that decrease hunger may enhance the efficacy of a hypocaloric diet by maintaining metabolic rate. Furthermore, our results yield the proposal that effects of anorectic drugs on EE and RER should be determined compared to vehicle and pair-fed groups, respectively, in animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Kulkarni-Rajasekhara, Sheetal; Beilstein-Wedel, Erin; Andresen, Elena M
Increasing numbers of US residents rely on informal caregiving from friends and family members. Caregiving can have substantial health and financial impacts on caregivers. This study addressed whether those impacts include adverse nutritional states. Specifically, we examined household food insecurity, individual hunger, and obesity among caregivers compared with noncaregivers. We analyzed 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Oregon. The Caregiving Module was administered to a random subset of 2,872 respondents. Module respondents included 2,278 noncaregivers and 594 caregivers providing care or assistance to a friend or family member with a health problem or disability. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between caregiving status and each of our dependent variables. Caregivers had significantly greater odds of reporting household food insecurity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, P = .003) and personal hunger (OR = 2.89, P = .002), even after controlling for income and other correlates of food insecurity. There were no significant differences in obesity between caregivers and noncaregivers. Caregiving is associated with increased risk of food insecurity and hunger in Oregon, suggesting that careful attention to the nutritional profile of households with family caregivers is needed in this population.
Shingirai S. Mugambiwa; Happy M. Tirivangasi
This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2) as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and ...
Campbell, J C
This paper reports a more in-depth analysis of wife beating from a cross-cultural perspective. As background for the analysis, the methodological, operationalization, and measurement in previous cross-cultural research on wife beating is examined. Subsequently, a review of findings from these studies and the theoretical explanations from selected disciplines are presented as the basis of selection of variables expected to affect the presence and severity of wife abuse in a given culture. These variables are then examined with evidence from female perspective ethnographies on eleven different societies. This cross-cultural analysis of wife beating has illuminated more issues of methodology and variations of patterns than it has answered any questions about what may increase the frequency and severity of wife-beating in a given culture. It is possible that the beating of wives is a personal expression of hostility against women that may be expressed in addition to, or instead of, institutionalized aggression toward women in that culture. As such, wife beating can take many forms. It can be an indication of manhood, a means of personal control, a reflection of personal animosity, and an expression of sexual jealousy. These personal forms would be paralleled by societal expression such as gang rape, control of women by exclusion from the public sphere, general hostility between sexes, and the virtue of women becoming an issue of extended family and community honor. In conclusion, the importance of the variables is summarized and directions for future cross-cultural research on wife beating are suggested.
Okello, Julius J.; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan; Shikuku, Kelvin M.
The problem of hidden hunger has emerged as one of the major development issues alongside food security. This problem highlights the likelihood of households having access to inadequate amount of key micronutrients in a diet despite having access to adequate quantities of food. , This paper uses a recent detailed household consumption data to investigate households’ nutritional knowledge, the diversity of diets consumed, and the micronutrient uptake, focusing specifically on Vitamin A. The st...
Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit
The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)
Slyper, Arnold H; Kopfer, Kim; Huang, Wei-Min; Re'em, Yochai
This quality improvement program examined self-reported hunger, over-eating, and eating speed in obese and normal-weight children and adolescents prior to an interventional component. Food frequency questionnaires were presented to 127 obese and 42 normal-weight patients, and perceived hunger, food intake and eating speed were rated. Obese patients reported significantly greater hunger than normal-weight patients (62.2% vs. 21.4%, pHunger and speed of eating were also highly associated (phunger and eating speed were highly prevalent in these obese pediatric patients and may reflect abnormalities of satiety and satiation.
Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju
To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfood AL group and the hunger-resistant food IF group, the values of fasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pfood IF group (Pfood AL group, standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group. The regimen of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.
This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus
Bingham, R.; Mori, W.B.
The beat wave accelerator depends on the generation of a large amplitude plasma wave with a phase velocity close to the velocity of light c. The plasma wave (ωsub(p), ksub(p)) is generated by beating colinear laser beams (ω 1 , k 1 ) and (ω 2 ,k 2 ) with ωsub(p) = ω 1 -ω 2 , ksub(p) = k 1 -k 2 . Since the process involves both large amplitude transverse and longitudinal waves, various nonlinear instabilities associated with either wave may occur. The object of the article is to discuss some of the processes that may compete with the beat wave generation listing their threshold and growth rate. (author)
Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens
Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.
Fasoli, A.; Lister, J.B.; Dobbing, J.A.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Sharapov, S.; Sibley, A.
The resonant excitation of Alfven Eigenmodes by ICRH beat waves has been attempted experimentally on JET tokamak plasmas. Toroidicity induced AE are excited when the difference frequency between two ICRH antennas is of the order of the central frequency of the relative Alfven continuum gap. The relatively large amplitudes for the TAE driven ICRH beat waves suggest that this new non-linear excitation mechanism could allow investigations into the effects of AE on particle orbits and should be taken into account in ICRH heated thermonuclear plasmas. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs
Pratt, H; Starr, A; Michalewski, HJ; Dimitrijevic, A; Bleich, N; Mittelman, N
Objective: To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6 Hz binaural beats in 250 Hz or 1000 Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Methods: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000 Hz to one ear and 3 or 6 Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3 Hz and 6 Hz, in base frequencies of 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. Tones were 2000 ms in duration and presented...
Vanbavinckhove, G; Calaga, R; Miyamoto, R; Tomas, R
During the 2011 LHC run several measurements and cor- rection campaigns were conducted. As a result a peak β- beat of 10% level was achieved. This level, well below the specified tolerances of the LHC, improves the aperture margins and helps minimize the luminosity imbalance be- tween the different experiments. A combination of local corrections at the insertion regions and an overall global correction were used to achieve this record low beta-beat. The sequence of the optics corrections and stability along the 2011 run are reported.
Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie
Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anand, Suchith; Hogan, Patrick; Brovelli, Maria; Schaap, Ben; Musker, Ruthie; Laperrière, André
The initial ideas for Open Geospatial Science  were presented nearly a decade ago. They build upon the proposition of Open science which argues that scientific knowledge develops more rapidly and productively if openly shared (as early as is practical in the discovery process). The key ingredients that make Open Geospatial Science possible are enshrined in Open Principles, i.e.: open source geospatial software, open data, open standards, open educational resources, and open access to research publications. OpenCitySmart is an initiative of Geo for All  that aims to develop a suite of tools for city-related infrastructure management (utilities, traffic, services, etc.). Its purpose will be to continually refine and add functionality that not only streamlines operational efficiency but also considers the need for sustainability and quality of urban life. OpenCitySmart employs Open solutions to build richer tools that empower organisations and individuals to utilizespatial and non-spatial data alike. This will create opportunities for innovation both globally and locally. As the population of cities grow, the concern of food security will shift from rural to urban areas. Currently, nearly 800 million people struggle with debilitating hunger and malnutrition and can be found in every corner of the globe. That's one in every nine people, with the majority being women and children. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN)  supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable to deal with the urgent challenge of ensuring world food security. A core principle behind GODAN is that a solution to Zero Hunger lies within existing, but often unavailable, agriculture and nutrition data. Through an online survey, GODAN found that the most needed data type across its 430+ partner network was geospatial data. Through the GODAN Europa Challenge we want to bring together
Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan
Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.
Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…
Sullivan, Ashley F.; Choi, Eunyoung
Noting that the persistence of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is an issue of pressing social and public health concern, this study examined the magnitude and severity of hunger and food insecurity in U.S. households in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data were obtained from the August 1998, April 1999, and…
...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... 245 RIN 0584-AE14 Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger... rule implements several nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010...
United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.
This document comprises a report on the status of hunger and homelessness during 1989 in 27 major American cities. A survey was used to gather the following information: (1) demand for emergency food and shelter assistance and the capacity to meet the demand; (2) causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the affected populations;…
Lowe, Eugene T.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…
Lowe, Eugene T.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…
Waxman, Laura DeKoven
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…
Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.
To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…
Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R
Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino de
This article provides a new interpretation of Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], by Josué de Castro, focusing on the convergence of three fields of knowledge: geography, clinical science, and epidemiology. Although there is a certain commonality in the methodological procedures, the book offers multiple configurations of objects and a cross-disciplinary theoretical framework for explaining the phenomenon of hunger.
The Beat the Flood challenge involves designing and building a model flood-proof home, which is then tested in "flood" conditions. It is set on the fictitious Watu Island. The children form teams, with each team member being assigned a responsibility for the duration of the task--team leader, chief recorder, and resource manager. This…
Magezi E. Baloyi
Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour.
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.
Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands or other intimate male partners. Although violence against women is pervasive, there are only few studies documenting the magnitude of the problem especially among the working class. The civil service comprises of persons from all ...
The study carried out in 1982-83 at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to examine how one might use the beat-wave principle to construct a useful high energy accelerator is reviewed, and comments are made on later developments. A number of problems are evident to which solutions cannot at present be foreseen. (author)
Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk
'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians
Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D.; Moody, George B.
This editorial reviews the background issues, the design, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology (CinC) 2014 Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Our major focus was to accelerate the development and facilitate the comparison of robust methods for locating heart beats in long-term multi-channel recordings. A public (training) database consisting of 151,032 annotated beats was compiled from records that contained ECGs as well as pulsatile signals that directly reflect cardiac activity, and other signals that may have few or no observable markers of heart beats. A separate hidden test data set (consisting of 152,478 beats) is permanently stored at PhysioNet, and a public framework has been developed to provide researchers the ability to continue to automatically score and compare the performance of their algorithms. A scoring criteria based on the averaging of gross sensitivity, gross positive predictivity, average sensitivity, and average positive predictivity is proposed. The top three scores (as of March 2015) on the hidden test data set were 93.64%, 91.50%, and 90.70%. PMID:26217894
Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D; Moody, George B
This editorial reviews the background issues, the design, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology (CinC) Challenge 2014, published in the concurrent focus issue of Physiological Measurement. Our major focus was to accelerate the development and facilitate the comparison of robust methods for locating heart beats in long-term multi-channel recordings. A public (training) database consisting of 151 032 annotated beats was compiled from records that contained ECGs as well as pulsatile signals that directly reflect cardiac activity, and other signals that may have few or no observable markers of heart beats. A separate hidden test data set (consisting of 152 478 beats) is permanently stored at PhysioNet, and a public framework has been developed to provide researchers with the ability to continue to automatically score and compare the performance of their algorithms. A scoring criteria based on the averaging of gross sensitivity, gross positive predictivity, average sensitivity, and average positive predictivity is proposed. The top three scores (as of March 2015) on the hidden test data set were 93.64%, 91.50%, and 90.70%.
Moers, Cyril; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger J.
New indications for organ transplantation combined with a stagnating number of available donor grafts have severely lengthened the waiting list for almost all types of transplantations. This has led to a renewed interest in non-heart beating (NHB) donation, as a possible solution to bridge the gap
Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Fisher, D.L.; Mima, Kunioki; Koga, J.
Non-Hamiltonian manipulation of internal structure of phase space of charged particle beams can result in much faster cooling than the conventional stochastic cooling. The longitudinal emittance reduction is accomplished by the ponderomotive force of the beat between the undulator and the laser adjusted appropriate in its broadband spectrum through feedback at each turn. (author)
Mollakazemi, M Javad; Atyabi, S Abbas; Ghaffari, Ali
The most straightforward method for heart beat estimation is R-peak detection based on an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Current R-peak detection methods do not work properly when the ECG signal is contaminated or missing, which leads to the incorrect estimation of the heart rate. This raises the need for reliable algorithms which can locate heart beats in continuous long-term multimodal data, allowing robust analysis.In this paper, three peak detectors are evaluated for heart beat detection using various cardiovascular signals. One of the peak detectors is a new general peak detector (GPD) algorithm which is applicable on ECG and other pulsatile signals to compensate for the limitation of QRS detection. This peak detector algorithm is adaptive and independently finds amplitude characteristics for every recording, while not tuned for ECG or other pulsatile signals. Three strategies, which are different disciplines of detectors, are then proposed while the fusion method remains the same in all strategies. In the first strategy, the ECG and the lowest-indexed signal of general blood pressure (BP), arterial blood pressure (ART) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) are processed through gqrs and wabp (from the PhysioNet library), respectively. In the second strategy, all beats in different signals are detected by GPD. In the third strategy, ECG and other signals are processed by gqrs and GPD, respectively. In all three strategies two criteria are used in order to fuse the detections. The first criterion is based on the number of candidate detections in a specific time period, based on which signals of interest are selected. The second fusion criterion is based on the regularity of the derived intervals between subsequent candidate detections. If the number of detections in ECG and one of BP, ART and PAP signals have reasonable physiological range, a new signal is generated in which they are coupled with each other. Heart beats can more easily be detected in noisy
Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil J; Holm, Lotte
Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force patients to fundamentally change their eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting, and experiencing hunger and fullness. In this paper, we explore how patients begin to eat again after gastric bypass surgery. The empirical data used here are drawn from a Danish fieldwork study of individuals undergoing obesity surgery. The material presented shows how the patients used instructions on how to eat. We explore the ways in which diverse new experiences and practices of hunger and fullness are part of the process of undergoing surgery for severe obesity. New sensory experiences lead to uncertainty; as a result, patients practice what we term mimetic eating, which reflects a 'sensory displacement' and hence a rupture in the person's sense of self and social relations. We suggest that eating should be conceptualised as a practice that extends beyond the boundaries of our bodies and into diverse realms of relations and practices, and that changing the way we eat also changes the fundamentally embodied experience of who we are. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Beutler, Lisa R; Chen, Yiming; Ahn, Jamie S; Lin, Yen-Chu; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A
Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state. We show that three gastrointestinal signals-serotonin, CCK, and PYY-are necessary or sufficient for these effects. In contrast, the hormone leptin has no acute effect on dynamics of these circuits or their sensory regulation but instead induces a slow modulation that develops over hours and is required for inhibition of feeding. These findings reveal how layers of visceral signals operating on distinct timescales converge on hypothalamic feeding circuits to generate a central representation of energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edlefsen, Miriam S; Olson, Christine M
To understand the social beliefs of volunteers in emergency feeding programs (EFPs) regarding hunger and whether volunteer experiences broadened understanding of hunger. An interpretivist paradigm and qualitative methods were used. Seventeen volunteers were recruited and interviewed from three EFPs. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Volunteering in EFPs increased volunteers' awareness of the prevalence of hunger in their communities. More involved volunteers had a greater understanding of the life situations of the hungry. The volunteers felt that increasing self-sufficiency and private responses were appropriate solutions to hunger. The volunteers' attitudes and social beliefs were similar to those of the general public. Interventions that facilitate interaction between volunteers and clients, promote reflection on volunteer experiences, and provide alternative viewpoints on poverty are needed to broaden volunteers' understanding of hunger and food insecurity.
López-Caballero, Fran; Escera, Carles
When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG) bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma) were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs), preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively). In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR). For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.
Full Text Available When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs, preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively. In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR. For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.
... no individual in ACF designated to work specifically on these nutrition- and hunger-related issues... Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC AGENCY: Office of...) announces the award of a single source cooperative agreement to the Congressional Hunger Center in...
Le Tran, Mai-Anh
The search for religious truth and depth in "fiction" invites a conceptualization of life and fictional narratives as "faith fictions"--narrative accounts of human experiences and the human condition that bridge this world and God. This article juxtaposes "Mother Crocodile", "Hunger", and "Lost in Translation" to highlight the ways in which they,…
Over one billion of the world's people are chronically hungry. For them, life is a hunger cycle characterized by vulnerability to disease, stunted physical and mental development, reduced energy and motivation, and low work productivity. This curriculum guide is designed to channel student awareness and concern into effective action. The…
Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer
Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.
Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P
Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.
The inhabitants of the Third World have to deal with problems such as population explosion, undernourishment, poverty and morbidity. The Green Revolution saved millions of people from hunger through the introduction of specially bred varieties of cereal in combination with mineral fertilization. The transition from the Green Revolution to the Genetic Revolution, which consists in the introduction of transgenic crops prepared using genetic engineering techniques, could represent the future for...
Bouwer, F.L.; Burgoyne, J.A.; Odijk, D.; Honing, H.; Grahn, J.A.
Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat,
deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin
The civil rights and social legislation of the Great Society following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was slow to provide relief for black in the South. Mississippi Senator James Eastland led an effort to defund Head Start, including his state's program, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), a program with a strong medical component. A senatorial committee, including Robert Kennedy, came to investigate CDGM in 1967. The unimaginable poverty, hunger, malnutrition and chronic disease found in black families was vehemently denied by Eastland. Visits of physician groups then corroborated the findings. The Mississippi delegation made sure that food relief never came and funding for CDGM ceased. Health services were lost to 6000 impoverished children. The epic television documentary, Hunger in America, soon premiered on network television. It triggered ongoing efforts to address health disparities, including implementation of the National Nutrition and Health Survey (NHANES). Similar physician leadership is needed to address the lasting health disparities in our country. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paiva, R P; Carvalho, P; Couceiro, R; Henriques, J; Antunes, M; Quintal, I; Muehlsteff, J
Systolic time intervals are highly correlated to fundamental cardiac functions. Several studies have shown that these measurements have significant diagnostic and prognostic value in heart failure condition and are adequate for long-term patient follow-up and disease management. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using heart sound (HS) to accurately measure the opening and closing moments of the aortic heart valve. These moments are crucial to define the main systolic timings of the heart cycle, i.e. pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). We introduce an algorithm for automatic extraction of PEP and LVET using HS and electrocardiogram. PEP is estimated with a Bayesian approach using the signal's instantaneous amplitude and patient-specific time intervals between atrio-ventricular valve closure and aortic valve opening. As for LVET, since the aortic valve closure corresponds to the start of the S2 HS component, we base LVET estimation on the detection of the S2 onset. A comparative assessment of the main systolic time intervals is performed using synchronous signal acquisitions of the current gold standard in cardiac time-interval measurement, i.e. echocardiography, and HS. The algorithms were evaluated on a healthy population, as well as on a group of subjects with different cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the healthy group, from a set of 942 heartbeats, the proposed algorithm achieved 7.66 ± 5.92 ms absolute PEP estimation error. For LVET, the absolute estimation error was 11.39 ± 8.98 ms. For the CVD population, 404 beats were used, leading to 11.86 ± 8.30 and 17.51 ± 17.21 ms absolute PEP and LVET errors, respectively. The results achieved in this study suggest that HS can be used to accurately estimate LVET and PEP. (paper)
Paiva, R P; Carvalho, P; Couceiro, R; Henriques, J; Antunes, M; Quintal, I; Muehlsteff, J
Systolic time intervals are highly correlated to fundamental cardiac functions. Several studies have shown that these measurements have significant diagnostic and prognostic value in heart failure condition and are adequate for long-term patient follow-up and disease management. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using heart sound (HS) to accurately measure the opening and closing moments of the aortic heart valve. These moments are crucial to define the main systolic timings of the heart cycle, i.e. pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). We introduce an algorithm for automatic extraction of PEP and LVET using HS and electrocardiogram. PEP is estimated with a Bayesian approach using the signal's instantaneous amplitude and patient-specific time intervals between atrio-ventricular valve closure and aortic valve opening. As for LVET, since the aortic valve closure corresponds to the start of the S2 HS component, we base LVET estimation on the detection of the S2 onset. A comparative assessment of the main systolic time intervals is performed using synchronous signal acquisitions of the current gold standard in cardiac time-interval measurement, i.e. echocardiography, and HS. The algorithms were evaluated on a healthy population, as well as on a group of subjects with different cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the healthy group, from a set of 942 heartbeats, the proposed algorithm achieved 7.66 ± 5.92 ms absolute PEP estimation error. For LVET, the absolute estimation error was 11.39 ± 8.98 ms. For the CVD population, 404 beats were used, leading to 11.86 ± 8.30 and 17.51 ± 17.21 ms absolute PEP and LVET errors, respectively. The results achieved in this study suggest that HS can be used to accurately estimate LVET and PEP.
Huo, Linsheng; Li, Xu; Chen, Dongdong; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing
The beat phenomenon may be observed in a free vibration test with piezoceramic sensors. In contrast to exponential decay vibration, the beat signal is characterized as decreasing or increasing periodically. The beat phenomenon in the piezoelectric sensors is caused by the combination of signals of an oblique impact coming from two orthogonal directions of structures. An impact direction determination method based on the beat signal is proposed in this paper. The proposed method was verified through an impact test on a steel column specimen. The results showed that the proposed method can effectively identify the impact direction by using the envelope of the beat signal of the piezoelectric sensor.
Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.
Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. On two occasions, EAH was assessed as snack food intake after adolescents ate to satiety. Controlling for body composition and demographics, parental restriction and family pressure to be thin were associated with greater EAH. Media pressure was related to more EAH in girls. Appearance orientation and preoccupation with becoming overweight mediated links between sociocultural pressures and EAH. Findings support the notion that sociocultural pressures and their links to body image may contribute to the course of disinhibited eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:23394966
Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.
Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander
Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.
Full Text Available Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.
McIntyre, Lynn; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott
Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage. Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3). A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power. Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Verma, Dilip; Wood, James; Lach, Gilliard; Herzog, Herbert; Sperk, Guenther; Tasan, Ramon
Emotions control evolutionarily-conserved behavior that is central to survival in a natural environment. Imbalance within emotional circuitries, however, may result in malfunction and manifestation of anxiety disorders. Thus, a better understanding of emotional processes and, in particular, the interaction of the networks involved is of considerable clinical relevance. Although neurobiological substrates of emotionally controlled circuitries are increasingly evident, their mutual influences are not. To investigate interactions between hunger and fear, we performed Pavlovian fear conditioning in fasted wild-type mice and in mice with genetic modification of a feeding-related gene. Furthermore, we analyzed in these mice the electrophysiological microcircuits underlying fear extinction. Short-term fasting before fear acquisition specifically impaired long-term fear memory, whereas fasting before fear extinction facilitated extinction learning. Furthermore, genetic deletion of the Y4 receptor reduced appetite and completely impaired fear extinction, a phenomenon that was rescued by fasting. A marked increase in feed-forward inhibition between the basolateral and central amygdala has been proposed as a synaptic correlate of fear extinction and involves activation of the medial intercalated cells. This form of plasticity was lost in Y4KO mice. Fasting before extinction learning, however, resulted in specific activation of the medial intercalated neurons and re-established the enhancement of feed-forward inhibition in this amygdala microcircuit of Y4KO mice. Hence, consolidation of fear and extinction memories is differentially regulated by hunger, suggesting that fasting and modification of feeding-related genes could augment the effectiveness of exposure therapy and provide novel drug targets for treatment of anxiety disorders.
Witt, Ashley A; Lowe, Michael R
Hedonic hunger, the appetitive drive to eat to obtain pleasure in the absence of an energy deficit, is associated with overeating and with loss of control over eating, but has not been investigated among individuals with eating disorders. (1) to compare participants with anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge type (AN-B/P), and bulimia nervosa (BN) on scores on the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a self-report measure of hedonic hunger; (2) to examine the relation between PFS scores and frequency of binge eating; and (3) to examine whether pre-treatment PFS scores predict weight change during treatment. The PFS and measures of eating disorder symptomatology were administered to female patients with AN (N = 119) and BN (N = 144) at admission to residential treatment. Participants with BN scored higher on the PFS compared to participants with AN-R or AN-B/P; there was a trend for those with AN-B/P to score higher than those with AN-R. PFS scores were positively associated with binge eating frequency among participants with BN; these associations remained significant when controlling for restraint and weight suppression. A similar pattern was found among participants with AN. PFS scores predicted weight change in AN but not BN. Results suggest that hedonic processes may be important in stimulating binge eating. Furthermore, hedonic appetite may facilitate weight restoration in AN. Further research should investigate whether pre-treatment PFS scores have prognostic significance with respect to eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood-states. Here we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation. We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to auditory beat stimulation and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural and binaural beat frequencies in cognition and mood-states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of auditory beat stimulation.
Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Doeon; Trifonov, Artur V; Kim, Taeyoung; Cha, Soonyoung; Sung, Ji Ho; Cho, Sungjun; Shim, Wooyoung; Jo, Moon-Ho; Choi, Hyunyong
Quantum beats, periodic oscillations arising from coherent superposition states, have enabled exploration of novel coherent phenomena. Originating from strong Coulomb interactions and reduced dielectric screening, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit strongly bound excitons either in a single structure or hetero-counterpart; however, quantum coherence between excitons is barely known to date. Here we observe exciton quantum beats in atomically thin ReS 2 and further modulate the intensity of the quantum beats signal. Surprisingly, linearly polarized excitons behave like a coherently coupled three-level system exhibiting quantum beats, even though they exhibit anisotropic exciton orientations and optical selection rules. Theoretical studies are also provided to clarify that the observed quantum beats originate from pure quantum coherence, not from classical interference. Furthermore, we modulate on/off quantum beats only by laser polarization. This work provides an ideal laboratory toward polarization-controlled exciton quantum beats in two-dimensional materials.
Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap
Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Mir, Zahid; Shahid, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Shahbaz, A.
The beat phenomenon due to the coupling of two signals at slightly different frequencies that generates the low frequency signal is studied. The linear dispersive properties of the pump and sideband are analyzed. The modified nonlinear dispersion relation through the field coupling of linear modes against the beat frequency is derived in the homogeneous quantum dusty magnetoplasmas. The dispersion relation is used to derive the modified growth rate of three wave parametric instability. Moreover, significant quantum effects of electrons through the exchange-correlation potential, the Bohm potential, and the Fermi pressure evolved in macroscopic three wave interaction are presented. The analytical results are interpreted graphically describing the significance of the work. The applications of this study are pointed out at the end of introduction.
Li, Weidong; Zheng, Junnan; Zhao, Hengchi; Xu, Hongfei; Ni, Yiming
Abstract Background: Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas are rare. And only 15% of the papillary fibroelastomas are located on tricuspid valve. However, the treatment of papillary fibroelastomas varies. Case summary: We report a 75-year-old Chinese male who was hospitalized because of a right atrial mass found by echocardiography. Complete tumor excision along with Kay's tricuspid valvuloplasty surgery on beating heart under cardiopulmonary bypass was performed to the patient. Pathologic examina...
Full Text Available The textile material (warp is stressed cyclically at a relative high frequency during the weaving process. Therefore, the special measuring device for analysis of beat up force in the textile material during the weaving process, has been devised in the Weaving Laboratory of the TUL. This paper includes a description of this measuring device. The experimental part includes measurements results for various materials (PES and VS and various warp thread densities of the produced fabric.
Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak
Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... in dairy calves....
Isik, B K; Esen, A; Büyükerkmen, B; Kilinç, A; Menziletoglu, D
Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves are presented one to each ear at a steady intensity and frequency. We evaluated their effectiveness in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Sixty patients (30 in each group) who were to have impacted third molars removed were studied (experimental group: 20 women and 10 men, mean (range) age 24 (18-35) years, and control group: 22 women and 8 men, mean (range) age 28 (15-47) years). All patients were fully informed about the operation preoperatively, and their anxiety recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The local anaesthetic was given and the patients waited for 10minutes, during which those in the experimental group were asked to listen to binaural beats through stereo earphones (200Hz for the left ear and 209.3Hz for the right ear). No special treatment was given to the control group. In both groups anxiety was then recorded again, and the tooth removed in the usual way. The paired t test and t test were used to assess the significance of differences between groups. The degree of anxiety in the control group was unchanged after the second measurement (p=0.625), while that in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety (p=0.001). We conclude that binaural beats may be useful in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world – 32% of adults are currently living with HIV — and many Swazis are chronically food insecure — in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Results Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants’ lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access “healthy” foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Conclusions Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for ‘healthy foods’ and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways
Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin
Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability
Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Truin, Michiel; van Opstal, Jurren M
Increased proarrhythmia in dogs with chronic AV block (AVB) has been explained by ventricular remodeling causing a decrease in repolarization reserve. Beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) has been suggested to reflect repolarization reserve, in which high variability represents...... diminished reserve and larger propensity for repolarization-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. A subset of chronic AVB dogs (10%) suffers sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the assumption that repolarization defects constitute a potentially lethal proarrhythmic substrate, we hypothesized that BVR in SCD dogs...... are larger than in matched control chronic AVB dogs. From a population of 200 chronic AVB dogs, initially two groups were chosen retrospectively: 8 dogs that died suddenly (SCD) and 8 control dogs. Control dogs had a longer lifespan after AVB (10 to 18 weeks) than SCD dogs (5 to 10 weeks). All dogs had...
de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian
The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition
McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda
Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…
Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.
Rice is a globally important crop - it comprises 30% of total human caloric consumption - and will be an important crop in the face of expanding population growth. Unfortunately, it is often grown in flooded paddies whose swampy conditions allow microbes to produce the strong greenhouse gas, methane. Over 10% of anthropogenic methane emission to the atmosphere are attributed to rice cultivation. Fortunately, a water-saving irrigation method known as Alternate Wetting and Drying can reduce methane emissions by periodically drying the soil. In our experiments, the method has no effect on rice harvest yields. In our research with rice farmers in Arkansas, we work to evaluate the amount of methane reductions on different fields with this irrigation practice. This research aims to expand the scientific basis for carbon emission reductions programs that enable farmers to be paid for implementing this practice. There are still gaps in our knowledge about how much methane is produced and under what conditions. Our research involves the continuous detection of field methane emissions and correlates then to changes in environmental conditions like the height and temperature of paddy water. Understanding these relationships may help more farmers qualify for credits in the growing carbon emission reductions programs. Because many farmers are already collecting information about their irrigation practices to reduce water applications, we aim to help them re-use this data to more quickly qualify for carbon emissions reductions payments.
This research aims at analyzing the correlation between parents' awareness of anti-domestic violence in China, attitude and frequency of beating children. According to the literature analysis, this paper sets children's parents' anti-domestic violence cognition and attitude of beating children as independent variable, and the frequency of beating…
Man vs. Machine! In 1977 an IBM supercomputer \\'Deep Blue\\' beat the reigning World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in a 6 game chess match played under tournament conditions. This was the first time a machine beat a human at chess. It symbolized the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the potential for great good (and great harm) from machines that have aspects of human intelligence. During this lecture Susan Polgar, a pioneer for Women in Chess, will share her remarkable story as well as how technology has changed the world of chess.
Bolzán, Andrés; Mercer, Raúl
Nutritional status depicts not only the nourishing balance but also the conditions of life. Proper food availability, in form and amount, are aspects of food security. To determine the relationships between hunger perception and stunting. Stratified and multiple step sample from nine provinces from the north of Argentina (n= 3630, children between 6 months to 6 years old living under poor conditions). Hunger perception was explored according to the methodology of the Service of Economic Investigation of the Department of Agriculture of the United States. Row data were converted to z scores and compared against Argentinean growth standard. The comparison took into account the -2 standard deviation cut of point and the standardized prevalence of low height. 69.5% of the population experienced hunger, varying severe hunger between 38.0 to 48.0% according to provinces. The prevalence of stunting (children, food insecurity conditions and structural poverty conditions were associated with stunting.
Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Hingson, LaReina; Anaele, Agaptus; Sen, Soumitro; Jones, Kyle
Food insecurity and its most extreme form, hunger, have increased exponentially in the United States since 2006. This essay seeks to contribute to our understanding of hunger by attending to the context of the financial crisis as an organizing frame for understanding local meanings of hunger. Within a broader framework of the culture-centered approach (CCA) that works to identify and develop locally rooted solutions to food insecurity, we describe through locally grounded stories of food insecurity the financial climate where large percentages of U.S. households have been cast into poverty because of the crash of an unregulated economy. These local understandings of hunger in the context of the economy offer entry points for organizing a food-insecure coalition that seeks to address the stigma around food insecurity.
Piech, Richard M; Pastorino, Michael T; Zald, David H
While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. Participants were asked to detect targets which appeared in a rapid visual stream after different types of task irrelevant distractors. We observed that food stimuli acquired increased power to capture attention and prevent target detection when participants were hungry. This occurred despite monetary incentives to perform well. Our findings suggest an attentional mechanism through which hunger heightens perception of food cues. As an objective behavioral marker of the attentional sensitivity to food cues, the emotional attentional blink paradigm may provide a useful technique for studying individual differences, and state manipulations in the sensitivity to food cues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Waters, A; Hill, A; Waller, G
This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their nutritional behaviour, hunger levels and affective state. Cravings leading to a binge were associated with higher tension, lower mood and lower hunger than those cravings not leading to a binge. Levels of tension and hunger were the critical discriminating variables. The findings of the study support empirical evidence and models of emotional blocking in binge-eating behaviour and challenge the current cognitive starve-binge models of bulimia. The role of food cravings in the emotional blocking model is discussed in terms of a classically conditioned motivational state. Implications for treatment are addressed.
Tapper-Gardzina, Yvonne; Cotugna, Nancy
Hunger and food insecurity affect nearly 12 million children in the United States. Poverty is the foremost reason for hunger and food insecurity, but even the working poor sometimes have difficulty providing enough food for their household. Undernourished children may not present with severe clinical symptoms, but their ability to learn and psychosocial behavior can be affected. Feeding programs such as Kids Café can help decrease child hunger while improving learning and overall health. Kids Café's are operated by local food banks and sponsored by America's Second Harvest in partnership with ConAgra Foods, Inc. This article reviews the problem of child hunger and describes the Kids Café Program.
Evers, Catharine; Stok, F Marijn; Danner, Unna N; Salmon, Stefanie J; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A
As people are relatively incompetent in assessing the impact of visceral states on their behavior, two studies tested the hypothesis that hunger affects the extent to which people assess themselves as external eaters. In Study 1 participants' current self-reported hunger states were linked to their scores on an external eating scale. Hungrier participants perceived themselves more strongly as external eaters. In Study 2 hunger was experimentally manipulated, after which self-reported external eating was assessed. Hunger was found to affect people's self-reported external eating status, such that hungry participants scored higher and above the average norm score on external eating compared to satiated participants, who scored below this average norm score. The key implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H
Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Samuels, Francine; Zimmerli, Ellen J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Kissileff, Harry R.; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective This study aimed to test the hypothesis that, compared to similarly obese participants without BED, individuals with BED have a disturbance in the development of fullness and reduction of hunger during the course of a standard meal of large size. Method Thirteen patients with BED and 14 obese control participants consumed 975 grams of a milkshake. Participants received no information about how much they had eaten or how much of the meal remained to be consumed. Participants were interrupted after every 75 g consumed to rate hunger and fullness. Results Final fullness ratings were higher in patients with BED, but there were no differences in mean duration or mean rate of eating, or in changes in subjective ratings of hunger and fullness per gram of food. Conclusion The current study reports the surprising finding of no difference in reports of hunger and fullness between patients with BED and obese controls. PMID:18803172
Lincoln J. Colling
Full Text Available Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al., 2015 in an attempt to disentangle neural sensory and motor contributions to behavioral beat synchronization in children with dyslexia. Children tapped with both their left and right hands to every second beat of a metronome pulse delivered at 2.4 Hz, or listened passively to the beat. Analyses of preferred phase in EEG showed that the children with dyslexia had a significantly different preferred phase compared to control children in all conditions. Regarding SS-EPs, the groups differed significantly for the passive Auditory listening condition at 2.4 Hz, and showed a trend toward a difference in the Right hand tapping condition at 3.6 Hz (sensorimotor integration measure. The data suggest that neural rhythmic entrainment is atypical in children with dyslexia for both an auditory beat and during sensorimotor coupling (tapping. The data are relevant to a growing literature suggesting that rhythm-based interventions may help language processing in children with developmental disorders of language learning.
Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.
Mechiche, Hakima; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Robinet, Arnaud; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Devillier, Philippe
Although prostanoids are known to be involved in regulation of the spontaneous beating rate of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the various subtypes of prostanoid receptors have not been investigated in detail. In our experiments, prostaglandin (PG)F2α and prostanoid FP receptor agonists (fluprostenol, latanoprost and cloprostenol) produced a decrease in the beating rate. Two prostanoid IP receptor agonists (iloprost and beraprost) induced first a marked drop in the beating rate and then definitive abrogation of beating. In contrast, the prostanoid DP receptor agonists (PGD2 and BW245C) and TP receptor agonists (U-46619) produced increases in the beating rate. Sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1 and EP3 receptor agonist) induced marked increases in the beating rate, which were suppressed by SC-19220 (a selective prostanoid EP1 antagonist). Butaprost (a selective prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist), misoprostol (a prostanoid EP2 and EP3 receptor agonist), 11-deoxy-PGE1 (a prostanoid EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor agonist) did not alter the beating rate. Our results strongly suggest that prostanoid EP1 receptors are involved in positive regulation of the beating rate. Prostanoid EP1 receptor expression was confirmed by western blotting with a selective antibody. Hence, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express both prostanoid IP and FP receptors (which negatively regulate the spontaneous beating rate) and prostanoid TP, DP1 and EP1 receptors (which positively regulate the spontaneous beating rate). PMID:22984630
Kleinman, R E; Murphy, J M; Little, M; Pagano, M; Wehler, C A; Regal, K; Jellinek, M S
Results from a recent series of surveys from 9 states and the District of Columbia by the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) provide an estimate that 4 million American children experience prolonged periodic food insufficiency and hunger each year, 8% of the children under the age of 12 in this country. The same studies show that an additional 10 million children are at risk for hunger. The current study examined the relationship between hunger as defined by the CCHIP measure (food insufficiency attributable to constrained resources) and variables reflecting the psychosocial functioning of low-income, school-aged children. The study group included 328 parents and children from a CCHIP study of families with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years living in the city of Pittsburgh and the surrounding Allegheny County. A two-stage area probability sampling design with standard cluster techniques was used. All parents whose child was between the ages of 6 and 12 years at the time of interview were asked to complete a Pediatric Symptom Checklist, a brief parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's emotional and behavioral symptoms. Hunger status was defined by parent responses to the standard 8 food-insufficiency questions from the CCHIP survey that are used to classify households and children as "hungry," "at-risk for hunger," or "not hungry." In an area probability sample of low-income families, those defined as hungry on the CCHIP measure were significantly more likely to have clinical levels of psychosocial dysfunction on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist than children defined as at-risk for hunger or not hungry. Analysis of individual items and factor scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist showed that virtually all behavioral, emotional, and academic problems were more prevalent in hungry children, but that aggression and anxiety had the strongest degree of association with experiences of hunger. Children from families that
Afonso Gallegos, Ana; Trueba Jainaga, Jose Ignacio; Tarancon Juanas, Monica
A proper allocation of resources targeted to solve hunger is essential to optimize the efficacy of actions and maximize results. This requires an adequate measurement and formulation of the problem as, paraphrasing Einstein, the formulation of a problem is essential to reach a solution. Different measurement methods have been designed to count, score, classify and compare hunger at local level and to allow comparisons between different places. However, the alternative methods produce sig...
Dieser Artikel formuliert drei Thesen zur globalen Ernährungssicherheit: (1) Hunger ist ein moralisches Problem mit wirtschaftlichen und letztlich politischen Ursachen. (2) Kleinbauern verdienen Hilfe und Solidarität. Aber nicht deshalb, weil sie Kleinbauern, sondern weil sie Menschen sind, deren Menschenwürde und deren Menschenrecht durch Hunger und Armut verletzt wird. Folglich muss man ihnen helfen, unabhängig davon, womit sie ihren Lebensunterhalt bestreiten. (3) Die Kampagne gegen die Ag...
Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological sy...
Anne Gordon; Vanessa Oddo
This report summarizes current statistics on hunger, obesity, and type II diabetes among children living in Indian Country, American Indian reservations, and other tribal lands. It offers comparable statistics for the general population. It also describes how the U.S. Department of Agriculture's nutrition programs serve children in Indian Country and how provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and other recent initiatives might improve these services.
Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan
Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P hunger peaks (P hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T
A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Lynn; Bartoo, Aaron C; Pow, Jody; Potestio, Melissa L
To determine if household coping strategies for child hunger in Canada have changed over a decade (1996-2007). We applied t-tests to data derived from Cycle 2 (1996-1997; n=8165) and Cycle 7 (2006-2007; n=15,961) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to determine changes in household coping strategies for child hunger. Data were restricted to households with children aged 2-9 years, allowing for cross-sectional analysis of two independent samples. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds of reporting child hunger for socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of using different coping strategies. The national prevalence of child hunger fell from 1.5% in 1997 to 0.7% in 2007 (phunger (increased child age and household size, lack of home ownership, low household income, lone-parent status, family dysfunction) and hunger frequency (regular versus occasional) were similar in both NLSCY cycles. Utilization of food banks and other community resources as a method of coping with child hunger remained static despite an increase in national food banks/affiliated agencies in Canada (2,141 in 1998 to 3,540 in 2007). In contrast, there was an increased reliance on reducing household food variety, an internal coping mechanism, to manage child hunger (17.6% Cycle 2 to 35.1% Cycle 7; p=0.03). Community outreach programs between 1997 and 2007 had little impact on coping strategies utilized by households facing child hunger. Our results indicate that current initiatives fail to reach these families.
Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda
Full Text Available Geografia da Fome revela a associação harmoniosa da capacidade de argumentar com a segurança científica, um novo modo de pensar e de agir frente à realidade alimentar e nutricional e também uma abordagem pioneira no dimensionamento da fome coletiva como um fenômeno geograficamente universal. Admitiu, com base nas especificidades regionais, que as contribuições parciais poderiam compor um mapeamento caracterizador da universalidade do problema, permitindo construir uma imagem diferente do Brasil e do mundo, possibilitando a estruturação de um plano universal de combate à fome, abrindo novos caminhos para aqueles que buscam a correção de desequilíbrios regionais e a eliminação do subdesenvolvimento. Nesse livro-manifesto, Josué de Castro reinterpretou o papel da geografia clássica, incorporando uma das dimensões explicativas mais importantes, que é a da análise política, para desvendar a significação e conseqüências do desenvolvimento espacial desigual. A releitura de Geografia da Fome mostra que seus delineamentos conceituais e propositivos continuam vivos e constituem instrumentos indispensáveis para repensar criticamente a realidade brasileira e, em particular, a nordestina. Geografia da Fome, no seu cinqüentenário, torna-se um livro atual pela sua mensagem estimuladora e perturbadora.The Geography of Hunger, now the target of reflective reading 50 years after it was first published, shows the author' elegant combination of argumentative skill and scientific confidence. Josué de Castro's provocative focus is both a new way of thinking and acting towards the food and nutritional situation in Brazil and a pioneering approach to the issue of collective hunger as a geographically universal phenomenon. Based on regional specificities, the book admits that partial contributions may help establish a characteristic map of the problem's universal nature, thus helping build a different image of Brazil and the world and
Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen
In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.
Haque, Md Ahshanul; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed
Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children's health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6-59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43-2.45); p hunger. Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.
Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A
Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.
Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…
Magezi E. Baloyi
Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour. Tradisionele Afrikane is nog altyd daarvoor bekend dat hulle die instelling van die huwelik respekteer. Verbasend genoeg is vroueslanery egter ’n ou gevestigde gebruik wat vandag algemeen onder Afrikane voorkom. Die mate waartoe diepgewortelde gebruike soos vroueslanery as ’n manier om gesag af te dwing en orde in die huis te handhaaf, gekonfronteer sal moet word met wat as goeie praktyk beskou word vanuit die gesigspunt van die reg, die gemeenskap en pastorale versorgers, is dus ’n belangrike navorsingsvraag. Baie vroue dra fisiese en emosionele littekens wat deur hulle eggenote veroorsaak is. Alhoewel daar baie vorme van vrouemishandeling in familiesituasies voorkom, fokus hierdie artikel veral op vroueslanery wat om tradisionele en verwante redes beoefen word. Hierdie navorsing probeer vasstel of die redes vir
Milroy, R.D.; Capjack, C.E.; James, C.R.; McMullin, J.N.
The heating of a plasma in a solenoid, with a beat frequency harmonic which is excited at a frequency near to that of a Langmuir mode in a plasma, is examined. It is shown that at high temperatures the heating rate is very insensitive to changes in plasma density. The amount of energy that can be coupled to a plasma in a solenoid with this heating scheme is investigated by using a one-dimensional computer code which incorporates an exact solution of the relevant MHD equations. The absorption of energy from a high powered laser is shown to be significantly enhanced with this process. (author)
Run to the Beat is a half marathon event that is accompanied by live and pre-recorded music. The author was involved with the event as the lead consultant in the period 2007-2010. This case study examines the genesis of the event, the science on which it was predicated and how it was received by participating runners and the media. The primary driver for the event was the 2007 ban on personal listening devices by the International Amateur Athletics Federation, which outraged recreational runn...
Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.
Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.
Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander
Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat fre...
Beauchene, C.; Abaid, N; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, R; Leonessa, A
Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, hav...
Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E
The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.
Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig
We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or "hassles." Risk factors for child hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers' poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs.
Daniel J Cameron
Full Text Available The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played, continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously, and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second. The metres of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals. In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists’ superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.
Full Text Available Rapid ventricular pacing rates induces two types of beats following pacing cessation: recovery cycle length (RCL prolongation (overdrive suppression and RCL shortening (overdrive excitation. The goals of this study were to compare common experimental protocols for studying triggered activity in whole-heart preparations and differentiate between recovery beats using a new methodology. Post-pacing recovery beat cycle length (RCL and QRS were normalized to pre-paced R-R and QRS intervals and analyzed using a K-means clustering algorithm. Control hearts only produced suppressed beats: RCL ratio increased with rapid pacing (25±4.0%, n=10 without changing QRS duration. Rapid pacing during hypercalcemia + hypothermia (5.5 mM and 34°C produced significantly earlier excited beats (53±14%, n=5 with wider QRS durations (58±6.3%, n=5 than suppressed beats. Digoxin + hypothermia (0.75 M produced the most excited beats with significantly earlier RCL (44±3.2%, n=6 and wider QRS (60±3.1%, n=6 ratios relative to suppressed beats. Increasing pacing further shortened RCL (30±7.8%, n=6. In a prospective study, TTX (100 nM increased RCL ratio (15±6.0%, n=10 without changing the QRS duration of excited beats. The algorithm was compared to a cross-correlation analysis with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity. This ECG based algorithm distinguishes between triggered and automatic activity.
Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....
Context. The diffraction limit is considered as the absolute boundary for the angular resolution of a telescope. Non-linear optical processes, however, allow the diffraction limit to be beaten non-deterministically. Aims: We examine the possibility of overcoming the diffraction limit of a telescope through photon cloning processes, heralded by trigger events. Whilst perfect cloning is ruled out by quantum mechanics, imperfect cloning is attainable and can beat the diffraction limit on a reduced fraction of photons. Methods: We suggest to insert a layer of excited atoms in a pupil plane of the telescope. When a photon from the astronomical source passes the pupil, it stimulates the emission of identical photons by the excited atoms. The set of photons arrives on a coincidence detector, and the average position of simultaneously arriving photons is recorded. The contribution of spontaneous emissions is minimized by use of a trigger signal, implemented via a quantum-non-demolition measurement. Results: The proposed set-up - an optical amplifier triggered by a quantum-non-demolition measurement - allows to beat the diffraction limit of a telescope, at the price of a loss in efficiency. The efficiency may, however, be compensated for through increased exposure times. Conclusions: The main conclusion is the possibility in principle to improve the angular resolution of a telescope beyond the diffraction limit and thus to achieve high-angular resolutions with moderately sized telescopes.
Sedaghat M. H.
Full Text Available Background: The airway surface liquid (ASL, which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. Objective: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem. Methods: Hybrid finite difference-lattice Boltzmann-method (FB-LBM has been used to solve the momentum equations and to simulate cilia forces, and also the PCLmucus interface more accurately, immersed boundary method (IBM has been employed. The main contribution of the current study is to use an Oldroyd-B model as the constitutive equation of mucus. Results: Our results show that increasing CBF and decreasing mucus viscosity ratio have great effects on mucus flow, but the effect of viscosity ratio is more significant. The results also illustrate that the relation between cilia beat frequency and mean mucus velocity is almost linear and it has similar behavior at different values of viscosity ratio. Conclusion: Numerical investigation based on hybrid IB-FD-LBM has been used to study the effect of CBF at various mounts of mucus viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary clearance. The results showed that the effect of viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary transport process is more significant compared with CBF.
Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall
Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cushing, Christopher C; Benoit, Stephen C; Peugh, James L; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Inge, Thomas H; Zeller, Meg H
Initial outcome studies have reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is safe and efficacious for adolescents with extreme obesity. Although rapid weight loss is seen initially, data also show that modest weight regain typically occurs as early as the second postoperative year. The contribution of various psychological factors, including hedonic hunger, to postoperative weight regain has not previously been studied in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the variability in hedonic hunger and body mass index (BMI) over the initial 2-year period of weight loss and modest weight regain in adolescent RYGB recipients. A total of 16 adolescents completed the Power of Food Scale before surgery and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Height and weight were measured at each time point, from which BMI was calculated. Nonlinear trends were observed for time on both overall hedonic hunger and hedonic hunger specifically related to food available in the adolescent's environment. The BMI reduction during the first 18 months postoperatively was paralleled by reduction in hedonic hunger; increases in hedonic hunger also paralleled the modest BMI increase at 24 months. In growth analysis, significant power gains are available to models using 4 or more points of data. However, only large effect sizes that are>.85 were detectable with a sample of 16 patients. These data provide preliminary evidence that hedonic hunger is in need of further study in adolescent patients receiving RYGB both preoperatively and postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen
Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huh, Jimi; Shiyko, Mariya; Keller, Stefan; Dunton, Genevieve; Schembre, Susan M
Examine the association between perceived stress and hunger continuously over a week in free-living individuals. Forty five young adults (70% women, 30% overweight/obese) ages 18 to 24 years (Mean = 20.7, SD = 1.5), with BMI between 17.4 and 36.3 kg/m(2) (Mean = 23.6, SD = 4.0) provided between 513 and 577 concurrent ratings of perceived stress and hunger for 7 days via hourly, text messaging assessments and real-time eating records. Time-varying effect modeling was used to explore whether the within-day fluctuations in stress are related to perceived hunger assessed on a momentary basis. A generally positive stress-hunger relationship was confirmed, but we found that the strength of the relationship was not linear. Rather, the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and hunger changed throughout the day such that only during specific time intervals were stress and hunger significantly related. Specifically, the strength of the positive association peaked during late afternoon hours on weekdays (β = 0.31, p hunger associations that peak in the afternoon or evening hours. While we are unable to infer causality from these analyses, our findings provide empirical evidence for a potentially high-risk time of day for stress-induced eating. Replication of these findings in larger, more diverse samples will aid with the design and implementation of real-time intervention studies aimed at reducing stress-eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becher, Ann-Katrin; Höhne, Marlene; Axmacher, Nikolai; Chaieb, Leila; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen
Auditory stimulation with monaural or binaural auditory beats (i.e. sine waves with nearby frequencies presented either to both ears or to each ear separately) represents a non-invasive approach to influence electrical brain activity. It is still unclear exactly which brain sites are affected by beat stimulation. In particular, an impact of beat stimulation on mediotemporal brain areas could possibly provide new options for memory enhancement or seizure control. Therefore, we examined how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by auditory stimulation with beat frequencies corresponding to dominant EEG rhythms based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients. Monaural and binaural beat stimuli with beat frequencies of 5, 10, 40 and 80 Hz and non-superposed control signals were administered with low amplitudes (60 dB SPL) and for short durations (5 s). EEG power was intracranially recorded from mediotemporal, temporo-basal and temporo-lateral and surface sites. Evoked and total EEG power and phase synchronization during beat vs. control stimulation were compared by the use of Bonferroni-corrected non-parametric label-permutation tests. We found that power and phase synchronization were significantly modulated by beat stimulation not only at temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and surface sites, but also at mediotemporal sites. Generally, more significant decreases than increases were observed. The most prominent power increases were seen after stimulation with monaural 40-Hz beats. The most pronounced power and synchronization decreases resulted from stimulation with monaural 5-Hz and binaural 80-Hz beats. Our results suggest that beat stimulation offers a non-invasive approach for the modulation of intracranial EEG characteristics. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arnold, Taylor A; Johnston, Carol S; Lee, Chong D; Garza, Andrea M
Nearly one-third of college students are overweight or obese. Disinhibited eating, a phenomenon defined as the lack of self-restraint over food consumption prompted by emotional or external factors, is prevalent among college students and may be a target for intervention in this population. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is a form of disinhibited eating that has been studied extensively in children and adolescents, but there is little investigation of EAH among college students. In this research, a validated measure for assessing continual and beginning EAH in children and adolescents was modified and assessed in a free-living college population (n = 457; 84% F; 24.5 ± 7.6 years; 23.4 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)). Nine subscales grouped into three latent factors (emotion, external, and physical) accounted for 68% of the variance in continual EAH, and a separate set of nine subscales grouped into the same latent factors accounted for 71% of the variance in beginning EAH (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82 for continual EAH and 0.81 for beginning EAH). Female sex and sedentary behavior were significantly related to continual EAH, relationships driven by scores for the emotion factor, and to beginning EAH, relationships driven by scores for the physical factor. BMI was weakly related to the emotion factor (p = 0.06) for continuing EAH only. The observation that a sedentary lifestyle was associated to EAH (both continuing and beginning EAH) in a college population is a novel finding and reveals a possible strategy to moderate EAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This review analyses the study of the Paris World’s Fair of 1889 by Beat Wyss. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of Wyss’s interpretation, but also examines it in the larger context of literature on world fairs. It argues that Wyss’s book exemplifies a common pattern in scholarly studies of world fairs during the nineteenth century, namely, a tendency to focus on their function as forms of cultural representation, i.e. their role in advancing specific notions of regional, national and...
Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Spindler, A A
Although Mexican-Indian migrant workers live under precarious conditions in both Mexico and the USA, they have more access to food than they did in their original communities. The nutritional status and food security among the children of these workers have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, undernutrition and hunger among migrant children in a city on the US-Mexico border. During 2001-2002, a total of 1767 children from six schools from the Tijuana Indian school system was measured to assess anthropometric status. Third and fifth grade children were also interviewed for their perception of hunger experience and dietary intake by 24-h recall method. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 38%. Abdominal obesity was found in 26% of subjects, while 43% had both obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of undernutrition according to weight-for-age was 1.2%, and by height-for-age it was 4.8%. The prevalence of hunger was 2.5%, and at risk of hunger was 44%. Daily intake of food groups in servings was: 8.7 grains, 1.2 fruit, 1.0 vegetable, 2.1 milk and 2.6 meat. Only one child (0.07%) consumed The Apple of Health recommended portions. This study confirmed the coexistence of obesity, hunger, undernutrition and limited food group consumption among Indian children living in a prosperous and the largest US-Mexico border city.
Hadley, Craig; Sellen, Daniel
Little is known about the food insecurity situation among families resettled into the United States as part of the refugee resettlement program. This paper reports on a pilot study examining food insecurity among recently arrived refugee families (n=33). Objectives were to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of methods to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and child hunger, and to examine associations between child hunger and measures of socio-economic status and measures of acculturation. Results indicated that 85% of households were food insecure, and 42% experienced child hunger. Hunger was more likely to be indicated in households using foods stamps, with lower income, and lower education. Hunger was also more likely to be indicated in households where the primary shopper experienced difficulty shopping and with language. Results are in broad agreement with those reported in other studies and highlight economic and information barriers to achieving food security. These data suggest that further study of food insecurity is warranted among recently resettled refugee communities resettled in the United States.
Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B
Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.
Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O
Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.
Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn
Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Sourdis, Ioannis; De Zeeuw, Chris I
The Inter-Pulse-Interval (IPI) of heart beats has previously been suggested for security in mobile health (mHealth) applications. In IPI-based security, secure communication is facilitated through a security key derived from the time difference between heart beats. However, there currently exists no
Fleur L Bouwer
Full Text Available The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN, an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing.
Giménez, Marcos H.; Salinas, Isabel; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Castro-Palacio, Juan C.
The resonance phenomenon is widely known in physics courses. Qualitatively speaking, resonance takes place in a driven oscillating system whenever the frequency approaches the natural frequency, resulting in maximal oscillatory amplitude. Very closely related to resonance is the phenomenon of mechanical beating, which occurs when the driving and natural frequencies of the system are slightly different. The frequency of the beat is just the difference of the natural and driving frequencies. Beats are very familiar in acoustic systems. There are several works in this journal on visualizing the beats in acoustic systems. For instance, the microphone and the speaker of two mobile devices were used in previous work to analyze the acoustic beats produced by two signals of close frequencies. The formation of beats can also be visualized in mechanical systems, such as a mass-spring system or a double-driven string. Here, the mechanical beats in a smartphone-spring system are directly visualized in a simple way. The frequency of the beats is measured by means of the acceleration sensor of a smartphone, which hangs from a spring attached to a mechanical driver. This laboratory experiment is suitable for both high school and first-year university physics courses.
Gluhareva, Daria; Prieto, Pilar
Recent research has shown that beat gestures (hand gestures that co-occur with speech in spontaneous discourse) are temporally integrated with prosodic prominence and that they help word memorization and discourse comprehension. However, little is known about the potential beneficial effects of beat gestures in second language (L2) pronunciation…
The paper deals with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) study of the beat-wave particle accelerator, intended for high energy physics. Three factors; the build-up of beat-wave, the surfatron concept and the self-focusing effects are considered in the context of the RAL study. (U.K.)
Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří
The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.
Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P; Fell, Juergen
Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS.
Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard
A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.
Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří
The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.
This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...
Goncalves Jorge, Patrik; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Carlier, Felix Simon; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Fol, Elena; Langner, Andy Sven; Medina Medrano, Luis Eduardo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Valuch, Daniel; Wegscheider, Andreas; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
The HL-LHC high brightness beams will give a large β-beating due to the head-on and long-range interactions since a beam-beam parameter of 0.01 per Interaction Point (IP) is expected. The β-heating induced by two head-on collision reaches 15%. A third IP, i.e. IP8, could bring the β-heating up to 24%. The aim of the Machine Development (MD) study was to test optics measurements with AC dipole and ADT on colliding beams at injection and to implement a correction of the β-heating due to to head-on collision in the two experiments IP1&5. Int his note, we summarize the first results of this test performed in the LHC.
Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de
The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.
Ke, Janice; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee
Food insecurity and hunger are significant problems in Canada, with millions of Canadians experiencing some level of food insecurity. The purpose of the present article is to review what is currently known about the effects of food insecurity and hunger on children. Longitudinal studies in Canada indicate that hunger is related to poor health outcomes, including a higher risk of depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents, and chronic conditions, particularly asthma. In addition, nutrient deficiencies, such as iron deficiency, are known to impair learning and cause decreased productivity in school-age children, and maternal depressive disorders. School-based nutrition programs and innovations, such as subsidized food (apples, cheese, soy nuts, carrots and broccoli), are an essential immediate need, but long-term solutions lie in adequate incomes for families.
Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.
How might we understand and respond to the new forms of hunger that arise with the massive rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV in southern Africa? Rather than 'merely' a technical problem of measurement, medicine or infrastructure, I suggest that a philosophical question arises concerning the relationship between the experience of hunger, the utterances that communicate that experience, and the bodily regimes of well-being and ill-being indexed by such utterances. Taking the gut as a particular kind of mediator of experience, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to open up a set of questions on acknowledgment and avoidance. The central question concerns the divergent concepts of 'grammar' that confront the relationship between hunger and ART.
Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander
Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.
Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander
Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant's accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.
Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.
Md Ahshanul Haque
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children’s health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Methods Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6–59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Results Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43–2.45; p < 0.001], severely food insecure households [OR: 10.5 (1.43–76.6; p < 0.05], households having women with no education [OR: 1.56 (1.27–1.92; p < 0.05], poorest asset quintile [OR: 1.50 (1.11–2.15; p < 0.05] and the amount of rice consumed per household per week [OR: 0.94 (0.92–0.96; p < 0.001] were found to be significantly and independently associated with child hunger. Conclusions Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.
Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B
Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (∼ 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak 40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L; McClure, Samuel M; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H
Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 women remitted from AN (RAN group; to reduce the confounding effects of starvation) with 17 healthy comparison women (CW group). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Interactions of Group (RAN, CW) × Visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for the CW group, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in the RAN group. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for the RAN group compared with the CW group. Women remitted from AN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to the motivational drive of hunger may explain the ability of individuals with AN to restrict food when emaciated. Difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B
Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan
Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Regassa, Nigatu; Stoecker, Barbara J
To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.
Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M
Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion
Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. © The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Whitaker, William H.; And Others
This survey was conducted in 1984 of current and former members of Bread for the World (BFW) in order to further understanding of the characteristics, attitudes, level of participation, and needs of people involved with hunger issues and the needs of hungry people. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,296 current and 738 former members. This final…
Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde
Background Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944–1945) made at least
Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…
Vorstenbosch, Tom; Zwarte, de Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; Andel, van Tinde
Background: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least
Ross, Nancy J.
Service learning and civic engagement are playing an increasingly larger role in higher education. Unity College's Hunger at Home course could serve as a model for service learning in disciplines such as nutrition, sociology, and food and agriculture. The class worked with local partners to get a better understanding of hunger in the area, recent…
Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L
Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I
Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harold J. Berman
Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.
Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota
The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...
Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan
Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.
Maróti, Emese; Knakker, Balázs; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Weiss, Béla
External periodic stimuli entrain brain oscillations and affect perception and attention. It has been shown that background music can change oculomotor behavior and facilitate detection of visual objects occurring on the musical beat. However, whether musical beats in different tempi modulate information sampling differently during natural viewing remains to be explored. Here we addressed this question by investigating how listening to naturalistic drum grooves in two different tempi affects eye movements of participants viewing natural scenes on a computer screen. We found that the beat frequency of the drum grooves modulated the rate of eye movements: fixation durations were increased at the lower beat frequency (1.7Hz) as compared to the higher beat frequency (2.4Hz) and no music conditions. Correspondingly, estimated visual sampling frequency decreased as fixation durations increased with lower beat frequency. These results imply that slow musical beats can retard sampling of visual information during natural viewing by increasing fixation durations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amin, M.R.; Cairns, R.A.
Current drive in tokamak plasmas by a beat wave is considered in two-dimensional (2-D) geometry. The beat wave is excited by the non-linear interaction of two intense microwave pulses (free electron lasers) in the plasma. The three-wave non-linear interaction equations in steady state are solved numerically. The 2-D toroidal effect and the effect of finite spatial width of the pump microwave pulses are taken into account for the excitation of the beat mode. To illustrate the principle, two types of tokamak are considered: one is small, such as, typically, the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). and the other one is larger, such as the Joint European Torus (JET). In both cases, it is found that good beat wave coupling exists for a Langmuir beat wave with a phase velocity of around 2.0 to 4.0 times the thermal velocity of the electrons. The fraction of total input power of the right circularly polarized pump waves deposited in the beat mode can be as high as 29% in JET and 32% in MTX. In these cases, there is almost complete pump depletion of the higher frequency pump microwave. It is also found that, for the same input parameters, left circularly polarized pump waves are less efficient than right circularly polarized pump waves for depositing power in the beat mode. (author). 12 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs
Aniruddh D. Patel
Full Text Available Every human culture has some form of music with a beat: a perceived periodic pulse that structures the perception of musical rhythm and which serves as a framework for synchronized movement to music. What are the neural mechanisms of musical beat perception, and how did they evolve? One view, which dates back to Darwin and implicitly informs some current models of beat perception, is that the relevant neural mechanisms are relatively general and are widespread among animal species. On the basis of recent neural and cross-species data on musical beat processing, this paper argues for a different view. Here we argue that beat perception is a complex brain function involving temporally-precise communication between auditory regions and motor planning regions of the cortex (even in the absence of overt movement. More specifically, we propose that simulation of periodic movement in motor planning regions provides a neural signal that helps the auditory system predict the timing of upcoming beats. This action simulation for auditory prediction (ASAP hypothesis leads to testable predictions. We further suggest that ASAP relies on dorsal auditory pathway connections between auditory regions and motor planning regions via the parietal cortex, and suggest that these connections may be stronger in humans than in nonhuman primates due to the evolution of vocal learning in our lineage. This suggestion motivates cross-species research to determine which species are capable of human-like beat perception, i.e., beat perception that involves accurate temporal prediction of beat times across a fairly broad range of tempi.
Bouwer, Fleur L; Werner, Carola M; Knetemann, Myrthe; Honing, Henkjan
Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels. To control for sequential learning of the order of the different sounds, we used temporally regular (isochronous) and jittered rhythmic sequences. The order of sounds was identical in both conditions, but only the regular condition allowed for the perception of a beat. Unexpected intensity decrements were introduced on the beat and offbeat. In the regular condition, both beat perception and sequential learning were expected to enhance detection of these deviants on the beat. In the jittered condition, only sequential learning was expected to affect processing of the deviants. ERP responses to deviants were larger on the beat than offbeat in both conditions. Importantly, this difference was larger in the regular condition than in the jittered condition, suggesting that beat perception influenced responses to rhythmic events in addition to sequential learning. The influence of beat perception was present both with and without attention directed at the rhythm. Moreover, beat perception as measured with ERPs correlated with musical abilities, but only when attention was directed at the stimuli. Our study shows that beat perception is possible when attention is not directed at a rhythm. In addition, our results suggest that attention may mediate the influence of musical abilities on beat
Harold J. Berman; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames
In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...
Sato, Arata; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Minami, Fujio; Sasaki, Masahide
The qubits can be entangled when they interact with a common Ohmic reservoir. We analyze how the reservoir-induced entanglement of qubits can be observed as the beat signal in the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. The origin of this effect is the Lamb phase shift on the qubit array. We quantify the amount of the reservoir-induced entanglement and show how to experimentally evaluate it from the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. We discuss how the beat signal can be discriminated from the other kinds of beat signals. We also show that our analysis can be used to estimate the reservoir characteristics
Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…
Charbonnier, L.; Meer, van F.; Johnstone, A.M.; Crabtree, D.; Buosi, W.; Manios, Y.; Androutsos, O.; Giannopoulou, A.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.
The abundant exposure to food cues in our environment is one of the main drivers of overconsumption. Food evaluation is important for the regulation of food intake by the brain and it's interaction with hunger state. Children are especially susceptible to food cues. Understanding the mechanisms
Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.
In 1988 officials in 27 major cities were surveyed on the following topics: (1) ability to meet demand for emergency food assistance and shelter; (2) causes and demographics of hunger and homelessness; (3) status of low-income housing; and (4) outlook for 1989. Summary findings included the following: (1) demand for emergency food assistance…
Lees, J.J.; Lindholm, C.; Batakis, P.; Busscher, M.; Altimiras, J.
The ability to regulate food intake is critical to survival. The hypothalamus is central to this regulation, integrating peripheral signals of energy availability. Although our understanding of hunger in rodents is advanced, an equivalent understanding in birds is lacking. In particular, the
Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…
Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Schepman, Stephen; Rushing, Keith
Purpose/Objectives: This study compares the mean nutrients selected and consumed in National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals before and after implementation of the new nutrition standards mandated by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) in July 2012. Four elementary schools achieving Healthier US Schools Challenge awards serving…
Dubois, F; Sudre, E; Porte, A; Bédry, R; Gromb, S
A hunger strike is a voluntary fast, performed to protest publicly against an issue deemed unfair. In the case of French prisoners, hospitalization in an interregional hospital secured units (UHSI) may be necessary. A retrospective epidemiological study based on one UHSI medical records was performed on the period of May, 2006 to December, 2008, and focused on symptoms, outcomes and ethical problems encountered. Seven men and one woman with a mean age of 32.6 years were hospitalized in an UHSI, with nine episodes of hunger strike of a median duration of 57 days. Clinical symptoms began after two weeks of voluntary deprivation in the form of dizziness, weakness, muscle pain and headache. Laboratory tests showed hypoglycemia (hunger strikes. All hunger strikes were respected by medical staff, and treatment was based upon surveillance of symptoms, vitamin B and sweetened drinks administration and explanations of the clinical hazards on a daily basis. The special problem encountered in the medical management of these strikers was to convince them to accept treatments in order to avoid a coercive life-saving treatment as requested by French law. Copyright © 2011 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Mattes, Richard D.
Associations between hunger and eating and between thirst and drinking are generally weak. This stems, in part, from limitations in the measurement of these sensations which generally rely on temporal, motivational, metabolic and/or self-reported descriptive indices. Each is critically reviewed. Also problematic is the fact that the deterministic depletion-repletion concept of ingestive behavior fails to account for influences of a multitude of contravening cognitive, social, sensory and logistical factors. Although hunger and thirst serve some parallel purposes, sharp distinctions are also present with health implications. Of particular note are the observations that thirst ratings are higher and more stable over the day compared to hunger and thirst may be more motivating to drink than hunger is to eat. Coupling these observations with evidence that beverages have limited satiety value, they pose particular challenges and opportunities. Beverages can facilitate the delivery of nutrients to those desiring or requiring them, but also to those where they are not desired or required. The benefits and risks are a function of their use rather than their inherent properties. PMID:20060847
This guide is intended to organize education, service, and action events in conjunction with National Hunger and Homelessness Week, November 13-17, 1995. The guide presents a calendar of events, program tips, recruitment tips, an overview of the program, project ideas for fund-raising and service, awareness activities, fact sheets, and resources…
Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…
Community Development Journal, 1991
The Hunger Project in India used a strategic planning-in-action approach that involved (1) reaching a common understanding; (2) creating a strategic intent; (3) choosing social indicators; (4) identifying strategic objectives; (5) empowering leadership; (6) identifying immediate action steps; and (7) sustaining the action. (SK)
Thesis aims The studies conducted in this thesis were part of the Full4Health project. The aims of the Full4Health project were to assess the differences in the brain responses to food presentation and food choice and how these responses are modulated by hunger and gut signals in lean and obese
Uganda is regarded as a success story having achieved tremendous economic progress since the end of chronic civil unrest and ethnic conflicts. However, the country faces a host of developmental challenges, especially adult and child hunger in tandem with malnutrition that threatens the core foundations of the ...
The thesis of this paper, however, is that taken together, these social twin are sure channels to hunger in sub-saharan Africa. Our forebears procreated profusely in their attempt to have enough hands to work on the land. With the change in the general trend of children preferring education and other endeavours to farming, ...
de Zwarte, I.
The evacuation of Dutch children during the so-called ‘Hunger Winter’ of 1944/1945 is one of the canonized stories of the German occupation of the Netherlands. In the most common version of the story, a Dutch interdenominational organization managed to evacuate 40,000 to 50,000 starving children
Faye, Ousmane; Baschieri, Angela; Falkingham, Jane; Muindi, Kanyiva
Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings. Overall, little is known about the prevalence and magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in most cities. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of urban dwellers live on less than one dollar a day, it is obvious that a large proportion of the urban population must be satisfied with just one meal a day. This paper suggests using the one- and two-parameter item response theory models to infer a reliable and valid measure of hunger and food insecurity relevant to low-income urban settings, drawing evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The reliability and accuracy of the items are tested using both the Mokken scale analysis and the Cronbach test. The validity of the inferred household food insecurity measure is assessed by examining how it is associated with households' economic status. Results show that food insecurity is pervasive amongst slum dwellers in Nairobi. Only one household in five is food-secure, and nearly half of all households are categorized as "food-insecure with both adult and child hunger." Moreover, in line with what is known about household allocation of resources, evidence indicates that parents often forego food in order to prioritize their children.
Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J
The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reyes, Lilia M.; Waxman, Laura DeKoven
This survey assesses the status of hunger, homelessness, and poverty in cities in the United States during 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of the homeless and the poor had increased and was expected to continue to increase; (2) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter assistance had increased and was…
Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R
Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry  and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry . The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zalesova N. M.
Full Text Available the aim of the article is to study the methods used when translating proper names in the fantasy novel «Hunger games» by S. Collins. It was found out that the most popular ones are transcription, translation with the use of the traditional variant and semantic translation.
Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.
Simmons, Amber M.
Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…
King, James A; Deighton, Kevin; Broom, David R; Wasse, Lucy K; Douglas, Jessica A; Burns, Stephen F; Cordery, Philip A; Petherick, Emily S; Batterham, Rachel L; Goltz, Fernanda R; Thackray, Alice E; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J
This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.
Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.
Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…
In this article, the author discusses how today's student generation has a spectacular hunger for life and more life. They want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to multiply possibilities. The author…
Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda
Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…
their prey size selectivity. Behavioural response was to a large degree determined by the level of hunger, represented by the number of newly ingested prey in the gut. The findings show that cod larvae have a flexible response to changes in feeding conditions and imply that larvae can grow and survive even...
The United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs predicts 9.7 billion people will sit down every day to the global dinner table by 2050. If this prediction is correct, the world is going to need more crops, more livestock, and more efficient agricultural practices.
Uretz, E F; Denes, P; Ruggie, N; Vasilomanolakis, E; Messer, J V
The relation between ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and physiologic disease was investigated in 305 patients who had 24-hour Holter monitoring tests, cardiac catheterization and angiography. Both frequency and Lown class of VPBs were measured. Analyses showed that occurrence of VPBs at an average frequency of more than 2 per hour or occurrence of complex VPBs (Lown class greater than 2) have the highest association with the presence and severity of cardiac disease. Using these criteria, VPB severity was then compared with extent of ventricular wall motion abnormality (right anterior oblique projection segments), ejection fraction, end-diastolic pressure, category of disease (normal, coronary artery disease [CAD], valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy), age and severity of CAD (major coronary arteries with greater than 75% diameter reduction). Severe VPBs defined either by complexity or frequency were significantly correlated with extent of wall motion abnormality, ejection fraction, category of disease and age. Severe VPBs were not significantly correlated with end-diastolic pressure or severity of CAD. Discriminant analysis then showed that in addition to wall motion abnormality and ejection fraction, category of disease and age are independently correlated with VPB severity.
Barr, D F; Mullin, T A; Herbert, P S
We investigated whether six aphasics and six normal subjects could binaurally fuse two slightly differing frequencies of constant amplitude. The aphasics were subdivided into two groups: (1) two men who had had mild cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) during the past 15 months; (2) four men who had had severe CVAs during the last 15 months. Two tones of different frequency levels but equal in intensity were presented dichotically to the subjects at 40 dB sensation level. All subjects had normal hearing at 500 Hz (0 to 25 dB). All six normal subjects and the two aphasics who had had mild CVAs could hear the binaural beats. The four aphasics who had had severe CVAs could not hear them. A 2 X 2 design resulting from this study was compared using chi2 test with Yates correction and was found to be significantly different (P less than .05). Two theories are presented to explain these findings: the "depression theory" and the "temporal time-sequencing theory." Therapeutic implications are also discussed relative to cerebral and/or brain stem involvement in the fusion of binaural stimuli.
Arias-Diaz, J; Alvarez, J; del Barrio, M R; Balibrea, J L
The use of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) helps us to deal with the problem of the organ shortage. In addition to difficulties with legal and ethical acceptability, there are concerns regarding medical safety, which prevent the widespread use of these donors. To make optimum use of this potential organ supply, the ischemic injury that occurs after a period of warm ischemia needs to be reversed. To minimize the warm ischemia time, once the subject is declared dead, most centers commence in situ cold perfusion via a femoral access or a rapid aortic cannulation. This usually occurs within minutes of arriving at the emergency department, before the next of kin have been notified of the patient's death. The European experience of kidney transplantation from NHBD shows promising results. The long-term outcomes are similar to HBD kidneys notwithstanding a higher rate of delayed graft function, which seems not to affect the long-term survival of these kidneys. In summary, NHBD may have an important impact on the large discrepancy that exists between the organ supply and the demand. Current data suggest that the results may be further improved by better patient selection and retrieval team organization.
Wood, Nathan A; Schwartzman, David; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N
Organ-mounted robots address the problem of beating-heart surgery by adhering to the heart, passively providing a platform that approaches zero relative motion. Because of the quasi-periodic deformation of the heart due to heartbeat and respiration, registration must address not only spatial registration but also temporal registration. Motion data were collected in the porcine model in vivo (N = 6). Fourier series models of heart motion were developed. By comparing registrations generated using an iterative closest-point approach at different phases of respiration, the phase corresponding to minimum registration distance is identified. The spatiotemporal registration technique presented here reduces registration error by an average of 4.2 mm over the 6 trials, in comparison with a more simplistic static registration that merely averages out the physiological motion. An empirical metric for spatiotemporal registration of organ-mounted robots is defined and demonstrated using data from animal models in vivo. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zeiler, W. [Kropman Building Services, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Van Deursen, J.T.; Boxem, G. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
There is a strong need for more efficient and more sustainable buildings. At present it is difficult in the conceptual design phase to define the life cycle performance of buildings in terms of efficiency and sustainability in an objective way. Goal of this project is to examine and to understand differences between different building rating systems and between these systems and the necessary design support. What makes a good building is subject to multiple interpretations based on the different background, training and experiences of the people who answer the question about how good a building is. What is needed is a new integral design approach which enables to integrate the different aspects of sustainable buildings in a supportive framework during the design process. Especially, the focus is on Multi Criteria Decision making within the design process and how to support this, so that the decisions about fulfilling sustainable aspects in the design are made transparent for all stakeholders within the design process. BEAT in the title stands for Building Environmental Assessment Tools.
Wan, Kirsty Y.; Goldstein, Raymond E.
Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605
Buchanan, M; Cunningham, P; Dyson, R J; Hurrion, P D
This study examined the responses of six competitive boardsailors (three males, three females) during laboratory-based simulation tasks while the electromyographic activity of up to 13 muscles was recorded. A sailboard, mounted in a steel frame and resting on a waterbed, allowed simulation of roll and pitch movements. Wind force was simulated by attaching the boom to a weight stack with a hydraulically controlled buffered release phase. The progression of the simulation test was controlled by the sailor copying movements on an edited video of each subject boardsailing on the open water. Analysis of individual pumping movements for mean peak percentage of maximal enveloped voluntary contraction (%MEVC) in 'beating' and 'reaching' showed that muscular activity in the arm (flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis and biceps brachii) was greatest (66-94% MEVC), with considerable activity (58-75% MEVC) in the deltoid and trapezius shoulder muscles, but much less activity in the leg muscles (16-40% MEVC). For the combined upper and lower body muscles there was a significant difference (P reflecting the current dynamic nature of the sport.
Haase, Lori; Cerf-Ducastel, Barbara; Murphy, Claire
This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (er-fMRI) study investigated BOLD signal change in response to a series of pure gustatory stimuli that varied in stimulus quality when subjects were hungry and sated with a nutritional pre-load. Group analyses showed significant differences in activation in the hunger minus satiety condition in response to sucrose, caffeine, saccharin, and citric acid within the thalamus, hippocampus, and parahippocampus. When examining the hunger and satiety conditions, activation varied as a function of stimulus, with the majority of the stimuli exhibiting significantly greater activation in the hunger state within the insula, thalamus, and substantia nigra, in contrast to decreased activation in the satiated state within the parahippocampus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis revealed two significant interactions, ROI by physiology and ROI by physiology by stimulus. In the satiety condition, the primary (inferior and superior insulae) and secondary (OFC 11 and OFC 47) taste regions exhibited significantly greater brain activation in response to all stimuli than regions involved in processing eating behavior (hypothalamus), affect (amygdala), and memory (hippocampus, parahippocampus and entorhinal cortex). These same regions demonstrated significantly greater activation within the hunger condition than the satiety condition, with the exception of the superior insula. Furthermore, the patterns of activation differed as a function taste stimulus, with greater activation in response to sucrose than to the other stimuli. These differential patterns of activation suggest that the physiological states of hunger and satiety produce divergent activation in multiple brain areas in response to different pure gustatory stimuli.
Hartdorff, Caroline M; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Stok-Akerboom, Anita M; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Engels, Michelle A H; Kindermann, Angelika
Children with congenital malformations, mental retardation, and complex early medical history frequently have feeding problems. Although tube feeding is effective in providing the necessary energy and nutrients, it decreases the child's motivation to eat and may lead to oral aversion. In this study, we sought to confirm our previous results, showing that a multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program may lead to quick resumption of oral feeding. In a crossover study, 22 children of 9 to 24 months of age who were fully dependent on tube feeding were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A, intervention group (2-week multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program); and group B, control group (4-week outpatient treatment by the same multidisciplinary team). Patients failing one treatment were reassigned to the other treatment group. Primary outcome measures were at least 75% orally fed at the conclusion of the intervention and fully orally fed and gaining weight 6 months after the intervention. In group A, 9/11 patients were successfully weaned from tube feeding (2 failures: 1 developed ulcerative colitis, 1 drop-out). In group B, only 1 patient was weaned successfully; 10/11 were reassigned to the clinical hunger provocation program, all being weaned successfully. Six months after the intervention, 1 patient had to resume tube feeding. In total, in the control group, 1/11 (9%) was weaned successfully as compared with 18/21 (86%) in the hunger provocation group (P hunger provocation is an effective short-term intervention for weaning young children from tube feeding.
Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J
Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O 2peak )) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O 2peak ). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O 2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Patten, Scott B
We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors. Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4-6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004-2009, cycles 6-8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time. Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.
Orosz, Andrea; Baczkó, István; Nagy, Viktória; Gavallér, Henriette; Csanády, Miklós; Forster, Tamás; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Lengyel, Csaba; Sepp, Róbert
Stratification models for the prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) are inappropriate in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We investigated conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) repolarization parameters and the beat-to-beat short-term QT interval variability (QT-STV), a new parameter of proarrhythmic risk, in 37 patients with HCM (21 males, average age 48 ± 15 years). Resting ECGs were recorded for 5 min and the frequency corrected QT interval (QTc), QT dispersion (QTd), beat-to-beat short-term variability of QT interval (QT-STV), and the duration of terminal part of T waves (Tpeak-Tend) were calculated. While all repolarization parameters were significantly increased in patients with HCM compared with the controls (QTc, 488 ± 61 vs. 434 ± 23 ms, p < 0.0001; QT-STV, 4.5 ± 2 vs. 3.2 ± 1 ms, p = 0.0002; Tpeak-Tend duration, 107 ± 27 vs. 91 ± 10 ms, p = 0.0015; QTd, 47 ± 17 vs. 34 ± 9 ms, p = 0.0002), QT-STV had the highest relative increase (+41%). QT-STV also showed the best correlation with indices of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, i.e., maximal LV wall thickness normalized for body surface area (BSA; r = 0.461, p = 0.004) or LV mass (determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) normalized for BSA (r = 0.455, p = 0.015). In summary, beat-to-beat QT-STV showed the most marked increase in patients with HCM and may represent a novel marker that merits further testing for increased SCD risk in HCM.